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Sample records for peach bottom sequences

  1. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  2. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  3. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-12-01

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom.

  4. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  5. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  6. MELCOR code analysis of a severe accident LOCA at Peach Bottom Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    A design-basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) has been analyzed for the Peach Bottom atomic station unit 2 using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate best-estimate times for the important events of this accident sequence and best-estimate source terms. Calculated pressures and temperatures at the beginning of the transient have been compared to results from the Peach Bottom final safety analysis report (FSAR). MELCOR-calculated source terms have been compared to source terms reported in the NUREG-1465 draft.

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid from a Single Peach Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoo, Su-Hyun; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a member of the genus Pelamoviroid in the family Avsunviroidae and infects peach trees. We de novo assembled a PLMVd genome from a peach transcriptome and identified 18 variants in a single peach cultivar, after sequencing 20 PLMVd genomes by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26404583

  8. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light-water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants. The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station has two boiling water reactor (BWR) units, each with a capacity of 1150 MW(e). The reactors are each housed in a Mark I containment. Peach Bottom Unit 2 analyzed here, was studied before as part of WASH-1400. A number of plant features tend to be important in determining the nature and frequency of the core melt scenarios for Peach Bottom. These features include the recent above-average diesel generator performance history, the single emergency service water system for both units, the numerous emergency core cooling systems, recent procedure modifications and the low volume containment.

  9. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis.

  10. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-10-24

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed.

  11. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants in order to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants.

  12. RETRAN analysis of the Peach Bottom turbine trip tests

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    The RETRAN system thermal-hydraulics analysis code has been used to model a series of three turbine trip tests. These three tests were performed at the Peach Bottom Unit 2 (PB2) boiling water reactor (BWR) during April 1977. A detailed description of this analysis including sensitivity studies using RETRAN-01 has been issued by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Additional analysis using RETRAN-02 is described. 8 refs.

  13. Condensate polishing cost reduction at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    In May 1995, PECO Nuclear began an investment of over 3 million dollars for improvements in the condensate polishers at Peach Bottom Unit 3. Based on current performance, the investment is expected to be returned by the first quarter of 1997. The centerpiece of the improvements is the backfit of pleat filters on most of the vessels. Manual isolation valves and new precoating equipment will assure sustained performance. This report summarizes the improved performance and the new equipment and methods used to achieve it.

  14. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... (76 FR 37842). Based upon the environmental assessment, the Commission has determined that issuance of... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1...

  15. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.S.; Catapano, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  16. Peach Bottom Transients Analysis with TRAC/BF1-VALKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu, G.; Miro, R.; Sanchez, A.M.; Rosello, O.; Ginestar, D.; Vidal, V.

    2004-10-15

    The TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code is a new time domain analysis code for studying transients in a boiling water reactor. This code uses the best-estimate code TRAC/BF1 to give an account of the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic processes and a three-dimensional neutronics module. This module has two options: the MODKIN option that makes use of a modal method based on the assumption that the neutronic flux can be approximately expanded in terms of the dominant lambda modes associated with a static configuration of the reactor core, and the NOKIN option that uses a one-step backward discretization of the neutron diffusion equation. To check the performance of the TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code, the Peach Bottom turbine trip transient has been simulated, because this transient is a dynamically complex event where neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal hydraulics in the reactor primary system, and reactor variables change very rapidly.

  17. Risk-based selection of SSCs at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, G.A.; Marie, A.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of identifying risk significant systems, structures, and components (SSCS) that are within the scope of the maintenance rule is to bring a higher level of attention to a subset of those SSCS. These risk-significant SSCs will have specific performance criteria established for them, and failure to meet this performance criteria will result in establishing goals to ensure the necessary improvement in performance. The Peach Bottom individual plant examination (IPE) results were used to provide insights for the verification of proposed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods set forth in the Industry Maintenance Guidelines for Implementation of the Maintenance Rule. The objective of reviewing the methods for selection of SSCs that are considered risk significant was to ensure the methods used are logical, reproducible, and can be consistently applied.

  18. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Cole, R.K.; Haskin, F.E.; Summers, R.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar.

  19. MELCOR simulation of long-term station blackout at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results from MELCOR (Version 1.8BC) calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package (STCP) calculations of the same sequence. This sequence assumes that batteries are available for six hours following loss of all power to the plant. Following battery failure, the reactor coolant system (RCS) inventory is boiled off through the relief valves by continued decay heat generation. This leads to core uncovery, heatup, clad oxidation, core degradation, relocation, and, eventually, vessel failure at high pressure. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5 hours after core uncovery. The results include the timing of key events, pressure and temperature response in the reactor vessel and containment, hydrogen production, and the release of source terms to the environment. 12 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Analysis of containment venting for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Wright, R.E.; Jenkins, J.P.

    1986-09-12

    The effectiveness of containment venting as a means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents was evaluated for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). Results from this evaluation indicate that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment failure is highly dependent on the severe accident sequence. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks in the containment and transients with a failure of containment heat removal. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with several sequences currently identified as significant contributors to risk. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction were identified, but their influence on risk was not analyzed.

  1. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  2. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, M.C.; Thomas, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O&M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of {open_quotes}insurance{close_quotes} plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  3. Peach Bottom and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    A dramatic and extraordinary instance of state and local government control of nuclear power, the purchase by New York of the Shoreham plant is nonetheless indicative of the political demands that some states confront for additional involvement in the regulation of the radiological hazards associated with commercial nuclear power plants. Although the Supreme Court has appeared to expand, in the eight years since PG&E and Silkwood, the acceptable extent of state regulation, some states, in addition to New York, have acquired, with the acquiescence of the NRC, a degree of involvement that exceeds the role for state and local governments provided by the Court. For example, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania concluded with the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in June 1989 an agreement that commits PECO to various initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, for the safe operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. In July 1991 the State of Vermont and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation (Vermont Yankee) concluded an agreement similar to that concluded between Pennsylvania and PECO. The agreement also commits Vermont Yankee to certain initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, related to its operation of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Vermont. The agreement was precipitated by a challenge to an application, submitted to the NRC by Vermont Yankee in April 1989, to amend the Vermont Yankee plant license to extend its expiration date from December 11, 2007 to March 21, 2012. The amendment would allow the Vermont Yankee plant to operate for forty full years.

  4. Evaluation of MELCOR improvements: Peach Bottom station blackout analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    Long-term station blackout analyses in Peach Bottom were first carried out using MELCOR 1.8BC, and later with 1.8DN, as part of an overall program between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident/source term analysis tool. In addition to the reference MELCOR calculation, several sensitivity calculations were also performed to explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and radionuclide releases to the environment calculated by MELCOR. An area of concern that emerged from these studies was the impact of the selection of maximum allowable timestep ({Delta}t{sub max}) on the calculational behavior of MELCOR, where the results showed significant differences in timing of key events, and a lack of convergence of the solution with reduction of {Delta}t{sub max}. These findings were reported to the NRC, SNL, and the MELCOR Peer Review Committee. As a consequence, a significant effort was undertaken to eliminate or mitigate these sensitivities. The latest released version of MELCOR, Version 1.8.2, released in April 1993, contains several new or improved models, and has corrections to mitigate numerical sensitivities. This paper presents the results of updating the earlier sensitivity studies on maximum timestep, to more properly represent the abilities of the improved MELCOR version 1.8.2. Results are presenter in terms of timing of key events, thermal-hydraulic response of the system, and environmental release of radionuclides. The impact of some of the newer models, such as falling debris quench model, and ORNL`s new BH model, is also evaluated.

  5. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM )

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. 58 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.

  6. Peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach and its smooth-skinned mutation nectarine are among the world’s most important fruit crops. Peaches rank second only to apples in the production of deciduous fruits. The worldwide production of peaches is now in excess of 15,000,000 tons. Traditionally, peaches have been the subject of inte...

  7. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  8. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  9. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  10. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption 1... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56, which authorizes operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  11. Fission product behavior in the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.L.; Baldwin, N.L.; Strong, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Actual operating data from Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain were compared with code predictions to assess the validity of the methods used to predict the behavior of fission products in the primary coolant circuit. For both reactors the measured circuit activities were significantly below design values, and the observations generally verify the codes used for large HTGR design.

  12. RETRAN-3D MOD003 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Multidimensional Kinetics Analysis Models and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Michitsugu; Ogura, Katsunori; Gose, Garry C.; Wu, J.-Y

    2003-04-15

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 (PB2/TT2) has been performed using RETRAN-3D MOD003. The purpose of the analysis was to investigate the PB2/TT2 overpressurization transient using the RETRAN-3D multidimensional kinetics model.

  13. Source terms released into the environment for a station blackout severe accident at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    This study calculates source terms released into the environment at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station after containment failure during a postulated low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Source terms were calculated for three different containment failure modes. The largest environmental releases occur for early containment failure at the drywell liner in contact with the cavity by liner melt-through. This containment failure mode is very likely to occur when the cavity is dry during this postulated severe accident sequence.

  14. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM )

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs.

  15. Peach Bottom Turbine Trip Simulations with RETRAN Using INER/TPC BWR Transient Analysis Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kao Lainsu; Chiang, Show-Chyuan

    2005-03-15

    The work described in this paper is benchmark calculations of pressurization transient turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom boiling water reactor (BWR). It is part of an overall effort in providing qualification basis for the INER/TPC BWR transient analysis method developed for the Kuosheng and Chinshan plants. The method primarily utilizes an advanced system thermal hydraulics code, RETRAN02/MOD5, for transient safety analyses. Since pressurization transients would result in a strong coupling effect between core neutronic and system thermal hydraulics responses, the INER/TPC method employs the one-dimensional kinetic model in RETRAN with a cross-section data library generated by the Studsvik-CMS code package for the transient calculations. The Peach Bottom Turbine Trip (PBTT) tests, including TT1, TT2, and TT3, have been successfully performed in the plant and assigned as standards commonly for licensing method qualifications for years. It is an essential requirement for licensing purposes to verify integral capabilities and accuracies of the codes and models of the INER/TPC method in simulating such pressurization transients. Specific Peach Bottom plant models, including both neutronics and thermal hydraulics, are developed using modeling approaches and experiences generally adopted in the INER/TPC method. Important model assumptions in RETRAN for the PBTT test simulations are described in this paper. Simulation calculations are performed with best-estimated initial and boundary conditions obtained from plant test measurements. The calculation results presented in this paper demonstrate that the INER/TPC method is capable of calculating accurately the core and system transient behaviors of the tests. Excellent agreement, both in trends and magnitudes between the RETRAN calculation results and the PBTT measurements, shows reliable qualifications of the codes/users/models involved in the method. The RETRAN calculated peak neutron fluxes of the PBTT

  16. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979.

  17. Assessment of engineering plant analyzer with Peach Bottom 2 stability tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) has been developed to simulate plant transients for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Recently, this code has been used to simulate LaSalle-2 instability event which was initiated by a failure in the feed water heater. The simulation was performed for the scram conditions and for the postulated failure in the scram. In order to assess the capability of the EPA to simulate oscillatory flows as observed in the LaSalle event, EPA has been benchmarked with the available data from the Peach Bottom 2 (PB2) Instability tests PT1, PT2, and PT4. This document provides a description of these tests.

  18. Application of the N-Streaming SM concept to Peach Bottom 2 Cycle 17

    SciTech Connect

    Asgari, M.; Kropaczek, D. J.; Oyarzun, C. C.

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the application of the N-Streaming concept developed at Global Nuclear Fuel for the design of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel cycle. The paper presents the N-Streaming concept and discusses the application of N-Streaming to the recent fuel cycle for Peach Bottom Unit 2 Cycle 17. It is demonstrated that the application of N-Streaming provides extra design freedom to optimize design margins allowing better operational flexibility while reducing the fuel cycle cost. (authors)

  19. SIMULATE-3K Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip 2 Benchmark Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Belblidia, Lotfi A.; Grandi, Gerardo M.; Joensson, Christian

    2004-10-15

    This paper discusses the model and results for the Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 using Studsvik Scandpower's transient code SIMULATE-3K. All data pertaining to core, vessel, and scenario were taken from the NEA/OECD BWR benchmark specifications. Nuclear data were generated with Studsvik Scandpower's lattice code CASMO-4 and core analysis code SIMULATE-3. Comparisons to measured data, sensitivity to model options and data, as well as results from more limiting scenarios are presented. SIMULATE-3K captures well the pressure wave propagation, void collapse during the pressurization phase, and resulting power excursion.

  20. Assessment of engineering plant analyzer with Peach Bottom 2 stability tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.

    1992-08-01

    Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) has been developed to simulate plant transients for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Recently, this code has been used to simulate LaSalle-2 instability event which was initiated by a failure in the feed water heater. The simulation was performed for the scram conditions and for the postulated failure in the scram. In order to assess the capability of the EPA to simulate oscillatory flows as observed in the LaSalle event, EPA has been benchmarked with the available data from the Peach Bottom 2 (PB2) Instability tests PT1, PT2, and PT4. This document provides a description of these tests.

  1. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1987-1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; McLean, R.I.

    1995-12-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of the monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. The data report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1987 through 1990 and is the fourth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at Peach Bottom in 1978.

  2. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Updated Peach Bottom Model for MELCOR 1.8.6: Description and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R

    2014-09-01

    A MELCOR 1.8.5 model of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 or 3 has been updated for MELCOR 1.8.6. Primarily, this update involved modification of the lower head modeling. Three additional updates were also performed. First, a finer nodalization of the containment wet well was employed. Second, the pressure differential used by the logic controlling the safety relief valve actuation was modified. Finally, an additional stochastic failure mechanism for the safety relief valves was added. Simulation results from models with and without the modifications were compared. All the analysis was performed by comparing key figures of merit from simulations of a long-term station blackout scenario. This report describes the model changes and the results of the comparisons.

  4. Evaluation of severe accident risks, Peach Bottom, Unit 2: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.C.; Breeding, R.J.; Jow, H.N.; Shiver, A.W. ); Helton, J.C. ); Smith, L.N. )

    1990-12-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. This power plant, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiated by events both internal and external to the power station were assessed. 39 refs., 174 figs., 133 tabs.

  5. Analysis of Long-Term Station Blackout without automatic depressurization at Peach Bottom using MELCOR (Version 1.8)

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results from MELCOR calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package calculations of the same sequence. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5, hours after core uncovery. Most of the MELCOR calculations presented have been carried out to between 15 and 16.7 hours after core uncovery. The results include the release of source terms to the environment. The results of several sensitivity calculations with MELCOR are also presented, which explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and release of source terms to the environment. Most of the calculations documented here were performed in FY1990 using MELCOR Version 1.8BC. However, the appendices also document the results of more recent calculations performed in FY1991 using MELCOR versions 1.8CZ and 1.8DNX.

