Science.gov

Sample records for peak picking method

  1. Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

    2009-08-01

    The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

  2. METHOD OF PEAK CURRENT MEASUREMENT

    DOEpatents

    Baker, G.E.

    1959-01-20

    The measurement and recording of peak electrical currents are described, and a method for utilizing the magnetic field of the current to erase a portion of an alternating constant frequency and amplitude signal from a magnetic mediums such as a magnetic tapes is presented. A portion of the flux from the current carrying conductor is concentrated into a magnetic path of defined area on the tape. After the current has been recorded, the tape is played back. The amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape immediately adjacent the defined flux area and the amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape within the area are compared with the amplitude of the signal from an unerased portion of the tape to determine the percentage of signal erasure, and thereby obtain the peak value of currents flowing in the conductor.

  3. Peak picking and the assessment of separation performance in two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Guiochon, Georges A; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for 2DHPLC that automated the process of peak recognition, measuring their retention times, and then subsequently plotting the information in a two-dimensional retention plane. Following the recognition of peaks, the software then performed a series of statistical assessments of the separation performance, measuring for example, correlation between dimensions, peak capacity and the percentage of usage of the separation space. Peak recognition was achieved by interpreting the first and second derivatives of each respective one-dimensional chromatogram to determine the 1D retention times of each solute and then compiling these retention times for each respective fraction 'cut'. Due to the nature of comprehensive 2DHPLC adjacent cut fractions may contain peaks common to more than one cut fraction. The algorithm determined which components were common in adjacent cuts and subsequently calculated the peak maximum profile by interpolating the space between adjacent peaks. This algorithm was applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional separation of an apple flesh extract separated in a first dimension comprising a cyano stationary phase and an aqueous/THF mobile phase as the first dimension and a second dimension comprising C18-Hydro with an aqueous/MeOH mobile phase. A total of 187 peaks were detected.

  4. Novel automatic first-arrival picking method for ultrasound sound-speed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Azuma, Takashi; Imoto, Haruka; Raufy, Riaz; Lin, Hongxiang; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Tamano, Satoshi; Takagi, Shu; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Sakuma, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound sound-speed tomography (USST) is a promising technique for breast cancer diagnosis that is currently under investigation. Compared with two-dimensional X-ray mammography, it not only provides three-dimensional images but also avoids radiation exposure. However, the image quality of USST is highly dependent on the accuracy of travel time map (TTM). To improve the accuracy, a novel automatic first-arrival picking method is proposed in this study. With this method, Akaike information criterion is used to obtain travel time roughly, then cross-correlation of neighboring traces is employed to correct the obtained travel time. Simulation, phantom, and ex vivo experiments are implemented. The simulation experiments showed that the absolute errors of the proposed method were 52 and 98 ns for simple and complex structure data, respectively. The phantom and ex vivo experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method. In this study, a novel and robust first-arrival picking method was proposed for USST.

  5. Study on peak shape fitting method in radon progeny measurement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Abdumomin, Kadir; Tang, Yushi; Guo, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    Alpha spectrum measurement is one of the most important methods to measure radon progeny concentration in environment. However, the accuracy of this method is affected by the peak tailing due to the energy losses of alpha particles. This article presents a peak shape fitting method that can overcome the peak tailing problem in most situations. On a typical measured alpha spectrum curve, consecutive peaks overlap even their energies are not close to each other, and it is difficult to calculate the exact count of each peak. The peak shape fitting method uses combination of Gaussian and exponential functions, which can depict features of those peaks, to fit the measured curve. It can provide net counts of each peak explicitly, which was used in the Kerr method of calculation procedure for radon progeny concentration measurement. The results show that the fitting curve fits well with the measured curve, and the influence of the peak tailing is reduced. The method was further validated by the agreement between radon equilibrium equivalent concentration based on this method and the measured values of some commercial radon monitors, such as EQF3220 and WLx. In addition, this method improves the accuracy of individual radon progeny concentration measurement. Especially for the (218)Po peak, after eliminating the peak tailing influence, the calculated result of (218)Po concentration has been reduced by 21 %. PMID:25920795

  6. Optoranger: A 3D pattern matching method for bin picking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Bellandi, Paolo; Leoni, Fabio; Docchio, Franco

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new method, based on 3D vision, for the recognition of free-form objects in the presence of clutters and occlusions, ideal for robotic bin picking tasks. The method can be considered as a compromise between complexity and effectiveness. A 3D point cloud representing the scene is generated by a triangulation-based scanning system, where a fast camera acquires a blade projected by a laser source. Image segmentation is based on 2D images, and on the estimation of the distances between point pairs, to search for empty areas. Object recognition is performed using commercial software libraries integrated with custom-developed segmentation algorithms, and a database of model clouds created by means of the same scanning system.

  7. Combining hypoxic methods for peak performance.

    PubMed

    Millet, Gregoire P; Roels, B; Schmitt, L; Woorons, X; Richalet, J P

    2010-01-01

    New methods and devices for pursuing performance enhancement through altitude training were developed in Scandinavia and the USA in the early 1990s. At present, several forms of hypoxic training and/or altitude exposure exist: traditional 'live high-train high' (LHTH), contemporary 'live high-train low' (LHTL), intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest (IHE) and intermittent hypoxic exposure during continuous session (IHT). Although substantial differences exist between these methods of hypoxic training and/or exposure, all have the same goal: to induce an improvement in athletic performance at sea level. They are also used for preparation for competition at altitude and/or for the acclimatization of mountaineers. The underlying mechanisms behind the effects of hypoxic training are widely debated. Although the popular view is that altitude training may lead to an increase in haematological capacity, this may not be the main, or the only, factor involved in the improvement of performance. Other central (such as ventilatory, haemodynamic or neural adaptation) or peripheral (such as muscle buffering capacity or economy) factors play an important role. LHTL was shown to be an efficient method. The optimal altitude for living high has been defined as being 2200-2500 m to provide an optimal erythropoietic effect and up to 3100 m for non-haematological parameters. The optimal duration at altitude appears to be 4 weeks for inducing accelerated erythropoiesis whereas <3 weeks (i.e. 18 days) are long enough for beneficial changes in economy, muscle buffering capacity, the hypoxic ventilatory response or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. One critical point is the daily dose of altitude. A natural altitude of 2500 m for 20-22 h/day (in fact, travelling down to the valley only for training) appears sufficient to increase erythropoiesis and improve sea-level performance. 'Longer is better' as regards haematological changes since additional benefits have been shown as hypoxic exposure

  8. Pharmacophore-Map-Pick: A Method to Generate Pharmacophore Models for All Human GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shao-Xing; Li, Gong-Hua; Gao, Yue-Dong; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-02-01

    GPCR-based drug discovery is hindered by a lack of effective screening methods for most GPCRs that have neither ligands nor high-quality structures. With the aim to identify lead molecules for these GPCRs, we developed a new method called Pharmacophore-Map-Pick to generate pharmacophore models for all human GPCRs. The model of ADRB2 generated using this method not only predicts the binding mode of ADRB2-ligands correctly but also performs well in virtual screening. Findings also demonstrate that this method is powerful for generating high-quality pharmacophore models. The average enrichment for the pharmacophore models of the 15 targets in different GPCR families reached 15-fold at 0.5 % false-positive rate. Therefore, the pharmacophore models can be applied in virtual screening directly with no requirement for any ligand information or shape constraints. A total of 2386 pharmacophore models for 819 different GPCRs (99 % coverage (819/825)) were generated and are available at http://bsb.kiz.ac.cn/GPCRPMD. PMID:27491793

  9. A novel monocular visual navigation method for cotton-picking robot based on horizontal spline segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, ShengYong; Wu, JuanJuan; Zhu, Li; Li, WeiHao; Wang, YiTian; Wang, Na

    2015-12-01

    Visual navigation is a fundamental technique of intelligent cotton-picking robot. There are many components and cover in the cotton field, which make difficulties of furrow recognition and trajectory extraction. In this paper, a new field navigation path extraction method is presented. Firstly, the color image in RGB color space is pre-processed by the OTSU threshold algorithm and noise filtering. Secondly, the binary image is divided into numerous horizontally spline areas. In each area connected regions of neighboring images' vertical center line are calculated by the Two-Pass algorithm. The center points of the connected regions are candidate points for navigation path. Thirdly, a series of navigation points are determined iteratively on the principle of the nearest distance between two candidate points in neighboring splines. Finally, the navigation path equation is fitted by the navigation points using the least squares method. Experiments prove that this method is accurate and effective. It is suitable for visual navigation in the complex environment of cotton field in different phases.

  10. Pick and Choose the Spectroscopic Method to Calibrate the Local Electric Field inside Proteins.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Tapas; Kashid, Somnath M; Deb, Pranab; Kesh, Sandeep; Bagchi, Sayan

    2016-07-01

    Electrostatic interactions in proteins play a crucial role in determining the structure-function relation in biomolecules. In recent years, fluorescent probes have been extensively employed to interrogate the polarity in biological cavities through dielectric constants or semiempirical polarity scales. A choice of multiple spectroscopic methods, not limited by fluorophores, along with a molecular level description of electrostatics involving solute-solvent interactions, would allow more flexibility to pick and choose the experimental technique to determine the local electrostatics within protein interiors. In this work we report that ultraviolet/visible-absorption, infrared-absorption, or (13)C NMR can be used to calibrate the local electric field in both hydrogen bonded and non-hydrogen bonded protein environments. The local electric field at the binding site of a serum protein has been determined using the absorption wavelength as well as the carbonyl stretching frequency of its natural steroid substrate, testosterone. Excellent agreement is observed in the results obtained from two independent spectroscopic techniques. PMID:27295386

  11. Variable threshold method for ECG R-peak detection.

    PubMed

    Kew, Hsein-Ping; Jeong, Do-Un

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a wearable belt-type ECG electrode worn around the chest by measuring the real-time ECG is produced in order to minimize the inconvenient in wearing. ECG signal is detected using a potential instrument system. The measured ECG signal is transmits via an ultra low power consumption wireless data communications unit to personal computer using Zigbee-compatible wireless sensor node. ECG signals carry a lot of clinical information for a cardiologist especially the R-peak detection in ECG. R-peak detection generally uses the threshold value which is fixed. There will be errors in peak detection when the baseline changes due to motion artifacts and signal size changes. Preprocessing process which includes differentiation process and Hilbert transform is used as signal preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, variable threshold method is used to detect the R-peak which is more accurate and efficient than fixed threshold value method. R-peak detection using MIT-BIH databases and Long Term Real-Time ECG is performed in this research in order to evaluate the performance analysis. PMID:21695499

  12. Systems and Methods for Peak-Seeking Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J (Inventor); Speyer, Jason L (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A computerized system and method for peak-seeking-control that uses a unique Kalman filter design to optimize a control loop, in real time, to either maximize or minimize a performance function of a physical object ("plant"). The system and method achieves more accurate and efficient peak-seeking-control by using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate both the performance function gradient (slope) and Hessian (curvature) based on direct position measurements of the plant, and does not rely upon modeling the plant response to persistent excitation. The system and method can be naturally applied in various applications in which plant performance functions have multiple independent parameters, and it does not depend upon frequency separation to distinguish between system dimensions.

  13. Development of an Adaptive Multi-Method Algorithm for Automatic Picking of First Arrival Times: Application to Near Surface Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, A.; Camerlynck, C. M.; Schneider, A. C.; Florsch, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate picking of first arrival times plays an important role in many seismic studies, particularly in seismic tomography and reservoirs or aquifers monitoring. Many techniques have been developed for picking first arrivals automatically or semi-automatically, but most of them were developed for seismological purposes which does not attain the accuracy objectives due to the complexity of near surface structures, and to usual low signal-to-noise ratio. We propose a new adaptive algorithm for near surface data based on three picking methods, combining multi-nested windows (MNW), Higher Order Statistics (HOS), and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). They exploit the benefits of integrating many properties, which reveal the presence of first arrivals, to provide an efficient and robust first arrivals picking. This strategy mimics the human first-break picking, where at the beginning the global trend is defined. Then the exact first-breaks are searched in the vicinity of the now defined trend. In a multistage algorithm, three successive phases are launched, where each of them characterize a specific signal property. Within each phase, the potential picks and their error range are automatically estimated, and then used sequentially as leader in the following phase picking. The accuracy and robustness of the implemented algorithm are successfully validated on synthetic and real data which have special challenges for automatic pickers. The comparison of resulting P-wave arrival times with those picked manually, and other algorithms of automatic picking, demonstrated the reliable performance of the new scheme under different noisy conditions. All parameters of our multi-method algorithm are auto-adaptive thanks to the integration in series of each sub-algorithm results in the flow. Hence, it is nearly a parameter-free algorithm, which is straightforward to implement and demands low computational resources.

  14. Sealed vacuum canister and method for pick-up and containment of material

    DOEpatents

    Stoutenburgh, R.R.

    1996-02-13

    A vacuum canister is described including a housing with a sealed vacuum chamber having a predetermined vacuum pressure therein and a valve having a first port for fluid communication with the vacuum chamber and a second port for receiving at least one of a fluid and a particulate material. The valve is operable between a first position to seal the vacuum chamber and retain the predetermined vacuum within the vacuum chamber, and a second position to access the vacuum chamber to permit vacuum fluid flow through the valve from the second port into the vacuum chamber. The vacuum canister, in the operation to pick up material with the valve in the second position, when the second port is located adjacent at least one of a fluid and a particulate material, is effective to displace through the valve at least one of a fluid and a particulate material into the housing. The vacuum canister is desirably suitable for picking up and containing hazardous material such as radioactive material, in which the vacuum canister includes a protective layer of lead having a predetermined thickness that is effective to shield radiation emitted from the radioactive material contained within the housing. Advantageously, the vacuum canister includes a vacuum means for establishing a predetermined vacuum pressure within the vacuum chamber. 6 figs.

  15. Sealed vacuum canister and method for pick-up and containment of material

    DOEpatents

    Stoutenburgh, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum canister including a housing with a sealed vacuum chamber having a predetermined vacuum pressure therein and a valve having a first port for fluid communication with the vacuum chamber and a second port for receiving at least one of a fluid and a particulate material. The valve is operable between a first position to seal the vacuum chamber and retain the predetermined vacuum within the vacuum chamber, and a second position to access the vacuum chamber to permit vacuum fluid flow through the valve from the second port into the vacuum chamber. In operation of the vacuum canister to pick up material with the valve in the second position, when the second port is located adjacent at least one of a fluid and a particulate material, is effective to displace through the valve at least one of a fluid and a particulate material into the housing. The vacuum canister is desirably suitable for picking up and containing hazardous material such as radioactive material, in which the vacuum canister includes a protective layer of lead having a predetermined thickness that is effective to shield radiation emitted from the radioactive material contained within the housing. Advantageously, the vacuum canister includes a vacuum means for establishing a predetermined vacuum pressure within the vacuum chamber.

  16. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  17. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  18. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM).

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  19. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  20. Measurement of peak discharge at width contractions by indirect methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthai, Howard Frederick

    1967-01-01

    This chapter describes procedures for measuring peak discharges using open-channel width contractions. Field and office procedures limited to this method are described. The discharge equation based on the continuity and energy equations between an approach cross section and the contracted section under a bridge or contraction is given. Contractions are classified into four geometric types. Discharge coefficients and computation procedures are given with a complete facsimile example of computation of a contracted-opening measurement. Additional procedures are given for multiple-opening contractions.

  1. An analytical method for predicting postwildfire peak discharges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method presented here that predicts postwildfire peak discharge was developed from analysis of paired rainfall and runoff measurements collected from selected burned basins. Data were collected from 19 mountainous basins burned by eight wildfires in different hydroclimatic regimes in the western United States (California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and South Dakota). Most of the data were collected for the year of the wildfire and for 3 to 4 years after the wildfire. These data provide some estimate of the changes with time of postwildfire peak discharges, which are known to be transient but have received little documentation. The only required inputs for the analytical method are the burned area and a quantitative measure of soil burn severity (change in the normalized burn ratio), which is derived from Landsat reflectance data and is available from either the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service or the U.S. Geological Survey. The method predicts the postwildfire peak discharge per unit burned area for the year of a wildfire, the first year after a wildfire, and the second year after a wildfire. It can be used at three levels of information depending on the data available to the user; each subsequent level requires either more data or more processing of the data. Level 1 requires only the burned area. Level 2 requires the burned area and the basin average value of the change in the normalized burn ratio. Level 3 requires the burned area and the calculation of the hydraulic functional connectivity, which is a variable that incorporates the sequence of soil burn severity along hillslope flow paths within the burned basin. Measurements indicate that the unit peak discharge response increases abruptly when the 30-minute maximum rainfall intensity is greater than about 5 millimeters per hour (0.2 inches per hour). This threshold may relate to a change in runoff generation from saturated-excess to infiltration-excess overland flow. The

  2. Selectivity of the optical-absorption method based on an instrumental pick out of Fourier components in the absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, Yu. V.; Kolesnikov, S. A.; Kolesnikova, E. S.; Turutin, Yu. A.; Konopelko, L. A.; Shor, N. B.

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of interference-polarization filters (IPFs) in the structure of an optical-absorption analyzer makes it possible to pick out a harmonic (a Fourier component of the absorption spectrum) providing measurement with the highest sensitivity. The selectivity of such a method of analysis is determined by overlapping the oscillations of the measured and interfering components. By the example of measurement in benzene in the presence of an interfering component (toluene), the possibility is considered for the optimization of selectivity due to the variation of the path-difference dispersion for ordinary and extraordinary interfering rays. The metrological characteristics of the interference-polarization analyzer of C6H6 confirming the results of calculations are given.

  3. Variable Depth Bragg Peak Method for Single Event Effects Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner, S.; Kanyogoro, N.; Foster, C.; O'Neill, P.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, accelerator SEE testing is accomplished by removing the tops of packages so that the IC chips are accessible to heavy ions. However, ICs in some advanced packages cannot be de-lidded so a different approach is used that involves grinding and/or chemically etching away part of the package and the chip from the back side. The parts are then tested from the back side with ions having sufficient range to reach the sensitive volume. More recently, the entire silicon substrate in an SOI/SRAM was removed, making it possible to use low-energy ions with shorter ranges. Where removal of part of the package is not possible, facilities at Michigan State, NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, GANIL (France) and GSI (Germany) offer high-energy heavy ions with long ranges so that the ions can reach the devices' sensitive volumes without much change in the LET. Unfortunately, a run will typically involve only one ion species having a single energy and LET due to the long time it takes to tune a new energy. The Variable Depth Bragg Peak (VDBP) method is similar to the above method in that it involves the use of high-energy heavy ions that are able to pass through the packaging material and reach the device, obviating the need to remove the package. However, the method provides a broad range of LETs from a single ion by inserting degraders in the beam that modify the ion energy and, therefore, the LET. The crux of the method involves establishing a fiduciary point for degrader thickness, i.e., where the Bragg peak is located precisely at the sensitive volume in the device, for which the measured SEU cross-section and the ion LET are both also maxima and can be calculated using a Monte-Carlo program, TRIM. Once the fiduciary point has been established, calibrated high density polyethylene (HDPE) degraders are inserted into or removed from the beam to vary the ion LET at the device in a known manner. After each change of degrader thickness, the SEU cross-section is measured

  4. A short recollection on the paper entitled "A common sense approach to peak picking in two-, three-, and four-dimensional spectra using automatic computer analysis of contour diagrams" by D.S. Garrett, R. Powers, A.M. Gronenborn, and G.M. Clore [J. Magn. Reson. 95 (1991) 214-220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Daniel S.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Marius Clore, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Contour Approach to Peak Picking was developed to aid in the analysis and interpretation and of multidimensional NMR spectra of large biomolecules. In essence, it comprises an interactive graphics software tool to computationally select resonance positions in heteronuclear, 3- and 4D spectra.

  5. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    Niemann-Pick disease is a group of diseases passed down through families (inherited) in which fatty substances called lipids ... Niemann-Pick disease types A and B occur when cells in the body do not have an enzyme called ...

  6. Pick: A Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kevin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the derivation of Pick's theorem. However, this derivation is beyond the grasp of most high school students. Therefore, a sequence of simple exploratory activities is provided which will enable students to discover and apply Pick's theorem for finding the area of a polygon whose vertices are lattice points. (JN)

  7. A method for estimating peak and time of peak streamflow from excess rainfall for 10- to 640-acre watersheds in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Cleveland, Theodore G.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of peak and time of peak streamflow for small watersheds (less than about 640 acres) in a suburban to urban, low-slope setting are needed for drainage design that is cost-effective and risk-mitigated. During 2007-10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Harris County Flood Control District and the Texas Department of Transportation, developed a method to estimate peak and time of peak streamflow from excess rainfall for 10- to 640-acre watersheds in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. To develop the method, 24 watersheds in the study area with drainage areas less than about 3.5 square miles (2,240 acres) and with concomitant rainfall and runoff data were selected. The method is based on conjunctive analysis of rainfall and runoff data in the context of the unit hydrograph method and the rational method. For the unit hydrograph analysis, a gamma distribution model of unit hydrograph shape (a gamma unit hydrograph) was chosen and parameters estimated through matching of modeled peak and time of peak streamflow to observed values on a storm-by-storm basis. Watershed mean or watershed-specific values of peak and time to peak ("time to peak" is a parameter of the gamma unit hydrograph and is distinct from "time of peak") of the gamma unit hydrograph were computed. Two regression equations to estimate peak and time to peak of the gamma unit hydrograph that are based on watershed characteristics of drainage area and basin-development factor (BDF) were developed. For the rational method analysis, a lag time (time-R), volumetric runoff coefficient, and runoff coefficient were computed on a storm-by-storm basis. Watershed-specific values of these three metrics were computed. A regression equation to estimate time-R based on drainage area and BDF was developed. Overall arithmetic means of volumetric runoff coefficient (0.41 dimensionless) and runoff coefficient (0.25 dimensionless) for the 24 watersheds were used to express the rational

  8. Activities: Pick's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christian R.

    1974-01-01

    A series of activities are presented on worksheets marked off with lattice points (like a geoboard). Students are led to discover and apply Pick's Theorem for finding the area of a polygon whose vertices are lattice points. (JP)

  9. Method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Yelton, William G; Kerr, Dayle R; Bouchier, Francis A

    2012-10-23

    A method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks can be used to optimize the operation of an analytical system. With a two-dimensional Peclet analysis, the quality and signal fidelity of peaks in a two-dimensional experimental space can be analyzed and scored. This method is particularly useful in determining optimum operational parameters for an analytical system which requires the automated analysis of large numbers of analyte data peaks. For example, the method can be used to optimize analytical systems including an ion mobility spectrometer that uses a temperature stepped desorption technique for the detection of explosive mixtures.