  6. Summary of Preliminary Criticality Analysis for Peach Bottom Fuel in the DOE Standardized Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    SciTech Connect

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1999-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is developing a standardized set of canisters for DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). These canisters will be used for DOE SNF handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository. Several fuels are being examined in conjunction with the DOE SNF canisters. This report summarizes the preliminary criticality safety analysis that addresses general fissile loading limits for Peach Bottom graphite fuel in the DOE SNF canister. The canister is considered both alone and inside the 5-HLW/DOE Long Spent Fuel Co-disposal Waste Package, and in intact and degraded conditions. Results are appropriate for a single DOE SNF canister. Specific facilities, equipment, canister internal structures, and scenarios for handling, storage, and transportation have not yet been defined and are not evaluated in this analysis. The analysis assumes that the DOE SNF canister is designed so that it maintains reasonable geometric integrity. Parameters important to the results are the canister outer diameter, inner diameter, and wall thickness. These parameters are assumed to have nominal dimensions of 45.7-cm (18.0-in.), 43.815-cm (17.25-in), and 0.953-cm (0.375-in.), respectively. Based on the analysis results, the recommended fissile loading for the DOE SNF canister is 13 Peach Bottom fuel elements if no internal steel is present, and 15 Peach Bottom fuel elements if credit is taken for internal steel.

  7. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  8. SENTINEL{trademark} technical basis report for Peach Bottom. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    PECO Energy in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) installed the SENTINEL{trademark} software at its Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems which are used to display the defense in depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of the plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During the past nine months, PECO Energy personnel have used this display to evaluate the safety of proposed on-line maintenance schedules. The report describes the motivation for and the development of the SENTINEL software. It describes the generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and the susceptibility of the plant to critical transient events. Their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green, through yellow and orange, to red to show increasingly hazardous conditions. The report describes the use of the PBAPS Probabilistic Safety Assessment within the SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator.

  9. Peach Bottom BWR Turbine Trip Benchmark Analyses with RETRAN-3D and CORETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Barten, W.; Ferroukhi, H.; Coddington, P.

    2004-10-15

    This paper presents results from Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) on the three phases of the Peach Bottom Boiling Water Reactor Turbine Trip Benchmark. The first part of the paper presents the PSI analysis using RETRAN-3D of Phase 1, where the system pressure is predicted based on a predefined core power distribution. These calculations elucidate the importance of accurate modeling of the steam separator region and of nonequilibrium effects. In the second part, the CORETRAN results of Phase 2 are summarized and the core 3-D response to the pressurization transient prior to SCRAM is discussed. The CORETRAN results show a slight axial flux redistribution toward the top of the core, while radially a flux redistribution is observed toward core regions with assemblies that are initially moderately voided and where the axial power shape is increasingly top-peaked. The impact of the control rod configuration as well as the assembly coolant inventory dynamics on the 3-D flux redistribution is also discussed. The third part presents results of the Phase 3 calculation using RETRAN-3D, which is a culmination of the analytical work of Phases 1 and 2.

  10. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  11. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

  12. Characterization plan for Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom graphite fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maarschman, S.C.; Berting, F.M.; Clemmer, R.G.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.; Morgan, W.C.; Sliva, P.

    1993-09-01

    Part of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) and most of the Peach Bottom (PB) reactor spent fuels are currently stored at INEL and may remain in storage for many years before disposal. Three disposal pathways have been proposed: intact disposal, fuels partially disassembled and the high-level waste fraction conditioned prior to disposal, and fuels completed disassembled and conditioned prior to disposal. Many options exist within each of these pathways. PNL evaluated the literature and other reference to develop a fuels characterization plan for these fuels. This plan provides guidance for the characteristics of the fuel which will be needed to pursue any of the storage or disposal pathways. It also provides a suggested fuels monitoring program for the current storage facilities. This report recommends a minimum of 7 fuel elements be characterized: PB Core 1 fuel: one Type II nonfailed element, one Type II failed element, and one Type III nonfailed element; PB Core 2 fuel: two Type II nonfailed fuel elements; and FSV fuel: at least two fuel blocks from regions of high temperature and fluence and long in-reactor performance (preferably at reactor end-of- life). Selection of PB fuel elements should focus on these between radial core position 8 and 14 and on compacts between compact numbers 10 and 20. Selection of FSV fuel elements should focus on these from Fuel Zones II and III, located in Core Layers 6, 7, and possibly 8.

  13. The peach dehydrin family is small relative to all other sequenced plant genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in genomic sequencing technology have allowed the addition of a number of crops to the growing list of completely sequenced genomes. We have analyzed the peach genome for the dehydrin gene family and compared its members to the genomes of Arabidopsis, poplar, apple and rice. This c...

  14. Fuel Summary for Peach Bottom Unit 1 High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Karel I. Kingrey

    2003-04-01

    This fuel summary report contains background and summary information for the Peach Bottom Unit 1, High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2. This report contains detailed information about the fuel in the two cores, the Peach Bottom Unit 1 operating history, nuclear parameters, physical and chemical characteristics, and shipping and storage canister related data. The data in this document have been compiled from a large number of sources and are not qualified beyond the qualification of the source documents. This report is intended to provide an overview of the existing data pertaining to spent fuel management and point to pertinent reference source documents. For design applications, the original source documentation must be used. While all referenced sources are available as records or controlled documents at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), some of the sources were marked as informal or draft reports. This is noted where applicable. In some instances, source documents are not consistent. Where they are known, this document identifies those instances and provides clarification where possible. However, as stated above, this document has not been independently qualified and such clarifications are only included for information purposes. Some of the information in this summary is available in multiple source documents. An effort has been made to clearly identify at least one record document as the source for the information included in this report.

  15. RELAP5-3D Analysis of Pressure Perturbation at the Peach Bottom BWR During Low-Flow Stability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi Costa, Antonella; Petruzzi, Alessandro; D'Auria, Francesco

    2006-07-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies about the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) stability have been performed to design a stable core configuration. BWR instabilities can be caused by inter-dependencies between thermal-hydraulic and reactivity feedback parameters such as the void-coefficient, for example, during a pressure perturbation event. In the present work, the pressure perturbation is considered in order to study in detail this type of transient. To simulate this event, including the strong feedback effects between core neutronic and reactor thermal-hydraulics, and to verify core behavior and evaluate parameters related to safety, RELAP5-3D code has been used in the analyses. The simulation was performed making use of Peach Bottom-2 BWR data to predict the dynamics of a real reactor during this type of event. Stability tests were conducted in the Peach Bottom 2 BWR, in 1977, and were done along the low-flow end of the rated power-flow line, and along the power-flow line corresponding to minimum recirculation pump speed. The calculated results are herein compared against the available experimental data. (authors)

  16. Fabrication of ORNL Fuel Irradiated in the Peach Bottom Reactor and Postirradiation Examination of Recycle Test Elements 7 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Jr. E.L.

    2001-10-25

    Seven full-sized Peach Bottom Reactor. fuel elements were fabricated in a cooperative effort by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Gulf General Atomic (GGA) as part of the National HTGR Fuel Recycle Development Program. These elements contain bonded fuel rods and loose beds of particles made from several combinations of fertile and fissile particles of interest for present and future use in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The portion of the fuel prepared for these elements by ORNL is described in detail in this report, and it is in conjunction with the GGA report (GA-10109) a complete fabrication description of the test. In addition, this report describes the results obtained to date from postirradiation examination of the first two elements removed from the Peach Bottom Reactor, RTE-7 and -4. The fuel examined had relatively low exposure, up to about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} neutrons/cm* fast (>0.18 MeV) fluence, compared with the peak anticipated HTGR fluence of 8.0 x 10{sup 21}, but it has performed well at this exposure. Dimensional data indicate greater irradiation shrinkage than expected from accelerated test data to higher exposures. This suggests that either the method of extrapolation of the higher exposure data back to low exposure is faulty, or the behavior of the coated particles in the neutron spectrum characteristic of the accelerated tests does not adequately represent the behavior in an HTGR spectrum.

  17. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  18. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the peach bottom atomic power station: 1985-1986. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Domotor, S.L.; McLean, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectroscopy was used to determine radionuclide concentrations in over 450 biota and sediment samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) during 1985-1986. Low concentrations of PBAPS-related radionuclides (Zn65, Cs-134, and Cs-137) were detected in finfish, mussels, and crayfish. These PBAPS-related radionuclides and Co-60 were also detected in sediments. I-131 attributable to the Chernobyl reactor accident (April 26, 1986) was detected in environmental samples collected in May 1986. PBAPS-related radionuclide concentrations in biota and sediments represent small increments to the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system relative to natural and weapons test levels; radionuclide releases by PBAPS, and radiation doses to man, are well within regulatory limits.

  19. Deep-sequencing of the peach latent mosaic viroid reveals new aspects of population heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Glouzon, Jean-Pierre Sehi; Bolduc, François; Wang, Shengrui; Najmanovich, Rafael J; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are small circular single-stranded infectious RNAs characterized by a relatively high mutation level. Knowledge of their sequence heterogeneity remains largely elusive and previous studies, using Sanger sequencing, were based on a limited number of sequences. In an attempt to address sequence heterogeneity from a population dynamics perspective, a GF305-indicator peach tree was infected with a single variant of the Avsunviroidae family member Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd). Six months post-inoculation, full-length circular conformers of PLMVd were isolated and deep-sequenced. We devised an original approach to the bioinformatics refinement of our sequence libraries involving important phenotypic data, based on the systematic analysis of hammerhead self-cleavage activity. Two distinct libraries yielded a total of 3,939 different PLMVd variants. Sequence variants exhibiting up to ∼17% of mutations relative to the inoculated viroid were retrieved, clearly illustrating the high level of divergence dynamics within a unique population. While we initially assumed that most positions of the viroid sequence would mutate, we were surprised to discover that ∼50% of positions remained perfectly conserved, including several small stretches as well as a small motif reminiscent of a GNRA tetraloop which are the result of various selective pressures. Using a hierarchical clustering algorithm, the different variants harvested were subdivided into 7 clusters. We found that most sequences contained an average of 4.6 to 6.4 mutations compared to the variant used to initially inoculate the plant. Interestingly, it was possible to reconstitute and compare the sequence evolution of each of these clusters. In doing so, we identified several key mutations. This study provides a reliable pipeline for the treatment of viroid deep-sequencing. It also sheds new light on the extent of sequence variation that a viroid population can sustain, and which may give rise to a

  20. Analysis of the Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Experiment by Coupled RELAP5-PARCS Three-Dimensional Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bousbia-Salah, Anis; Vedovi, Juswald; D'Auria, Francesco; Ivanov, Kostadin; Galassi, Giorgio

    2004-10-15

    Thanks to continuous progress in computer technology, it is now possible to perform best-estimate simulations of complex scenarios in nuclear power plants. This method is carried out through the coupling of three-dimensional (3-D) neutron modeling of a reactor core into system codes. It is particularly appropriate for transients that involve strong interactions between core neutronics and reactor loop thermal hydraulics. For this purpose, the Peach Bottom boiling water reactor turbine trip test was selected to challenge the capability of such coupled codes. The test is characterized by a power excursion induced by rapid core pressurization and a self-limiting course behavior. In order to perform the closest simulation, the coupled thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5 and 3-D neutron kinetic code PARCS were used. The obtained results are compared to those available from experimental data. Overall, the coupled code calculations globally predict the most significant observed aspects of the transient, such as the pressure wave amplitude across the core and the power course, with an acceptable agreement. However, sensitivity studies revealed that more-accurate code models should be considered in order to better match the void dynamic and the cross-section variations during transient conditions.

  1. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Convergence of the Uncertainty Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Mattie, Patrick D.; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the convergence of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) probabilistic results of offsite consequences for the uncertainty analysis of the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The consequence metrics evaluated are individual latent-cancer fatality (LCF) risk and individual early fatality risk. Consequence results are presented as conditional risk (i.e., assuming the accident occurs, risk per event) to individuals of the public as a result of the accident. In order to verify convergence for this uncertainty analysis, as recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a ‘high’ source term from the original population of Monte Carlo runs has been selected to be used for: (1) a study of the distribution of consequence results stemming solely from epistemic uncertainty in the MACCS2 parameters (i.e., separating the effect from the source term uncertainty), and (2) a comparison between Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) in order to validate the original results obtained with LHS. Three replicates (each using a different random seed) of size 1,000 each using LHS and another set of three replicates of size 1,000 using SRS are analyzed. The results show that the LCF risk results are well converged with either LHS or SRS sampling. The early fatality risk results are less well converged at radial distances beyond 2 miles, and this is expected due to the sparse data (predominance of “zero” results).

  2. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power station: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  3. Technical evaluation report on the adequacy of station electric distribution system voltages for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. Units 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.L.

    1982-06-21

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the adequacy of the station electric distribution system voltages for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. The evaluation is to determine if the onsite distribution system, in conjunction with the offsite power sources, has sufficient capacity to automatically start and operate all Class 1E loads within the equipment voltage ratings under certain conditions established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The analysis submitted indicates that the capacity is sufficient to meet the NRC requirements provided specific plant procedures are followed for shutting down the second unit after an accident in the first unit and with a loss of one offsite source.

  4. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  5. Bottom profiling by correlating beam-steered noise sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H; Siderius, Martin

    2008-03-01

    It has already been established that by cross-correlating ambient noise time series received on the upward and downward steered beams of a drifting vertical array one can obtain a subbottom layer profile. Strictly, the time differential of the cross correlation is the impulse response of the seabed. Here it is shown theoretically and by simulation that completely uncorrelated surface noise results in a layer profile with predictable amplitudes proportional to those of an equivalent echo sounder at the same depth as the array. The phenomenon is simulated by representing the sound sources as multiple random time sequences emitted from random locations in a horizontal plane above a vertical array and then accounting for the travel times of the direct and bottom reflected paths. A well-defined correlation spike is seen at the depth corresponding to the bottom reflection despite the fact that the sound sources contain no structure whatsoever. The effects of using simultaneously steered upward and downward conical beams with a tilted or faceted seabed and multiple layers are also investigated by simulation. Experimental profiles are obtained using two different vertical arrays in smooth and rough bottom sites in the Mediterranean. Correlation peak amplitudes follow the theory and simulations closely. PMID:18345817

  6. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.; Jones, T.S.

    1998-11-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  7. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.J.; Fusegni, L.J.; McFarland, W.J.; Andreone, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ``Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment`` to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG`s at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem.

  8. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  9. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5’ to the 3’ end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage

  10. Characteristics of potential repository wastes: Volume 4, Appendix 4A, Nuclear reactors at educational institutions of the United States; Appendix 4B, Data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions; Appendix 4C, Supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; Appendix 4D, Supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; Appendix 4E, Supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Volume 4 contains the following appendices: nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States; data sheets for nuclear reactors at educational institutions in the United States(operational reactors and shut-down reactors); supplemental data for Fort St. Vrain spent fuel; supplemental data for Peach Bottom 1 spent fuel; and supplemental data for Fast Flux Test Facility.

  11. Technical evaluation report (Revision 1) on the proposed design modifications and technical specification changes on grid voltage degradation for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Selan, J.C.

    1983-03-11

    This report is a revision of the technical evaluation documented in a separate report dated November 3, 1981 (UCID-19115) on the proposed design modification and Technical Specification changes for the protection of the Class 1E equipment from grid voltage degradation for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. The review criteria are based on several IEEE standards and The Code of Federal Regulations. The evaluation compares the submittals made by the plant with the NRC staff positions and the review criteria. The evaluation finds that the proposed design modifications and the required changes to the Technical Specifications will ensure that the Class 1E equipment will be protected from sustained voltage degradation.

  12. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  13. Gulfcrimson Peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulfcrimson peach is jointly released for grower trials by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Gulfcrimson was previously tested as AP01-7 and originated from a cross of AP...

  14. Nectarine; peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fruit Variety Register lists new fruit cultivars. This section lists and briefly describes about 38 peaches and nectarines recently released, primarily from public breeding programs in the U.S. Details include pedigree, originator, fruit and tree characteristics, and patent information if pert...

  15. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    PubMed Central

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R.; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many ‘specialty crops’ such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between ‘Hakuho’ (high CR) and ‘UFGold’ (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR. PMID:26430886

  16. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    PubMed

    Bielenberg, Douglas Gary; Rauh, Bradley; Fan, Shenghua; Gasic, Ksenija; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Okie, William R; Wells, Christina Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD) and chilling requirement (CR) and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR) and 'UFGold' (low CR). We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BD and CR. PMID:26430886

  17. 'Scarletprince' and 'Julyprince' Peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Scarletprince’ peach has been released to provide an attractive, very firm peach ripening with ‘Redglobe’, that is well-adapted to the Southeastern climate. ‘Julyprince’ peach has been released to provide an attractive, large, very firm peach ripening slightly after Redglobe, that is well-adapted t...

  18. BWR reactor vessel bottom head failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) incorporate many unique structural features that make their expected response under severe accident conditions very different from that predicted in the case of pressurized water reactor accident sequences. The effect of the BWR procedural and structural differences upon the progression of a severe accident sequence during the period preceding movement of core debris into the reactor vessel lower plenum has been discussed previously. It is the purpose of this paper to briefly address the events occurring after debris relocation past the core plate and to describe the subsequent expected modes of bottom head pressure boundary failure. As an example, the calculated timing of events for the unmitigated short-term station blackout severe accident sequence at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station is also presented. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Peach Fruit Moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You-Zhu; Cao, Li-Jun; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii is an economically important pest on dozens of fruits from Rosaceae and Rhamnaceae in Northeast Asia. We developed novel microsatellite markers for C. sasakii from randomly sequenced regions of the genome using next-generation sequencing. In total, 95,153 microsatellite markers were isolated from 4.70 GB genomic sequences. Thirty-five polymorphic markers were developed by assessing in 63 individuals from two geographical populations. The allele numbers ranged from 2 to 9 with an average value of 4.60 per locus, while the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.075 to 0.696 with an average value of 0.407. Furthermore, the observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.000 to 0.677 and 0.062 to 0.771, respectively. The microsatellites developed provide abundant molecular markers for investigating genetic structure, genetic diversity, and existence of host-plant associated biotypes of C. sasakii. PMID:26999103

  20. Development and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Peach Fruit Moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhu; Cao, Li-Jun; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii is an economically important pest on dozens of fruits from Rosaceae and Rhamnaceae in Northeast Asia. We developed novel microsatellite markers for C. sasakii from randomly sequenced regions of the genome using next-generation sequencing. In total, 95,153 microsatellite markers were isolated from 4.70 GB genomic sequences. Thirty-five polymorphic markers were developed by assessing in 63 individuals from two geographical populations. The allele numbers ranged from 2 to 9 with an average value of 4.60 per locus, while the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.075 to 0.696 with an average value of 0.407. Furthermore, the observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.000 to 0.677 and 0.062 to 0.771, respectively. The microsatellites developed provide abundant molecular markers for investigating genetic structure, genetic diversity, and existence of host-plant associated biotypes of C. sasakii. PMID:26999103

  1. The Bottom-to-Top versus the Redundancy Models: A Comparison of Two Four-Semester Sequences in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study provides some evidence of significant differences between the Redundancy and Bottom-to-Top Models in sequencing four-semester elementary and intermediate Spanish courses using the ACT Spanish Test Form 1 as the dependent variable. T-test results of independent samples (unequal variances model) were 0.056. Results also indicated that…

  2. 76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1 License DPR-012, York and Lancaster Counties, PA AGENCY: Nuclear... security requirements in 10 CFR part 73 and 10 CFR 50.54(p) for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power...

  3. Genome-wide characterization and selection of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat primers for optimized marker distribution and reliability in peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in Prunus were mined, and flanking primers designed and used for genome-wide characterization and selection of primers to optimize marker distribution and reliability. A total of 12,618 contigs were assembled from 84,727 ESTs, along with 34...

  4. Top-Down-Assisted Bottom-Up Method for Homologous Protein Sequencing: Hemoglobin from 33 Bird Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Laskay, Ünige A.; Vilcins, Inger-Marie E.; Barbour, Alan G.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2015-11-01

    Ticks are vectors for disease transmission because they are indiscriminant in their feeding on multiple vertebrate hosts, transmitting pathogens between their hosts. Identifying the hosts on which ticks have fed is important for disease prevention and intervention. We have previously shown that hemoglobin (Hb) remnants from a host on which a tick fed can be used to reveal the host's identity. For the present research, blood was collected from 33 bird species that are common in the U.S. as hosts for ticks but that have unknown Hb sequences. A top-down-assisted bottom-up mass spectrometry approach with a customized searching database, based on variability in known bird hemoglobin sequences, has been devised to facilitate fast and complete sequencing of hemoglobin from birds with unknown sequences. These hemoglobin sequences will be added to a hemoglobin database and used for tick host identification. The general approach has the potential to sequence any set of homologous proteins completely in a rapid manner.

  5. The last frontier? High-resolution, near-bottom measurements of the Hawaiian Jurassic magnetic anomaly sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M.; Tominaga, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    different spreading centers. In 2011, we undertook the next generation of near-bottom magnetic studies utilizing new autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology (Sentry) and concurrent deeptow and seismic profiling surveys of the Hawaiian anomaly sequence. Preliminary results show a similar anomaly record to the Japanese sequence: an overall decrease in anomaly amplitude from M19 to M38 and a period of low amplitude, which in turn is preceded by a return to stronger amplitude anomalies. The magnetic anomaly correlations between Hawaiian and Japanese sea-surface level profiles confirm the reversal record back in time, at least, to M38. At the mid-water and near-bottom AUV levels, the magnetic data clearly show the short-wavelength anomaly character of the M29-M38 sequence, indicating that the fast reversals observed in the Japanese lineations are also present in the Hawaiian lineation set. The strong similarity of overall anomaly patterns between Japanese and Hawaiian sequences supports the preliminary conclusion that geomagnetic field behavior during the Jurassic was dynamic, with fast reversals and changing intensity, and certainly not "quiet". Finally, AUV surveys provide measurements of the marine magnetic anomaly record whose resolution is limited only by the crustal recording process and crustal magnetic architecture rather than spatial resolution.

  6. Eugenol bloom thinner on peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peaches must be thinned to obtain annual crops of marketable size fruit. Traditionally, peach thinning has been accomplished by hand in the absence of reliable chemical thinners. Peach thinning is a labor intensive, expensive cultural practice. Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that e...

  7. The faintest stars - The luminosity and mass functions at the bottom of the main sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinney, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    We present IR K-band photometry of complete samples of VLM candidates constructed from IIIaF and IVN plates in 10 fields taken as part of the POSSII and UKSRC surveys. Using the I-K colors constructed for these stars we estimate a bolometric luminosity function which extends to M(Bol) = 13.75. We find significant evidence for a luminosity function decreasing toward these luminosities. We also find that our results are consistent with those of studies based on the Nearby Star sample, when those data are presented as a bolometric luminosity function. We convert our observed luminosity function into a mass function, which extends with reasonable statistics to 0.08 solar masses - the H-burning minimum mass. We find significant evidence for features in the mass function at these masses. Specifically, the mass function 'turns over' at 0.25 solar mass, goes through a local minimum at about 0.15 solar mass, and may increase again below 0.1 solar mass - none of these features are predicted by any of the current theories of star formation. Lastly, the mass density we observe just above the H-burning minimum mass makes it difficult to envisage brown dwarfs contributing significant quantities of missing mass without invoking either a mass function in this region significantly steeper than that seen for main-sequence stars, or an extremely low cutoff mass to the mass function.

  8. On-Chip Mesoporous Functionalized Magnetic Microspheres for Protein Sequencing by Extended Bottom-up Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gasilova, Natalia; Srzentić, Kristina; Qiao, Liang; Liu, Baohong; Beck, Alain; Tsybin, Yury O; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-02-01

    A limited amount and extreme concentration variability of proteomic-related samples require efficient analyte preconcentration and purification prior to the mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis. Preferably, these steps should be coupled online with chosen fractionation and detection techniques for the minimization of the sample loss. To realize such sample pretreatment, herein, an on-chip solid-phase extraction-gradient elution-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-GEMS/MS) is introduced. This technique combines in a microfluidic format online sample preconcentration/purification on SPE sorbent with further fractionation and MS/MS analysis. C8-functionalized mesoporous magnetic microspheres are chosen as a sorbent, spatially confined with an applied magnetic field. They ensure a selective enrichment and analysis of large hydrophobic peptides (2.5-7 kDa), matching the desired mass bin of the extended bottom-up proteomic (eBUP, 3-7 kDa) approach. Within less than 35 min and without additional sample purification, SPE-GEMS/MS provided 66.5% of protein sequence coverage from 75 fmol of BSA tryptic digest. Analysis of only 33 fmol of a single monoclonal antibody, digested with secreted aspartic protease 9 (Sap9) to large peptides, yielded 80% of its sequence coverage. A more complex equimolar mixture of six antibodies (55 fmol each), submitted to Sap9 proteolysis, was also successfully processed by SPE-GEMS/MS, resulting in 50-67% of the total antibody sequence coverage. Importantly, for all antibodies, unique peptides containing complementarity determining regions were detected for both heavy and light chains, leading to a correct identification of mixture components despite their high sequence homology. Moreover, SPE-GEMS/MS microchip and chosen magnetic sorbent are cost-effective and can be produced and operated in a disposable manner. Therefore, the present technique could be potentially suitable for a high throughput sequencing of monoclonal antibodies and rapid e

  9. GulfSnow Peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GulfSnow peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. GulfSnow was previously tested as AP06-09W and originated from a cross of AP98-3...

  10. New strategies for thinning peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An evaluation of two mechanical thinners was conducted in four commercial peach orchard blocks in 2007. A mechanical blossom thinner designed by a German grower for thinning apple trees that employed nylon cords (strings) to remove blossoms was tested on peach trees trained to either a perpendicula...

  11. A Unique Mutation in a MYB Gene Cosegregates with the Nectarine Phenotype in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Dondini, Luca; Pacheco, Igor; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Gazza, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Strozzi, Francesco; Tartarini, Stefano; Bassi, Daniele; Verde, Ignazio; Rossini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Nectarines play a key role in peach industry; the fuzzless skin has implications for consumer acceptance. The peach/nectarine (G/g) trait was described as monogenic and previously mapped on chromosome 5. Here, the position of the G locus was delimited within a 1.1 cM interval (635 kb) based on linkage analysis of an F2 progeny from the cross ‘Contender’ (C, peach) x ‘Ambra’ (A, nectarine). Careful inspection of the genes annotated in the corresponding genomic sequence (Peach v1.0), coupled with variant discovery, led to the identification of MYB gene PpeMYB25 as a candidate for trichome formation on fruit skin. Analysis of genomic re-sequencing data from five peach/nectarine accessions pointed to the insertion of a LTR retroelement in exon 3 of the PpeMYB25 gene as the cause of the recessive glabrous phenotype. A functional marker (indelG) developed on the LTR insertion cosegregated with the trait in the CxA F2 progeny and was validated on a broad panel of genotypes, including all known putative donors of the nectarine trait. This marker was shown to efficiently discriminate between peach and nectarine plants, indicating that a unique mutational event gave rise to the nectarine trait and providing a useful diagnostic tool for early seedling selection in peach breeding programs. PMID:24595269

  12. Combining bottom-up and top-down mass spectrometric strategies for de novo sequencing of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from Cancer borealis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Chen, Ruibing; Ge, Ying; He, Huan; Marshall, Alan G; Li, Lingjun

    2009-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a 72-amino acid residue polypeptide with multiple physiological effects. The X-organ/sinus gland is the primary source for CHH and its family members. However, the amino acid sequence of CHH in Cancer borealis , a premier model system for neuromodulation, has not been characterized. In this study, a novel hybrid strategy combining "bottom-up" and "top-down" methodologies enabled direct sequencing of CHH peptide in the sinus gland of C. borealis . Multiple mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques were employed to characterize the CHH peptide, including direct tissue analysis by MALDI-FT-ICR-MS, de novo sequencing of tryptic digested CHH by nano-LC/ESI-Q-TOF MS and intact CHH analysis by LC/FT-ICR-MS. In-trap cleaning removed the extensive matrix adducts of CHH in the direct tissue analysis by MALDI-FT-ICR-MS. Fragmentation efficiency of the intact CHH was drastically improved after the reduction-alkylation of the disulfide bonds. The sequence coverage was further enhanced by employing multiple complementary fragmentation techniques. Overall, this example is the largest neuropeptide de novo sequenced in C. borealis by mass spectrometric methods. PMID:19046072

  13. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework of carbonate deposition controlled by sea level and geostrophic bottom currents, south Florida platform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C. ); Shinn, E.A. )

    1992-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles seaward of the Marquesas Keys reveal at least eight late Quaternary sequences which downlap onto the Miocene ( ) age Pourtales Terrace at 250 m water depth. Inferred correlations are presented between these sequences and the last 7--8 sea-level cycles during the past 150 ky. The setting is unusual in that the present reef-rimmed, shallow inner shelf supplies minimal sediment to the adjacent margin where over 30 m of Holocene sediment has accumulated on portions of the outer shelf and slope. Seaward of the inner-shelf reef'' barrier, an outer-shelf terrace in 50--60 m water depth forms the upper boundary of the prograding late Quaternary sequences. These sequences exhibit both current-controlled internal geometries (e.g., sediment drifts) and sea-level controlled features such as lowstand slope erosion, transgressive unconformities, and paleoshorelines or reefs formed during lower stands of sea level. Bottom currents also severely eroded the slope at times, creating prominent unconformities. These 5th-6th order depositional sequences exhibit many features outlined by the Exxon sequence stratigraphy models. Systems tracts inferred from seismic records include lowstand wedge, shelf margin, and highstand deposits. Transgressive systems tracts are more difficult to identify and correspond to the flat outer-shelf terrace that experienced rapid lateral transgressions and regressions of sea level, and was exposed to subaerial processes during low stands. This study provides new insight on the importance of both geostrophic boundary currents and sea-level change in controlling stratigraphic development of a carbonate platform margin. Locally-thick accumulations off the Marquesas Keys may demonstrate sedimentation in response to a persistent cold cyclonic gyre in this area which causes weak counter-currents in an otherwise strong geostrophic current area.