  10. Ice Pick Headache.

    PubMed

    Chua, Abigail L; Nahas, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    Ice pick headache, also called idiopathic or primary stabbing headache, is a unique headache type associated with ultra-brief stabs of pain, most commonly in the frontal or temporal area. It occurs predominantly in women and is estimated to affect 2-35 % of the population. Unlike other headache types of short duration, such as short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT), ice pick headache is not associated with any cranial autonomic symptoms but has been known to occur with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and dizziness. It exists in two forms: primary and secondary, with examples of secondary causes being herpes zoster meningoencephalitis, meningiomas, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Ice pick headache is one of the "indomethacin responsive headaches," but up to 35 % of patients fail to show significant benefit with that treatment. Other treatment options include gabapentin, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, melatonin, and external hand warming. PMID:27038969

  11. [Skin-picking disorder].

    PubMed

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated. PMID:26391325

  12. Metrological activity determination of 133Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R. L.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; de Veras, E. V.; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O. L.

    2016-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. 133Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods don't calibrate 133Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes 133Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  13. Partly melted DNA conformations obtained with a probability peak finding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøstesen, Eivind

    2005-06-01

    Peaks in the probabilities of loops or bubbles, helical segments, and unzipping ends in melting DNA are found in this article using a peak finding method that maps the hierarchical structure of certain energy landscapes. The peaks indicate the alternative conformations that coexist in equilibrium and the range of their fluctuations. This yields a representation of the conformational ensemble at a given temperature, which is illustrated in a single diagram called a stitch profile. This article describes the methodology and discusses stitch profiles vs the ordinary probability profiles using the phage lambda genome as an example.

  14. A semi-automatic method for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wei; Nystrom, Michelle M.; Parikh, Parag J.; Fooshee, David R.; Hubenschmidt, James P.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2006-10-15

    The existing commercial software often inadequately determines respiratory peaks for patients in respiration correlated computed tomography. A semi-automatic method was developed for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms. First the waveform is separated into breath cycles by identifying intercepts of a moving average curve with the inspiration and expiration branches of the waveform. Peaks and valleys were then defined, respectively, as the maximum and minimum between pairs of alternating inspiration and expiration intercepts. Finally, automatic corrections and manual user interventions were employed. On average for each of the 20 patients, 99% of 307 peaks and valleys were automatically detected in 2.8 s. This method was robust for bellows waveforms with large variations.

  15. Peak Detection Method Evaluation for Ion Mobility Spectrometry by Using Machine Learning Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Kopczynski, Dominik; D’Addario, Marianna; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Rahmann, Sven; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry with pre-separation by multi-capillary columns (MCC/IMS) has become an established inexpensive, non-invasive bioanalytics technology for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with various metabolomics applications in medical research. To pave the way for this technology towards daily usage in medical practice, different steps still have to be taken. With respect to modern biomarker research, one of the most important tasks is the automatic classification of patient-specific data sets into different groups, healthy or not, for instance. Although sophisticated machine learning methods exist, an inevitable preprocessing step is reliable and robust peak detection without manual intervention. In this work we evaluate four state-of-the-art approaches for automated IMS-based peak detection: local maxima search, watershed transformation with IPHEx, region-merging with VisualNow, and peak model estimation (PME). We manually generated a gold standard with the aid of a domain expert (manual) and compare the performance of the four peak calling methods with respect to two distinct criteria. We first utilize established machine learning methods and systematically study their classification performance based on the four peak detectors’ results. Second, we investigate the classification variance and robustness regarding perturbation and overfitting. Our main finding is that the power of the classification accuracy is almost equally good for all methods, the manually created gold standard as well as the four automatic peak finding methods. In addition, we note that all tools, manual and automatic, are similarly robust against perturbations. However, the classification performance is more robust against overfitting when using the PME as peak calling preprocessor. In summary, we conclude that all methods, though small differences exist, are largely reliable and enable a wide spectrum of real-world biomedical applications. PMID:24957992

  16. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges of rural, unregulated streams in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bisese, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating the peak dis- charges of rural, unregulated streams in Virginia. A Pearson Type III distribution was fitted to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge records from 363 stream-gaging stations in Virginia to estimate the peak discharge at these stations for recurrence intervals of 2 to 500 years. Peak-discharge characteristics for 284 stations were regressed on potential explanatory variables, including drainage area, main channel length, main channel slope, mean basin elevation, percentage of forest cover, mean annual precipitation, and maximum rainfall intensity, by using generalized least-squares multiple-regression analysis. Stations were grouped into eight peak-discharge regions based on the five physiographic provinces in the State, and equations are presented for each region. Alternative equations using drainage area only are presented for each region. Alternative equations using drainage area only are presented for each region. Methods and sample computations are provided to estimate peak discharges for recurrence intervals of 2 to 500 years at gaged and ungaged sites in Virginia, and to adjust the regression estimates for sites where nearby gaged-site data are available.

  17. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for these forms of Niemann-Pick are available. Genetic defects have been identified in the DNA of many patients with type C. It may be possible to diagnose people who carry the abnormal gene. A few centers offer tests to diagnose a baby still in the womb.

  18. A method for modelling peak signal statistics on a mobile satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilodeau, Andre; Lecours, Michel; Pelletier, Marcel; Delisle, Gilles Y.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation method is proposed. The simulation was developed to model the peak duration and energy content of signal peaks in a mobile communication satellite operating in a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) mode and presents an estimate of those power peaks for a system where the channels are modeled as band limited Gaussian noise, which is taken as a reasonable representation for Amplitude Commanded Single Sideband (ACSSB), Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), or Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated signals. The simulation results show that, under this hypothesis, the level of the signal power peaks for 10 percent, 1 percent, and 0.1 percent of the time are well described by a Rayleigh law and that their duration is extremely short and inversely proportional to the total FDM system bandwidth.

  19. Design method of planar vibration system for specified ratio of energy peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Lee, Sungon; Choi, Yong Je

    2015-05-01

    The magnitudes of the resonant peaks should be considered in the design stage of any bandwidth-relevant applications to widen the working bandwidth. This paper presents a new design method for a planar vibration system that satisfies any desired ratio of peak magnitudes at target resonant frequencies. An important geometric property of a modal triangle formed from three vibration centers representing vibration modes is found. Utilizing the property, the analytical expressions for the vibration energy generated by external forces are derived in terms of the geometrical data of vibration centers. When any desired ratio of peak magnitudes is specified, the locations of the vibration centers are found from their analytical relations. The corresponding stiffness matrix can be determined and realized accordingly. The systematic design methods for direct- and base-excitation systems are developed, and one numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed design method.

  20. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace. PMID:25814332

  1. Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, S.D.

    1998-04-01

    The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S{sub N} equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S{sub N} solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S{sub N} equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method.

  2. Peak event analysis: a novel empirical method for the evaluation of elevated particulate events

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report on a novel approach to the analysis of suspended particulate data in a rural setting in southern Ontario. Analyses of suspended particulate matter and associated air quality standards have conventionally focussed on 24-hour mean levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter <10 microns, <2.5 microns and <1 micron in diameter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1, respectively). Less emphasis has been placed on brief peaks in suspended particulate levels, which may pose a substantial nuisance, irritant, or health hazard. These events may also represent a common cause of public complaint and concern regarding air quality. Methods Measurements of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 levels were taken using an automated device following local complaints of dusty conditions in rural south-central Ontario, Canada. The data consisted of 126,051 by-minute TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 measurements between May and August 2012. Two analyses were performed and compared. First, conventional descriptive statistics were computed by month for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, including mean values and percentiles (70th, 90th, and 95th). Second, a novel graphical analysis method, using density curves and line plots, was conducted to examine peak events occurring at or above the 99th percentile of per-minute TSP readings. We refer to this method as “peak event analysis”. Findings of the novel method were compared with findings from the conventional approach. Results Conventional analyses revealed that mean levels of all categories of suspended particulates and suspended particulate diameter ratios conformed to existing air quality standards. Our novel methodology revealed extreme outlier events above the 99th percentile of readings, with peak PM10 and TSP levels over 20 and 100 times higher than the respective mean values. Peak event analysis revealed and described rare and extreme peak dust events that would not have been detected using conventional descriptive statistics

  3. An R-peak detection method that uses an SVD filter and a search back system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Goog

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present a method for detecting the R-peak of an ECG signal by using an singular value decomposition (SVD) filter and a search back system. The ECG signal was detected in two phases: the pre-processing phase and the decision phase. The pre-processing phase consisted of the stages for the SVD filter, Butterworth High Pass Filter (HPF), moving average (MA), and squaring, whereas the decision phase consisted of a single stage that detected the R-peak. In the pre-processing phase, the SVD filter removed noise while the Butterworth HPF eliminated baseline wander. The MA removed the remaining noise of the signal that had gone through the SVD filter to make the signal smooth, and squaring played a role in strengthening the signal. In the decision phase, the threshold was used to set the interval before detecting the R-peak. When the latest R-R interval (RRI), suggested by Hamilton et al., was greater than 150% of the previous RRI, the method of detecting the R-peak in such an interval was modified to be 150% or greater than the smallest interval of the two most latest RRIs. When the modified search back system was used, the error rate of the peak detection decreased to 0.29%, compared to 1.34% when the modified search back system was not used. Consequently, the sensitivity was 99.47%, the positive predictivity was 99.47%, and the detection error was 1.05%. Furthermore, the quality of the signal in data with a substantial amount of noise was improved, and thus, the R-peak was detected effectively. PMID:22922087

  4. Some observations on the Houbolt-Rainey and peak-hold methods of flutter onset prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A subcritical response method for flutter onset prediction developed by Houbolt and Rainey in 1958 is compared with the Peak-Hold Method which was apparently first applied to flutter onset prediction by Sandford, Abel, and Gray in the early 1970's. The rational argument presented shows that the two methods are not different, but are actually the same. So, because there is an analytical foundation for the Houbolt-Rainey Method, then there is the same analytical foundation for the Peak-Hold Method. Further, it is suggested that, in applying Peak-Hold Method in cases where turbulence is used as the excitation force, the variation of the reciprocal of the response amplitude with the reciprocal of the dynamic pressure to be used to extrapolate to flutter onset rather than the variation with dynamic pressure which is the current practice because the linear trend which is predicted to occur for the former is easier to extrapolate to the flutter condition than the nonlinear trend predicted to occur for the latter.

  5. Methods for estimating peak discharge and flood boundaries of streams in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for estimating 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges and flood depths at ungaged sites in Utah were developed using multiple-regression techniques. Ratios of 500- to 100-year values also were determined. The peak discharge equations are applicable to unregulated streams and the flood depth equations are applicable to the unregulated flow in natural stream channels. The flood depth data can be used to approximate flood prone areas. Drainage area and mean basin elevation are the two basin characteristics needed to use these equations. The standard error of estimate ranges from 38% to 74% for the 100-year peak discharge and from 23% to 33% for the 100-year flood depth. Five different flood mapping methods are described. Streams are classified into four categories as a basis for selecting a flood mapping method. Procedures for transferring flood depths obtained from the regression equations to a flood boundary map are outlined. Also, previous detailed flood mapping by government agencies and consultants is summarized to assist the user in quality control and to minimize duplication of effort. Methods are described for transferring flood frequency data from gaged to ungaged sites on the same stream. Peak discharge and flood depth frequency relations and selected basin characteristics data, updated through the 1980 water year, are tabulated for more than 300 gaging stations in Utah and adjoining states. In addition, weighted estimates of peak discharge relations based on the station data and the regression estimates are provided for each gaging station used in the regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from maximum daily flow-a comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Estimation of flood frequency based on instantaneous peak flow (IPF) is important for the design of hydraulic structures. However, observed flow data with high temporal resolution are scarce, especially regarding the limited length of the available flow time series. Here, three different methods are developed and compared to estimate the IPF based on maximum daily flow (MDF), which is available usually at more gauges and for longer time periods. In the first approach, simple linear regressions with non-intercept of probability weighted moments (PWM) or quantile values between IPF and MDF data are employed. Secondly, stepwise multiple linear regressions is used to generate regression equations describing the relationship between easily obtained catchment attributes and MDF predictors and the IPF as target variable. With the third method, the temporal scaling properties of IPF series based on the hypothesis of piece wise simple scaling are investigated for 3 different flow gauges with 15 min data and then utilized to estimate the IPF for all gauges in the area. The study region is the Aller-Leine river basin in northern Germany with 45 stream flow gauges. Cross validation results from the three presented models show good performance in reproducing the peak flow and the potential to be used in other catchment. The simple regressions are the easiest to apply given enough peak flow data, the scaling method is the most efficient one among these three models but stepwise multiple linear regressions gives the best results compared with the other two methods.

  7. An improved formula for determination of the activity via the sum-peak method.

    PubMed

    Nemes, T; Mrda, D; Bikit, I; Grujic, S

    2016-08-01

    The sum-peak method principally enables determination of the absolute activity of gamma cascade emitting sources based only on the use of spectral data, without knowledge of the detector efficiencies. However, to achieve better accuracy of the activity results, corrections due to pile-up, accidental coincidences, electronic noise and angular correlations must be introduced into the proposed method. Such corrections usually require the collection of a few gamma spectra and additional extrapolations, thereby further complicating the experimental procedures. In this paper, it is shown that by using pile-up peaks for corrections of accidental coincidences, Monte Carlo techniques for angular correlation, and LLD corrections, the source activity can be measured with accuracy and reproducibility below 1% using only one gamma spectrum, without any additional extrapolations. PMID:27236834

  8. The phase-integral method for radiative transfer problems with highly-peaked phase functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Complete solutions to the radiative transfer equation, including both azimuth and depth dependence, are provided by the discrete-ordinate method of Chandrasekhar, but these solutions are often limited because of large computer requirements. This paper presents a 'phase-integral' method which greatly reduces the number of discrete ordinates needed in the solution for highly peaked phase functions. A composite quadrature method is shown to be effective in further reducing the number of discrete ordinates required for highly anisotropic phase functions. Examples are given to indicate convergence requirements and expected accuracy in the complete solution for Henyey-Greenstein and cloud-type phase functions.

  9. Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Elleder, M

    1989-09-01

    Results of the investigation carried out during this decade brought unambigous evidence of biochemical heterogeneity inside the complex of Niemann-Pick disease according to which two entirely different metabolic disorders can be recognized. 1. Niemann-Pick sphingomyelinosis, a clear-cut enzymopathy, the pivotal lesion of which is the deficiency of lysosomal spingomyelinase leading to widespread lysosomal deposition of sphingomyelin liquid crystals. Two main allelic variants are known. The first one, neuronopathic (former type A) known as infantile with rapid course, may also manifest considerably prolonged course or an atypical course with predominantly visceral symptomatology. Patients with the second, visceral, variant (former type B), display mainly slow clinical course and often reach adulthood. With rare exceptions the neuronopathic variant can be biochemically recognized from the visceral one by much lower values of the in vivo sphingomyelin degradation test in the former. 2. The rest of the complex comprising types C-D differs substantially from the sphingomyelinase deficiency group by the remarkable heterogeneity in the lysosomal stored lipid pattern given by differences among the affected cell populations. Sphingomyelin storage could be proved histochemically solely in the histiocytic population together with cholesterol, neutral glycosphingolipids and lysobisphosphatidic acid, whereas the brain neurons displayed only neutral glycosphingolipid storage. There is an increasing evidence of the crucial biochemical lesion in this group being an altered intracellular traffic of exogenously derived cholesterol caused probably by its deficient translocation from lysosomes to other intracellular membrane sites. This leads to decreased cholesterol esterification rate which is the basis of the newly developed diagnostic test. Inconstant depression of sphingomyelinase activity is considered to be a secondary phenomenon. The so-called lactosylceramidosis is a rare

  10. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOEpatents

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  11. Picking up the pieces.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    The idea of managing patients who have experienced unimaginable horror or suffering can be very daunting. As general practitioners (GPs) we are often the first port of call for people after a significant event or, alternatively, become involved when the patient emerges from the tertiary care system. Part of our role is to help 'pick up the pieces', whether the effects have been predominantly physical, psychological or a combination of both. Sometimes the person before you is fragmented, the pieces so fragile and far flung, that putting them back together seems an impossible task. PMID:25551866

  12. Development of a criterion method to determine peak mechanical power output in a countermovement jump.

    PubMed

    Owen, Nick J; Watkins, James; Kilduff, Liam P; Bevan, Huw R; Bennett, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    There is a general agreement that the most valid method of measuring peak lower-body mechanical power output (LBPP) in a countermovement jump (CMJ) is by analysis of the corresponding vertical component of the ground reaction force (VGRF)-time history of the jump. However, there is no published standard protocol. The purpose of this study was to establish a standard protocol. The variables necessary to define a valid and reliable CMJ method were: (a) vertical force range, (b) force sampling and integration frequency, (c) method of integration, (d) determination of body weight (BW), and (e) determination of the initiation of the CMJ. Countermovement jumps off a force platform (FP) were performed by 15 male professional rugby players. The 5 variables were then optimized to maximize the reliability and validity of the measure of LBPP. Errors of <1% (p ≤ 0.05) in the measurement of LBPP were obtained using the following specification: (a) 6 times BW (using a 16-bit analog to digital converter), (b) 1,000 Hz, (c) Simpson's rule or the trapezoidal rule, (d) mean VGRF for 1 second of quiet standing immediately before jump signal, and (e) 30 ms before the instant BW ± 5 SD is exceeded after the jump signal. Peak lower-body power output was most sensitive to variables 4 and 5. It was concluded that this study has established a standard protocol for the criterion method of measuring peak power in a CMJ using an FP. As all other estimates and less reliable methods of determining LBPP in a CMJ rely on the FP method for calibration, it is proposed that this protocol be used as the basis of future criterion measures using a FP. PMID:24276298

  13. Methods for Adjusting U.S. Geological Survey Rural Regression Peak Discharges in an Urban Setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moglen, Glenn E.; Shivers, Dorianne E.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted of 78 U.S. Geological Survey gaged streams that have been subjected to varying degrees of urbanization over the last three decades. Flood-frequency analysis coupled with nonlinear regression techniques were used to generate a set of equations for converting peak discharge estimates determined from rural regression equations to a set of peak discharge estimates that represent known urbanization. Specifically, urban regression equations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year return periods were calibrated as a function of the corresponding rural peak discharge and the percentage of impervious area in a watershed. The results of this study indicate that two sets of equations, one set based on imperviousness and one set based on population density, performed well. Both sets of equations are dependent on rural peak discharges, a measure of development (average percentage of imperviousness or average population density), and a measure of homogeneity of development within a watershed. Average imperviousness was readily determined by using geographic information system methods and commonly available land-cover data. Similarly, average population density was easily determined from census data. Thus, a key advantage to the equations developed in this study is that they do not require field measurements of watershed characteristics as did the U.S. Geological Survey urban equations developed in an earlier investigation. During this study, the U.S. Geological Survey PeakFQ program was used as an integral tool in the calibration of all equations. The scarcity of historical land-use data, however, made exclusive use of flow records necessary for the 30-year period from 1970 to 2000. Such relatively short-duration streamflow time series required a nonstandard treatment of the historical data function of the PeakFQ program in comparison to published guidelines. Thus, the approach used during this investigation does not fully comply with the

  14. ALSC & YALSA Book Picks 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a list of ALSC and YALSA Book Picks 2010. The list includes (1) ALSC Notable Children's Books; (2) YALSA Booklists; (3) Best Books for Young Adults; (4) Great Graphic Novels for Teens; and (5) the Top 10 Quick Picks.

  15. Instrumented Pick Detects Coal/Rock Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T.; Erkes, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumented pick installed on cutting drum of coal shearer for longwall mining measures cutting force with strain-gage-bridge load cell. Force signal transmitted to remote recorder. Transmitter located in base of pick assembly. Antenna located in shadow of rotating pick. Changes in characteristics of force signals from pick used to determine whether pick is cutting coal or rock.

  16. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  17. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than

  18. ALSC & YALSA Book Picks 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a list of ALSC's notable children's books, YALSA's best books for young adults, YALSA's great graphic novels for teens, and YALSA's quick picks for reluctant young adult readers.

  19. A Method for Characteristic Extraction of Ultrasound Doppler Signal with Peak-valley Relationship under Heavy Noise.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhang; Liu Dong, C; Jiliu, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time algorithm estimating clinical useful parameters from the maximum frequency curve of ultrasound Doppler spectrum. Traditional methods always apply some pre-calculations to the frequency waveform, for instance, filtering or scaling transformation, which have limitations on real-time features detection and waveform display. In this paper, we propose and maintain a process unit as a section of the waveform with the help of its phase information and the idea of the changeable scaling in the wavelet, to determine the Doppler waveform parameters in real time. From a set of in vivo Doppler waveforms, our proposed algorithm can pick up right parameters even in very noisy environment. PMID:17282933

  20. A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hong; Ye, Yu Guang; Wang, Jin Song; Nielsen, Erling; Cui, Jun; Wang, Xiao Dong

    2016-04-01

    A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars is introduced in this study. The neutral densities at 130 km can be derived from the ionospheric and atmospheric measurements of the Radio Science experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). The derived neutral densities cover a large longitude range in northern high latitudes from summer to late autumn during 3 Martian years, which fills the gap of the previous observations for the upper atmosphere of Mars. The simulations of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Mars global circulation model can be corrected with a simple linear equation to fit the neutral densities derived from the first MGS/RS (Radio Science) data sets (EDS1). The corrected simulations with the same correction parameters as for EDS1 match the derived neutral densities from two other MGS/RS data sets (EDS2 and EDS3) very well. The derived neutral density from EDS3 shows a dust storm effect, which is in accord with the Mars Express (MEX) Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars measurement. The neutral density derived from the MGS/RS measurements can be used to validate the Martian atmospheric models. The method presented in this study can be applied to other radio occultation measurements, such as the result of the Radio Science experiment on board MEX.