  14. The distribution of peach scab lesions on the surface of diseased peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach canker (Fusicladium effusum) can cause yield loss of peach and results in rejection of fruit for fresh sale. Developing peach fruit become infected through splash dispersed inoculum. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the distribution of lesions on the fruit surface, and prov...

  15. Identification of woolliness response genes in peach fruit after post-harvest treatments

    PubMed Central

    González-Agüero, Mauricio; Pavez, Leonardo; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pacheco, Igor; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meisel, Lee A.; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    Woolliness is a physiological disorder of peaches and nectarines that becomes apparent when fruit are ripened after prolonged periods of cold storage. This disorder is of commercial importance since shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage before selling require low temperature. However, knowledge about the molecular basis of peach woolliness is still incomplete. To address this issue, a nylon macroarray containing 847 non-redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a ripe peach fruit cDNA library was developed and used. Gene expression changes of peach fruit (Prunus persica cv. O'Henry) ripened for 7 d at 21 °C (juicy fruit) were compared with those of fruit stored for 15 d at 4 °C and then ripened for 7 d at 21 °C (woolly fruit). A total of 106 genes were found to be differentially expressed between juicy and woolly fruit. Data analysis indicated that the activity of most of these genes (>90%) was repressed in the woolly fruit. In cold-stored peaches (cv. O'Henry), the expression level of selected genes (cobra, endopolygalacturonase, cinnamoyl-CoA-reductase, and rab11) was lower than in the juicy fruit, and it remained low in woolly peaches after ripening, a pattern that was conserved in woolly fruit from two other commercial cultivars (cv. Flamekist and cv. Elegant Lady). In addition, the results of this study indicate that molecular changes during fruit woolliness involve changes in the expression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism and endomembrane trafficking. Overall, the results reported here provide an initial characterization of the transcriptome activity of peach fruit under different post-harvest treatments. PMID:18453640

  16. Nursery performance of peach seedling rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nursery performance of a cross-section of both historically important and current commercial peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] seedling type rootstocks was studied over three growing seasons at six nurseries serving the southeastern US peach industry. Rootstock lines differed significantly in ...

  17. Splinter detection of half-cut peaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizmanos, Juan L. G.; Fuentes, Luis M.; Gutierrez, Jose A.

    1997-09-01

    A machine vision system has been developed to separate half cut peaches with small splinters from clean ones. The system uses the different spectral profile of both together with an ad hoc illuminating system. The system is capable of processing 30 half peaches per second. The hardware and software solutions are described.

  18. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... vinegar” or “Seasoned with peach kernels”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and peach kernels”. (ii) The color type and style of...

  19. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... vinegar” or “Seasoned with peach kernels”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and peach kernels”. (ii) The color type and style of...

  20. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... vinegar” or “Seasoned with peach kernels”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and peach kernels”. (ii) The color type and style of...

  1. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... vinegar” or “Seasoned with peach kernels”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and peach kernels”. (ii) The color type and style of...

  2. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv... vinegar” or “Seasoned with peach kernels”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and peach kernels”. (ii) The color type and style of...

  3. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171... § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches. (a) Artificially sweetened canned peaches is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches by §...

  4. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171... § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches. (a) Artificially sweetened canned peaches is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches by §...

  5. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171... § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches. (a) Artificially sweetened canned peaches is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches by §...

  6. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171... § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches. (a) Artificially sweetened canned peaches is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches by §...

  7. Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Peach in China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meng-Jun; Cox, Kerik D.; Schnabel, Guido; Luo, Chao-Xi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), β-tubulin (TUB2) revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China. PMID:21980371

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other tephritids using next generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Das, Bikash

    2015-09-15

    Mitochondrial genome can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The complete 15,935 bp mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is assembled from Illumina MiSeq read data. The mitogenome information for B. zonata was compared to the homologous sequences of other tephritids. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.34% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 with TCG and atp8 with GTG. Nine PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining four use an incomplete termination codon T or TA likely to be completed by adenylation. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for trnS((AGN)). Four short intergenic spacers showed high degree of conservation among B. zonata and other ten tephritids. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end followed by [TA(A)]n-like stretch and a tandem repeats of 39 bp has been observed in CR. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed that the cox1 and atp6 exhibits lowest and highest gene substitution rates, respectively than other genes. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method using all protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes confirmed that B. zonata is closely related to Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, and Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera dorsalis belonging to B. dorsalis species complex forms a monophyletic clade, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works. PMID:26031235

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Variegation in Peach Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Faxin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Background Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss). Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. Results A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. Conclusion In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation. PMID:24603808

  10. [Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in peach].

    PubMed

    Yanbing, Gu; Zhirui, Ji; Fumei, Chi; Zhuang, Qiao; Chengnan, Xu; Junxiang, Zhang; Zongshan, Zhou; Qinglong, Dong

    2016-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators and play diverse regulatory roles in biotic and abiotic stresses, plant growth and development processes. In this study, the WRKY DNA-binding domain (Pfam Database number: PF03106) downloaded from Pfam protein families database was exploited to identify WRKY genes from the peach (Prunus persica 'Lovell') genome using HMMER 3.0. The obtained amino acid sequences were analyzed with DNAMAN 5.0, WebLogo 3, MEGA 5.1, MapInspect and MEME bioinformatics softwares. Totally 61 peach WRKY genes were found in the peach genome. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that peach WRKY genes were classified into three Groups: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The WRKY N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Group Ⅰ (group I-N and group I-C) were monophyletic. The Group Ⅱ was sub-divided into five distinct clades (groupⅡ-a, Ⅱ-b, Ⅱ-c, Ⅱ-d and Ⅱ-e). Our domain analysis indicated that the WRKY regions contained a highly conserved heptapeptide stretch WRKYGQK at its N-terminus followed by a zinc-finger motif. The chromosome mapping analysis showed that peach WRKY genes were distributed with different densities over 8 chromosomes. The intron-exon structure analysis revealed that structures of the WRKY gene were highly conserved in the peach. The conserved motif analysis showed that the conserved motifs 1, 2 and 3, which specify the WRKY domain, were observed in all peach WRKY proteins, motif 5 as the unknown domain was observed in group Ⅱ-d, two WRKY domains were assigned to GroupⅠ. SqRT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 16 PpWRKY genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits at various expression levels. Our analysis thus identified the PpWRKY gene families, and future functional studies are needed to reveal its specific roles. PMID:27001479

  11. Peel LTP (Pru p 3)--the major allergen of peach--is methylated. A proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Marilena; Martelli, Giuseppe; Grossi, Gerarda; Padula, Maria Carmela; Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP, Pru p 3) is the major allergen of peach (Prunus persica), and is in a greater abundance in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. Peel LTP is more allergenic than pulp LTP, but it is not clear whether this is due to its specific allergenic properties or to its higher concentration. In this study, we have used a new one-step, rapid procedure for the purification of LTP from peel and pulp of four peach varieties [Gladys (white flesh), California (nectarine yellow flesh), Plusplus (yellow flesh), Red Fair (nectarine yellow flesh)] harvested in a field grown in Southern Italy. Purification was based on miniature reversed-phase chromatography, a procedure suitable for proteomic study. Proteomic analysis of purified LTPs revealed that the amino acid sequence of LTP was identical in all peach genotypes but, for the first time, peel LTP was found to be methylated. PMID:23871022

  12. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  13. Three distinct mutational mechanisms acting on a single gene underpin the origin of yellow flesh in peach

    PubMed Central

    Falchi, Rachele; Vendramin, Elisa; Zanon, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Cipriani, Guido; Verde, Ignazio; Vizzotto, Giannina; Morgante, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Peach flesh color (white or yellow) is among the most popular commercial criteria for peach classification, and has implications for consumer acceptance and fruit nutritional quality. Despite the increasing interest in improving cultivars of both flesh types, little is known about the genetic basis for the carotenoid content diversity in peach. Here we describe the association between genotypes at a locus encoding the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (PpCCD4), localized in pseudomolecule 1 of the Prunus persica reference genome sequence, and the flesh color for 37 peach varieties, including two somatic revertants, and three ancestral relatives of peach, providing definitive evidence that this locus is responsible for flesh color phenotype. We show that yellow peach alleles have arisen from various ancestral haplotypes by at least three independent mutational events involving nucleotide substitutions, small insertions and transposable element insertions, and that these mutations, despite being located within the transcribed portion of the gene, also result in marked differences in transcript levels, presumably as a consequence of differential transcript stability involving nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The PpCCD4 gene provides a unique example of a gene for which humans, in their quest to diversify phenotypic appearance and qualitative characteristics of a fruit, have been able to select and exploit multiple mutations resulting from a variety of mechanisms. PMID:23855972

  14. Managing peach tree short life and Armillaria root rot in peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach tree short life (PTSL) and Armillaria root rot (ARR) are the two most important causes of premature mortality of commercial peach trees in the southeastern US. These two problems separately or together are also significant problems in many other stone fruit production areas throughout the wor...

  15. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Huang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Shitao; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000–7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, including size comparable to smaller modern varieties, a single seed, a deep dorsal groove, and presence of deep pits and furrows. These fossils show that China has been a critical region for peach evolution since long before human presence, much less agriculture. Peaches evolved their modern morphology under natural selection, presumably involving large, frugivorous mammals such as primates. Much later, peach size and variety increased through domestication and breeding. PMID:26610240

  16. Evaluation of six common peach rootstocks to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flordaguard, Guardian, Halford, Lovell, Nemaguard, and Okinawa peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne mayaguensis in two separate experiments. All rootstocks were rated as poor hosts of M. mayaguensis. Evaluating different peach rootstocks for resistance to M. ma...

  17. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Huang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Shitao; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-11-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000-7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, including size comparable to smaller modern varieties, a single seed, a deep dorsal groove, and presence of deep pits and furrows. These fossils show that China has been a critical region for peach evolution since long before human presence, much less agriculture. Peaches evolved their modern morphology under natural selection, presumably involving large, frugivorous mammals such as primates. Much later, peach size and variety increased through domestication and breeding.

  18. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China.

    PubMed

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Huang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Shitao; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000-7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, including size comparable to smaller modern varieties, a single seed, a deep dorsal groove, and presence of deep pits and furrows. These fossils show that China has been a critical region for peach evolution since long before human presence, much less agriculture. Peaches evolved their modern morphology under natural selection, presumably involving large, frugivorous mammals such as primates. Much later, peach size and variety increased through domestication and breeding. PMID:26610240

  19. Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E.; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar ‘Dr. Davis’ and a brown rot resistant introgression line, ‘F8,1–42’, derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

  20. Importance of scion cultivar in peach tree short life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southeast peach trees planted on sites previously planted to peaches often suffer from Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL) syndrome, in which ring nematode, cold injury, and bacterial canker combine to kill the scion in the spring. Rootstock plays an important role; trees on Guardian rootstock surv...

  1. 78 FR 3877 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... Springs, Arizona, as a Tribal Allotment. Channel 265A would constitute a first tribal allotment and a second potential service at Peach Springs. Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona,...

  2. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications..., allots FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona, in order to maintain a first local service at that community. Channel 281C3 can be allotted at Peach Springs, Arizona, in compliance with the...

  3. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  4. Progress in developing Armillaria resistant rootstocks for use with peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GuardianTM (BY520-9) peach seedling rootstock was released in 1993 to provide a rootstock with superior resistance to peach tree short life (PTSL) which at the time was the number one cause of premature death of peach (Prunus persica L. [Batsch]) trees in the southeastern US. Since that time Guardi...

  5. 7 CFR 457.153 - Peach crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peach crop insurance provisions. 457.153 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.153 Peach crop insurance provisions. The Peach Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. Progress in the management of peach fungal gummosis (Botryosphaeria dothidea) in the Southeastern U.S. peach industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach fungal gummosis, incited by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.:Fr.) Ces. & De Not., has been shown to be capable of reducing growth and yield by up to 40% on susceptible peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. Initial field screens demonstrated that several important peach cultivars utilize...

  7. Correlations between Root-Associated Microorganisms and Peach Replant Disease Symptoms in a California Soil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiue-in; Ruegger, Paul M.; McKenry, Michael V.; Becker, J. Ole; Borneman, James

    2012-01-01

    Background Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are “replanted” in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with peach replant disease symptoms at a field location in California, USA. Soil samples were subjected to treatments to create various levels of replant disease symptoms. Clonal peach seedlings were grown in the treated soils in greenhouse trials. After 6 weeks, plant growth parameters were measured, and both culture and culture-independent analyses were performed to identify root-associated bacteria, fungi and stramenopiles. Results A total of 295,785 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified by an Illumina-based, high throughput sequence analysis of rRNA genes. Among the 60 most abundant OTUs, 27 showed significant (P<0.05) negative correlation with peach shoot weights while 10 were positively correlated. Most of these OTUs belonged to the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria (96%), including the classes Gammaproteobacteria (44.4%), Betaproteobacteria (33.3%) and Alphaproteobacteria (22.2%), and the orders Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Chromatiales, Rhodocyclales, and Sphingomonadales. The most abundant fungi were Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium oxysporum, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Fusarium solani. The most abundant stramenopiles were Pythium vexans, Pythium violae and an unidentified Aplanochytrium species. Validation experiments using sequence-selective quantitative PCR analyses identified negative and positive associations between P. vexans and Trichoderma spp. and peach shoot weights, respectively. Conclusions This study identified numerous microorganisms associated with peach replant symptoms, some of which have been previously identified while others represent new

  8. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. PMID:27252372

  9. "De-novo" amino acid sequence elucidation of protein G'e by combined "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up" mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Al-Majdoub, Mahmoud; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Koy, Cornelia; Cui, Weidong; Yan, Yuetian; Gross, Michael L.; Glocker, Michael O.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometric de-novo sequencing was applied to review the amino acid sequence of a commercially available recombinant protein Ǵ with great scientific and economic importance. Substantial deviations to the published amino acid sequence (Uniprot Q54181) were found by the presence of 46 additional amino acids at the N-terminus, including a so-called "His-tag" as well as an N-terminal partial α- N-gluconoylation and α- N-phosphogluconoylation, respectively. The unexpected amino acid sequence of the commercial protein G' comprised 241 amino acids and resulted in a molecular mass of 25,998.9 ± 0.2 Da for the unmodified protein. Due to the higher mass that is caused by its extended amino acid sequence compared with the original protein G' (185 amino acids), we named this protein "protein G'e." By means of mass spectrometric peptide mapping, the suggested amino acid sequence, as well as the N-terminal partial α- N-gluconoylations, was confirmed with 100% sequence coverage. After the protein G'e sequence was determined, we were able to determine the expression vector pET-28b from Novagen with the Xho I restriction enzyme cleavage site as the best option that was used for cloning and expressing the recombinant protein G'e in E. coli. A dissociation constant ( K d ) value of 9.4 nM for protein G'e was determined thermophoretically, showing that the N-terminal flanking sequence extension did not cause significant changes in the binding affinity to immunoglobulins.

  10. "De-novo" amino acid sequence elucidation of protein G'e by combined "top-down" and "bottom-up" mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Yelena; Al-Majdoub, Mahmoud; Opuni, Kwabena F M; Koy, Cornelia; Cui, Weidong; Yan, Yuetian; Gross, Michael L; Glocker, Michael O

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometric de-novo sequencing was applied to review the amino acid sequence of a commercially available recombinant protein G´ with great scientific and economic importance. Substantial deviations to the published amino acid sequence (Uniprot Q54181) were found by the presence of 46 additional amino acids at the N-terminus, including a so-called "His-tag" as well as an N-terminal partial α-N-gluconoylation and α-N-phosphogluconoylation, respectively. The unexpected amino acid sequence of the commercial protein G' comprised 241 amino acids and resulted in a molecular mass of 25,998.9 ± 0.2 Da for the unmodified protein. Due to the higher mass that is caused by its extended amino acid sequence compared with the original protein G' (185 amino acids), we named this protein "protein G'e." By means of mass spectrometric peptide mapping, the suggested amino acid sequence, as well as the N-terminal partial α-N-gluconoylations, was confirmed with 100% sequence coverage. After the protein G'e sequence was determined, we were able to determine the expression vector pET-28b from Novagen with the Xho I restriction enzyme cleavage site as the best option that was used for cloning and expressing the recombinant protein G'e in E. coli. A dissociation constant (K(d)) value of 9.4 nM for protein G'e was determined thermophoretically, showing that the N-terminal flanking sequence extension did not cause significant changes in the binding affinity to immunoglobulins. PMID:25560987

  11. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  12. 'Sharpe', a clonal plum rootstock for peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharpe clonal rootstock for peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA), and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Sharpe, previously tested as FLA1-1, was discovered in the wild and appears to be a hybrid of Chickas...

  13. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different peach cultivars grown in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Chu, Hyosub; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-12-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) is one of the most popular stone fruits worldwide. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated genome and transcriptome analyses of several stone fruit trees. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome analyses of two peach cultivars grown in Korea. Leaves of two cultivars, referred to as Jangtaek and Mibaek, were harvested and used for library preparation. The two prepared libraries were paired-end sequenced by the HiSeq2000 system. We obtained 8.14 GB and 9.62 GB sequence data from Jangtaek and Mibaek (NCBI accession numbers: SRS1056585 and SRS1056587), respectively. The Trinity program was used to assemble two transcriptomes de novo, resulting in 110,477 (Jangtaek) and 136,196 (Mibaek) transcripts. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. The identified proteins were subjected to BLASTP search against NCBI's non-redundant database for functional annotation. This study provides transcriptome data for two peach cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses. PMID:26697390

  15. Genomic detection and characterization of a Korean isolate of Little cherry virus 1 sampled from a peach tree.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Yoo, Ran Hee; Zhao, Fumei; Cho, In-Sook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-10-01

    A peach tree (Prunus persica) showing yellowing and mild mottle symptoms was analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing to determine the causal agent. A total of nine contigs similar to Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) were produced, and all the contigs showed nucleotide sequence identity (lower than 83 %) and query coverage (higher than 73 %) with LChV-1. The symptomatic peach sample was confirmed to be infected with LChV-1-like virus as a result of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers designed based on sequences of the contigs. Occurrence of diseases caused by LChV-1 in Prunus species has been reported. Complete 16,931-nt genome of the peach virus composed of eight open reading frames was determined, and conserved domains including viral methyltransferase, viral helicase 1, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), heat shock protein 70 homologue (HSP70h), HSP90h and closterovirus coat protein (CP) were identified. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid sequence alignments between the peach virus and members in the family Closteroviridae showed that the virus was most similar to LChV-1. Pairwise comparisons based on amino acid sequence alignments of three genes (RdRp, HSP70h and CP) between the peach virus and LChV-1 isolates showed the highest amino acid sequence identities, with 84.32 % for RdRp, 85.48 % for HSP70h and 80.45 % for CP. These results indicate that this is the first report for the presence of LChV-1 in South Korea and may be one of the first reports of natural infection of peach by LChV-1. Although it is not clear if LChV-1 YD isolate was responsible for specific symptoms observed, detection and characterization of the peach tree-infecting LChV-1 in South Korea would be useful in terms of the epidemiology of LChV-1. PMID:26315329

  16. The peach volatilome modularity is reflected at the genetic and environmental response levels in a QTL mapping population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The improvement of fruit aroma is currently one of the most sought-after objectives in peach breeding programs. To better characterize and assess the genetic potential for increasing aroma quality by breeding, a quantity trait locus (QTL) analysis approach was carried out in an F1 population segregating largely for fruit traits. Results Linkage maps were constructed using the IPSC peach 9 K Infinium ® II array, rendering dense genetic maps, except in the case of certain chromosomes, probably due to identity-by-descent of those chromosomes in the parental genotypes. The variability in compounds associated with aroma was analyzed by a metabolomic approach based on GC-MS to profile 81 volatiles across the population from two locations. Quality-related traits were also studied to assess possible pleiotropic effects. Correlation-based analysis of the volatile dataset revealed that the peach volatilome is organized into modules formed by compounds from the same biosynthetic origin or which share similar chemical structures. QTL mapping showed clustering of volatile QTL included in the same volatile modules, indicating that some are subjected to joint genetic control. The monoterpene module is controlled by a unique locus at the top of LG4, a locus previously shown to affect the levels of two terpenoid compounds. At the bottom of LG4, a locus controlling several volatiles but also melting/non-melting and maturity-related traits was found, suggesting putative pleiotropic effects. In addition, two novel loci controlling lactones and esters in linkage groups 5 and 6 were discovered. Conclusions The results presented here give light on the mode of inheritance of the peach volatilome confirming previously loci controlling the aroma of peach but also identifying novel ones. PMID:24885290

  17. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the Kepler-field cluster NGC 6819 - I. The bottom of the white dwarf cooling sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedin, L. R.; Salaris, M.; Anderson, J.; Cassisi, S.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; King, I. R.; Bergeron, P.

    2015-04-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reach the end of the white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence (CS) in the solar-metallicity open cluster NGC 6819. Our photometry and completeness tests show a sharp drop in the number of WDs along the CS at magnitudes fainter than mF606W = 26.050 ± 0.075. This implies an age of 2.25 ± 0.20 Gyr, consistent with the age of 2.25 ± 0.30 Gyr obtained from fits to the main-sequence turn-off. The use of different WD cooling models and initial-final-mass relations have a minor impact the WD age estimate, at the level of ˜0.1 Gyr. As an important by-product of this investigation we also release, in electronic format, both the catalogue of all the detected sources and the atlases of the region (in two filters). Indeed, this patch of sky studied by HST (of size ˜70 arcmin2) is entirely within the main Kepler-mission field, so the high-resolution images and deep catalogues will be particularly useful.

  18. A Parent Satisfaction Survey for Project PEACH. Report #7963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Louis

    A questionnaire was designed to determine parent perceptions of and degree of satisfaction with the services provided by Philadelphia's Prescriptive Educational Approach to Children with Handicaps (Project PEACH). Project PEACH provided diagnostic, referral, and prescriptive educational services for preschool children. Five areas were covered by…

  19. 7 CFR 457.153 - Peach crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peach crop insurance provisions. 457.153 Section 457.153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.153 Peach crop...

  20. 7 CFR 457.153 - Peach crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peach crop insurance provisions. 457.153 Section 457.153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.153 Peach crop...

  1. 7 CFR 457.153 - Peach crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peach crop insurance provisions. 457.153 Section 457.153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.153 Peach crop...

  2. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Springs, Arizona. (The symbol `` '' will be used to denote a channel reserved as a Tribal Allotment.) Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, consistent with the minimum distance...

  3. Ehancing disease resistance in peach fruit with methyl jasmonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on postharvest diseases caused by P. expansum, B. cinerea and R. stolonifer in peach fruit (Prunus persica Batsch cv Dahebai) and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. Peaches were harvested at the firm-mature stage and treated with 1 or 500 µmol/L...

  4. Grass competition may benefit high density peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research demonstrated that grass competition dwarfed and reduced the yield of individual peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in narrow vegetation free areas (VFA). In this report, the area-based yield of two peach cultivars, 'Redskin' and 'Jersey Dawn' on 'Lovell', was estimated...

  5. Mechanical thinning pillar peach trees - second year results and observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnar (pillar) form peach trees were mechanically thinned at 50 days after full bloom during the pit hardening stage of development. A spike-drum mechanical shaker, which showed promise for peach fruit thinning, during preliminary tests in 2005 was used to remove the young fruits. The shaker wa...

  6. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  7. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  8. Genomic Structure of Three Phenotypically Different Isolates of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid: Implications of the Existence of Constraints Limiting the Heterogeneity of Viroid Quasispecies

    PubMed Central

    Ambrós, S.; Hernández, C.; Desvignes, J. C.; Flores, R.

    1998-01-01

    The peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is used to study the interactions between a viroid containing hammerhead ribozymes and its natural host, peach. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the phenotypic effects observed upon viroid infection, sequence variants from three PLMVd isolates that differ in symptom expression on the peach indicator GF-305 have been characterized. Analysis of the primary structures of a total of 29 different sequence variants derived from a severe and two latent isolates has revealed a large number of polymorphic positions in the viroid molecule. The variability pattern indicates that preservation of the stability of both hammerhead structures and conservation of a branched secondary structure of the viroid molecule may be factors limiting sequence heterogeneity in PLMVd. Moreover, compensatory mutations in two hairpin loops of the proposed secondary structure, suggesting that a pseudoknot-like interaction may exist between them, have also been observed. Phylogenetic analysis has allowed the allocation of PLMVd molecules into three major groups. This clustering does not strictly correlate with the source isolate from which the variants were obtained, providing insights into the complex mixture of molecules which make up each isolate. Bioassays of individual PLMVd sequence variants on GF-305 peach seedlings have shown that the biological properties of the PLMVd isolates may be correlated with both the complexity of their viroid populations and the presence of specific sequence variants. PMID:9696836

  9. Foliar nickel application can increase the incidence of peach tree short life and consequent peach tree mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of postplant nickel (Ni) foliar application to suppress Mesocriconema xenoplax populations and thereby prolong tree survival of peach trees on a peach tree short life (PTSL) site was investigated from 2004-2011. The study was conducted in an orchard infested with M. xenoplax and a histo...

  10. Genome-wide view of genetic diversity reveals paths of selection and cultivar differentiation in peach domestication.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Takashi; Hanada, Toshio; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Gradziel, Thomas M; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Domestication and cultivar differentiation are requisite processes for establishing cultivated crops. These processes inherently involve substantial changes in population structure, including those from artificial selection of key genes. In this study, accessions of peach (Prunus persica) and its wild relatives were analysed genome-wide to identify changes in genetic structures and gene selections associated with their differentiation. Analysis of genome-wide informative single-nucleotide polymorphism loci revealed distinct changes in genetic structures and delineations among domesticated peach and its wild relatives and among peach landraces and modern fruit (F) and modern ornamental (O-A) cultivars. Indications of distinct changes in linkage disequilibrium extension/decay and of strong population bottlenecks or inbreeding were identified. Site frequency spectrum- and extended haplotype homozygosity-based evaluation of genome-wide genetic diversities supported selective sweeps distinguishing the domesticated peach from its wild relatives and each F/O-A cluster from the landrace clusters. The regions with strong selective sweeps harboured promising candidates for genes subjected to selection. Further sequence-based evaluation further defined the candidates and revealed their characteristics. All results suggest opportunities for identifying critical genes associated with each differentiation by analysing genome-wide genetic diversity in currently established populations. This approach obviates the special development of genetic populations, which is particularly difficult for long-lived tree crops. PMID:27085183

  11. Genome-wide view of genetic diversity reveals paths of selection and cultivar differentiation in peach domestication

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takashi; Hanada, Toshio; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Domestication and cultivar differentiation are requisite processes for establishing cultivated crops. These processes inherently involve substantial changes in population structure, including those from artificial selection of key genes. In this study, accessions of peach (Prunus persica) and its wild relatives were analysed genome-wide to identify changes in genetic structures and gene selections associated with their differentiation. Analysis of genome-wide informative single-nucleotide polymorphism loci revealed distinct changes in genetic structures and delineations among domesticated peach and its wild relatives and among peach landraces and modern fruit (F) and modern ornamental (O-A) cultivars. Indications of distinct changes in linkage disequilibrium extension/decay and of strong population bottlenecks or inbreeding were identified. Site frequency spectrum- and extended haplotype homozygosity-based evaluation of genome-wide genetic diversities supported selective sweeps distinguishing the domesticated peach from its wild relatives and each F/O-A cluster from the landrace clusters. The regions with strong selective sweeps harboured promising candidates for genes subjected to selection. Further sequence-based evaluation further defined the candidates and revealed their characteristics. All results suggest opportunities for identifying critical genes associated with each differentiation by analysing genome-wide genetic diversity in currently established populations. This approach obviates the special development of genetic populations, which is particularly difficult for long-lived tree crops. PMID:27085183

  12. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  13. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  14. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2004-01-01

    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  15. High-density mapping suggests cytoplasmic male sterility with two restorer genes in almond × peach progenies

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, José Manuel; Eduardo, Iban; Picañol, Roger; Batlle, Ignasi; Howad, Werner; Aranzana, María José; Arús, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) and almond (Prunus dulcis) are two sexually compatible species that produce fertile offspring. Almond, a highly polymorphic species, is a potential source of new genes for peach that has a strongly eroded gene pool. Here we describe the genetics of a male sterile phenotype that segregated in two almond (‘Texas’) × peach (‘Earlygold’) progenies: an F2 (T×E) and a backcross one (T1E) to the ‘Earlygold’ parent. High-density maps were developed using a 9k peach SNP chip and 135 simple-sequence repeats. Three highly syntenic and collinear maps were obtained: one for the F2 (T×E) and two for the backcross, T1E (for the hybrid) and E (for ‘Earlygold’). A major reduction of recombination was observed in the interspecific maps (T×E and T1E) compared to the intraspecific parent (E). The E map also had extensive monomorphic genomic regions suggesting the presence of large DNA fragments identical by descent. Our data for the male sterility character were consistent with the existence of cytoplasmic male sterility, where individuals having the almond cytoplasm required the almond allele in at least one of two independent restorer genes, Rf1 and Rf2, to be fertile. The restorer genes were located in a 3.4 Mbp fragment of linkage group 2 (Rf1) and 1.4 Mbp of linkage group 6 (Rf2). Both fragments contained several genes coding for pentatricopeptide proteins, demonstrated to be responsible for restoring fertility in other species. The implications of these results for using almond as a source of novel variability in peach are discussed. PMID:26504569