  1. C-arm rotation as a method for reducing peak skin dose in interventional cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Pasciak, Alexander S; Bourgeois, Austin C; Jones, A Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged interventional cardiology (IC) procedures may result in radiation-induced skin injury, a potentially preventable cause of patient morbidity. Rotating the C-arm during an IC procedure may reduce this risk, although the methods by which the technique can be practically applied remains unexplored. A previous study demonstrated that C-arm rotation often increases peak skin dose (PSD) in interventional radiology procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether C-arm rotation reduces the PSD in IC procedures and, if so, under what circumstances. Materials and methods Simulations were performed using a numerical ray-tracing algorithm to analyse the effect of C-arm rotation on PSD across a range of patient sizes, C-arm configurations and procedure types. Specific data from modern fluoroscopes and patient dimensions were used as inputs to the simulations. Results In many cases, modest C-arm rotation angles completely eliminated overlap between X-ray field sites on the skin. When overlap remained, PSD increases were generally small. One exception was craniocaudal rotation, which tended to increase PSD. C-arm rotation was most effective for large patients and small X-ray field sizes. Small patients may not benefit from C-arm rotation as a procedural modification. The use of a prophylactic method where the C-arm was rotated between small opposing oblique angles was effective in reducing PSD. Conclusions With the exception of rotation to steep craniocaudal angles, rotating the C-arm reduces PSD in IC procedures when used as either a procedural modification or a prophylactic strategy. Tight collimation increases the benefit of C-arm rotation. PMID:25568803

  2. The relationship of psychological trauma with trichotillomania and skin picking

    PubMed Central

    Özten, Eylem; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Eryılmaz, Gül; Kağan, Gaye; Işık, Sibel; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Interactions between psychological, biological and environmental factors are important in development of trichotillomania and skin picking. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of traumatic life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation in patients with diagnoses of trichotillomania and skin picking disorder. Methods The study included patients who was diagnosed with trichotillomania (n=23) or skin picking disorder (n=44), and healthy controls (n=37). Beck Depression Inventory, Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. All groups checked a list of traumatic life events to determine the exposed traumatic events. Results There was no statistical significance between three groups in terms of Dissociative Experiences Scale scores (P=0.07). But Beck Depression Inventory and Traumatic Stress Symptoms Scale scores of trichotillomania and skin picking groups were significantly higher than the control group. Subjects with a diagnosis of trichotillomania and skin picking reported statistically significantly higher numbers of traumatic and negative events in childhood compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion We can conclude that trauma may play a role in development of both trichotillomania and skin picking. Increased duration of trichotillomania or skin picking was correlated with decreased presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The reason for the negatively correlation of severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms and self-harming behavior may be speculated as developing trichotillomania or skin picking symptoms helps the patient to cope with intrusive thoughts related to trauma. Future longitudinal research must focus on whether trauma and post-traumatic stress or trichotillomania and skin picking precede the development of mental disorder. PMID:26028973

  3. Methods for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of Peak Flows for Natural Streams in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.; Wilkowske, Chris D.; Wright, Shane J.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of peak streamflows is critical for the safe and cost-effective design of hydraulic structures and stream crossings, and accurate delineation of flood plains. Engineers, planners, resource managers, and scientists need accurate estimates of peak-flow return frequencies for locations on streams with and without streamflow-gaging stations. The 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence-interval flows were estimated for 344 unregulated U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Utah and nearby in bordering states. These data along with 23 basin and climatic characteristics computed for each station were used to develop regional peak-flow frequency and magnitude regression equations for 7 geohydrologic regions of Utah. These regression equations can be used to estimate the magnitude and frequency of peak flows for natural streams in Utah within the presented range of predictor variables. Uncertainty, presented as the average standard error of prediction, was computed for each developed equation. Equations developed using data from more than 35 gaging stations had standard errors of prediction that ranged from 35 to 108 percent, and errors for equations developed using data from less than 35 gaging stations ranged from 50 to 357 percent.

  4. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

  5. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  6. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Amey, David L.; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  7. A hybrid method for geological and geophysical data with multi-peak distributions using the PSO-GRG algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Cao, Yingchang; Wang, Yang; Cong, Yunhai; Liu, Lailei

    2015-06-01

    To allow peak searching and parameter estimation for geological and geophysical data with multi-peak distributions, we explore a hybrid method based on a combination of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and generalized reduced gradient (GRG) algorithms. After characterizing peaks using the additive Gaussian function, a nonlinear objective function is established, which transforms our task into a search for optimal solutions. In this process, PSO is used to obtain the initial values, aiming for global convergence, while GRG is subsequently implemented for higher stability. Iterations are stopped when the convergence criteria are satisfied. Finally, grayscale histograms of backscattering electron images of sandstone show that the proposed algorithm performs much better than other methods such as PSO, GRG, simulated annealing and differential evolution, achieving a faster convergence speed and minimal variances.

  8. Measurement of intrinsic properties of amyloid fibrils by the peak force QNM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamcik, Jozef; Lara, Cecile; Usov, Ivan; Jeong, Jae Sun; Ruggeri, Francesco S.; Dietler, Giovanni; Lashuel, Hilal A.; Hamley, Ian W.; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    We report the investigation of the mechanical properties of different types of amyloid fibrils by the peak force quantitative nanomechanical (PF-QNM) technique. We demonstrate that this technique correctly measures the Young's modulus independent of the polymorphic state and the cross-sectional structural details of the fibrils, and we show that values for amyloid fibrils assembled from heptapeptides, α-synuclein, Aβ(1-42), insulin, β-lactoglobulin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, Tau protein and bovine serum albumin all fall in the range of 2-4 GPa.

  9. Methods for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; O'Connor, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Floods from failures of natural and constructed dams constitute a widespread hazard to people and property. Expeditious means of assessing flood hazards are necessary, particularly in the case of natural dams, which may form suddenly and unexpectedly. We revise statistical relations (derived from data for past constructed and natural dam failures) between peak discharge (Q(p)) and water volume released (V(0)) or drop in lake level (d) but assert that such relations, even when cast into a dimensionless form, are of limited utility because they fail to portray the effect of breach-formation rate. We then analyze a simple, physically based model of dam-breach formation to show that the hydrograph at the breach depends primarily on a dimensionless parameter ?? = kV0/g1/2d7/2, where k is the mean erosion rate of the breach and g is acceleration due to gravity. The functional relationship between Q(p) and ?? takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether ?? << 1 (relatively slow breach formation or small lake volume) or ?? >> 1 (relatively fast breach formation or large lake volume). Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k, and thus ??, can be estimated. The theory thus provides a rapid means of predicting the plausible range of values of peak discharge at the breach in an earthen dam as long as the impounded water volume and the water depth at the dam face can be estimated.

  10. ‘Wanting’ and ‘liking’ skin picking: A validation of the Skin Picking Reward Scale

    PubMed Central

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P.; Houghton, David C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Lee, Han-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is often conceptualized as a behavioral addiction in which aberrant reward processing may play an important role. The current study sought to develop a self-report instrument – the Skin Picking Reward Scale (SPRS) – that measures how strongly skin picking is ‘liked’ (i.e., the degree of pleasurable feelings while receiving the reward) and ‘wanted’ (i.e., the degree of the motivation to seek the reward). Methods We administered the SPRS to individuals who endorsed excessive skin picking in online surveys and examined the scale’s factor structure (Studies 1 and 2). We then asked individuals with documented pathological skin picking to complete the SPRS and other relevant questionnaires on two occasions one week apart (Study 3). Results Exploratory (Study 1; n = 330) and confirmatory (Study 2; n = 144) factor analyses consistently supported a two-factor structure reflecting the ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ constructs. Results from Study 3 (N = 36) indicated that the Wanting and the Liking scales had adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Additionally, consistent with predictions, the Wanting scale, but not the Liking scale, was associated with picking urges the following week, greater cue-reactivity, and more picking-related routines/habits. Discussion These initial findings suggest that SPRS is a psychometrically sound measure of ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ in pathological skin picking. The SPRS may facilitate research on reward processing anomalies in SPD and serve as a useful clinical instrument (e.g., to identify those at risk for cue-induced relapse). PMID:26690620

  11. A fading-based method for checking the presence of closely overlapping peaks in thermoluminescent (TL) materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furetta, C.

    The paper describes a method, based on fading experiment, for determining the presence of a complex structure in the thermoluminescent glow curve emission from herbs, e.g. oregano and nopal. Because of the polymineral content of the inorganic part of these herbs, the emitted glow curve is the result of several overlapping glow peaks, each one corresponding to another mineral. The initial rise method is also used for determining the activation energy of each component.

  12. Activity determination of a 201Tl solution by 4πβ-γ and sum-peak coincidence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzzarin, A.; da Silva, M. A. L.; Iwahara, A.; da Silva, R. L.; Filho, O. L. T.; Poledna, R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    201Tl is used in nuclear medicine in cardiac imaging for evaluating the injury level in cardiac muscle at rest and exercise. In this work the activity concentration of a 201 Tl radioactive solution has been absolutely determined using the 4πβ-γ coincidence and sum-peak coincidence methods. The presence of 202Tl radioactive impurity that imposes some difficult in the activity measurements was taken into account in the measurements. In the sum-peak method a planar germanium detector was used. The half-lives were evaluated by the reference source method and the results obtained were (3.033 ± 0.004) d and (12.320 ± 0.163) d, respectively, for 201Tl and 202Tl.

  13. Tiny peaks vs mega backgrounds: a general spectroscopic method with applications in resonant Raman scattering and atmospheric absorptions.

    PubMed

    Auguié, Baptiste; Reigue, Antoine; Le Ru, Eric C; Etchegoin, Pablo G

    2012-09-18

    A simple method using standard spectrometers with charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors is described to routinely measure background-corrected spectra in situations where the signal is composed of weak spectral features (such as Raman peaks or absorption lines) engulfed in a much stronger (by as much as ∼10(5)) broad background. The principle of the method is to subtract the dominant fixed-structure noise and obtain a shot-noise limited spectrum. The final noise level can therefore be reduced as desired by sufficient integration time. The method requires multiple shifts of the diffraction gratings to extract the pixel-dependent noise structure, which is then used as a flat-field correction. An original peak-retrieval procedure is proposed, demonstrating accurate determination of peak lineshapes and linewidths and robustness on practical examples where conventional methods would not be applicable. Examples are discussed to illustrate the potential of the technique to perform routine resonant Raman measurements of fluorescent dyes with high quantum yield, using conventional Raman systems. The method can equally be applied to other situations where small features are masked by a broad overwhelming background. An explicit example is given with the measurement of weak absorption lines in atmospheric gases. PMID:22894881

  14. Pilot test and validation of the Peak Day method of prospective determination of ovulation against a handheld urine hormone monitor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transient exposures may influence fertility and early embryonic development. To assess the time of conception in vivo and conduct concurrent biomonitoring, ovulation must be identified prospectively. We report on the development and validation of a simple, prospective method, the Peak Day method, to determine likely day of ovulation based upon daily observations of cervical fluid. Methods We recruited 98 women to learn the Peak Day method from a brochure, 26 of whom concurrently used the method with blinded daily urine hormone monitoring (estrone glucuronide and luteinizing hormone). All women were instructed to complete an exposure questionnaire immediately upon identifying ovulation. Briefly, the exposure questionnaire captured time-varying and transient exposures such as medication use, water consumption, and amount of sleep. We assessed timely completion of the exposure questionnaire, agreement of women’s estimated day of ovulation (EDO) and the EDO by expert review, and agreement between the EDO by expert review and by blinded urine monitoring. Results Of 147 cycles evaluated, women selected an EDO in 130 (88%) and subsequently completed the periovulatory exposure questionnaire in 122 (94%) cycles. Of the 26 cycles evaluated with blinded hormonal monitoring, the Peak Day “best quality” algorithm, based upon cervical fluid, identified ovulation ± 3 days of the urine monitor in 24 cycles (92%). Conclusions With simple written instructions, women can identify an estimated day of ovulation and perform periovulatory exposure assessment. The Peak Day method is highly cost-effective and could be applied by researchers to target periconceptional or very early developmental stage exposure assessment. PMID:24400707

  15. A varying threshold method for ChIP peak-calling using multiple sources of information

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuan-Bei; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Gene regulation commonly involves interaction among DNA, proteins and biochemical conditions. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technologies, protein–DNA interactions are routinely detected in the genome scale. Computational methods that detect weak protein-binding signals and simultaneously maintain a high specificity yet remain to be challenging. An attractive approach is to incorporate biologically relevant data, such as protein co-occupancy, to improve the power of protein-binding detection. We call the additional data related with the target protein binding as supporting tracks. Results: We propose a novel but rigorous statistical method to identify protein occupancy in ChIP data using multiple supporting tracks (PASS2). We demonstrate that utilizing biologically related information can significantly increase the discovery of true protein-binding sites, while still maintaining a desired level of false positive calls. Applying the method to GATA1 restoration in mouse erythroid cell line, we detected many new GATA1-binding sites using GATA1 co-occupancy data. Availability: http://stat.psu.edu/∼yuzhang/pass2.tar Contact: yuzhang@stat.psu.edu PMID:20823314

  16. Evaluation of six methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of peak discharges on urban streams in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedfast, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Six methods of estimating peak discharges of urban streams were compared and evaluated for applicability to urban streams in New York. Discharge and frequency values developed from a series of synthesized annual flood records were compared with values obtained from the six methods. The synthesized flood records were computed from rainfall-runoff models of 11 urban basins in three counties across the State. Four of these basins had a sufficient period of record to enable rainfall-runoff modeling of two different 5-year periods so that increases in peak flow due to increased urbanization could also be used for comparison of the six methods. A graphical analysis and three types of mathematical analyses were made to evaluate the closeness of fit and bias of the methods. All methods showed a tendency to overestimate synthetic urban flood-magnitude values, but the two adjust rural flood-frequency estimates on a nationwide basis showed smallest standard errors of estimate and bias. The standard errors for these two methods ranged from 44 to 57 percent over the six recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 year), and the bias ranged from +28 to +53 percent. The bias , however, is probably due to errors inherent in using synthetic records and in applying the New York rural flood-frequency equations to urban basins with small drainage areas. (USGS)

  17. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOEpatents

    Damiano, Brian; Wood, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system.

  18. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOEpatents

    Damiano, B.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-04-22

    A method is described for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical model. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system. 1 fig.

  19. Peak and average rectified EMG measures: which method of data reduction should be used for assessing core training exercises?

    PubMed

    Hibbs, A E; Thompson, K G; French, D N; Hodgson, D; Spears, I R

    2011-02-01

    Core strengthening and stability exercises are fundamental for any conditioning training program. Although surface electromyography (sEMG) is used to quantify muscle activity there is a lack of research using this method to investigate the core musculature and core stability. Two types of data reduction are commonly used for sEMG; peak and average rectified EMG methods. Peak EMG has been infrequently reported in the literature with regard to the assessment of core training while even fewer studies have incorporated average rectified EMG data (ARV). The aim of the study was to establish the repeatability of peak and average rectified EMG data during core training exercises and their interrelationship. Ten male highly trained athletes (inter-subject repeatability group; age, 18 ± 1.2 years; height, 176.5 ± 3.2 cm; body mass, 71 ± 4.5 kg) and one female highly trained athlete (intra-subject repeatability group; age; 27 years old; height; 180 cm; weight; 53 kg) performed five maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and five core exercises, chosen to represent a range of movement and muscle recruitment patterns. Peak EMG and ARV EMG were calculated for eight core muscles (rectus abdominis, RA; external oblique, EO; internal oblique, IO; multifidis, MF; latissimus dorsi, LD; longissimus, LG; gluteus maximus, GM; rectus femoris, RF) using sEMG. Average coefficient of variation (CV%) for peak EMG across all the exercises and muscles was 45%. This is in comparison to 35% for the ARV method, which was found to be a significant difference (P<0.05), therefore implying that the ARV method is the more reliable measure for these types of exercise. Analysis of the inter-subject and intra-subject CV% values suggest that these exercises and muscles are sufficiently repeatable using sEMG. Five muscles were highly correlated (R>0.70; RA, EO, MF, GM, LG) between peak and ARV EMG suggesting, that for these core muscles, the two methods provide a similar evaluation of muscle

  20. Control method for peak power delivery with limited DC-bus voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-09-05

    A method for driving a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter supplying a synchronous motor is provided. A DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped multi-level voltage source inverter. The inverter has first, second, and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. A desired speed of a synchronous motor connected to the inverter by the first second and third nodes is received by the inverter. The synchronous motor has a rotor and the speed of the motor is defined by the rotational rate of the rotor. A position of the rotor is sensed, current flowing to the motor out of at least two of the first, second, and third output nodes is sensed, and predetermined switches are automatically activated by the inverter responsive to the sensed rotor position, the sensed current, and the desired speed.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining peak temperature along an optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining the hottest temperature or the coldest temperature prevailing along the length of an optical-fiber light guide. The invention is conducted with an optical fiber capable of supporting multidiode propagation of light and comprising a core, a cladding, and a jacket. The core is selected to have (1) a higher refractive index than the core and the cladding and (2) a relatively high negative temperature coefficient of refractive index. A light beam capable of establishing substantially single-mode propagation in the core is launched into an end thereof at an angle to the axis. The angle is increased to effect the onset of light refraction from the core into the cladding. The value of the launch angle corresponding to the onset is determined and then used to establish the refractive index of the core corresponding to the onset angle. The maximum temperature prevailing along the fiber then is determined from the (1) refractive index so determined and (2) the temperature coefficient of refractive index for the core. The invention is based on the finding that the launch angle corresponding to the onset of refraction into the cladding is uniquely determined by the maximum value of the ratio of the core refractive index to the cladding refractive index, which maximum occurs at the hottest point along the fiber.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining peak temperature along an optical fiber

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.

    1982-07-29

    The invention relates to a new method and new apparatus for determining the hottest temperature or the coldest temperature prevailing along the length of an optical-fiber light guide. The invention is conducted with an optical fiber capable of supporting multidiode propagation of light and comprising a core, a cladding, and a jacket. The core is selected to have (1) a higher refractive index than the core and the cladding and (2) a relatively high negative temperature coefficient of refractive index. A light beam capable of establishing substantially single-mode propagation in the core is launched into an end thereof at an angle to the axis. The angle is increased to effect the onset of light fraction from the core into the cladding. The value of the launch angle corresponding to the onset is determined and then used to establish the refractive index of the core corresponding to the onset angle. The maximum temperature prevailing along the fiber then is determined from the (1) refractive index so determined and (2) the temperature coefficient of refractive index for the core. The invention is based on the finding that the launch angle corresponding to the onset of refraction into the cladding is uniquely determined by the maximum value of the ratio of the core refractive index to the cladding refractive index, which maximum occurs at the hottest point along the fiber.

  3. Pick-up and drop transfer of diamond nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Seshan, V; Island, J O; van Leeuwen, R; Venstra, W J; Schneider, B H; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Sudhölter, E J R; de Smet, L C P M; van der Zant, H S J; Steele, G A; Castellanos-Gomez, A

    2015-03-27

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) is a promising material for electronic and mechanical micro- and nanodevices. Here we introduce a versatile pick-up and drop technique that makes it possible to investigate the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of as-grown NCD films. Using this technique, NCD nanosheets, as thin as 55 nm, can be picked-up from a growth substrate and positioned on another substrate. As a proof of concept, electronic devices and mechanical resonators are fabricated and their properties are characterized. In addition, the versatility of the method is further explored by transferring NCD nanosheets onto an optical fiber, which allows measuring its optical absorption. Finally, we show that NCD nanosheets can also be transferred onto two-dimensional crystals, such as MoS2, to fabricate heterostructures. Pick-up and drop transfer enables the fabrication of a variety of NCD-based devices without requiring lithography or wet processing. PMID:25742057

  4. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.

    2014-01-01

    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  5. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Appeal: Pick Any Two? The Influence of Learning Domains and Learning Outcomes on Designer Judgments of Useful Instructional Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honebein, Peter C.; Honebein, Cass H.

    2015-01-01

    When choosing instructional methods, instructional designers trade-off or sacrifice an outcome, such as effectiveness, efficiency, or appeal. In instructional planning theory, this is referred to as values about priorities. When "values about priorities" are combined with "conditions about content," we expect that a different…

  7. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  8. An X-ray absorption method for the identification of calcium phosphate species using peak height ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxmann, J. F.

    2013-11-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) studies on calcium phosphate species (Ca-P) deal with marginal differences among subtle spectral features despite a hitherto missing systematic breakdown of these differences. Related fingerprinting approaches depend therefore on spectral libraries that are not validated against each other, incomplete and scattered among publications. This study compiled a comprehensive spectral library from published reference compound libraries in order to establish more clear-cut criteria for Ca-P determination by distinctive phosphorus K-edge XANES features. A specifically developed normalization method identified diagnostic spectral features within the compiled library, e.g. by uniform calculation of ratios between white-line and secondary peak heights. Post-processing of the spectra (n = 81) verified distinguishability among most but not all phases, which included hydroxylapatite (HAP), poorly crystalline HAP, amorphous HAP, fluorapatite, carbonate fluorapatite (CFAP), carbonate hydroxylapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), brushite, monetite, monocalcium phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), anapaite, herderite, scholzite, messelite, whiteite and P on CaCO3. Particularly, peak height ratios significantly improved analyte specificity, e.g. by supplementary breakdown into OCP and ACP. The spectral analysis also revealed Ca-P standards that were rarely investigated or inappropriately synthesized, and thus provides a basis for standard selection and synthesis. The developed method and resulting breakdown by species were subsequently tested on Ca-P spectra from studies on bone and sediment. The test indicated that bone material likely comprises only poorly crystalline apatite, which implies direct nucleation of apatite in bone. This biological apatite formation is likely opposed to that of sedimentary apatite, which apparently forms by successive crystallization. Application of the method to

  9. Technical Note: An X-ray absorption method for the identification of calcium phosphate species using peak-height ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxmann, J. F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) studies on calcium phosphate species (Ca-P) deal with marginal differences among subtle spectral features despite a hitherto missing systematic breakdown of these differences. Related fingerprinting approaches depend, therefore, on spectral libraries that are not validated against each other, incomplete and scattered among publications. This study compiled a comprehensive spectral library from published reference compound libraries in order to establish more clear-cut criteria for Ca-P determination by distinctive phosphorus K-edge XANES features. A specifically developed normalization method identified diagnostic spectral features in the compiled library, e.g. by uniform calculation of ratios between white-line and secondary peak heights. Post-processing of the spectra (n = 81) verified distinguishability among most but not all phases, which included hydroxylapatite (HAP), poorly crystalline HAP, amorphous HAP, fluorapatite, carbonate fluorapatite (CFAP), carbonate hydroxylapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), brushite, monetite, monocalcium phosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), anapaite, herderite, scholzite, messelite, whiteite and P on CaCO3. Particularly, peak-height ratios significantly improved analyte specificity, e.g. by supplementary breakdown into OCP and ACP. The spectral analysis also revealed Ca-P standards that were rarely investigated or inappropriately synthesized, and thus provides a basis for standard selection and synthesis. The method developed and resulting breakdown by species were subsequently tested on Ca-P spectra from studies on bone and sediment. The test indicated that bone material likely comprises only poorly crystalline apatite, which confirms direct nucleation of apatite in bone. This biological apatite formation is likely opposed to that of sedimentary apatite, which apparently forms by both direct nucleation and successive crystallization. Application of

  10. A Peak Power Reduction Method with Adaptive Inversion of Clustered Parity-Carriers in BCH-Coded OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muta, Osamu; Akaiwa, Yoshihiko

    In this paper, we propose a simple peak power reduction (PPR) method based on adaptive inversion of parity-check block of codeword in BCH-coded OFDM system. In the proposed method, the entire parity-check block of the codeword is adaptively inversed by multiplying weighting factors (WFs) so as to minimize PAPR of the OFDM signal, symbol-by-symbol. At the receiver, these WFs are estimated based on the property of BCH decoding. When the primitive BCH code with single error correction such as (31,26) code is used, to estimate the WFs, the proposed method employs a significant bit protection method which assigns a significant bit to the best subcarrier selected among all possible subcarriers. With computer simulation, when (31,26), (31,21) and (32,21) BCH codes are employed, PAPR of the OFDM signal at the CCDF (Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function) of 10-4 is reduced by about 1.9, 2.5 and 2.5dB by applying the PPR method, while achieving the BER performance comparable to the case with the perfect WF estimation in exponentially decaying 12-path Rayleigh fading condition.

  11. Using Design of Experiments Methods for Assessing Peak Contact Pressure to Material Properties of Soft Tissue in Human Knee

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Ali; Arumugam, Manohar; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi

    2013-01-01

    Contact pressure in the knee joint is a key element in the mechanisms of knee pain and osteoarthritis. Assessing the contact pressure in tibiofemoral joint is a challenging mechanical problem due to uncertainty in material properties. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of tibiofemoral peak contact pressure to the material properties of the soft tissue was carried out through fractional factorial and Box-Behnken designs. The cartilage was modeled as linear elastic material, and in addition to its elastic modulus, interaction effects of soft tissue material properties were added compared to previous research. The results indicated that elastic modulus of the cartilage is the most effective factor. Interaction effects of axial/radial modulus with elastic modulus of cartilage, circumferential and axial/radial moduli of meniscus were other influential factors. Furthermore this study showed how design of experiment methods can help designers to reduce the number of finite element analyses and to better interpret the results. PMID:27006925

  12. All solid-state spectral broadening: an average and peak power scalable method for compression of ultrashort pulses.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Marcus; Arisholm, Gunnar; Brons, Jonathan; Pervak, Vladimir; Pronin, Oleg

    2016-05-01

    Spectral broadening in bulk material is a simple, robust and low-cost method to extend the bandwidth of a laser source. Consequently, it enables ultrashort pulse compression. Experiments with a 38 MHz repetition rate, 50 W average power Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillator were performed. The initially 1.2 μJ, 250 fs pulses are compressed to 43 fs by means of self-phase modulation in a single 15 mm thick quartz crystal and subsequent chirped-mirror compression. The losses due to spatial nonlinear effects are only about 40 %. A second broadening stage reduced the Fourier transform limit to 15 fs. It is shown that the intensity noise of the oscillator is preserved independent of the broadening factor. Simulations manifest the peak power scalability of the concept and show that it is applicable to a wide range of input pulse durations and energies. PMID:27137557

  13. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  14. Prevalence and heritability of skin picking in an adult community sample: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Cherkas, Lynn; Harris, Juliette; Keuthen, Nancy; Mataix-Cols, David

    2012-07-01

    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition that can lead to skin damage and other medical complications. Epidemiological data is scarce and its causes are unknown. The present study examined the prevalence and heritability of skin-picking symptoms in a large sample of twins. A total of 2,518 twins completed a valid and reliable self-report measure of skin-picking behavior. The prevalence of clinically significant skin picking was established using empirically derived cut-offs. Twin modeling methods were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to skin picking into additive genetic and shared and non-shared environmental factors. A total of 1.2% of twins scored above the cut-off, indicative of clinically significant skin picking. All these participants were women. Univariate model-fitting analyses (female twins only, N = 2,191) showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 40% (95% CI 19-58%) of the variance in skin picking, with non-shared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the remaining variance (60% [95% CI 42-81%]). Shared environmental factors were negligible. It is concluded that pathological skin picking is relatively prevalent problem, particularly among women, and that it tends to run in families primarily due to genetic factors. Non-shared environmental factors are also likely to play an important role in its etiology. PMID:22619132

  15. Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Jayesh J; Sheth, Frenny J; Oza, Nrupesh

    2008-06-01

    A 4-year-old Afghan girl born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive neurological regression and hepatomegaly noticed after one year of age. The child had hypotonia, repeated unexplained falls and facial dyskinesia. Bone marrow examination revealed presence of storage cells suggestive of Gauchers or Niemann Pick. Confirmatory study by lysosomal enzyme from leucocytes was normal for beta-Glucosidase and sphingomyelinase specific for Gauchers and Niemann Pick type A or B respectively. Further study was carried out on cultured skin fibroblasts in lipid deficient medium using filipin stain which showed presence of dark punctate granules confirming the diagnosis of Neimann-Pick type C, a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PMID:18599941

  16. An Application of the Peaks Over Threshold Method to Estimate Extreme Winds Over the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N. P.; Camargo, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Given the growing investment in coastal activities, such as industrial and residential settings, proper understanding of oceanographic and meteorological phenomena over such areas became very important. The winds play a major role in this context, being the main source of energy for gravity waves generation in the ocean, and determining the characterization of severe weather conditions. In this study, a statistical analysis of extreme values was applied to wind data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP-I) grid points with 2.5º of spacial resolution and results from a simulation with the BRAMS model in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean region with 0.25º of resolution. The Peaks Over Threshold (POT) technique was applied and the analysis focused on the behavior of extreme values according to the wind direction and the resolution of the original data. The period of analysis goes from 1982 to 2011 and the domain goes from 40ºS to 5ºN latitude and 70ºW to 10ºW longitude. The POT method demanded that peaks chosen for analysis were independent and identically distributed and a minimum interval of 48 hours was given to separate the subset sampled for analysis. The peak excesses above a determined threshold were adjusted to the Generalized Pareto Distribution and extrapolation to 50 years return periods was built in each grid point. General large-scale patterns of 50-yr return values were similar for both datasets used. However, more details were verified in the analysis of simulation results with BRAMS, given the dependence of the methodology to the resolution of the original set. Thus, the greater detailing suggests the inclusion of mesoscale features originating these extreme values. In the northern part of the domain, extreme winds were weaker and prevailed from north, northeast and east, given the influence of the trade winds and the positioning of the South Atlantic Subtropical High. On the

  17. Influence of applied magnetic field strength and frequency response of pick-up coil on the magnetic barkhausen noise profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashista, M.; Moorthy, V.

    2013-11-01

    The influence of applied magnetic field strength and frequency response of the pick-up coil on the shape of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) profile have been studied. The low frequency MBN measurements have been carried out using 5 different MBN pick-up coils at two different ranges of applied magnetic field strengths on quenched and tempered (QT) and case-carburised and tempered (CT) 18CrNiMo7 steel bar samples. The MBN pick-up coils have been designed to obtain different frequency response such that the peak frequency response varies from ˜4 kHz to ˜32 kHz and the amplitude of low frequency signals decreases gradually. At lower applied magnetic field strength of ±14,000 A/m, all the pick-up coils produced a single peak MBN profile for both QT and CT sample. However, at higher applied magnetic field strength of ±22,000 A/m, the MBN profile showed two peaks for both QT and CT samples for pick-up coils with peak frequency response up to ˜17 kHz. Also, there is systematic reduction in peak 2 for QT sample and asymmetric reduction in the heights of peak 1 and peak 2 for CT sample with increase in peak frequency response of the pick-up coils. The decreasing sensitivity of pick-up coils with increasing peak frequency response to MBN signal generation is indicated by the gradual reduction in width of MBN profile and height of peak 2 in the QT sample. The drastic reduction in peak 1 as compared to peak 2 in the CT sample shows the effect of decreasing low frequency response of the pick-up coils on lowering skin-depth of MBN signal detection. This study clearly suggests that it is essential to optimise both maximum applied magnetic field strength and frequency response of the MBN pick-up coil for maximising the shape of the MBN profile for appropriate correlation with the magnetisation process and hence the material properties.

  18. Stability indicating validated HPLC method for quantification of levothyroxine with eight degradation peaks in the presence of excipients.

    PubMed

    Shah, R B; Bryant, A; Collier, J; Habib, M J; Khan, M A

    2008-08-01

    A simple, sensitive, accurate, and robust stability indicating analytical method is presented for identification, separation, and quantitation of l-thyroxine and eight degradation impurities with an internal standard. The method was used in the presence of commonly used formulation excipients such as butylated hydroxyanisole, povidone, crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, mannitol, sucrose, acacia, lactose monohydrate, confectionary sugar, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium laurel sulfate, magnesium stearate, talc, and silicon dioxide. The two active thyroid hormones: 3,3',5,5'-tetra-iodo-l-thyronine (l-thyroxine-T4) and 3,3',5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine (T3) and degradation products including di-iodothyronine (T2), thyronine (T0), tyrosine (Tyr), di-iodotyrosine (DIT), mono-iodotyrosine (MIT), 3,3',5,5'-tetra-iodothyroacetic acid (T4AA) and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyroacetic acid (T3AA) were assayed by the current method. The separation of l-thyroxine and eight metabolites along with theophylline (internal standard) was achieved using a C18 column (25 degrees C) with a mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%, v/v, pH 3)-acetonitrile in gradient elution at 0.8 ml/min at 223 nm. The sample diluent was 0.01 M methanolic NaOH. Method was validated according to FDA, USP, and ICH guidelines for inter-day accuracy, precision, and robustness after checking performance with system suitability. Tyr (4.97 min), theophylline (9.09 min), MIT (9.55 min), DIT (11.37 min), T0 (11.63 min), T2 (14.47 min), T3 (16.29 min), T4 (17.60 min), T3AA (22.71 min), and T4AA (24.83 min) separated in a single chromatographic run. Linear relationship (r2>0.99) was observed between the peak area ratio and the concentrations for all of the compounds within the range of 2-20 microg/ml. The total time for analysis, equilibration and recovery was 40 min. The method was shown to separate well from commonly employed formulation excipients. Accuracy ranged from 95 to 105% for T4 and 90 to 110% for all other

  19. A unified statistical model for hydrological variables including the selection of threshold for the peak over threshold method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, S.; Losada, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper explores the use of a mixture model for determining the marginal distribution of hydrological variables, consisting of a truncated central distribution that is representative of the central or main-mass regime, which for the cases studied is a lognormal distribution, and of two generalized Pareto distributions for the maximum and minimum regimes, representing the upper and lower tails, respectively. The thresholds defining the limits between these regimes and the central regime are parameters of the model and are calculated together with the remaining parameters by maximum likelihood. After testing the model with a simulation study we concluded that the upper threshold of the model can be used when applying the peak over threshold method. This will yield an automatic and objective identification of the threshold presenting an alternative to existing methods. The model was also applied to four hydrological data series: two mean daily flow series, the Thames at Kingston (United Kingdom), and the Guadalfeo River at Orgiva (Spain); and two daily precipitation series, Fort Collins (CO, USA), and Orgiva (Spain). It was observed that the model improved the fit of the data series with respect to the fit obtained with the lognormal (LN) and, in particular, provided a good fit for the upper tail. Moreover, we concluded that the proposed model is able to accommodate the entire range of values of some significant hydrological variables.

  20. Pick-up ions at Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemety, K.; Cravens, T. E.

    1993-04-01

    Methane molecules escaping from Pluto's atmosphere are ionized, and the resulting ions are picked up by the solar wind. The mass loading associated with this ion pick-up can produce a cometlike interaction of the solar wind with Pluto. Heavy ion gyroradii are as large as a half million km in the weak interplanetary magnetic field that exists at 30 AU, which is about an order of magnitude larger than the size of the 'interaction region'. We have calculated velocity space distributions of pick-up ions using numerically determined ion trajectories. The predicted pick-up ion fluxes are high enough to be detectable by standard charged particle detectors as far upstream of Pluto as 10 exp 6 km.

  1. Think Safety When Picking, Packing School Backpacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160523.html Think Safety When Picking, Packing School Backpacks Heavy, unbalanced loads can cause injury that is ... Aug. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many students use backpacks to carry their school books and supplies, but ...

  2. Pick-up ions at Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kecskemety, K.; Cravens, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Methane molecules escaping from Pluto's atmosphere are ionized, and the resulting ions are picked up by the solar wind. The mass loading associated with this ion pick-up can produce a cometlike interaction of the solar wind with Pluto. Heavy ion gyroradii are as large as a half million km in the weak interplanetary magnetic field that exists at 30 AU, which is about an order of magnitude larger than the size of the 'interaction region'. We have calculated velocity space distributions of pick-up ions using numerically determined ion trajectories. The predicted pick-up ion fluxes are high enough to be detectable by standard charged particle detectors as far upstream of Pluto as 10 exp 6 km.

  3. Characterizing Earthquake Rupture Properties Using Peak High-Frequency Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    Teleseismic array back-projection (BP) of high frequency (~1Hz) seismic waves has been recently applied to image the aftershock sequence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The BP method proves to be effective in capturing early aftershocks that are difficult to be detected due to the contamination of the mainshock coda wave. Furthermore, since the event detection is based on the identification of the local peaks in time series of the BP power, the resulting event location corresponds to the peak high-frequency energy rather than the hypocenter. In this work, we show that the comparison between the BP-determined catalog and conventional phase-picking catalog provides estimates of the spatial and temporal offset between the hypocenter and the peak high-frequency radiation. We propose to measure this peak high-frequency shift of global earthquakes between M4.0 to M7.0. We average the BP locations calibrated by multiple reference events to minimize the uncertainty due to the variation of 3D path effects. In our initial effort focusing on the foreshock and aftershock sequence of the 2014 Iquique earthquake, we find systematic shifts of the peak high-frequency energy towards the down-dip direction. We find that the amount of the shift is a good indication of rupture length, which scales with the earthquake magnitude. Further investigations of the peak high frequency offset may provide constraints on earthquake source properties such as rupture directivity, rupture duration, rupture speed, and stress drop.

  4. Determination of the inelastic mean free path of electrons in polythiophenes using elastic peak electron spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiak, B.; Kosinski, A.; Jablonski, A.; Kövér, L.; Tóth, J.; Varga, D.; Cserny, I.; Zagorska, M.; Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Gergely, G.

    2001-04-01

    The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) is an important parameter for quantitative surface characterisation by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or electron energy loss spectroscopy. An extensive database of the IMFPs for selected elements, inorganic and organic compounds has been recently published by Powell and Jablonski. As it follows from this compilation, the published material on IMFPs for conductive polymers is very limited. Selected polymers, such as polyacetylenes and polyanilines, have been investigated only recently. The present study is a continuation of the research on IMFPs determination in conductive polymers using the elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) method. In the present study three polythiophene samples have been studied using high energy resolution spectrometer and two standards: Ni and Ag. The resulting experimental IMFPs are compared to the respective IMFP values determined using the predictive formulae proposed by Tanuma and Powell (TPP-2M) and by Gries (G1), showing a good agreement. The scatter between the experimental and predicted IMFPs in polythiophenes is evaluated. The statistical and systematic errors, their sources and the possible contributions to the systematic error due to influence of the accuracy of the input parameters, such as the surface composition and density, on the IMFPs derived from the experiments and Monte Carlo calculations, are extensively discussed.

  5. Handheld electrocardiogram measurement instrument using a new peak quantification method algorithm built on a system-on-chip embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2006-09-01

    This article reports on the new design and development of an electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement instrument built on a system-on-chip (SOC) embedded system. A new approach using the peak quantification method (PQM) for measuring the human heart rate is described. A computer, some medical equipment, and other facilities are often required for conducting the traditional ECG measurements. However, the monitors of such instruments have some disadvantages, e.g., bulky, not very easy to transport, expensive, and so forth. Hence, we propose a new design for ECG measurement which is built on an embedded system. Our system adopts a SOC and ECG detection circuits to carry out a real-time, low-cost, and compact ECG measurement system. Regarding heart rate computation, the experimental results show that the new PQM algorithm, when applied to heart rate measurements, yields error smaller than 1bpm. In addition, the correlation coefficient between the measured and actual heartbeats can reach 0.94 when the heart rate is less than 153bpm. It shows that the use of the PQM algorithm gives an extremely high degree of accuracy.

  6. Methods for Estimating Peak Discharges and Unit Hydrographs for Streams in the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for estimating peak discharges and unit hydrographs were developed for streams in the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County in response to a need for better techniques for characterizing the flow of streams. The procedures presented in this report provide the means for estimating unit hydrographs as part of the process used in watershed modeling and(or) design of stormwater-management structures. The procedures include three statistical relations for use in estimating storm peak discharge, unit-hydrograph peak discharge, and unit-hydrograph lag time. A final component of the procedures is the development of a dimensionless unit hydrograph developed from streamflow and rainfall data collected during the 1995-2000 water years at 25 streamgaging stations and up to 60 raingages in the city and county. The statistical relation to estimate the storm peak discharge is based on analyses of observed peak discharges regressed against rainfall and basin characteristics using a database of 412 observations from 61 storm events among the 25 gaging stations. The rainfall characteristics included basin-average rainfall amounts as well as estimates of the maximum and minimum storm rainfall in the basin. The basin characteristics consisted of land-use information and other physical basin characteristics, such as drainage area, channel length, channel slope, percentage of impervious area, and percentage of the basin served by detention. The analyses resulted in a relation that can be used for estimating storm peak discharge based on drainage area, basin-average rainfall, and impervious area. Average unit hydrographs were developed for 24 of 25 streamgaging stations, using from three to nine storms at each site. The average unit hydrograph for each station was converted into four classes of unit hydrographs with durations corresponding to one-fourth, one-third, one-half, and three-fourths of the station-average lag time. For 23 sites, the lag-time-duration hydrographs

  7. Fast Object Registration and Robotic Bin Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnke, Kay; Gottscheber, Achim

    Businesses have invested a lot of money into intelligent machine vision, industrial robotics and automation technology. The proposed solution of this paper deals with industrial applications of robotic bin picking. In this paper, a pose estimation approach is introduce to determine the coarse position and rotation of a known object using commonly available image processing tools applied to 3D laser range data. This position and orientation is refined by a combination of the well-known Iterative Closest Points Algorithm with the hierarchical object representation of Progressive Meshes to find objects in a industrial environment. This approach is integrated in an object localization system for industrial robotic bin picking.

  8. Modular Pick-and-Bucket Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Concept for improved conventional pick-and-bucket mining machine offered as backup for hydrojet-jaw mining machine. Picks on chain dislodge coal and buckets on chain scoop it up. Depending on width cut, unit composed of only two end modules or end modules plus one, two, or three incremental modules. Folding curved shields protect sides of miner from falling coal and rock. Two side stabilizers - extendable hydraulic members - anchor miner against lateral drift. Unlike conventional machines, new version tilts cutters vertically and skews them horizontally to changing floor slopes and seam heights.

  9. Teaching Children with Niemann-Pick Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Cooley, Jennifer; Barnett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease (NPD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that are both systemic and degenerative. Knowledge of the disease, its characteristics, and its progression are essential for the teacher and related service personnel to provide an appropriate educational experience for the student. For the teacher who has a student with NPC in…

  10. An Elementary Proof of Pick's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullman, Howard W.

    1979-01-01

    Pick's Theorem, a statement of the relationship between the area of a polygonal region on a lattice and its interior and boundary lattice points, is familiar to those whose students have participated in activities and discovery lessons using the geoboard. The proof presented, although rather long, is well within the grasp of the average geometry…

  11. Automated Interval velocity picking for Atlantic Multi-Channel Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwajit

    2016-04-01

    This paper described the challenge in developing and testing a fully automated routine for measuring interval velocities from multi-channel seismic data. Various approaches are employed for generating an interactive algorithm picking interval velocity for continuous 1000-5000 normal moveout (NMO) corrected gather and replacing the interpreter's effort for manual picking the coherent reflections. The detailed steps and pitfalls for picking the interval velocities from seismic reflection time measurements are describe in these approaches. Key ingredients these approaches utilized for velocity analysis stage are semblance grid and starting model of interval velocity. Basin-Hopping optimization is employed for convergence of the misfit function toward local minima. SLiding-Overlapping Window (SLOW) algorithm are designed to mitigate the non-linearity and ill- possessedness of root-mean-square velocity. Synthetic data case studies addresses the performance of the velocity picker generating models perfectly fitting the semblance peaks. A similar linear relationship between average depth and reflection time for synthetic model and estimated models proposed picked interval velocities as the starting model for the full waveform inversion to project more accurate velocity structure of the subsurface. The challenges can be categorized as (1) building accurate starting model for projecting more accurate velocity structure of the subsurface, (2) improving the computational cost of algorithm by pre-calculating semblance grid to make auto picking more feasible.

  12. APASVO: A free software tool for automatic P-phase picking and event detection in seismic traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, José Emilio; Titos, Manuel; Bueno, Ángel; Álvarez, Isaac; García, Luz; Torre, Ángel de la; Benítez, M.a. Carmen

    2016-05-01

    The accurate estimation of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is a problem of major interest in seismic research given its relevance in many seismological applications, such as earthquake source location and active seismic tomography. In the last decades, several automatic picking methods have been proposed with the ultimate goal of implementing picking algorithms whose results are comparable to those obtained by manual picking. In order to facilitate the use of these automated methods in the analysis of seismic traces, this paper presents a new free, open source, software graphical tool, named APASVO, which allows picking tasks in an easy and user-friendly way. The tool also provides event detection functionality, where a relatively imprecise estimation of the onset time is sufficient. The application implements the STA-LTA detection algorithm and the AMPA picking algorithm. An autoregressive AIC-based picking method can also be applied. Besides, this graphical tool is complemented with two additional command line tools, an event picking tool and a synthetic earthquake generator. APASVO is a multiplatform tool that works on Windows, Linux and OS X. The application can process data in a large variety of file formats. It is implemented in Python and relies on well-known scientific computing packages such as ObsPy, NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib.

  13. Comparison of manual and automatic onset Time picking for local earthquake in North Eastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallarossa, D.; Tiberi, L.; Costa, G.

    2012-04-01

    Automatic estimates of earthquake parameters continues to be of considerable interest to the seismological community. The automatic processing of seismic data, whether for real-time seismic warning system or to reprocessing large amount of seismic recordings, is increasingly being demanded by seismologists. In this study is presented a new method used for automatic phase picking (P and S) which include envelope function calculation, STA/LTA detectors and AR picking algorithms based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) The main characteristics of the proposed picking algorithm are: a) Pre-filtering and envelope calculation to prearrange the onset; b) Preliminary detection of P onset using both the AIC based picker and the STA/LTA picker; c) S/N analysis, P validation, filtering and re-picking; d) Preliminary earthquake location; e) Detection of S onset adopting the AIC based picker; f) S/N analysis, S validation; g) Earthquake location. The algorithm is applied to a reference data composed by 200 events set with very heterogeneous qualities of P and S onsets acquired by South Eastern Alps Transfontier network from 01/01/2008 to 03/31/2008 in North Eastern Italy and surrounding regions. These data are collected through the use of the software Antelope, an integrated collection of programs for data management and seismic data analysis. The reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm is tested by comparing manually derived P and S readings (determined by an experienced seismic analyst), serving as reference picks, with the corresponding automatically estimated P and S arrival times. An additional analysis is comparing these automatic picks with the ones produced by Antelope, which used only STA/LTA detectors and finally studying the effect of these different set of arrival times in the resultant localizations for each database event. Preliminary results indicate that seismic detectors which integrate different techniques could improve the stability of the

  14. SAM 2.1—A computer program for plotting and formatting surveying data for estimating peak discharges by the slope-area method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures discharge in streams using several methods. However, measurement of peak discharges is often impossible or impractical due to difficult access, inherent danger of making measurements during flood events, and timing often associated with flood events. Thus, many peak discharge values often are calculated after the fact by use of indirect methods. The most common indirect method for estimating peak dis- charges in streams is the slope-area method. This, like other indirect methods, requires measuring the flood profile through detailed surveys. Processing the survey data for efficient entry into computer streamflow models can be time demanding; SAM 2.1 is a program designed to expedite that process. The SAM 2.1 computer program is designed to be run in the field on a portable computer. The program processes digital surveying data obtained from an electronic surveying instrument during slope- area measurements. After all measurements have been completed, the program generates files to be input into the SAC (Slope-Area Computation program; Fulford, 1994) or HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System; Brunner, 2001) computer streamflow models so that an estimate of the peak discharge can be calculated.