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the endopolygalacturonase gene in peach and its potential use in crossbreeding programs.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Y; Ma, R; Yu, M

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant sequence variations found in plant genomes and are widely used as molecular genetic markers in genetic diversity studies and crossbreeding programs. In this study, we examined 113 DNA sequences of the endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) gene from 67 peach accessions and found a total of 56 SNPs and 6 insertion/deletions (indels), with a frequency of 3, 1, and 3% for the transitions, transversions, and indels, respectively. Meanwhile, the majority of the observed SNPs were found in the intron regions, while only 2 variable sites and a single indel were detected in the exon regions. A dendrogram was obtained using neighbor-joining cluster analysis and divided into 2 main groups, providing evidence that most of the accessions of the clingstone nonmelting flesh phenotypes generally clustered together and were comparatively nonrelated to the "stony hard" peach cultivars, which were in a different branch altogether. Furthermore, 4 major haplotypes were formed and 3 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence primer sets were mined according to fruit texture and stone adhesion, displaying their potential as candidate molecular markers for discriminating genotypes. This research will assist peach genetic enhancement by introducing a novel crossbreeding strategy. PMID:25966181

  17. Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

  18. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  19. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes in peach and analysis of WRKY expression during bud dormancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Tan, Qiuping; Sun, Mingyue; Li, Dongmei; Fu, Xiling; Chen, Xiude; Xiao, Wei; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Bud dormancy in deciduous fruit trees is an important adaptive mechanism for their survival in cold climates. The WRKY genes participate in several developmental and physiological processes, including dormancy. However, the dormancy mechanisms of WRKY genes have not been studied in detail. We conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 58 WRKY genes in peach. These putative genes were located on all eight chromosomes. In bioinformatics analyses, we compared the sequences of WRKY genes from peach, rice, and Arabidopsis. In a cluster analysis, the gene sequences formed three groups, of which group II was further divided into five subgroups. Gene structure was highly conserved within each group, especially in groups IId and III. Gene expression analyses by qRT-PCR showed that WRKY genes showed different expression patterns in peach buds during dormancy. The mean expression levels of six WRKY genes (Prupe.6G286000, Prupe.1G393000, Prupe.1G114800, Prupe.1G071400, Prupe.2G185100, and Prupe.2G307400) increased during endodormancy and decreased during ecodormancy, indicating that these six WRKY genes may play a role in dormancy in a perennial fruit tree. This information will be useful for selecting fruit trees with desirable dormancy characteristics or for manipulating dormancy in genetic engineering programs. PMID:26951048

  20. Cryptosporidium avian genotype III as a possible causative agent of chronic vomiting in peach-faced lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis).

    PubMed

    Makino, Ikuko; Abe, Niichiro; Reavill, Drury R

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found, by light microscopy, in 37 fecal samples of peach-faced lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis). Cryptosporidium avian genotype III was isolated in 13 of the 37 infected birds by sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the actin genes. All of the birds showed chronic vomiting and weight loss with enlargement of isthmi, narrowed proventricular lumens, and thickened proventricular walls radiographically. Cryptosporidium parasites were found only in the ductal epithelium of the proventricular glands in three of the tissue samples provided for necropsy. To date, there have been no reports concerning the pathogenicity, nor the location, of avian genotype III in avian hosts. Our report confirms, for the first time, the presence of avian genotype III in peach-faced lovebirds in Japan and also reveals the location in the avian host. PMID:20945797

  1. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively. PMID:17369958

  2. Biological Control of the Phytoparasitic Nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax on Peach Trees

    PubMed Central

    Kluepfel, D. A.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Lawrence, J. E.; Wechter, W. P.; Leverentz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Seven fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. capable of inhibiting reproduction of Mesocriconema xenoplax have been isolated from soil sites that suppress both nematode multiplication and Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL). One of these seven strains, Pseudomonas sp. BG33R, inhibits M. xenoplax multiplication in vivo and egg hatch in vitro. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations on peach seedlings inoculated with BG33R and planted into soil-solarized field plots remained at or below the economic threshold for nematicide treatment in South Carolina for nearly 18 months. Soil solarization alone induced a shift toward a microbial community that was suppressive to nematode multiplication. Additionally, five Tn5 mutants of BG33R, lacking the ability to kill eggs, have been generated. The Tn5 insertion site in each mutant has been cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis has revealed a high degree of homology to several genes of interest because of their potential involvement in the production of the egg-kill factor. These Tn5 egg-kill negative mutants also no longer produce protease or salicylic acid while producing nearly twice the amount of fluorescent siderophore as the wild type parent. PMID:19265918

  3. Biological control of the phytoparasitic nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax on peach trees.

    PubMed

    Kluepfel, D A; Nyczepir, A P; Lawrence, J E; Wechter, W P; Leverentz, B

    2002-06-01

    Seven fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. capable of inhibiting reproduction of Mesocriconema xenoplax have been isolated from soil sites that suppress both nematode multiplication and Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL). One of these seven strains, Pseudomonas sp. BG33R, inhibits M. xenoplax multiplication in vivo and egg hatch in vitro. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations on peach seedlings inoculated with BG33R and planted into soil-solarized field plots remained at or below the economic threshold for nematicide treatment in South Carolina for nearly 18 months. Soil solarization alone induced a shift toward a microbial community that was suppressive to nematode multiplication. Additionally, five Tn5 mutants of BG33R, lacking the ability to kill eggs, have been generated. The Tn5 insertion site in each mutant has been cloned and sequenced. DNA sequence analysis has revealed a high degree of homology to several genes of interest because of their potential involvement in the production of the egg-kill factor. These Tn5 egg-kill negative mutants also no longer produce protease or salicylic acid while producing nearly twice the amount of fluorescent siderophore as the wild type parent. PMID:19265918

  4. Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most important model fruits in the Rosaceae family. Native to the west of China, where peach has been domesticated for more than 4,000 years, its cultivation spread from China to Persia, Mediterranean countries and to America. Chinese peach has had a major impact on international peach breeding programs due to its high genetic diversity. In this research, we used 48 highly polymorphic SSRs, distributed over the peach genome, to investigate the difference in genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among Chinese cultivars, and North American and European cultivars, and the evolution of current peach cultivars. Results In total, 588 alleles were obtained with 48 SSRs on 653 peach accessions, giving an average of 12.25 alleles per locus. In general, the average value of observed heterozygosity (0.47) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.60). The separate analysis of groups of accessions according to their origin or reproductive strategies showed greater variability in Oriental cultivars, mainly due to the high level of heterozygosity in Chinese landraces. Genetic distance analysis clustered the cultivars into two main groups: one included four wild related Prunus, and the other included most of the Oriental and Occidental landraces and breeding cultivars. STRUCTURE analysis assigned 469 accessions to three subpopulations: Oriental (234), Occidental (174), and Landraces (61). Nested STRUCTURE analysis divided the Oriental subpopulation into two different subpopulations: ‘Yu Lu’ and ‘Hakuho’. The Occidental breeding subpopulation was also subdivided into nectarine and peach subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in each of these subpopulations showed that the percentage of linked (r2 > 0.1) intra-chromosome comparisons ranged between 14% and 47%. LD decayed faster in Oriental (1,196 Kbp) than in Occidental (2,687 Kbp) samples. In the ‘Yu Lu’ subpopulation there

  5. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates

  6. Fine mapping and identification of a candidate gene for a major locus controlling maturity date in peach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maturity date (MD) is a crucial factor for marketing of fresh fruit, especially those with limited shelf-life such as peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch): selection of several cultivars with differing MD would be advantageous to cover and extend the marketing season. Aims of this work were the fine mapping and identification of candidate genes for the major maturity date locus previously identified on peach linkage group 4. To improve genetic resolution of the target locus two F2 populations derived from the crosses Contender x Ambra (CxA, 306 individuals) and PI91459 (NJ Weeping) x Bounty (WxBy, 103 individuals) were genotyped with the Sequenom and 9K Illumina Peach Chip SNP platforms, respectively. Results Recombinant individuals from the WxBy F2 population allowed the localisation of maturity date locus to a 220 kb region of the peach genome. Among the 25 annotated genes within this interval, functional classification identified ppa007577m and ppa008301m as the most likely candidates, both encoding transcription factors of the NAC (NAM/ATAF1, 2/CUC2) family. Re-sequencing of the four parents and comparison with the reference genome sequence uncovered a deletion of 232 bp in the upstream region of ppa007577m that is homozygous in NJ Weeping and heterozygous in Ambra, Bounty and the WxBy F1 parent. However, this variation did not segregate in the CxA F2 population being the CxA F1 parent homozygous for the reference allele. The second gene was thus examined as a candidate for maturity date. Re-sequencing of ppa008301m, showed an in-frame insertion of 9 bp in the last exon that co-segregated with the maturity date locus in both CxA and WxBy F2 populations. Conclusions Using two different segregating populations, the map position of the maturity date locus was refined from 3.56 Mb to 220 kb. A sequence variant in the NAC gene ppa008301m was shown to co-segregate with the maturity date locus, suggesting this gene as a candidate controlling ripening time in

  7. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  8. 75 FR 17072 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines and Peaches Grown... Administrative Committee and the Peach Commodity Committee (Committees) for the 2009-10 and subsequent fiscal... from $0.0025 to $0.026 per 25-pound container or container equivalent of peaches handled....

  9. Performance of mechanical thinners for bloom or green fruit thinning in peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of excess fruits (thinning) is one of the most time consuming and costly operations in a peach orchard. A mechanical aid to assist in peach thinning would be a significant advancement for peach growers. A cooperative study between Penn State University and the USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit R...

  10. 7 CFR 917.459 - California Peach Grade and Size Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (7 CFR 51.1210 through 51.1223); and No. 22D standard lug box and No. 12B standard fruit (peach) box... Notes: 1. For Federal Register citations affecting § 917.459, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Earlitreat, Snow Angel, Supechfifteen, or Super Lady variety peaches unless: (i) Such peaches when packed...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  12. Metagenomics characterization of wood decay fungi colonized in peach limb heartwood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breakage of healthy-looking scaffold limbs is commonly seen in peach orchards in central Georgia, in the United States, and may have impact on the health and longevity of peach trees. White fungal mycelia were observed on the broken surface of some newly snapped, but otherwise healthy-looking peach ...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  16. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  17. Postcolonial Appalachia: Bhabha, Bakhtin, and Diane Gilliam Fisher's "Kettle Bottom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Diane Gilliam Fisher's 2004 award-winning book of poems, "Kettle Bottom," offers students a revealing vantage point for seeing Appalachian regional culture in a postcolonial context. An artful and accessible poetic sequence that was selected as the 2005 summer reading for entering students at Smith College, "Kettle Bottom"…

  18. Archaeological Evidence for Peach (Prunus persica) Cultivation and Domestication in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W.; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000–7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000–6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700–6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago. PMID:25192436

  19. Isolation and expression analysis of four HD-ZIP III family genes targeted by microRNA166 in peach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Zhang, B B; Ma, R J; Yu, M L; Guo, S L; Guo, L

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA166 (miR166) is known to have highly conserved targets that encode proteins of the class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) family, in a broad range of plant species. To further understand the relationship between HD-ZIP III genes and miR166, four HD-ZIP III family genes (PpHB14, PpHB15, PpHB8, and PpREV) were isolated from peach (Prunus persica) tissue and characterized. Spatio-temporal expression profiles of the genes were analyzed. Genes of the peach HD-ZIP III family were predicted to encode five conserved domains. Deduced amino acid sequences and tertiary structures of the four peach HD-ZIP III genes were highly conserved, with corresponding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression level of four targets displayed the opposite trend to that of miR166 throughout fruit development, with the exception of PpHB14 from 35 to 55 days after full bloom (DAFB). This finding indicates that miR166 may negatively regulate its four targets throughout fruit development. As for leaf and phloem, the same trend in expression level was observed between four targets and miR166 from 75 to 105 DAFB. However, the opposite trend was observed for the transcript level between four targets and miR166 from 35 to 55 DAFB. miRNA166 may negatively regulate four targets in some but not all developmental stages for a given tissue. The four genes studied were observed to have, exactly or generally, the same change tendency as individual tissue development, a finding that suggests genes of the HD-ZIP III family in peach may have complementary or cooperative functions in various tissues. PMID:26535732

  20. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day–short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype. PMID:19553369

  1. Under the trees: the Georgia peach and the quest for labor in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Okie, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The Georgia peach boom around the turn of the twentieth century was often hailed as a successful experiment in diversification. Peach growers, the story went, threw off the tyranny of King Cotton by pledging their allegiance to the "Queen of Fruits." This portrayal is partly true; unlike other proposed alternatives to cotton, peaches flourished in many places. But the history of the "labor problem" in the Georgia peach belt makes it clear that peach production depended on the cotton economy. Peaches required large amounts of labor only at harvest time, which came during a lull in the cotton season. Thus, for many years, growers found a ready labor supply in a rural population otherwise at loose ends. As this population relocated to cities, and as cotton farmers mechanized their operations, peach growers turned increasingly to the federal government to help shore up their workforces. PMID:21319439

  2. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  3. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary Brown, William Detmold, Stefan Meinel, Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-09-01

    The arena of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. This has led to a great deal of theoretical effort being put forth in the calculation of mass spectra in this sector. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of experiments for some time, it is interesting to compare results between lattice QCD computations and continuum theoretical models. Several recent lattice QCD calculations exist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. In this work we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of the mass spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. The wide range of quark masses in these systems require that the various flavors of quarks be treated with different lattice actions. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. The calculation of the ground state spectrum is presented and compared to recent models.

  4. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. Water use dynamics of peach trees under postharvest deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest deficit irrigation is a potential strategy for conserving valuable fresh water for production of early season tree fruit crops such as peaches. However, behaviors of evapotranspiration characteristics and crop coefficient (Kc) under deficit irrigation conditions are largely unknown. A th...

  6. Impact of weed barriers on newly planted peach trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly planted (Feb. 2005) ‘Sunracer’ and ‘Sunhome’ nectarine and ‘Tropic Snow’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) trees were subjected to conventional and four 'organic' weed control methods. Two of the 'organic' methods used weed barriers of white plastic (WP) or landscape fabric (LF). A third co...

  7. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  8. Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA provided information on current or potential organic solutions to control the key insect pest...

  9. 7 CFR 457.153 - Peach crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... insurable and uninsurable acreage; (3) The age of the trees, variety, type, and the planting pattern; and (4... planting pattern of such acreage is changed: (i) The age of the crop that is interplanted with the peaches... and pertinent information that we request in order to establish your approved yield. We will...