  15. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system. PMID:26479653

  16. First-break refraction event picking and seismic data trace editing using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, M.D.; Zaucha, D.E.; Dushek, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Interactive seismic processing systems for editing noisy seismic traces and picking the first-break refraction events have been developed using a neural network learning algorithm. The authors employ a back propagation neural network (BNN) paradigm modified to improve the convergence rate of the BNN. The BNN is interactively trained'' to edit seismic data or pick first breaks by a human processor who judiciously selects and presents to the network examples of trace edits or refraction picks. The network then iteratively adjusts a set of internal weights until it can accurately duplicate the examples provided by the user. After the training session is completed, the BNN system an then process new data sets in a manner that mimics the human processor. Synthetic modeling studies indicated that the BNN uses many of the same subjective criteria that humans employ in editing and picking seismic data sets. Automated trace editing and first-break picking based on the modified BNN paradigm achieve 90 to 98 percent agreement with manual methods for seismic data of moderate to good quality. Productivity increases over manual editing, and picking techniques range from 60 percent for two-dimensional (2-D) data sets and up to 800 percent for three-dimensional (3-D) data sets. Neural network-based seismic processing can provide consistent and high quality results with substantial improvements in processing efficiency.

  17. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  19. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  1. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground....

  3. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1315 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1315 Section 51.1315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1274 - Carefully hand-picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carefully hand-picked. 51.1274 Section 51.1274... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on...

  7. Quantitative Metabolome Analysis Based on Chromatographic Peak Reconstruction in Chemical Isotope Labeling Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tao; Li, Liang

    2015-07-21

    Generating precise and accurate quantitative information on metabolomic changes in comparative samples is important for metabolomics research where technical variations in the metabolomic data should be minimized in order to reveal biological changes. We report a method and software program, IsoMS-Quant, for extracting quantitative information from a metabolomic data set generated by chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unlike previous work of relying on mass spectral peak ratio of the highest intensity peak pair to measure relative quantity difference of a differentially labeled metabolite, this new program reconstructs the chromatographic peaks of the light- and heavy-labeled metabolite pair and then calculates the ratio of their peak areas to represent the relative concentration difference in two comparative samples. Using chromatographic peaks to perform relative quantification is shown to be more precise and accurate. IsoMS-Quant is integrated with IsoMS for picking peak pairs and Zero-fill for retrieving missing peak pairs in the initial peak pairs table generated by IsoMS to form a complete tool for processing CIL LC-MS data. This program can be freely downloaded from the www.MyCompoundID.org web site for noncommercial use. PMID:26086729

  8. Non-parametric linear regression of discrete Fourier transform convoluted chromatographic peak responses under non-ideal conditions of internal standard method.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Fahmy, Ossama T; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2010-11-15

    This manuscript discusses the application of chemometrics to the handling of HPLC response data using the internal standard method (ISM). This was performed on a model mixture containing terbutaline sulphate, guaiphenesin, bromhexine HCl, sodium benzoate and propylparaben as an internal standard. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response data of analyte and internal standard was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x(i) polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). The response of each analyte signal, its corresponding derivative and convoluted derivative data were divided by that of the internal standard to obtain the corresponding ratio data. This was found beneficial in eliminating different types of interferences. It was successfully applied to handle some of the most common chromatographic problems and non-ideal conditions, namely: overlapping chromatographic peaks and very low analyte concentrations. For example, a significant change in the correlation coefficient of sodium benzoate, in case of overlapping peaks, went from 0.9975 to 0.9998 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. Also a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy for the determination of synthetic mixtures and dosage forms in non-ideal cases was achieved. For example, in the case of overlapping peaks guaiphenesin mean recovery% and RSD% went from 91.57, 9.83 to 100.04, 0.78 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. This work also compares the application of Theil's method, a non-parametric regression method, in handling the response ratio data, with the least squares parametric regression method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. Theil's method was found to be superior to the method of least squares as it assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and

  9. A physically-based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V.D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether < ??? 1 or < ??? 1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.We analyze a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V/D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a

  10. Promoting physical therapists’ use of research evidence to inform clinical practice: part 2 - a mixed methods evaluation of the PEAK program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinicians need innovative educational programs to enhance their capacity for using research evidence to inform clinical decision-making. This paper and its companion paper introduce the Physical therapist-driven Education for Actionable Knowledge translation (PEAK) program, an educational program designed to promote physical therapists’ integration of research evidence into clinical decision-making. This, second of two, papers reports a mixed methods feasibility study of the PEAK program among physical therapists at three university-based clinical facilities. Methods A convenience sample of 18 physical therapists participated in the six-month educational program. Mixed methods were used to triangulate results from pre-post quantitative data analyzed concurrently with qualitative data from semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Feasibility of the program was assessed by evaluating change in participants’ attitudes, self-efficacy, knowledge, skills, and self-reported behaviors in addition to their perceptions and reaction to the program. Results All 18 therapists completed the program. The group experienced statistically significant improvements in evidence based practice self-efficacy and self-reported behavior (p < 0.001). Four themes were supported by integrated quantitative and qualitative results: 1. The collaborative nature of the PEAK program was engaging and motivating; 2. PEAK participants experienced improved self-efficacy, creating a positive cycle where success reinforces engagement with research evidence; 3. Participants’ need to understand how to interpret statistics was not fully met; 4. Participants believed that the utilization of research evidence in their clinical practice would lead to better patient outcomes. Conclusions The PEAK program is a feasible educational program for promoting physical therapists’ use of research evidence in practice. A key ingredient seems to be guided small group work leading to a final

  11. A physically-based method for predicting peak discharge of floods caused by failure of natural and constructed earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse a simple, physically-based model of breach formation in natural and constructed earthen dams to elucidate the principal factors controlling the flood hydrograph at the breach. Formation of the breach, which is assumed trapezoidal in cross-section, is parameterized by the mean rate of downcutting, k, the value of which is constrained by observations. A dimensionless formulation of the model leads to the prediction that the breach hydrograph depends upon lake shape, the ratio r of breach width to depth, the side slope ?? of the breach, and the parameter ?? = (V/ D3)(k/???gD), where V = lake volume, D = lake depth, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Calculations show that peak discharge Qp depends weakly on lake shape r and ??, but strongly on ??, which is the product of a dimensionless lake volume and a dimensionless erosion rate. Qp(??) takes asymptotically distinct forms depending on whether ?? > 1. Theoretical predictions agree well with data from dam failures for which k could be reasonably estimated. The analysis provides a rapid and in many cases graphical way to estimate plausible values of Qp at the breach.

  12. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of the pick cutting hoads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telementry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder.

  13. Searching for Dual AGNs in Galaxy Mergers: Understanding Double-Peaked [O III] and Ultra Hard X-rays as Selection Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGurk, Rosalie C.; Max, Claire E.; Medling, Anne; Shields, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    When galaxies merge, gas accretes onto both central supermassive black holes. Thus, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O III] or of ultra hard X-rays have been proposed as techniques to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O III] emitting AGNs from SDSS DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared (IR) camera NIRC2, we showed that 30% of double-peaked [O III] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3' radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up these spatially-double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and Gemini GMOS and with long-slit spectroscopy from Keck NIRSPEC and Shane Kast Double Spectrograph. We find double-peaked emitters are caused sometimes by dual AGN and sometimes by outflows or narrow line kinematics. We also performed Chandra X-ray ACIS-S observations on 12 double-peaked candidate dual AGNs. Using our observations and 8 archival observations, we compare the distribution of X-ray photons to our spatially double near-IR images, measure X-ray luminosities and hardness ratios, and estimate column densities. By assessing what fraction of double-peaked emission line SDSS AGNs are true dual AGNs, we can better determine whether double-peaked [O III] is an efficient dual AGN indicator and constrain the statistics of dual AGNs. A second technique to find dual AGN is the detection of ultra hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. We use CARMA observations to measure and map the CO(1-0) present in nearby ultra-hard X-ray Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) merging with either a quiescent companion

  14. A method for establishing absolute full-energy peak efficiency and its confidence interval for HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, U.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Starosta, K.; Williams, J.; Voss, P.

    2015-12-01

    A method is proposed for establishing the absolute efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector including the confidence interval in the energy range of 79.6-3451.2 keV. The calibrations were accomplished with the 133Ba, 60Co, 56Co and 152Eu point-like radioactive sources with only the 60Co source being activity calibrated to an accuracy of 2% at the 90% confidence level. All data sets measured from activity calibrated and uncalibrated sources were fit simultaneously using the linearized least squares method. The proposed fit function accounts for scaling of the data taken with activity uncalibrated sources to the data taken with the high accuracy activity calibrated source. The confidence interval for the fit was found analytically using the covariance matrix. Accuracy of the fit was below 3.5% at the 90% confidence level in the 79.6-3451.2 keV energy range.

  15. Lymph node pick up by separate stations: Option or necessity

    PubMed Central

    Morgagni, Paolo; Nanni, Oriana; Carretta, Elisa; Altini, Mattia; Saragoni, Luca; Falcini, Fabio; Garcea, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether lymph node pick up by separate stations could be an indicator of patients submitted to appropriate surgical treatment. METHODS: One thousand two hundred and three consecutive gastric cancer patients submitted to radical resection in 7 general hospitals and for whom no information was available on the extension of lymphatic dissection were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, where the stomach specimen was directly formalin-fixed and sent to the pathologist, and group B, where lymph nodes were picked up after surgery and fixed for separate stations. Sixty-two point three percent of group A patients showed < 16 retrieved lymph nodes compared to 19.4% of group B (P < 0.0001). Group B (separate stations) patients had significantly higher survival rates than those in group A [46.1 mo (95%CI: 36.5-56.0) vs 27.7 mo (95%CI: 21.3-31.9); P = 0.0001], independently of T or N stage. In multivariate analysis, group A also showed a higher risk of death than group B (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.05-1.46). CONCLUSION: Separate lymphatic station dissection increases the number of retrieved nodes, leads to better tumor staging, and permits verification of the surgical dissection. The number of dissected stations could potentially be used as an index to evaluate the quality of treatment received. PMID:26015852

  16. Stochastic shock response spectrum decomposition method based on probabilistic definitions of temporal peak acceleration, spectral energy, and phase lag distributions of mechanical impact pyrotechnic shock test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Duran, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Most of the times pyrotechnic shock design and test requirements for space systems are provided in Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) without the input time history. Since the SRS does not describe the input or the environment, a decomposition method is used to obtain the source time history. The main objective of this paper is to develop a decomposition method producing input time histories that can satisfy the SRS requirement based on the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from a mechanical impact test apparatus. At the heart of this decomposition method is the statistical representation of the pyrotechnic shock test data measured from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (LL) designed Universal Pyrotechnic Shock Simulator (UPSS). Each pyrotechnic shock test data measured at the interface of a test unit has been analyzed to produce the temporal peak acceleration, Root Mean Square (RMS) acceleration, and the phase lag at each band center frequency. Maximum SRS of each filtered time history has been calculated to produce a relationship between the input and the response. Two new definitions are proposed as a result. The Peak Ratio (PR) is defined as the ratio between the maximum SRS and the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency. The ratio between the maximum SRS and the RMS acceleration is defined as the Energy Ratio (ER) at each band center frequency. Phase lag is estimated based on the time delay between the temporal peak acceleration at each band center frequency and the peak acceleration at the lowest band center frequency. This stochastic process has been applied to more than one hundred pyrotechnic shock test data to produce probabilistic definitions of the PR, ER, and the phase lag. The SRS is decomposed at each band center frequency using damped sinusoids with the PR and the decays obtained by matching the ER of the damped sinusoids to the ER of the test data. The final step in this stochastic SRS decomposition process is the Monte Carlo (MC

  17. The Impact of Visual Guided Order Picking on Ocular Comfort, Ocular Surface and Tear Function

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Theyer, Angelika; Horwath-Winter, Jutta; Rabensteiner, Dieter Franz; Schwantzer, Gerold; Wultsch, Georg; Aminfar, Haleh; Heidinger, Andrea; Boldin, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effects of a visual picking system on ocular comfort, the ocular surface and tear function compared to those of a voice guided picking solution. Design Prospective, observational, cohort study. Method Setting: Institutional. Study Population: A total of 25 young asymptomatic volunteers performed commissioning over 10 hours on two consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: The operators were guided in the picking process by two different picking solutions, either visually or by voice while their subjective symptoms and ocular surface and tear function parameters were recorded. Results The visual analogue scale (VAS) values, according to subjective dry eye symptoms, in the visual condition were significantly higher at the end of the commissioning than the baseline measurements. In the voice condition, the VAS values remained stable during the commissioning. The tear break-up time (BUT) values declined significantly in the visual condition (pre-task: 16.6 sec and post-task: 9.6 sec) in the right eyes, that were exposed to the displays, the left eyes in the visual condition showed only a minor decline, whereas the BUT values in the voice condition remained constant (right eyes) or even increased (left eyes) over the time. No significant differences in the tear meniscus height values before and after the commissioning were observed in either condition. Conclusion In our study, the use of visually guided picking solutions was correlated with post-task subjective symptoms and tear film instability. PMID:27314855

  18. Prospects for improvement of mining machines' cutting picks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopenko, S.; Kurzina, I.; Lesin, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of tangential rotary picks widely used in mining machines are described. A prospective line of picks design improvement has been found based on a change in the principle of destruction. A new design of blade-type cutting picks with a reinforcing tip is proposed having extended service life, requiring less energy for rock breaking, reducing yield of fine dust and increasing the grade of the mined coal.

  19. Decoupling approximation design using the peak to peak gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Cornel

    2013-04-01

    Linear system design for accurate decoupling approximation is examined using the peak to peak gain of the error system. The design problem consists in finding values of system parameters to ensure that this gain is small. For this purpose a computationally inexpensive upper bound on the peak to peak gain, namely the star norm, is minimized using a stochastic method. Examples of the methodology's application to tensegrity structures design are presented. Connections between the accuracy of the approximation, the damping matrix, and the natural frequencies of the system are examined, as well as decoupling in the context of open and closed loop control.

  20. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary. PMID:19162371

  1. Coal/rock interface detection by sensitized pick, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, P. T. K.; Erkes, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to increase the operating margins of the detector for safe, reliable operation under difficult in-mine conditions the transmitted signal strength was increased to provide additional signal margin for in-mine conditions and the transmitter section was redesigned to reduce frequency pulling of the transmitter frequency with variations in antenna load. The linearity of the pick load SCO signal with true pick load was increased, and hysteresis effects were minimized. The sensitized pick hardware was ruggedized for rough inmine use. The sensitized pick and telemetry system provided excellent, high quality signals proportional to cutting load under all conditions experienced during testing.

  2. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Dyar, Melinda D; Schafer, Martha W; Tucker, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  3. Portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J P

    1997-02-01

    There are several portable peak flow meters available. These instruments vary in construction and performance. Guidelines are recommended for minimum performance and testing of portable peak flow meters, with the aim of establishing a procedure for standardizing all peak flow meters. Future studies to clarify the usefulness of mechanical test apparatus and clinical trials of peak flow meters are also recommended. PMID:9098706

  4. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  5. [Niemann-Pick type C disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Kousaku

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which is caused in 95% by a mutation in the NPC1 gene on chromosome 18 or by NPC2 mutation, encoding for 2 different lysosomal lipid transport proteins. The impaired protein function leads to systemic intralysosomal accumulation of free cholesterol and shingolipids particularly in the CNS. In Japan, currently 34 living NPC patients are known as of December 2015. Considering the prevalence of the disease in the Western countries, the real number of NPC patients is most likely to be five-folds higher. For NPC, treatment methods are established and an approved disease-specific medications are available. It is important that patients early in their disease are referred to expert centers, in order to ensure timely initiation of treatment and to delay the progression of neurological symptoms as a goal. PMID:27149732

  6. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  7. Development of sensitized pick coal interface detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchill, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    One approach for detection of the coal interface is measurement of pick cutting loads and shock through the use of pick strain gage load cells and accelerometers. The cutting drum of a long wall mining machine contains a number of cutting picks. In order to measure pick loads and shocks, one pick was instrumented and telemetry used to transmit the signals from the drum to an instrument-type tape recorder. A data system using FM telemetry was designed to transfer cutting bit load and shock information from the drum of a longwall shearer coal mining machine to a chassis mounted data recorder. The design of components in the test data system were finalized, the required instruments were assembled, the instrument system was evaluated in an above-ground simulation test, and an underground test series to obtain tape recorded sensor data was conducted.

  8. Application of a cross correlation-based picking algorithm to an active seismic experiment in Sicily and Aeolian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Alejandro; Álvarez, Isaac; De la Torre, Ángel; García, Luz; Benítez, Ma Carmen; Cortés, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The detection of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is of great importance in many seismology applications. Traditionally, picking has been carried out by human operators. This process is not systematic and relies completely on the expertise and judgment of the analysts. The limitations of manual picking and the increasing amount of data daily stored in the seismic networks worldwide distributed and in active seismic experiments lead to the development of automatic picking algorithms. Current conventional algorithms work with single signals, such as the "short-term average over long-term average" (STA/LTA) algorithm, autoregressive methods or the recently developed "Adaptive Multiband Picking Algorithm" (AMPA). This work proposes a correlation-based picking algorithm, whose main advantage is the fact of using the information of a set of signals, improving the signal to noise ratio and therefore the picking accuracy. The main advantage of this approach is that the algorithm does not require to set up sophisticated parameters, in contrast to other automatic algorithms. The accuracy of the conventional STA/LTA algorithm, the recently developed AMPA algorithm, an autoregressive method, and a preliminary version of the cross correlation-based picking algorithm were assessed using a huge data set composed by active seismic signals from experiments in Tenerife Island (January 2007, Spain). The experiment consisted of the deployment of a dense seismic network on Tenerife Island (125 seismometers in total) and the shooting of air-guns around the island with the Spanish oceanographic vessel Hespérides (6459 air shots in total). Only 110937 signals (13.74% of the total) had the signal to noise ratio enough to be manually picked. Results showed that the use of the cross correlation-based picking algorithm significantly increases the number of signals that can be considered in the tomography. A new active seismic experiment will cover Sicily and Aeolian Islands (TOMO

  9. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  10. Automatic post-picking using MAPPOS improves particle image detection from cryo-EM micrographs.

    PubMed

    Norousi, Ramin; Wickles, Stephan; Leidig, Christoph; Becker, Thomas; Schmid, Volker J; Beckmann, Roland; Tresch, Achim

    2013-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies using single particle reconstruction are extensively used to reveal structural information on macromolecular complexes. Aiming at the highest achievable resolution, state of the art electron microscopes automatically acquire thousands of high-quality micrographs. Particles are detected on and boxed out from each micrograph using fully- or semi-automated approaches. However, the obtained particles still require laborious manual post-picking classification, which is one major bottleneck for single particle analysis of large datasets. We introduce MAPPOS, a supervised post-picking strategy for the classification of boxed particle images, as additional strategy adding to the already efficient automated particle picking routines. MAPPOS employs machine learning techniques to train a robust classifier from a small number of characteristic image features. In order to accurately quantify the performance of MAPPOS we used simulated particle and non-particle images. In addition, we verified our method by applying it to an experimental cryo-EM dataset and comparing the results to the manual classification of the same dataset. Comparisons between MAPPOS and manual post-picking classification by several human experts demonstrated that merely a few hundred sample images are sufficient for MAPPOS to classify an entire dataset with a human-like performance. MAPPOS was shown to greatly accelerate the throughput of large datasets by reducing the manual workload by orders of magnitude while maintaining a reliable identification of non-particle images. PMID:23454482

  11. Brain gangliosides in the presenile dementia of Pick.

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, P E; den Hartog Jager, W A; Maathuis, J; de Groot, P A; de Jong, J M; Bolhuis, P A

    1986-01-01

    Histochemical analysis of frontal and temporal lobes from four patients with Pick presenile dementia indicated intracellular and extracellular deposits of gangliosides. Thin layer chromatography of gangliosides disclosed the presence of an unknown ganglioside, a decrease of N-acetylgalactosamine-GDla and an increase of GTla and/or GD2 in white matter of Pick brain. Chromatography of gray matter and quantitation of the sialic acid content yielded results similar to controls. It is suggested that degradation and removal of gangliosides is incomplete in Pick disease. Images PMID:3746324

  12. Pick-Up and Kicker Electrodes for the CR

    SciTech Connect

    Peschke, C.; Nolden, F.; Thorndahl, L.

    2006-03-20

    The collector ring (CR) of the proposed GSI project FAIR includes a fast stochastic cooling system for exotic nuclei and antiprotons. To reach a good signal to noise ratio of the pick-up even with a low number of particles, a novel pick-up and kicker electrode system based on slotlines is presented. The sensitivity and noise properties of electrode models are calculated. These are compared with other types of electrodes. Different options for signal processing and layout of a pick-up or kicker with many electrodes for different beam velocities are discussed.

  13. Calculation method using Clarkson integration for the physical dose at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tajiri, Minoru; Maeda, Takamasa; Isobe, Yoshiharu; Kuroiwa, Toshitaka; Tanimoto, Katsuyuki; Shibayama, Koichi; Koba, Yusuke; Fukuda, Shigekazu

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: In broad-beam carbon-ion radiotherapy performed using the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba, the number of monitor units is determined by measuring the physical dose at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) for the treatment beam. The total measurement time increases as the number of treatment beams increases, which hinders the treatment of an increased number of patients. Hence, Kusano et al.[Jpn. J. Med. Phys. 23(Suppl. 2), 65-68 (2003)] proposed a method to calculate the physical dose at the center of the SOBP for a treatment beam. Based on a recent study, the authors here propose a more accurate calculation method.Methods: The authors measured the physical dose at the center of the SOBP while varying the circular field size and range-shifter thickness. The authors obtained the physical dose at the center of the SOBP for an irregularly shaped beam using Clarkson integration based on these measurements.Results: The difference between the calculated and measured physical doses at the center of the SOBP varied with a change in the central angle of the sector segment. The differences between the calculated and measured physical doses at the center of the SOBP were within {+-}1% for all irregularly shaped beams that were used to validate the calculation method.Conclusions: The accuracy of the proposed method depends on both the number of angular intervals used for Clarkson integration and the fineness of the basic data used for calculations: sampling numbers for the field size and thickness of the range shifter. If those parameters are properly chosen, the authors can obtain a calculated monitor unit number with high accuracy sufficient for clinical applications.