  10. Interaction of chill and heat in peach flower bud dormancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach bud dormancy requirement is a critical factor in selecting adapted cultivars, but the dormancy process is not well-understood. The Utah model proposes bloom occurs after a cultivar-specific amount of chilling followed by 5000 heat units above 4 °C. This model works well in colder climates, but...

  11. INFRARED CANOPY TEMPERATURE OF PEACH TREES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An early-season peach, “Crimson Lady” (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), is generally harvested in late May to early June in central California. To reduce water use, regulated deficit irrigation may be applied to these trees for the remaining and also most water demanding season (mid June to November). ...

  12. Physical structure of an endopolygalacturonase locus in peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melting flesh trait and the freestone trait are genetically linked to the same single locus in peach. Several studies have associated an endopolygalacturonase gene with this locus, either a deletion of endopolygalacturonase associated with the non-melting/clingstone phenotype or changes in the ...

  13. Identification of markers closely linked to the peach "pillar" gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar (also termed "pillar" or "broomy") growth habit are of interest of high density production systems. However, in early breeding stages, the selection by this phenotype is very difficult, as the trait is recessively inherited and heterozyg...

  14. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  15. Host status of selected peach rootstocks to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flordaguard, Guardian, Halford, Lovell, Nemaguard, and Okinawa peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne mayaguensis in the greenhouse. All rootstocks were rated as poor hosts of M. mayaguensis. Lovell generally supported greater numbers of M. mayaguensis eggs per pla...

  16. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171 Section 145.171 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  17. Increasing chilling reduces heat requirement for floral budbreak in peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to chilling temperatures is a critical factor in the suitability of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars to moderate climates such as in the southeastern United States. Time of bloom depends on the innate chilling requirement of the cultivar as well as the timing and quantity of co...

  18. MP-29, a clonal interspecific hybrid rootstock for peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MP-29 rootstock has been jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA) and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. MP-29 is suggested for trial as a rootstock for peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) varieties on Armillaria root rot ...

  19. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

  20. PROBABLE QUALITATIVE INHERITANCE OF FULL RED SKIN COLOR IN PEACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red skin color is a desirable trait contributing to the attractiveness of a peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Previous reports on the expression and inheritance of red skin color have concluded that it was under the control of multiple genes. However, we recently observed hybrid populations whic...

  1. 'Sharpe', a new Armillaria resistant rootstock for peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharpe clonal rootstock for peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA) and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Sharpe, previously tested as FLA1-1, was discovered in the wild and appears to be a hybrid of Chickasa...

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of floral color variegation in peach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Zhihong

    2015-09-01

    Variegation in flower is a special trait in ornamental peach (Prunus persica L.). To investigate the mechanism of color variegation, we used a combination of two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to explore the proteomic profiles between variegated flower (VF) and red flower (RF) buds of the peach cultivar 'Sahong Tao'. More than 500 highly reproducible protein spots (P < 0.05) were detected and 72 protein spots showed a greater than two-fold difference in their values. We identified 70 proteins that may play roles in petal coloration. The mRNA levels of the corresponding genes were detected using quantitative RT-PCR. The results show that most of the proteins are involved in energy and metabolism, which provide energy and substrates. We found that LDOX, WD40, ACC, and PPO II are related to the pigment biosynthetic pathway. The activity of PPO enzyme was further validated and showed the higher with significant differences in RF compared with the VF ones. Moreover, the four UCH proteins are involved in protein fate and may be important in post-translational modifications in peach flowers. Our study is the first comparative proteomic analysis of floral variegation and will contribute to further investigations into the molecular mechanism of flower petal coloration in ornamental peach. PMID:26192118

  3. DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

  4. Fighting Sharka in Peach: Current Limitations and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Geuna, Filippo; Babini, Anna R.; Bozhkova, Valentina; Catalano, Luigi; Cavagna, Beniamino; Dallot, Sylvie; Decroocq, Véronique; Dondini, Luca; Foschi, Stefano; Ilardi, Vincenza; Liverani, Alessandro; Mezzetti, Bruno; Minafra, Angelantonio; Pancaldi, Marco; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Pascal, Thierry; Savino, Vito N.; Scorza, Ralph; Verde, Ignazio; Bassi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV), is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial–temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment. The EU regulations on nursery activity should be modified based on the zone delimitation of PPV presence, limiting open-field production of propagation materials only to virus-free areas. Increasing the efficiency of preventive measures should be augmented by the short-term development of resistant cultivars. Putative sources of resistance/tolerance have been recently identified in peach germplasm, although the majority of novel resistant sources to PPV-M have been found in almond. However, the complexity of introgression from related-species imposes the search for alternative strategies. The use of genetic engineering, particularly RNA interference (RNAi)-based approaches, appears as one of the most promising perspectives to introduce a durable resistance to PPV in peach germplasm, notwithstanding the well-known difficulties of in vitro plant regeneration in this species. In this regard, rootstock transformation to induce RNAi-mediated systemic resistance would avoid the transformation of numerous commercial cultivars, and may alleviate consumer resistance to the use of GM plants. PMID:27625664

  5. Fighting Sharka in Peach: Current Limitations and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Geuna, Filippo; Babini, Anna R; Bozhkova, Valentina; Catalano, Luigi; Cavagna, Beniamino; Dallot, Sylvie; Decroocq, Véronique; Dondini, Luca; Foschi, Stefano; Ilardi, Vincenza; Liverani, Alessandro; Mezzetti, Bruno; Minafra, Angelantonio; Pancaldi, Marco; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Pascal, Thierry; Savino, Vito N; Scorza, Ralph; Verde, Ignazio; Bassi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV), is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial-temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment. The EU regulations on nursery activity should be modified based on the zone delimitation of PPV presence, limiting open-field production of propagation materials only to virus-free areas. Increasing the efficiency of preventive measures should be augmented by the short-term development of resistant cultivars. Putative sources of resistance/tolerance have been recently identified in peach germplasm, although the majority of novel resistant sources to PPV-M have been found in almond. However, the complexity of introgression from related-species imposes the search for alternative strategies. The use of genetic engineering, particularly RNA interference (RNAi)-based approaches, appears as one of the most promising perspectives to introduce a durable resistance to PPV in peach germplasm, notwithstanding the well-known difficulties of in vitro plant regeneration in this species. In this regard, rootstock transformation to induce RNAi-mediated systemic resistance would avoid the transformation of numerous commercial cultivars, and may alleviate consumer resistance to the use of GM plants. PMID:27625664

  6. Mechanical peach thinners reduce labor inputs and increase fruit size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural and economic evaluations of mechanical peach thinner prototypes were conducted in 2007 in four commercial orchard blocks trained to either a perpendicular V or quad V system. A string thinner designed by a German grower for thinning apple trees in organic orchards was tested at 20 or ...

  7. ROOTING RESPONSE OF SHOOT CUTTINGS FROM THREE PEACH GROWTH HABITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current year shoot cuttings were collected in October and August from three growth habits of peach (Compact, Pillar, and Standard), treated with one of four concentrations of indole butyric acid (0, 250, 1250, and 2500 mg L-1 IBA). Rooting response was measured after five weeks in the greenhouse. ...

  8. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    PubMed

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species. PMID:26185739

  9. TLP tendon bottom connector

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, H.S.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a bottom connector for connecting a tendon segment of a tension leg platform to a subsea template which includes a receptacle for the connector comprising: a first body member adapted to be received within an anchor receptacle, a second body member connected to the first body member through a flexible joint for universally pivotal movement and adapted to be connected to the tendon segment, a latch carrier movable with respect to the first body member and having latch segments pivotally connected to the latch carrier, the latch segments being such that in one position of the latch carrier, the latch segments engage both a recess in the receptacle and the first body member when the connector is inserted into the receptacle a sufficient distance so that the latch segments and carrier will react to the recess and such that when the latch carrier is in another position, the latch segments are clear of the recess to enable the connector to move further into the receptacle or to allow the bottom connector to be removed from the receptacle, and release means operative to maintain the carrier in the other position if a decision is made to remove the connector from the receptacle.

  10. Analysis of biochemical compounds and differentially expressed genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in variegated peach flowers.

    PubMed

    Hassani, D; Liu, H L; Chen, Y N; Wan, Z B; Zhuge, Q; Li, S X

    2015-01-01

    Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market, yet the genetic mechanism underlying this attractive phenomenon has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we identified and measured different compounds in pink and white flower petals of peach (Prunus persica) by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. No cyanidin-based or pelargonidin-based compounds were detected in white petals, but high levels of these compounds were found in pink petals. Additionally, we sequenced and analyzed the expression of six key structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (CHI, CHS, DFR, F3'H, ANS, and UFGT) in both white and pink petals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed all six genes to be expressed at greatly reduced levels in white flower petals, relative to pink. No allelic variations were found in the transcribed sequences. However, alignment of transcribed and genomic sequences of the ANS gene detected alternative splicing, resulting in transcripts of 1.071 and 942 bp. Only the longer transcript was observed in white flower petals. Since ANS is the key intermediate enzyme catalyzing the colorless leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin to substrates required for completion of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the ANS gene is implicated in flower color variegation and should be explored in future studies. This article, together with a previous transcriptome study, elucidates the mechanism underlying peach flower color variegation in terms of the key structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:26535657

  11. Reading Nature from a "Bottom-Up" Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ecology teaching and learning in a Swedish primary school class (age 10-11 yrs). A teaching sequence was designed to help students read nature in a river ecosystem. The teaching sequence had a "bottom up" approach, taking as its starting point a common key organism--the freshwater shrimp. From this species and its…

  12. A brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach trees is caused by a nonsense mutation within the gibberellic acid receptor PpeGID1c.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors controlling tree size and shape. Here, we studied the genetic basis for a recessive brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach (Prunus persica) that has little or no effect on fruit development. A sequencing-based mapping strategy positioned dw on the distal end of chromosome 6. Further sequence analysis and fine mapping identified a candidate gene for dw as a non-functional allele of the gibberellic acid receptor GID1c. Expression of the two GID1-like genes found in peach, PpeGID1c and PpeGID1b, was analyzed. GID1c was predominantly expressed in actively growing vegetative tissues, whereas GID1b was more highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Silencing of GID1c in plum via transgenic expression of a hairpin construct led to a dwarf phenotype similar to that of dw/dw peaches. In general, the degree of GID1c silencing corresponded to the degree of dwarfing. The results suggest that PpeGID1c serves a primary role in vegetative growth and elongation, whereas GID1b probably functions to regulate gibberellic acid perception in reproductive organs. Modification of GID1c expression could provide a rational approach to control tree size without impairing fruit development. PMID:26639453

  13. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    SciTech Connect

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  14. Discrimination of planting area of white peach based near-infrared spectra and chemometrics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Huirong; Xie, Lijuan; Jiang, Xuesong

    2007-09-01

    White peach is a famous peach variety for its super-quality and high economic benefit. It is originally planted in Yuandong Villiage, Jinhua County, Zhejiang province. By now, it has been planted in many other places in southeast of China. However, peaches from different planting areas have dissimilar quality and taste, which result in different selling price. The objective of this research was to discriminate peaches from different planting areas by using near-infrared (NIR) spectra and chemometrics methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra were collected by a fiber spectrometer in the range of 800-2500 nm. Discriminant analysis (DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and discriminant partial least square regression (DPLS) methods were employed to classify the peaches from three planting areas 'Jinhua', 'Wuyi', and 'Yongkang' of Zhejiang province. 360 samples were used in this study, 120 samples per planting area. The classifying correctness were above 92% for both DA and SIMCA mdoels. And the result of DPLS model was slightly better. By using DPLS method, two 'Jinhua' peaches, three 'Wuyi' peaches, and three 'Yongkang' peaches were misclassified, the accruacy was above 95%. The results of this study indicate that the three chemometrics methods DA, SIMCA, and DPLS are effective for discriminating peaches from different planting areas based on NIR spectroscopy.

  15. Geologic Map of the Peach Springs 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Mohave and Coconino Counties, Northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Block, Debra L.; Dyer, Helen C.

    2006-01-01

    This map is a product of a cooperative project of the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. National Park Service, and the Bureau of Land Management to provide geologic map coverage and regional geologic information for visitor services and resource management of Grand Canyon National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Grand Canyon-Parashant-National Monument, and adjacent lands in northwestern Arizona. This map is a synthesis of previous and new geologic mapping that encompasses the Peach Springs 30' x 60' quadrangle, Arizona. The geologic data will support future geologic, biologic, hydrologic, and other science resource studies of this area conducted by the National Park Service, the Hualapai Indian Tribe, the Bureau of Land Management, the State of Arizona, and private organizations. The Colorado River and its tributaries have dissected the southwestern Colorado Plateau into what is now the southwestern part of Grand Canyon. The erosion of Grand Canyon has exposed about 426 m (1,400 ft) of Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks and granite, about 1,450 m (4,760 ft) of Paleozoic strata, and about 300 m (1,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Outcrops of Proterozoic crystalline rocks are exposed at the bottom of Grand Canyon at Granite Park from Colorado River Mile 207 to 209, at Mile 212, and in the Lower Granite Gorge from Colorado River Mile 216 to 262, and along the Grand Wash Cliffs in the southwest corner of the map area.

  16. The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import. PMID:20417987

  17. Phenolic contents and bioactive potential of peach fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Mokrani, Abderrahmane; Krisa, Stéphanie; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Da Costa, Grégory; Temsamani, Hamza; Renouf, Elodie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Madani, Khodir; Mesnil, Marc; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Richard, Tristan

    2016-07-01

    Several cultivars of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) were investigated. Their phenolic composition and concentration were assessed by LC-MS. Concentrations were calculated in mg per g of dry weight extract. Their antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, PFRAP and ICA), inhibitory property against β-amyloid and α-synuclein fibril formation and protective capacity against Aβ-induced toxicity on PC12 cell lines (viability assessed by MTT assay and intracellular ROS production by DCFH-DA assay) were evaluated. Fifteen different phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. In particular, new isorhamnetin derivatives were identified. Phenolic contents were ranged between 19 and 82mg/g. Spring Belle extract had the highest content and Romea the lowest. Except for the ICA assay, a good correlation between phenolic content and the antioxidant capacities of peach fruit extracts was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are major contributors to their antioxidant capacity. Results indicate that the phenolic extract of peach cultivars inhibits Aβ and αS fibril formation and protects PC12 cell lines against Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:26920287

  18. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit moth larvae treated with phosphine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Wang, Yuejin

    2012-01-01

    Phosphine has been used worldwide for the control of stored-product insects for many years. However, the molecular mechanism of its toxicity is not clearly understood. In the current study, larvae of the peach fruit moth were fumigated with phosphine. Proteomic analysis was then performed to identify the regulated proteins. Our results confirmed the phosphine toxicity on the peach fruit moth. The median lethal time LT50 was 38.5 h at 330 ppm at 25 degrees C. During fumigation, the respiration of the peach fruit moth was extremely inhibited. Of the 26 regulated proteins, 16 were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry after a 24 h treatment. The proteins were classified as related to metabolism (25 %), anti-oxidation (6 %), signal transduction (38 %), or defense (19 %). The rest (13 %) were unclassified. Phosphine regulation of ATP and glutathione contents, as well as of ATP synthase and glutathione S-transferase 2 activities were confirmed by enzyme activity analysis. These results demonstrate that complex transcriptional regulations underlie phosphine fumigation. New theories on the mechanism of phosphine toxicity may also be established based on these results. PMID:22201993

  19. Factors Limiting Peach as a Potential Host for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Thomas J; Wang, Xin-Geng; Molinar, Andrew; Daane, Kent M

    2014-10-01

    The spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, has widely established in North America and become an economic concern for a variety of fruit crops. To better understand fruit susceptibility, we evaluated peach surface characteristics on the pest's oviposition success. The number of D. suzukii eggs laid into the fruit flesh was tested on 1) peaches with or without indumenta (commonly referred to as peach fuzz), 2) peaches physically damaged by harvest operations, 3) peaches damaged by the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller or the forktailed bush katydid, Scudderia furcata Brunner von Wattenwyl, and 4) peaches with punctures that simulated stink bug damage. Female D. suzukii did not lay eggs in intact fuzzy sections of the fruit or into small punctures (0.3 or 0.5 mm), but readily laid eggs in sections without fuzz, with insect damage, and with large punctures (1 mm). The number of eggs per treatment was positively related to the area of the damaged section; the overall fruit firmness and sugar content was not related to the number of eggs laid in treated or damaged spots. Direct observations of D. suzukii oviposition confirmed that peach fuzz appeared to be an obstacle for the fly's oviposition success, and female flies ceased ovipositional attempts on fuzzy peach sections after a short period of time. Successful oviposition times were associated with substrate firmness, with shorter oviposition time in damaged spots than in cherry fruit or shaved spots of the peach. The results indicate that intact, preharvest peach fruit are unlikely to be infested by the fly, but any surface damage could render the fruit susceptible to the fly. PMID:26309266

  20. Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

    2014-07-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

  1. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M.; El Fiky, Zaki A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested that the gene shared a similarity in sequence compared to Bactrocera COI gene found in GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences in order to examine the position of the Egyptian population among many other species of fruit flies. The results indicate that four accession numbers of B. zonata (three from New Zealand and one from India) are closely related, while the Egyptian B. zonata are close to the 71 accession numbers of Bactrocera include one B. zonata from New Zealand. These two B. zonata from Egypt and New Zealand showed a close relationship in neighbor—joining analysis using the seven accession numbers of B. zonata. In addition, a theoretical restriction map of the homology portion of the COI gene was constructed using 212 restriction enzymes obtained from the restriction enzyme database to identify the Egyptian and New Zealand B. zonata. PMID:22958094

  2. Survey for Resistance to Four Inecticides in Myzus persicae Clones from Peach and Weeds in South-central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insecticides esfenvalerate, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and methamidophos were screened against 74 clonal populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) collected as fundatrices from peach and as apterous virginoparae from peach, and various weeds near potato fields in the Yakima Va...

  3. Assessment of Sugar Components and Genes Involved in the Regulation of Sucrose Accumulation in Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Hongyu; Peng, Qian; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Huiliang; Fang, Ting; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; He, Huaping; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-09-01

    Soluble sugar contents in mature fruits of 45 peach accessions were quantified using gas chromatography analysis. Sucrose is the predominant sugar in mature fruit, followed by glucose and fructose, which have similar concentrations. Overall, sucrose metabolism and accumulation are crucial determinants of sugar content in peach fruit, and there is a wide range of sucrose concentrations among peach genotypes. To understand the mechanisms regulating sucrose accumulation in peach fruit, expression profiles of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and transport were compared among four genotypes. Two sucrose-cleaving enzyme genes (SUS4 and NINV8), one gene involved in sucrose resynthesis (SPS3), and three sugar transporter genes (SUT2, SUT4, and TMT2) were prevalently expressed in peach fruit, and their expression levels are significantly correlated with sucrose accumulation. In contrast, the VAINV genes responsible for sucrose cleavage in the vacuole were weakly expressed in mature fruit, suggesting that the sucrose-cleaving reaction is not active in the vacuole of sink cells of mature peach fruit. This study suggests that sucrose accumulation in peach fruit involves the coordinated interaction of genes related to sucrose cleavage, resynthesis, and transport, which could be helpful for future peach breeding. PMID:27537219

  4. 7 CFR 917.442 - California Peach Container and Pack Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inch in height. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 917.442, see the List of CFR... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false California Peach Container and Pack Regulation. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Container and Pack Regulation § 917.442 California...

  5. Alterations in protein expression associated with the development of mealiness in peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry was utilized to identify proteins related to the development of mealiness in peaches. Five proteins were identified that significantly differed in amount between peaches that had mealy flesh and those that remained juicy followin...

  6. Tree architecture of pillar and standard peach affect canopy transpiration and water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of productive high density peach orchards is often limited by the excessive vegetative growth of the trees that reduces productivity and quality. Dwarfing rootstocks are not available but upright tree architectures have been developed for high density peach production. The purpose ...

  7. Managing root-knot nematodes: A case for cover crops in establishing peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are an important pathogen of peach in the United States. Several Meloidogyne spp. have been reported to cause damage to stone fruits, but M. incognita and M. javanica are the predominant species on peach. Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been ...

  8. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  9. CBF gene expression in peach leaf and bark tissues is gated by a circadian clock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CBFs regulate a host of genes (CBF-regulon) that respond to low temperature and play a role in cold acclimation. In peach, (Prunus persica) there are at least 4 CBF genes situated in tandem on scaffold 5 of the peach genome. This is in contrast to apple (Malus x domestica) where there are 5 comple...

  10. 7 CFR 917.459 - California Peach Grade and Size Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... States Standards for Grades of Peaches (7 CFR 51.1210 through 51.1223); and No. 22D standard lug box and... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and... Snow, Earlitreat, Snow Angel, Supechfifteen, or Super Lady variety peaches unless: (i) Such...

  11. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  12. Comparison of fruit characters and volatile components in peach-to-nectarine mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we compared nine fruit attributes and 27 detected volatiles in the peach progenitor, ‘Flameprince’ (FPP), its two independently discovered peach-to-nectarine mutants (HFN and PFN), and a selected nectarine hybrid (SLN). HFN and PFN differed from FPP in fruit size and taste, but shared...

  13. 7 CFR 917.442 - California Peach Container and Pack Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inch in height. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 917.442, see the List of CFR... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false California Peach Container and Pack Regulation. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Container and Pack Regulation § 917.442 California...

  14. Notice to fruit growers and nurserymen of the release of augustprince peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, announces the release of Augustprince peach. Augustprince, previously tested as BY96P2631, is being released to provide an attractive, very firm peach ripening with or just before Jefferson, that is well-adapted to the Southeastern ...

  15. Notice to fruit growers and nurserymen of the release of early augustprince peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, announces the release of Early Augustprince peach. Early Augustprince, previously tested as BY96P2634, is being released to provide an attractive, very firm peach ripening with or just before Cresthaven and Sunprince, that is well-a...

  16. Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

  17. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  18. Preplanting tall fescue grass for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in a young peach orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. in peach in the southeastern United States. The current preplant nematicides recommended for managing Meloidogyne spp. in peach include the soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium. Because the econo...

  19. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Xiong, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple), Prunus persica (peach), and Fragaria vesca (strawberry), respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry. PMID:26770968

  20. The Cloning and Functional Characterization of Peach CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologous Genes PpCO and PpFT

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Hung; Liang, Huike; Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Li, Tianhong; Qi, Yafei; Yu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Flowering is an essential stage of plant growth and development. The successful transition to flowering not only ensures the completion of plant life cycles, it also serves as the basis for the production of economically important seeds and fruits. CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are two genes playing critical roles in flowering time control in Arabidopsis. Through homology-based cloning and rapid-amplifications of cDNA ends (RACE), we obtained full-lengths cDNA sequences of Prunus persica CO (PpCO) and Prunus persica FT (PpFT) from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and investigated their functions in flowering time regulation. PpCO and PpFT showed high homologies to Arabidopsis CO and FT at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. We showed that PpCO and PpFT were nucleus-localized and both showed transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells, consistent with their potential roles as transcription activators. Moreover, we established that the over-expression of PpCO could restore the late flowering phenotype of the Arabidopsis co-2 mutant, and the late flowering defect of the Arabidopsis ft-1 mutant can be rescued by the over-expression of PpFT, suggesting functional conservations of CO and FT genes in peach and Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that PpCO and PpFT are homologous genes of CO and FT in peach and they may function in regulating plant flowering time. PMID:25905637

  1. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Xiong, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple), Prunus persica (peach), and Fragaria vesca (strawberry), respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry. PMID:26770968

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

  3. Estimators of bottom reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, L.; Holloway, J.

    1992-01-01

    Estimators of in situ bottom spectral reflectance are calculated from multi-station optical field data gathered with standard instrumentation from different sites. These spectra are then compared to reflectance spectra measured in the laboratory of the bottom sediments collected in the field for the stations at these different sites. The relative fit of the estimated spectral curves to those measured in the laboratory was measured. The most accurate absolute estimation was provided by the single scattering irradiance model.

  4. Phase-equilibrium geobarometers for silicic rocks based on rhyolite-MELTS—Part 3: Application to the Peach Spring Tuff (Arizona-California-Nevada, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Miller, Calvin F.; McCracken, Reba G.

    2015-03-01

    Peach Spring samples are due to alteration. Use of altered whole-pumice compositions in rhyolite-MELTS simulations is likely the cause of the incorrect crystallization sequence reported previously for Peach Spring compositions. Using the rhyolite-MELTS geobarometer, we estimate a more realistic composition for Peach Spring Tuff high-silica rhyolite, and the calculated composition finds close matches with some analyzed rocks and results in the expected sequence of crystallization.

  5. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins.

    PubMed

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R; Lightfoot, David A

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction. PMID:26885655

  6. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins

    PubMed Central

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G.; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R.; Lightfoot, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction. PMID:26885655

  7. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution of the dormancy associated MADS-box genes from peach

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Sergio; Lawton-Rauh, Amy L; Reighard, Gregory L; Abbott, Albert G; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Background Dormancy associated MADS-box (DAM) genes are candidates for the regulation of growth cessation and terminal bud formation in peach. These genes are not expressed in the peach mutant evergrowing, which fails to cease growth and enter dormancy under dormancy-inducing conditions. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among and the rates and patterns of molecular evolution within DAM genes in the phylogenetic context of the MADS-box gene family. Results The peach DAM genes grouped with the SVP/StMADS11 lineage of type II MIKCC MADS-box genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the peach SVP/StMADS11-like gene family, which contains significantly more members than annual model plants, expanded through serial tandem gene duplication. We found evidence of strong purifying selection acting to constrain functional divergence among the peach DAM genes and only a single codon, located in the C-terminal region, under significant positive selection. Conclusion Because all DAM genes are expressed in peach and are subjected to strong purifying selection we suggest that the duplicated genes have been maintained by subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization. In addition, this pattern of selection suggests that the DAM genes are important for peach growth and development. PMID:19558704

  8. Age of the Peach Springs Tuff, southeastern California and western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, J.E.; Lux, D.R.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Glazner, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    Sanidine separates from pumice of the early Miocene Peach Springs Tuff are concordantly dated at 18.5??0.2 Ma by two isotopic techniques. The Peach Springs Tuff is the only known unit that can be correlated between isolated outcrops of Miocene strata from the central Mojave Desert of southeastern California to the western Colorado Plateau in Arizona, across five structural provinces, a distance of 350 km. Thus, the age of the Peach Springs Tuff is important to structural and paleogeographic reconstructions of a large region. -from Authors

  9. PPV susceptibility of commonly used peach rootstock-scion combinations.

    PubMed

    Ádám, J; Borsos, Á; Balla, I; Ittzés, A; Palkovics, L

    2015-12-01

    Sharka disease is one of the most devastating plant epidemics of Prunus species, caused by plum pox virus (PPV). The viral infection affects the fruits by weight-loss and degradation of quality properties. Breeding of resistant rootstocks and cultivars is one of the most effective disease control methods. PPV determines the peach production all over the world. On the world's fruit production list peach is in the sixth, in the Mediterranean region in the fourth place. In this study new data were shown about PPV susceptibility of commonly used rootstock-scion combinations from Hungary. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was conducted on the samples from a commercial orchard; the results were evaluated by chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Four rootstock ('GF677', 'PeMa', 'Cadaman' and almond seedlings) and three scion cultivars (Prunus persicae 'Michelini', 'Babygold 6' and 'Cresthaven') were included in this experiment. The rootstocks did not show any significant differences in regard to the resistance of the virus infection (40-50%), but in case of scions, strong significant relations were observed. In case of the combinations there were results in both directions; tolerant and susceptible combinations were observed as well. PMID:26666193

  10. An Overview of Peach, the Atmospheric Electricity Component of Hymex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defer, E.; Coquillat, S.; Pinty, J.; Soula, S.; Martin, J.; Prieur, S.; Richard, E.; Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rodeheffer, D.; Ducrocq, V.; Bousquet, O.; Labatut, L.; Roussot, O.; Farges, T.; Vergeiner, C.; Schulz, W.; Anderson, G.; Pedeboy, S.; Betz, H.; Lagouvardos, K.; Ortega, P.; Molinié, G.; Blanchet, P.

    2012-12-01

    The PEACH (Projet en Electricité Atmosphérique pour la Campagne HyMeX) project is the Atmospheric Electricity component of the HyMeX (Hydrology cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment) experiment aimed at measuring and analyzing the lightning activity and electrical state of thunderstorms over the Mediterranean Sea. During the SOP1 (Special Observation Period; September-October 2012), records of four European operational lightning detection networks (ATDNET, UKMO; EUCLID; LINET, nowcast; ZEUS, NOA) and the NMT Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) were used to locate and characterize the lightning activity over South-Eastern France. Other research instruments such as induction rings (LA), electric field measurements (OVE; LA; NMT), video camera (OVE; ONERA), microbarometer and microphone arrays (CEA) were deployed to document the properties of the lightning flashes as well as the electrical state of parent thunderclouds. All these observations are used to document the evolution of the electrical activity during the life cycle of SOP storms in conjunction with microphysics and kinematics description of the parent storms as derived mainly from ground-based radar and airborne in situ observations. Interpretation of the results are performed with the use of cloud models (MM5; MESO-NH with its electrification and lightning schemes). We will present an overview of the PEACH project. We will discuss some of the recorded cases. We will also introduce some of the products that will be made available to the HyMeX Community.