  14. System for conveyor belt part picking using structured light and 3D pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielemann, J.; Skotheim, Ø.; Nygaard, J. O.; Vollset, T.

    2009-01-01

    Automatic picking of parts is an important challenge to solve within factory automation, because it can remove tedious manual work and save labor costs. One such application involves parts that arrive with random position and orientation on a conveyor belt. The parts should be picked off the conveyor belt and placed systematically into bins. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and robust methods for aligning an input 3D template with a 3D image of the scene. The method uses general and robust pre-processing steps based on geometric primitives that allow the well-known Iterative Closest Point algorithm to converge quickly and robustly to the correct solution. The method has been demonstrated for localization of car parts with random position and orientation. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  15. Weld bead reinforcement removal: A method of improving the strength and ductility of peaked welds in 2219-T87 aluminum alloy plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovoy, C. V.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the degree to which the ductility and tensile properties of peaked welds could be enhanced by removing the reinforcing bead and fairing the weld nugget into the adjacent parent metal are presented. The study employed 2219-T87 aluminum alloy plate, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, and 2319 filler wire. The study concluded that significant improvements in peak weld, ultimate strength, and ductility can be obtained through removal and fairing of the weld reinforcing bead. The specimens so treated and tested in this program exhibited ultimate strength improvements of 2 to 3 percent for peak angles of 5.8 to 10 degrees and 10 to 22 percent for welds with peak angles of 11.7 to 16.9 degrees. It was also determined that removal of the weld bead enhanced the ability of peaked welds to straighten when exposed to cyclic loading at stress levels above the yield strength.

  16. Slow-wave synchronous pick-up and kicker

    SciTech Connect

    DiMassa, G.

    1988-01-01

    Slow-wave synchronous pick-up (PU) and Kicker (K) are proposed for the stochastic cooling of bunched beams in RHIC. A corrugated waveguide is used to support a slow wave that is synchronous with the beam.

  17. Two-dimensional tracking and TDI are consistent methods for evaluating myocardial longitudinal peak strain in left and right ventricle basal segments in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Laura; Toncelli, Loira; Gianassi, Marco; Manetti, Paolo; Di Tante, Valentina; Vono, Maria Robertina Concetta; Moretti, Andrea; Cappelli, Brunello; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Galanti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial contractility can be investigated using longitudinal peak strain. It can be calculated using the Doppler-derived TDI method and the non-Doppler method based on tissue tracking on B-mode images. Both are validated and show good reproducibility, but no comparative analysis of their results has yet been conducted. This study analyzes the results obtained from the basal segments of the ventricular chambers in a group of athletes. Methods 30 regularly-trained athletes were submitted to an echocardiography at rest and after handgrip. Starting from the four-chamber view, overall myocardial function and regional velocities were evaluated. The images obtained were processed to determine strain in left and right ventricle basal segments. Strain was calculated using the TDI method and a validated "speckle tracking" or, more correctly, "feature tracking" algorithm. The statistical analysis included a Student's t-test (p < 0.05). Results The range of strain values obtained is in agreement with the data reported in the literature. In the left ventricle (LV) the average strain values of the basal segments calculated with TDI on IVS and LW at rest and after stress were: -21.05 ± 3.31; -20.41 ± 2.99 and -20.05 ± 2.61; -21.20 ± 2.37, respectively. In the right ventricle (RV) the same method gave IVS and LW strain values at rest of -22.22 ± 2.58 ; -24.42 ± 5.84, and after HG of -22.02 ± 5.20 ;-23.93 ± 6.34. The values obtained using feature tracking were: LV at rest -20.48 ± 2.65 for IVS, and -21.25 ± 2.85 for LW; LV after HG: -19.48 ± 3 for IVS and -21.69 ± 3.85 for LW. In RV at rest: -21.46 ± 3.25 for IVS and -24.13 ± 5.86 for LW; RV after HG: -24.79 ± 7.9 for IVS and -24.13 ± 7.0 for LW. Tissue Doppler and "feature tracking" methods showed the respective consistency of the results in the basal segments of myocardial ventricle walls. Conclusion Provided that echographic imaging is good, strain can be computed in athletes by both Doppler

  18. Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

    2014-07-01

    The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

  19. Peak Experience Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  20. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods. PMID:27258276

  1. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods. PMID:27258276

  2. Atomic identification of fluorescent Q-dots on tau-positive fibrils in 3D-reconstructed pick bodies.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Miho; Adachi, Eijiro; Nakamura, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Uchihara, Toshiki

    2012-04-01

    Pick body disease, characterized by the presence of Pick bodies, is distinguished from neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease on the basis of their smooth, spherical shape. Quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale, water-soluble fluorophores that are detectable both as a fluorescent signal by light microscopy and as electron-dense particles under electron microscopy. In this study, tau-positive Pick bodies were immunofluorescently labeled with QD nanocrystals composed of cadmium selenide for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and subsequently subjected to electron microscopic observation to identify QD immunolabeling on the same Pick body for comparison in detail. The identity of the QD nanocrystals, which label the tau-positive fibrils, was confirmed by the presence of both cadmium and selenium on these nanocrystals, demonstrated as parallel peaks corresponding to these atoms on energy-dispersive X-ray spot analysis under super-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. This confirmation of the specificity of the QD labeling through both its fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra reinforces the reliability of the labeling. In addition, this exact comparison of the same structure by electron microscopy and 3D light microscopy demonstrates how its ultrastructural details are related to its surrounding structures on a 3D basis, providing further insights into how molecules woven into specific pathological ultrastructures are at work in situ. PMID:22322305

  3. Excessive Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Pilot Study of Phenomenological Aspects and Comorbid Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigren, Margareta; Heimann, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 37 individuals (ages 12-30) with Prader-Willi syndrome revealed two-thirds displayed skin picking with a frequency ranging from chronic to transient, episodic symptoms. Many individuals with skin picking also exhibited comorbid picking behaviors And individuals with excessive skin picking also had frequent tantrums and…

  4. Proteomic patterns for classification of ovarian cancer and CTCL serum samples utilizing peak pairs indicative of post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenwei; Shea, Nancy; Rucker, Sally; Harvey, Linda; Russo, Paul; Saul, Richard; Lopez, Mary F; Mikulskis, Alvydas; Kuzdzal, Scott; Golenko, Eva; Fishman, David; Vonderheid, Eric; Booher, Susan; Cowen, Edward W; Hwang, Sam T; Whiteley, Gordon R

    2007-11-01

    Proteomic patterns as a potential diagnostic technology has been well established for several cancer conditions and other diseases. The use of machine learning techniques such as decision trees, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and other methods has been the basis for pattern determination. Cancer is known to involve signaling pathways that are regulated through PTM of proteins. These modifications are also detectable with high confidence using high-resolution MS. We generated data using a prOTOF mass spectrometer on two sets of patient samples: ovarian cancer and cutaneous t-cell lymphoma (CTCL) with matched normal samples for each disease. Using the knowledge of mass shifts caused by common modifications, we built models using peak pairs and compared this to a conventional technique using individual peaks. The results for each disease showed that a small number of peak pairs gave classification equal to or better than the conventional technique that used multiple individual peaks. This simple peak picking technique could be used to guide identification of important peak pairs involved in the disease process. PMID:17952875

  5. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  6. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  7. The use of gas chromatography for the quantitative determination of micro-amounts of insecticide picked up by mosquitos*

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, J. T.; Miskus, R.; Craig, R.

    1964-01-01

    The test method recommended by the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adult mosquitos to insecticides has been evaluated quantitatively by the use of gas chromatography to measure the amount of dieldrin picked up by adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (= C. pipiens fatigans Wiedemann). A strain homozygous for dieldrin-resistance was used to determine the pick-up as a function of time and concentration of dieldrin. The results of experiments using electron-capture detection with gas chromatography suggest that the pick-up is a linear function of the concentration on the paper and also of the time of exposure, even of the 24-hour exposure to the 4.0% dieldrin paper. PMID:14122446

  8. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The rainfall-runoff pairs from the storm-specific GUH analysis were further analyzed against various basin and rainfall characteristics to develop equations to estimate the peak streamflow and flood volume based on a quantity of rainfall on the basin.

  9. Make peak flow a habit!

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  10. Hale Central Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  11. Peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Peak-flow annual exceedance probabilities, also called probability-percent chance flow estimates, and regional regression equations are provided describing the peak-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate peak-flow data. Analysis of Virginia peak-flow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating unregulated peak flow of gaged and ungaged streams. Station peak-flow characteristics identified by fitting the logarithms of annual peak flows to a Log Pearson Type III frequency distribution yield annual exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.4292, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 for 476 streamgaging stations. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression model equations for six physiographic regions to estimate regional annual exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted peak-flow values that combine annual exceedance probabilities computed from gaging station data and from regional regression equations provide improved peak-flow estimates. Text, figures, and lists are provided summarizing selected peak-flow sites, delineated physiographic regions, peak-flow estimates, basin characteristics, regional regression model equations, error estimates, definitions, data sources, and candidate regression model equations. This study supersedes previous studies of peak flows in Virginia.

  12. ActiveSeismoPick3D - automatic first arrival determination for large active seismic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paffrath, Marcel; Küperkoch, Ludger; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    We developed a tool for automatic determination of first arrivals in active seismic data based on an approach, that utilises higher order statistics (HOS) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), commonly used in seismology, but not in active seismics. Automatic picking is highly desirable in active seismics as the number of data provided by large seismic arrays rapidly exceeds of what an analyst can evaluate in a reasonable amount of time. To bring the functionality of automatic phase picking into the context of active data, the software package ActiveSeismoPick3D was developed in Python. It uses a modified algorithm for the determination of first arrivals which searches for the HOS maximum in unfiltered data. Additionally, it offers tools for manual quality control and postprocessing, e.g. various visualisation and repicking functionalities. For flexibility, the tool also includes methods for the preparation of geometry information of large seismic arrays and improved interfaces to the Fast Marching Tomography Package (FMTOMO), which can be used for the prediction of travel times and inversion for subsurface properties. Output files are generated in the VTK format, allowing the 3D visualization of e.g. the inversion results. As a test case, a data set consisting of 9216 traces from 64 shots was gathered, recorded at 144 receivers deployed in a regular 2D array of a size of 100 x 100 m. ActiveSeismoPick3D automatically checks the determined first arrivals by a dynamic signal to noise ratio threshold. From the data a 3D model of the subsurface was generated using the export functionality of the package and FMTOMO.

  13. Comparison of Assurance GDS(®) MPX ID for Top STEC with Reference Culture Methods for the Detection of E. coli Top 6 STEC; Direct Confirmation of Top 6 STEC from Isolation Plates and Determination of Equivalence of PickPen(®) and FSIS OctoMACS™ Concentration Protocols.

    PubMed

    Feldsine, Philip; Lienau, Andrew H; Shah, Khyati; Immermann, Amy; Soliven, Khanh; Kaur, Mandeep; Kerr, David E; Jucker, Markus; Hammack, Tom; Brodsky, Michael; Agin, James

    2016-01-01

    Assurance GDS(®) MPX ID for Top Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC; MPX ID) was validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Foods and Environmental Surfaces as (1) a secondary screening method for specific detection of the Top 6 STEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in raw beef trim, raw ground beef, raw spinach, and on stainless steel; and (2) as a confirmatory method for the identification of pure culture isolates as Top 6 STEC. MPX ID is used in conjunction with the upfront BCS Assurance GDS MPX Top 7 STEC assay. This Performance Tested Method(SM) validation has two main parts: Method Developer studies and the Independent Laboratory study. A total of 180 samples and controls were analyzed. Results showed that MPX ID had no statistically significant differences with the reference culture methods for the detection of Top 6 STEC in the food matrixes (raw beef trim, raw ground beef, and raw spinach) and environmental sponges (stainless steel) studied. Inclusivity/exclusivity studies were also conducted. One hundred percent inclusivity among the 50 Top 6 STEC serovars tested and 100% exclusivity for the 30 non-Top 6 STEC organisms tested were demonstrated. For validation of MPX ID as a confirmatory method for isolated colonies, all inclusivity and exclusivity organisms were streaked for isolation onto five STEC plating media: modified rainbow agar, Levine's eosin-methylene blue (L-EMB) agar, rainbow agar with novobiocin and cefixime, and enterohemolysin agar with selective agents as well as trypticase soy agar with yeast extract. These isolated colonies were suspended and analyzed by Assurance GDS MPX Top 7 STEC and MPX ID. MPX ID was able to correctly confirm all inclusivity organisms from all plate types, except two STEC isolates from L-EMB agar plates only in the Independent Laboratory study. All exclusivity organisms were correctly determined by MPX ID as non

  14. Impact Crater with Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a classic example of a martian impact crater with a central peak. Central peaks are common in large, fresh craters on both Mars and the Moon. This peak formed during the extremely high-energy impact cratering event. In many martian craters the central peak has been either eroded or buried by later sedimentary processes, so the presence of a peak in this crater indicates that the crater is relatively young and has experienced little degradation. Observations of large craters on the Earth and the Moon, as well as computer modeling of the impact process, show that the central peak contains material brought from deep beneath the surface. The material exposed in these peaks will provide an excellent opportunity to study the composition of the martian interior using THEMIS multi-spectral infrared observations. The ejecta material around the crater can is well preserved, again indicating relatively little modification of this landform since its initial creation. The inner walls of this approximately 18 km diameter crater show complex slumping that likely occurred during the impact event. Since that time there has been some downslope movement of material to form the small chutes and gullies that can be seen on the inner crater wall. Small (50-100 m) mega-ripples composed of mobile material can be seen on the floor of the crater. Much of this material may have come from the walls of the crater itself, or may have been blown into the crater by the wind. The Story When a meteor smacked into the surface of Mars with extremely high energy, pow! Not only did it punch an 11-mile-wide crater in the smoother terrain, it created a central peak in the middle of the crater. This peak forms kind of on the 'rebound.' You can see this same effect if you drop a single drop of milk into a glass of milk. With craters, in the heat and fury of the impact, some of the land material can even liquefy. Central peaks like the one

  15. The application of back-propagation neural network to automatic picking seismic arrivals from single-component recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hengchang; MacBeth, Colin

    1997-07-01

    An automatic approach is developed to pick P and S arrivals from single component (1-C) recordings of local earthquake data. In this approach a back propagation neural network (BPNN) accepts a normalized segment (window of 40 samples) of absolute amplitudes from the 1-C recordings as its input pattern, calculating two output values between 0 and 1. The outputs (0,1) or (1,0) correspond to the presence of an arrival or background noise within a moving window. The two outputs form a time series. The P and S arrivals are then retrieved from this series by using a threshold and a local maximum rule. The BPNN is trained by only 10 pairs of P arrivals and background noise segments from the vertical component (V-C) recordings. It can also successfully pick seismic arrivals from the horizontal components (E-W and N-S). Its performance is different for each of the three components due to strong effects of ray path and source position on the seismic waveforms. For the data from two stations of TDP3 seismic network, the success rates are 93%, 89%, and 83% for P arrivals and 75%, 91%, and 87% for S arrivals from the V-C, E-W, and N-S recordings, respectively. The accuracy of the onset times picked from each individual 1-C recording is similar. Adding a constraint on the error to be 10 ms (one sample increment), 66%, 59% and 63% of the P arrivals and 53%, 61%, and 58% of the S arrivals are picked from the V-C, E-W and N-S recordings respectively. Its performance is lower than a similar three-component picking approach but higher than other 1-C picking methods.

  16. 61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Picking Floor, Large Pile of Waste Rock and Wood date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  17. A Conjunctive Parallelogram Model for Pick Any/"n" Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenen, Iwin; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a multidimensional generalization of Coombs' (1964) parallelogram model for "pick any/'n'" data, which result from each of a number of subjects having selected a number of objects (s)he likes most from a prespecified set of "n" objects. In the model, persons and objects are represented in a low dimensional space defined by a…

  18. Start the Year Right-Discover Pick's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcock, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Describes a problem to challenge students as they come back from summer vacation. Working in small groups, students discover Pick's Theorem, the formula to calculate the area of a polygon constructed on a geoboard. A writing assignment evaluates the students' efforts. (MDH)

  19. Systematic Approaches to Experimentation: The Case of Pick's Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two 10th graders having an accumulated experience on problem-solving ancillary to the concept of area confronted the task to find Pick's formula for a lattice polygon's area. The formula was omitted from the theorem in order for the students to read the theorem as a problem to be solved. Their working is examined and emphasis is…

  20. "Micro-robots" pick up a glass bead

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    "Micro-robots", which are really collections of particles animated by magnetic fields, pick up a glass bead and move it around the screen. Each movement is precisely controlled. The "asters" were designed by Alexey Snezkho and Igor Aronson at Argonne National Laboratory. Video courtesy Nature Materials. Read the full story at http://go.usa.gov/KAT

  1. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  2. INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

    1984-01-01

    The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

  3. Peak of Desire

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Bargh, John A.

    2008-01-01

    In three studies, we explore the existence of an evolved sensitivity to the peak as consistent with the evolutionary origins of many of our basic preferences. Activating the evolved motive of mating activates related adaptive mechanisms, including a general sensitivity to cues of growth and decay associated with determining mate value in human courtship. We establish that priming the mating goal also activates as well an evaluative bias that influences how people evaluate cues of growth. Specifically, living kinds that are immature or past their prime are devalued, whereas living kinds at their peak become increasingly valued. Study 1 establishes this goal-driven effect for human stimuli indirectly related to the mating goal. Studies 2 and 3 establish that the evaluative bias produced by the active mating goal extends to living kinds but not artifacts. PMID:18578847

  4. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  5. DIAMOND PEAK WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    No metallic mineral resources were identified during a mineral survey of the Diamond Peak Wilderness in Oregon. Cinder cones within the wilderness contain substantial cinder resources, but similar deposits that are more accessible occur outside the wilderness. The area could have geothermal resources, but available data are insufficient to evaluate their potential. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas of the High Cascades outside the wilderness, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the several Cascade wilderness could be made.

  6. The peak effect in bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor with CeO2 doping by the infiltration growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Wei; Chen, In-Gann; Chen, Shih-Yun; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2011-08-01

    In this study, large single grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) superconductors with CeO2 addition were fabricated by the infiltration and growth (IG) technique. It is noticeable that the CeO2 doped IG-YBCO sample showed a superior critical current density Jc(H, T) with a peak effect. The Jc (3 T, 65 K) of the IG-YBCO sample with CeO2 addition reached 105 A cm - 2, which was two times higher than that of the CeO2 doped top-seeded melt texture (TSMT)-YBCO sample. Microstructure analysis indicated that the concentration of Sm in the CeO2 doped IG-YBCO sample was 0.2 mol%. The Sm which dissolved from the SmBCO seed diffused into the bulk to form compositional fluctuations of (Y, Sm)BCO and was correlated to the effective pinning in high field regions (or peak effect) to improve the Jc(H, T) in high fields. In addition, the maximum trapped field value of 0.23 T and trapped field profile of the CeO2 doped sample grown by IG are larger than that of 0.13 T grown by TSMT using the same diameter of precursor pellets.

  7. Implementation and testing of a real-time 3-component phase picking program for Earthworm using the CECM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, B. I.; Friberg, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern seismic networks typically deploy three component (3C) sensors, but still fail to utilize all of the information available in the seismograms when performing automated phase picking for real-time event location. In most cases a variation on a short term over long term average threshold detector is used for picking and then an association program is used to assign phase types to the picks. However, the 3C waveforms from an earthquake contain an abundance of information related to the P and S phases in both their polarization and energy partitioning. An approach that has been overlooked and has demonstrated encouraging results is the Component Energy Comparison Method (CECM) by Nagano et al. as published in Geophysics 1989. CECM is well suited to being used in real-time because the calculation is not computationally intensive. Furthermore, the CECM method has fewer tuning variables (3) than traditional pickers in Earthworm such as the Rex Allen algorithm (N=18) or even the Anthony Lomax Filter Picker module (N=5). In addition to computing the CECM detector we study the detector sensitivity by rotating the signal into principle components as well as estimating the P phase onset from a curvature function describing the CECM as opposed to the CECM itself. We present our results implementing this algorithm in a real-time module for Earthworm and show the improved phase picks as compared to the traditional single component pickers using Earthworm.

  8. Kitt Peak speckle camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Mcalister, H. A.; Robinson, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The speckle camera in regular use at Kitt Peak National Observatory since 1974 is described in detail. The design of the atmospheric dispersion compensation prisms, the use of film as a recording medium, the accuracy of double star measurements, and the next generation speckle camera are discussed. Photographs of double star speckle patterns with separations from 1.4 sec of arc to 4.7 sec of arc are shown to illustrate the quality of image formation with this camera, the effects of seeing on the patterns, and to illustrate the isoplanatic patch of the atmosphere.

  9. Prediction of left ventricular peak ejection velocity by preceding and prepreceding RR intervals in atrial fibrillation: a new method to adjust the influence between two intervals.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hong Sook; Lee, Kwang Je; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Chee Jeong; Ryu, Wang Seong

    2002-01-01

    In atrial fibrillation, cardiac performance is dependent on both preceding RR (RR-1) and prepreceding RR (RR-2) intervals. However, relative contributions were not well defined. Left ventricular outflow peak ejection velocity (Vpe) was measured by echocardiography from 21 patients. The relation between RR-1 and Vpe could be divided into two zones; steep slope in short RR-1 intervals (< or =0.5 sec) and plateau in long RR-1 intervals (> 0.5 sec). RR-2 had a weak negative association with Vpe. The mean squared correlation coefficient (r2) between RR-2 and Vpe was 0.15 +/-0.13 and improved to 0.29+/-0.21 (p<0.001), when coordinates with RR-1 < or =0.5 sec were excluded. The RR-1 was positively associated with Vpe. The mean r2 between RR-1 and Vpe was 0.52+/-0.17 and improved to 0.72+/-0.11 (p<0.001), when adjusted by RR-2. Simple linear regression analysis showed that mean RR interval, age, fractional shortening (FS), and mean peak velocity were negatively correlated with modified r2 between RR-2 and Vpe. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that mean RR interval (r2=0.32) and FS (r2=0.16) were significant. In summary, simple modification could improve the relationship of both RR-1 and RR-2 with cardiac performance. RR-2 might play a more role in cardiac performance than previously expected, and when cardiac function was impaired. PMID:12482995

  10. P and S automatic picks for 3D earthquake tomography in NE Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovisa, L.; Bragato, P.; Gentili, S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake tomography is useful to study structural and geological features of the crust. In particular, it uses P and S arrival times for reconstructing weaves velocity fields and locating earthquakes hypocenters. However, tomography needs a large effort to provide a high number of manual picks. On the other side, many automatic picking methods have been proposed, but they are usually applied to preliminary elaboration of the data (fast alert and automatic bulletin generation); they are generally considered not reliable for tomography. In this work, we present and discuss the results of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs tomographies obtained using automatic picks generated by the system TAPNEI (Gentili and Bragato 2006), applied in the NE Italy. Preliminarily, in order to estimate the error in comparison with the unknown true arrival times, an analysis on the picking quality is done. The tests have been performed using two dataset: the first is made up by 240 earthquakes automatically picked by TAPNEI; the second counts in the same earthquakes but manually picked (OGS database). The grid and the software used to perform tomography (Sim28, Michelini and Mc Evilly, 1991) are the same in the two cases. Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs fields of the two tomographies and their differences are shown on vertical sections. In addiction, the differences in earthquakes locations are studied; in particular, the quality of the accuracy of the localizations has been analyzed by estimating the distance of the hypocenter distributions with respect to the manual locations. The analysis include also a qualitative comparison with an independent tomography (Gentile et al., 2000) performed using Simulps (Evans et al, 1994) on a set of 224 earthquakes accurately selected and manually relocated. The quality of the pickings and the comparison with the tomography obtained by manual data suggest that earthquake tomography with automatic data can provide reliable results. We suggest the use of such data when a large

  11. A Preliminary Analysis of the Phenomenology of Skin-Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica R.; Storch, Eric A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bodzin, Danielle; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the nature and psychosocial correlates of skin-picking behavior in youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Parents of 67 youth (aged 5-19 years) with PWS were recruited to complete an internet-based survey that included measures of: skin-picking behaviors, the automatic and/or focused nature of skin-picking, severity of skin-picking…

  12. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1235 U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1236 U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1235 U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1236 - U.S. Fancy Hand Picked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. 51.1236 Section 51.1236 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Shell Grades § 51.1236 U.S. Fancy Hand Picked. U.S. Fancy Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned...

  2. Multiscale peak alignment for chromatographic datasets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Lu, Hong-Mei; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Na; Ferro, Miguel

    2012-02-01

    Chromatography has been extensively applied in many fields, such as metabolomics and quality control of herbal medicines. Preprocessing, especially peak alignment, is a time-consuming task prior to the extraction of useful information from the datasets by chemometrics and statistics. To accurately and rapidly align shift peaks among one-dimensional chromatograms, multiscale peak alignment (MSPA) is presented in this research. Peaks of each chromatogram were detected based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and aligned against a reference chromatogram from large to small scale gradually, and the aligning procedure is accelerated by fast Fourier transform cross correlation. The presented method was compared with two widely used alignment methods on chromatographic dataset, which demonstrates that MSPA can preserve the shapes of peaks and has an excellent speed during alignment. Furthermore, MSPA method is robust and not sensitive to noise and baseline. MSPA was implemented and is available at http://code.google.com/p/mspa. PMID:22222564

  3. The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

    2011-05-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression. PMID:21524372

  4. Positronium in Solids: Computer Simulation of Pick-Off and Self-Annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Bug, A; Muluneh, M; Waldman, J; Sterne, P

    2003-08-01

    Positronium (Ps) is simulated using Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC). This method can reproduce the results of previous simple theories in which a single quantum particle is used to represent Ps within an idealized pore. In addition, the calculations treat the e{sup -} and e{sup +} of Ps exactly and realistically model interactions with solid atoms, thereby correcting and extending the simpler theory. They study the pick-off lifetime of o-Ps and the internal contact density, {kappa}, which controls the self-annihilation behavior, for Ps in model voids (spherical pores), defects in a solid (argon), and microporous solids (zeolites).

  5. A method of measuring the peak flow rate and the regurgitant volume of regurgitation based on the characteristics of turbulent free jets.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, M; Hirai, A; Seo, Y; Miyajima, Y; Uchibori, T

    1991-01-01

    The issuing flow rate of a jet, Q0, is given by Q0 = U0A, where U0 is the issuing velocity of the jet and A is the cross-sectional area of the orifice. However, measurement of A of a regurgitant jet in the cardiovascular system is difficult. On the assumption that the jet is 'free' and turbulent, the following relations apply between the diameter of the orifice D, the length of the core region of the jet L, the centerline velocity of the jet Uc(chi) at an arbitrary distance chi(greater than L) from the orifice, and U0:L = 6.8D and Uc(chi)/U0 = L/chi. From these equations we obtain Q0 = 0.017 (chi Uc(chi))2/U0. Pulsatile jets issuing into an aqueous glycerol bath through orifices with various diameters were studied. U0, chi and Uc(chi) were measured with a color Doppler system. There was a good linear correlation between the peak flow rates estimated from the above equation and those measured with a flowmeter irrespective of the diameter of orifices (y = 0.93 chi + 3.8, r = 0.95, SEE = 6.6 ml/s). Assuming that the flow rate waveform is similar to the issuing velocity waveform, we estimated the issuing volume per stroke by integrating the issuing velocity. There was a good linear correlation between the estimated issuing volume and the known stroke volume of the pump (y = 1.0 chi + 2.6, r = 0.92, SEE = 2.8 ml). PMID:1854673

  6. The Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS): initial development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Walther, Michael R; Flessner, Christopher A; Conelea, Christine A; Woods, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin picking (MIDAS), a measure designed to assess "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. Data were collected from 92 participants who completed an anonymous internet-based survey. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution. Factors 1 ("focused" picking scale) and 2 ("automatic" picking scale) each consisted of 6 items, and preliminary data demonstrated adequate internal consistency, good construct validity, and good discriminant validity. The MIDAS provides researchers with a reliable and valid assessment of "automatic" and "focused" skin picking. PMID:18725154

  7. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  8. Syntabulin regulates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles in neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyu; Wang, Na; Luo, Jian-Hong; Xia, Jun

    2016-01-01

    PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1) is a peripheral membrane protein that interacts with diverse membrane proteins. PICK1 has been shown to regulate the clustering and membrane localization of synaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 7, and ASICs (acid-sensing ion channels). Moreover, recent evidence suggests that PICK1 can mediate the trafficking of various vesicles out from the Golgi complex in several cell systems, including neurons. However, how PICK1 affects vesicle-trafficking dynamics remains unexplored. Here, we show that PICK1 mediates vesicle trafficking by interacting with syntabulin, a kinesin-binding protein that mediates the trafficking of both synaptic vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Syntabulin recruits PICK1 onto microtubule structures and mediates the trafficking of PICK1-containing vesicles along microtubules. In neurons, syntabulin alters PICK1 expression by recruiting PICK1 into axons and regulates the trafficking dynamics of PICK1-containing vesicles. Furthermore, we show that syntabulin forms a complex with PICK1 and ASICs, regulates ASIC protein expression in neurons, and participates in ASIC-induced acidotoxicity. PMID:26868290

  9. Particle quality assessment and sorting for automatic and semiautomatic particle-picking techniques.

    PubMed

    Vargas, J; Abrishami, V; Marabini, R; de la Rosa-Trevín, J M; Zaldivar, A; Carazo, J M; Sorzano, C O S

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of biological specimens using electron microscopy by single particle methodologies requires the identification and extraction of the imaged particles from the acquired micrographs. Automatic and semiautomatic particle selection approaches can localize these particles, minimizing the user interaction, but at the cost of selecting a non-negligible number of incorrect particles, which can corrupt the final three-dimensional reconstruction. In this work, we present a novel particle quality assessment and sorting method that can separate most erroneously picked particles from correct ones. The proposed method is based on multivariate statistical analysis of a particle set that has been picked previously using any automatic or manual approach. The new method uses different sets of particle descriptors, which are morphology-based, histogram-based and signal to noise analysis based. We have tested our proposed algorithm with experimental data obtaining very satisfactory results. The algorithm is freely available as a part of the Xmipp 3.0 package [http://xmipp.cnb.csic.es]. PMID:23933392

  10. Automatic picking and earthquake relocation for the Antilles subduction zone (1972-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massin, F.; Amorèse, D.; Bengoubou-Valerius, M.; Bernard, M.

    2013-12-01

    Locations for earthquake recorded in the Antilles subduction zone are processed separately by regional observatories and ISC. There is no earthquake location catalog available compiling all available first arrival data. We aim to produce a best complete earthquake catalog by merging all available first arrival data for better constrains on earthquake locations. ISC provides the first arrival data of 29243 earthquakes (magnitude range from 1.4 to 6.4) recorded by PRSN (Porto Rico), SRC (British West Indies), and form FUNVISIS (Venezuela). IPGP provided the first arrival data of 68718 earthquakes (magnitude from 0.1 to 7.5) recorded by OVSG (Guadeloupe, 53226 earthquakes since 1981) and by OVSM (Martinique, 29931 earthquakes since 1972). IPGP also provides the accelerometer waveform data of the GIS-RAP network in the Antilles. The final catalog contains 84979 earthquakes between 1972 and 2013, 24528 of which we compiled additional data. We achieved automatic picking using the Component Energy Correlation Method. The CECM provide high precision phase detection, a realistic estimation of picking error and realistic weights that can be used with manual pick weights. The CECM add an average of 3 P-waves and 2 S-waves arrivals to 3846 earthquakes recoded by the GIS-RAP network since 2002. Cluster analysis, earthquake local tomography and relative locations are to be applied in order to image active faulting and migration of seismicity. This will help to understand seismic coupling in the seismogenic zone as well as triggering mechanisms of intermediate depth seismicity like fluid migration beneath the volcanic arc.

  11. Single-pulse picking at kHz repetition rates using a Ge plasma switch at the free-electron laser FELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. Helm, M.; Winnerl, S.; Seidel, W.; Schneider, H.; Bauer, C.; Gensch, M.

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate a system for picking of mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) radiation pulses from the free-electron laser (FEL) FELBE operating at a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Single pulses are reflected by a dense electron-hole plasma in a Ge slab that is photoexcited by amplified near-infrared (NIR) laser systems operating at repetition rates of 1 kHz and 100 kHz, respectively. The peak intensity of picked pulses is up to 400 times larger than the peak intensity of residual pulses. The required NIR fluence for picking pulses at wavelengths in the range from 5 μm to 30 μm is discussed. In addition, we show that the reflectivity of the plasma decays on a time scale from 100 ps to 1 ns dependent on the wavelengths of the FEL and the NIR laser. The plasma switch enables experiments with the FEL that require high peak power but lower average power. Furthermore, the system is well suited to investigate processes with decay times in the μs to ms regime, i.e., much longer than the 77 ns long pulse repetition period of FELBE.

  12. Single-pulse picking at kHz repetition rates using a Ge plasma switch at the free-electron laser FELBE.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J; Winnerl, S; Seidel, W; Bauer, C; Gensch, M; Schneider, H; Helm, M

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a system for picking of mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) radiation pulses from the free-electron laser (FEL) FELBE operating at a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Single pulses are reflected by a dense electron-hole plasma in a Ge slab that is photoexcited by amplified near-infrared (NIR) laser systems operating at repetition rates of 1 kHz and 100 kHz, respectively. The peak intensity of picked pulses is up to 400 times larger than the peak intensity of residual pulses. The required NIR fluence for picking pulses at wavelengths in the range from 5 μm to 30 μm is discussed. In addition, we show that the reflectivity of the plasma decays on a time scale from 100 ps to 1 ns dependent on the wavelengths of the FEL and the NIR laser. The plasma switch enables experiments with the FEL that require high peak power but lower average power. Furthermore, the system is well suited to investigate processes with decay times in the μs to ms regime, i.e., much longer than the 77 ns long pulse repetition period of FELBE. PMID:26133824

  13. Multiscale peak detection in wavelet space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Tong, Xia; Peng, Ying; Ma, Pan; Zhang, Ming-Jin; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-12-01

    Accurate peak detection is essential for analyzing high-throughput datasets generated by analytical instruments. Derivatives with noise reduction and matched filtration are frequently used, but they are sensitive to baseline variations, random noise and deviations in the peak shape. A continuous wavelet transform (CWT)-based method is more practical and popular in this situation, which can increase the accuracy and reliability by identifying peaks across scales in wavelet space and implicitly removing noise as well as the baseline. However, its computational load is relatively high and the estimated features of peaks may not be accurate in the case of peaks that are overlapping, dense or weak. In this study, we present multi-scale peak detection (MSPD) by taking full advantage of additional information in wavelet space including ridges, valleys, and zero-crossings. It can achieve a high accuracy by thresholding each detected peak with the maximum of its ridge. It has been comprehensively evaluated with MALDI-TOF spectra in proteomics, the CAMDA 2006 SELDI dataset as well as the Romanian database of Raman spectra, which is particularly suitable for detecting peaks in high-throughput analytical signals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that MSPD can detect more true peaks while keeping the false discovery rate lower than MassSpecWavelet and MALDIquant methods. Superior results in Raman spectra suggest that MSPD seems to be a more universal method for peak detection. MSPD has been designed and implemented efficiently in Python and Cython. It is available as an open source package at . PMID:26514234

  14. Data fusion analysis of a surface direct-current resistivity and well pick data set

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. This report discusses the results of evaluating a surface direct-current (dc) resistivity and well-pick data set using two methods: data fusion technology and commercially available software (i.e., RESIX Plus from Interpex Ltd., Golden, Colorado), the conventional method of analysis. The report compares the two technologies; describes the survey, procedures, and results; and includes conclusions and recommendations. The surface dc resistivity and well-pick data set had been acquired by PNL from a study performed in May 1993 at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska. The resistivity survey data were acquired to map the top of permafrost in support of a hydrogeologic study. This data set provided an excellent opportunity to test and refine the dc resistivity capabilities of the DFW; previously, the data fusion software was untested on dc resistivity data. The DFW was used to evaluate the dc resistivity survey data and to produce a 3-dimensional earth model of the study area.

  15. A contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Controlled movement and pick up of small object from a rigid surface is a primary challenge in many applications. In this paper, a contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles within deionized water from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force is presented. In order to achieve this, an acoustic radiation force was generated by 1.75 MHz transducers. A custom built setup facilitates the optimization of the sound field by varying the parameters such as sound source size and source position. The three-dimensional pressure distributions are measured and its relative sound field is also characterized accordingly. The standing wave field has been formed and it is mainly composed of two obliquely incident plane waves and their reflectors. We demonstrated the gripping and positioning of silica beads, SiO2, and aluminum micro-particles of 100 μm to 500 μm in size with this method using acoustic radiation force. The acoustic radiation force generated is well controlled, contactless, and in the tens of nano-Newton range which allowed us to manipulate relative big micro objects such as MEMS components as well as moving objects such as living cells. The proposed method provided an alternative form of contactless operating environment with scalable dimensions suitable for the manipulating of small objects. This permits high-throughput processing and reduction in time required for MEMS assembling, cell biomechanics, and biotechnology applications.

  16. Stellar wind interaction and pick-up ion escape of the Kepler-11 "super-Earths"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Johnstone, C. P.; Odert, P.; Erkaev, N. V.; Lammer, H.; Lüftinger, T.; Holmström, M.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Güdel, M.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We study the interactions between stellar winds and the extended hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres of planets. We estimate the resulting escape of planetary pick-up ions from the five "super-Earths" in the compact Kepler-11 system and compare the escape rates with the efficiency of the thermal escape of neutral hydrogen atoms. Methods: Assuming the stellar wind of Kepler-11 is similar to the solar wind, we use a polytropic 1D hydrodynamic wind model to estimate the wind properties at the planetary orbits. We apply a direct simulation Monte Carlo model to model the hydrogen coronae and the stellar wind plasma interaction around Kepler-11b-f within a realistic expected heating efficiency range of 15-40%. The same model is used to estimate the ion pick-up escape from the XUV heated and hydrodynamically extended upper atmospheres of Kepler-11b-f. From the interaction model, we study the influence of possible magnetic moments, calculate the charge exchange and photoionization production rates of planetary ions, and estimate the loss rates of pick-up H+ ions for all five planets. We compare the results between the five "super-Earths" and the thermal escape rates of the neutral planetary hydrogen atoms. Results: Our results show that a huge neutral hydrogen corona is formed around the planet for all Kepler-11b-f exoplanets. The non-symmetric form of the corona changes from planet to planet and is defined mostly by radiation pressure and gravitational effects. Non-thermal escape rates of pick-up ionized hydrogen atoms for Kepler-11 "super-Earths" vary between ~6.4 × 1030 s-1 and ~4.1 × 1031 s-1, depending on the planet's orbital location and assumed heating efficiency. These values correspond to non-thermal mass loss rates of ~1.07 × 107 g s-1 and ~6.8 × 107 g s-1 respectively, which is a few percent of the thermal escape rates.

  17. Make peak flow a habit!

    MedlinePlus

    Checking your peak flow is one of the best ways to control your asthma and to keep it from getting worse. Asthma attacks ... Most times, they build slowly. Checking your peak flow can tell you if an attack is coming, ...

  18. Wear Assessment of Conical Pick used in Coal Cutting Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-09-01

    Conical pick is a widely used tool for cutting coal in mines. It has a cemented carbide tip inserted in a steel body. Cemented carbide has been in use for many years for coal/rock cutting because it has the optimum combination of hardness, toughness and resistance against abrasive wear. As coal/rock is a heterogeneous substance, the cutting tool has to undergo various obstructions at the time of excavation that cause the tool to wear out. The cracks and fractures developing in the cemented carbide limit the life of the tool. For a long time, different wear mechanisms have been studied to develop improved grades of cemented carbide with high wear resistance properties. The research is still continuing. Moreover, due to the highly unpredictable nature of coal/rock, it is not easy to understand the wear mechanisms. In the present work, an attempt has been made to understand the wear mechanisms in four conical picks, which were used in a continuous miner machine for underground mining of coal. The wearing pattern of the conical pick indicates damage in its cemented carbide tip as well as the steel body. The worn out parts of the tools have been critically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) point analysis. Mainly four types of wear mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, plastic deformation, rock channel formation and crushing and cracking, have been detected. The presence of coal/rock material and their respective concentrations in the selected area of worn out surface were observed using the spectra generated by EDX analysis.

  19. Psychosocial dysfunction associated with skin picking disorder and trichotillomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-05-30

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common and oftentimes disabling disorders. 125 Participants with SPD and 152 with TTM undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluation, and were grouped according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of psychosocial dysfunction. Relationships between functional impairment and other variables were explored using linear regression and categorical analyses. Greater functional impairment was associated with worse disease severity in both groups, and by later symptom onset and lower quality of life in TTM subjects. These results indicate that levels of self-reported psychosocial dysfunction have a strong association with specific clinical aspects of SPD and TTM. PMID:27137963

  20. Collision free pick up and movement of large objects

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.D.; McKee, G.R.

    1998-08-01

    An automated system is described for the sensor-based precision docking and manipulation of large objects. Past work in the remote handling of large nuclear waste containers is extensible to the problems associated with the handling of large objects such as coils of flat steel in industry. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing as described here are used to control the precision docking of large objects, and swing damped motion control of overhead cranes is used to control the position of the pick up device and suspended payload during movement. Real-time sensor processing and model-based control are used to accurately position payloads.

  1. A practical method for determining γ-ray full-energy peak efficiency considering coincidence-summing and self-absorption corrections for the measurement of environmental samples after the Fukushima reactor accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Oba, Yurika; Takada, Momo

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining the γ-ray full-energy peak efficiency at positions close to three Ge detectors and at the well port of a well-type detector was developed for measuring environmental volume samples containing 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The efficiency was estimated by considering two correction factors: coincidence-summing and self-absorption corrections. The coincidence-summing correction for a cascade transition nuclide was estimated by an experimental method involving measuring a sample at the far and close positions of a detector. The derived coincidence-summing correction factors were compared with those of analytical and Monte Carlo simulation methods and good agreements were obtained. Differences in the matrix of the calibration source and the environmental sample resulted in an increase or decrease of the full-energy peak counts due to the self-absorption of γ-rays in the sample. The correction factor was derived as a function of the densities of several matrix materials. The present method was applied to the measurement of environmental samples and also low-level radioactivity measurements of water samples using the well-type detector.

  2. Robust 3D object localization and pose estimation for random bin picking with the 3DMaMa algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotheim, Øystein; Thielemann, Jens T.; Berge, Asbjørn; Sommerfelt, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Enabling robots to automatically locate and pick up randomly placed and oriented objects from a bin is an important challenge in factory automation, replacing tedious and heavy manual labor. A system should be able to recognize and locate objects with a predefined shape and estimate the position with the precision necessary for a gripping robot to pick it up. We describe a system that consists of a structured light instrument for capturing 3D data and a robust approach for object location and pose estimation. The method does not depend on segmentation of range images, but instead searches through pairs of 2D manifolds to localize candidates for object match. This leads to an algorithm that is not very sensitive to scene complexity or the number of objects in the scene. Furthermore, the strategy for candidate search is easily reconfigurable to arbitrary objects. Experiments reported in this paper show the utility of the method on a general random bin picking problem, in this paper exemplified by localization of car parts with random position and orientation. Full pose estimation is done in less than 380 ms per image. We believe that the method is applicable for a wide range of industrial automation problems where precise localization of 3D objects in a scene is needed.

  3. A Monolithic Confocal Laser Coupler For an Optical Pick-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Doi, Masato; YoshinobuHiguchi, YoshinobuHiguchi; Taniguchi, Takehiro; NobukataOkano, NobukataOkano; Nakao, Takashi; Narui, Hironobu; Matsuda, Osamu

    1999-04-01

    We propose a novel optical pick-up using a confocal lasercoupler for an optical disk player. The laser coupler consists of aglass window and a monolithic optical element which includes a laserdiode, 8 photodiodes, and a pyramid-shaped prism mirror positionednear the confocal plane which acts as a knife edge and aphoto-coupler. The focusing-error signal is detected using theconfocal knife edge (CKE) method and the tracking-error signal isdetected using the CKE push-pull method. The jitter of Compact Disc(CD) readout was 6.7 ns at a line velocity of 1.2 m/s, and the DCoffsets of the tracking-error signal were sppressed to less than 1/3for a radial lens displacement of ±400 µm compared to theconventional push-pull method.

  4. Types A and B Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Schuchman, Edward H; Wasserstein, Melissa P

    2016-06-01

    Two distinct metabolic abnormalities are included under the eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Patients with ASM deficiency are classified as having types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Type A NPD patients exhibit hepatosplenomegaly, frequent pulmonary infections, and profound central nervous system involvement in infancy. They rarely survive beyond two years of age. Type B patients also have hepatosplenomegaly and progressive alterations of their lungs, but there are usually no central nervous system signs. The age of onset and rate of disease progression varies greatly among type B patients, and they frequently live into adulthood. Recently, patients with phenotypes intermediate between types A and B NPD also have been identified. These individuals represent the expected continuum caused by inheriting different mutations in the ASM gene (SMPD1). Patients in the second category are designated as having type C NPD. Impaired intracellular trafficking of cholesterol causes type C NPD, and two distinct gene defects have been found. In this chapter only types A and B NPD will be discussed. PMID:27491215

  5. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    PubMed

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders. PMID:18487502

  6. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  7. Structure of human Niemann–Pick C1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann–Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a “sterol-sensing domain” (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2–13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  8. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes. PMID:26070103

  9. Axial Vibration Characteristics Considering a Moving Pick-Up Unit for the Flexible Optical Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jun Hyeon; Rhim, Yoon Chul

    2011-09-01

    The axial vibration characteristics of the flexible optical disk are investigated experimentally considering the pick-up window and the geometry of a moving pick-up. The axial runout of the disk is measured by using a laser displacement sensor along the four perpendicular radial directions. Measurements are conducted with respect to the shapes of pick-up faces, which have different radius of curvatures, as well as to the positions of the moving pick-up. A flat stabilizer with damping orifices is used in the experiment and the disk is rotated at 8,000, 10,000, and 12,000 rpm. The axial runouts and the displacements of the disk are measured for 6 different shaped pick-ups. The smallest axial runout of 10 µm, which is well manageable for the current optical disk drive technology, is obtained when we use the curved pick-up with curvatures of 400 mm in the direction of disk rotation.

  10. Functional Regulation of Dopamine D3 Receptor through Interaction with PICK1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaohan; Min, Chengchun; Choi, Bo-Gil; Oh, In-Joon; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2016-01-01

    PICK1, a PDZ domain-containing protein, is known to increase the reuptake activities of dopamine transporters by increasing their expressions on the cell surface. Here, we report a direct and functional interaction between PICK1 and dopamine D3 receptors (D3R), which act as autoreceptors to negatively regulate dopaminergic neurons. PICK1 colocalized with both dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and D3R in clusters but exerted different functional influences on them. The cell surface expression, agonist affinity, endocytosis, and signaling of D2R were unaffected by the coexpression of PICK1. On the other hand, the surface expression and tolerance of D3R were inhibited by the coexpression of PICK1. These findings show that PICK1 exerts multiple effects on D3R functions. PMID:27169823

  11. Visualization of boundaries in volumetric data sets through a what material you pick is what boundary you see approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Peng, Hu; Chen, Xun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Transfer function design is a key issue in direct volume rendering. Many sophisticated transfer functions have been proposed to visualize boundaries in volumetric data sets such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, it is still conventionally challenging to reliably detect boundaries. Meanwhile, the interactive strategy is complicated for new users or even experts. In this paper, we first propose the human-centric boundary extraction criteria and our boundary model. Based on the model we present a boundary visualization method through a what material you pick is what boundary you see approach. Users can pick out the material of interest to directly convey semantics. In addition, the 3-D canny edge detection is utilized to ensure the good localization of boundaries. Furthermore, we establish a point-to-material distance measure to guarantee the accuracy and integrity of boundaries. The proposed boundary visualization is intuitive and flexible for the exploration of volumetric data. PMID:26796353

  12. Predicting Peak Flows following Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Dobre, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Following forest fires, peak flows in perennial and ephemeral streams often increase by a factor of 10 or more. This increase in peak flow rate may overwhelm existing downstream structures, such as road culverts, causing serious damage to road fills at stream crossings. In order to predict peak flow rates following wildfires, we have applied two different tools. One is based on the U.S.D.A Natural Resource Conservation Service Curve Number Method (CN), and the other is by applying the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) to the watershed. In our presentation, we will describe the science behind the two methods, and present the main variables for each model. We will then provide an example of a comparison of the two methods to a fire-prone watershed upstream of the City of Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, where a fire spread model was applied for current fuel loads, and for likely fuel loads following a fuel reduction treatment. When applying the curve number method, determining the time to peak flow can be problematic for low severity fires because the runoff flow paths are both surface and through shallow lateral flow. The WEPP watershed version incorporates shallow lateral flow into stream channels. However, the version of the WEPP model that was used for this study did not have channel routing capabilities, but rather relied on regression relationships to estimate peak flows from individual hillslope polygon peak runoff rates. We found that the two methods gave similar results if applied correctly, with the WEPP predictions somewhat greater than the CN predictions. Later releases of the WEPP model have incorporated alternative methods for routing peak flows that need to be evaluated.

  13. Calcium Binding to PICK1 is Essential for the Intracellular Retention of AMPA Receptors Underlying LTD

    PubMed Central

    Citri, Ami; Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Ma, Cong; Morishita, Wade; Fang, Scarlett; Rizo, Josep; Malenka, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD in the hippocampus is mediated primarily by the calcium-dependent removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) from the postsynaptic density. The AMPAR-binding, PDZ and BAR domain containing protein PICK1 has been implicated in the regulation of AMPAR trafficking underlying several forms of synaptic plasticity. Using a strategy involving shRNA-mediated knockdown of PICK1 and its replacement with recombinant PICK1, we performed a detailed structure-function analysis of the role of PICK1 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the underlying NMDAR-induced AMPAR trafficking. We found that PICK1 is not necessary for maintenance of the basal synaptic complement of AMPARs or expression of either mGluR-LTD or NMDAR-dependent LTP. Rather, PICK1 function is specific to NMDAR-dependent LTD and the underlying AMPAR trafficking. Furthermore, while PICK1 does not regulate the initial phase of NMDAR-induced AMPAR endocytosis, it is required for intracellular retention of internalized AMPARs. Detailed biophysical analysis of an N-terminal acidic motif indicated that it is involved in intramolecular electrostatic interactions that are disrupted by calcium. Mutations that interfered with the calcium-induced structural changes in PICK1 precluded LTD and the underlying NMDAR-induced intracellular retention of AMPARs. These findings support a model whereby calcium-induced modification of PICK1 structure is critical for its function in the retention of internalized AMPARs that underlies the expression of hippocampal NMDAR-dependent LTD. PMID:21147983

  14. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  15. Fast pick up technique for high quality heterostructures of bilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Zomer, P. J. Guimarães, M. H. D.; Brant, J. C.; Tombros, N.; Wees, B. J. van

    2014-07-07

    We present a fast method to fabricate high quality heterostructure devices by picking up crystals of arbitrary sizes. Bilayer graphene is encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride to demonstrate this approach, showing good electronic quality with mobilities ranging from 17 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at room temperature to 49 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 4.2 K, and entering the quantum Hall regime below 0.5 T. This method provides a strong and useful tool for the fabrication of future high quality layered crystal devices.

  16. Electric field by pick-up ions and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Holmstrom, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Observations by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) showed increasing distortion of the solar wind flow as Rosetta approached the Sun, i.e., as the density of the newly born ions increased. This indicates azimuthal momentum transfer from the solar wind to the newly born ions because they are displaced by the solar wind electric field up to the ion gyroradius this the solar wind velocity, and conservation of the momentum (center of the mass) makes the solar wind to azimuthally shift by "counter action" of these pick-up ion motions. To understand this azimuthal momentum transfer, it is inevitable to model the electric field by the displacement of these pick-up ions and electrons. Although the E×B drift does not make charge separation when the scale size is larger than the ion gyroradius, ions and electrons move in the opposite direction to each other within the short distance up to a gyroradius, and therefore, the charge separation occurs. Thus, the newly-ionized neutrals (ion-electron pairs) create the electric field in the opposite (shielding) direction to the solar wind electric field (like the ionopause of Venus and Mars). However, such a newly induced "shielding" electric field will simultaneously be weakened by the solar wind electrons because the solar wind is also moved by this shielding electric field to reduce it, in the same way as the plasma oscillation (time scale of about 10‑4 s). In other words, the solar wind tries to maintain the solar wind electric field as far as the momentum allows. These two opposite effects must be combined when modelling the azimuthal electric field, and resultant ion/electron motions within a gyroradius, like the case for ROSETTA. Furthermore, the effect of the induced electric field by the pick-up ions and electrons will be different when the newly born ions are created as the result of photo-ionization and of the charge exchange because the electron effect is different between them. In the presentation, we model the

  17. Assessing the impact of waste picking on musculoskeletal disorders among waste pickers in Mumbai, India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shrikant; Chokhandre, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) as well as the impact of the occupation of waste picking on complaints of MSDs among waste pickers. The study attempts to understand the risk factors for MSDs in various areas of the body. Design A cross-sectional household survey was conducted using a case-control design. The survey instrument for measuring musculoskeletal symptoms was adopted from a standardised Nordic questionnaire. The impact of the occupation of waste picking on MSDs was analysed using the propensity score matching (PSM) method. Participants The study population consisted of waste pickers (n=200) who had been working for at least a year and a control group (n=213) selected from among or living close to the same communities. Results The 12-month prevalence of MSDs was higher among waste pickers (79%) compared to controls (55%) particularly in the lower back (54–36%), knee (48–35%), upper back (40–21%) and shoulder (32–12%). Similar patterns were observed in the 12-month prevalence of MSDs which prevented normal activity inside and outside the home, particularly for the lower back (36–21%), shoulder (21–7%) and upper back (25–12%) for waste pickers and controls. Analysis of the impact of waste picking on complaints of MSDs suggests that the occupation of waste picking raises the risk of MSDs particularly in the shoulder, lower and upper back. Older age and longer duration of work are significant risk factors for MSDs. Conclusions The findings suggest a relatively higher prevalence of MSDs among waste pickers, particularly in the lower and upper back and shoulder, compared to controls. Preventive measures and treatment to minimise the burden of MSDs among waste pickers are strongly recommended. PMID:26408284

  18. Anticipatory Adjustments to Being Picked Up in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Markova, Gabriela; Wallot, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Anticipation of the actions of others is often used as a measure of action understanding in infancy. In contrast to studies of action understanding which set infants up as observers of actions directed elsewhere, in the present study we explored anticipatory postural adjustments made by infants to one of the most common adult actions directed to them – picking them up. We observed infant behavioural changes and recorded their postural shifts on a pressure mat in three phases: (i) a prior Chat phase, (ii) from the onset of Approach of the mother’s arms, and (iii) from the onset of Contact. In Study 1, eighteen 3-month-old infants showed systematic global postural changes during Approach and Contact, but not during Chat. There was an increase in specific adjustments of the arms (widening or raising) and legs (stiffening and extending or tucking up) during Approach and a decrease in thrashing/general movements during Contact. Shifts in postural stability were evident immediately after onset of Approach and more slowly after Contact, with no regular shifts during Chat. In Study 2 we followed ten infants at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Anticipatory behavioural adjustments during Approach were present at all ages, but with greater differentiation from a prior Chat phase only at 3 and 4 months. Global postural shifts were also more phase differentiated in older infants. Moreover, there was significantly greater gaze to the mother’s hands during Approach at 4 months. Early anticipatory adjustments to being picked up suggest that infants’ awareness of actions directed to the self may occur earlier than of those directed elsewhere, and thus enable infants’ active participation in joint actions from early in life. PMID:23840324

  19. Correlated peak relative light intensity and peak current in triggered lightning subsequent return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between peak relative light intensity L(R) and stroke peak current I(R) is examined for 39 subsequent return strokes in two triggered lightning flashes. One flash contained 19 strokes and the other 20 strokes for which direct measurements were available of the return stroke peak current at ground. Peak currents ranged from 1.6 to 21 kA. The measurements of peak relative light intensity were obtained from photographic streak recordings using calibrated film and microsecond resolution. Correlations, significant at better than the 0.1 percent level, were found for several functional relationships. Although a relation between L(R) and I(R) is evident in these data, none of the analytical relations considered is clearly favored. The correlation between L(R) and the maximum rate of current rise is also examined, but less correlation than between L(R) and I(R) is found. In addition, the peak relative intensity near ground is evaluated for 22 dart leaders, and a mean ratio of peak dart leader to peak return stroke relative light intensity was found to be 0.1 with a range of 0.02-0.23. Using two different methods, the peak current near ground in these dart leaders is estimated to range from 0.1 to 6 kA.

  20. How to use your peak flow meter

    MedlinePlus

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can check ...

  1. INTERSTELLAR PICK-UP IONS OBSERVED BETWEEN 11 AND 22 AU BY NEW HORIZONS

    SciTech Connect

    Randol, B. M.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2013-05-10

    We report new observations by the Solar Wind Around Pluto instrument on the New Horizons spacecraft, which measures energy per charge (E/q) spectra of solar wind and interstellar pick-up ions (PUIs) between 11 AU and 22 AU from the Sun. The data provide an unprecedented look at PUIs as there have been very few measurements of PUIs beyond 10 AU. We analyzed the PUI part of the spectra by comparing them to the classic Vasyliunas and Siscoe PUI model. Our analysis indicates that PUIs are usually well-described by this distribution. We derive parameters relevant to PUI studies, such as the ionization rate normalized to 1 AU. Our result for the average ionization rate between 11 and 12 AU agrees with an independently derived average value found during the same time. Later, we find a general increase in the ionization rate, which is consistent with the increase in solar activity. We also calculate the PUI thermal pressure, which appears to be roughly consistent with previous results. Through fitting of the solar wind proton peaks in our spectra, we derive solar wind thermal pressures. Based on our analysis, we predict a ratio of PUI thermal pressure to solar wind thermal pressure just inside the termination shock to be between 100 and >1000.

  2. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  3. A Middle School Extension of Pick's Theorem to Areas of Nonsimple Closed Polygonal Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boykin, Wilfred E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an extension of Pick's theorem for simple closed polygonal regions to unions of simple closed polygonal regions. Students are guided to discover Pick's theorem from sets of data including numbers of boundary points and numbers of interior points. (Author/MKR)

  4. Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

    2010-01-01

    Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge…

  5. Slope-Area Computation Program Graphical User Interface 1.0—A Preprocessing and Postprocessing Tool for Estimating Peak Flood Discharge Using the Slope-Area Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The slope-area method is a technique for estimating the peak discharge of a flood after the water has receded (Dalrymple and Benson, 1967). This type of discharge estimate is called an “indirect measurement” because it relies on evidence left behind by the flood, such as high-water marks (HWMs) on trees or buildings. These indicators of flood stage are combined with measurements of the cross-sectional geometry of the stream, estimates of channel roughness, and a mathematical model that balances the total energy of the flow between cross sections. This is in contrast to a “direct” measurement of discharge during the flood where cross-sectional area is measured and a current meter or acoustic equipment is used to measure the water velocity. When a direct discharge measurement cannot be made at a gage during high flows because of logistics or safety reasons, an indirect measurement of a peak discharge is useful for defining the high-flow section of the stage-discharge relation (rating curve) at the stream gage, resulting in more accurate computation of high flows. The Slope-Area Computation program (SAC; Fulford, 1994) is an implementation of the slope-area method that computes a peak-discharge estimate from inputs of water-surface slope (from surveyed HWMs), channel geometry, and estimated channel roughness. SAC is a command line program written in Fortran that reads input data from a formatted text file and prints results to another formatted text file. Preparing the input file can be time-consuming and prone to errors. This document describes the SAC graphical user interface (GUI), a crossplatform “wrapper” application that prepares the SAC input file, executes the program, and helps the user interpret the output. The SAC GUI is an update and enhancement of the slope-area method (SAM; Hortness, 2004; Berenbrock, 1996), an earlier spreadsheet tool used to aid field personnel in the completion of a slope-area measurement. The SAC GUI reads survey data

  6. A simple approach to estimate earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) to be effective, the rapid determination of magnitude (M) is important. At present, there are no methods which can accurately determine M even for extremely large events (ELE) for EEW, although a number of the methods have been suggested. In order to solve the problem, we use a simple approach derived from the fact that the time difference (Top) from the onset of the body wave to the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude of the body wave scales with M. To test this approach, we use 15,172 accelerograms of regional earthquakes (most of them are M4-7 events) from the K-NET, as the first step. Top is defined by analyzing the S-wave in this step. The S-onsets are calculated by adding the theoretical S-P times to the P-onsets which are manually picked. As the result, it is confirmed that logTop has high correlation with Mw, especially for the higher frequency band (> 2Hz). The RMS of residuals between Mw and M estimated in this step is less than 0.5. In case of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, M is estimated to be 9.01 at 150 seconds after the initiation of the event.To increase the number of the ELE data, we add the teleseismic high frequency P-wave records to the analysis, as the second step. According to the result of various back-projection analyses, we consider the teleseismic P-waves to contain information on the entire rupture process. The BHZ channel data of the Global Seismographic Network for 24 events are used in this step. 2-4Hz data from the stations in the epicentral distance range of 30-85 degrees are used following the method of Hara [2007]. All P-onsets are manually picked. Top obtained from the teleseimic data show good correlation with Mw, complementing the one obtained from the regional data. We conclude that the proposed approach is quite useful for estimating reliable M for EEW, even for the ELE.

  7. Automatic re-picking and re-weighting of first arrival times from the Italian Seismic Network waveforms database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, R.; Amato, A.; Aldersons, F.; Kissling, E.

    2002-12-01

    The high resolution P-wave tomography of the Italian Peninsula and surrounding regions from crustal to upper mantle depths is the aim of a joint project between INGV (Roma) and ETH (Zurich). The project is subdivided into two steps, first of which is to establish a 3D P-wave velocity model for the crust, using both passive and active seismic sources. Getting a reliable high resolution model is of fundamental importance since the 3D crustal model will be used in the second step to correct teleseismic travel times following a method successfully applied in the last years to the Alps (Waldhauser et al. 2002). In the present work we focus on the passive sources dataset (local and regional events) to complement the CSS crustal information. Our keywords being "high-resolution" and "detailed model" we followed the idea, based on the experience of previous works in this area, that a large number of high quality pickings and a high level of consistency in the dataset represent the first goals. The Italian region (Western Mediterranean) is characterized by a high rate of seismicity including important seismic sequences. Since 1988, digital recordings for about 40,000 local and regional earthquakes are available, which INGV bulletin readings have been used in previous local earthquake tomography works. To increase the sampling power and to better locate some border events we will integrate Italian National Seismic Network data with recordings from other local and regional networks. Due to the large amount of data thus collected, a manual re-picking of all first arrivals would ask for a too long time while it would not prevent from human readings errors and inconsistencies. This would partially contrast the positive effect of a high-quality pickings. To meet the quality and consistency requests, we applied an advanced automatic re-picking procedure, the MannekenPick (MP), recently developed by F. Aldersons as a fast, reliable and "consistent" picker. We tested the whole

  8. Development of a novel method for determination of mercury based on its inhibitory effect on horseradish peroxidase activity followed by monitoring the surface plasmon resonance peak of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaveisi, Javad; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Moghadam, Masoud Rohani; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple indirect spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of inorganic mercury (Hg2 +) in aqueous media. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of Hg2 + on the activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the oxidation of ascorbic acid by hydrogen peroxide followed by the reduction of Au3 + to Au-NPs by unreacted ascorbic acid and the measurement of the absorbance of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of gold nanoparticles (at 530 nm) which is directly proportional to the concentration of Hg2 +. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 1-220 ng mL- 1. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.2 and 0.7 ng mL- 1, respectively and the relative standard deviation at 100 ng mL- 1 level of Hg2 + was 2.6%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in different water samples.

  9. Pick-Up Oxygen Ion Loss at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, S.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fang, X.; Ma, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Mars pick-up ion transport model has been developed to study the relative role of kinetic processes on ion transport through near-Mars space. Mars does not have a strong, intrinsic dipole magnetic field and consequently the solar wind directly interacts with the dayside upper atmosphere causing particles to be stripped away from the atmosphere. The Mars Pickup Ion Model model calculates the detailed ion velocity space distribution (VSD) through a background magnetic and electric field model at specific locations. The main objective of this work is to robustly probe the sources of planetary ion escape from Mars' upper atmosphere. We explore three sources of ions: photoionization, charge exchange collisions, and impact ionization. Our results illustrate distinct differences in the velocity space distributions from the different source mechanisms, which can be used to decipher Mars ion observations according to their source population. Because the VSDs are non-Maxwellian and reveal asymmetirc, non-gyrotropic features, our simulation can uniquely investigate these distributions without using the Maxwellian assumptions of current MHD models. Our results help to further examine quantify the physical processes and source locations for specific VSD fine-structure features, and to put this into the context of real and virtual observations of escaping planetary ions.

  10. High throughput cherry-picking of solvated samples.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Robert; Traphagen, Linda; Hajduk, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    Advances in the design of automated compound storage systems have made it possible to store large collections of research compounds in individual single-use aliquots dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and rapidly retrieve a specific group off them. This 'cherry-picking' approach offers researchers the opportunity to request large numbers of compounds desired for testing without having to also retrieve all the other compounds stored on the same rack or plate. This makes it possible to meet the increasing demand for samples from High Throughput Screening and Therapeutic Area teams without adding staff to dispense from powder each time, without the constraints imposed by storing in solvated compounds in fixed-well 96- or 384-way plates, and without sacrificing sample quality or shelf life by storing at room temperature. We describe how this approach has been implemented at Abbott Laboratories' central compound repository to provide smaller amounts of more compounds faster and with high quality. In doing so, we have been able to better support the innovation of our Drug Discovery colleagues. PMID:20426754

  11. Oxidative Stress in Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rao; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Bianconi, Simona; Pavan, William J.; Porter, Forbes D.

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder due to impaired intracellular cholesterol and lipid transport. Increased oxidative stress has been reported in human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts and in tissues from Npc1 mutant mice. However, oxidative stress in NPC patients has not been established. In this study, we demonstrated increased oxidative stress in NPC patients. Evaluation of serum from 37 NPC patients, compared to control values, showed significant decreases (p<0.01) in both the fraction of reduced coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Both findings are consistent with increased oxidative stress in NPC. Supplementation with CoQ10 was not effective in correcting the decreased fraction of reduced CoQ10. Increased oxidative stress may be a contributing factor to the pathology of NPC, and demonstration of increased oxidative stress in NPC patients provides both a rationale and the biomarkers necessary to test the efficacy of antioxidant therapy in NPC. PMID:20667755

  12. Multiple faces of protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1): Structure, function, and diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Ya-Nan; Shen, Ying; Wang, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) has received considerable attention because it is the only protein that contains both PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Through PDZ and BAR domains, PICK1 binds to a large number of membrane proteins and lipid molecules, and is thereby of multiple functions. PICK1 is widely expressed in various tissues, particularly abundant in the brain and testis. In the central nervous system (CNS), PICK1 interacts with numerous neurotransmitters receptors, transporters, ion channels, and enzymes, and controls their trafficking. The best characterized function of PICK1 is that it regulates trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA2 during long-term depression and long-term potentiation. Recent evidence shows that PICK1 participates in various diseases including neurobiological disorders, such as chronic pain, epilepsy, oxidative stress, stroke, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, and non-neurological disorders, such as globozoospermia, breast cancer, and heart failure. In this review, we will summarize recent advances focusing on the structure and regulation of PICK1 and its functions in protein trafficking, neurological and non-neurological diseases. PMID:26970394

  13. Predicting VO2peak from Submaximal- and Peak Exercise Models: The HUNT 3 Fitness Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Loe, Henrik; Nes, Bjarne M.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is seldom assessed in health care settings although being inversely linked to cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to develop VO2peak prediction models for men and women based on directly measured VO2peak from a large healthy population Methods VO2peak prediction models based on submaximal- and peak performance treadmill work were derived from multiple regression analysis. 4637 healthy men and women aged 20–90 years were included. Data splitting was used to generate validation and cross-validation samples. Results The accuracy for the peak performance models were 10.5% (SEE = 4.63 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) and 11.5% (SEE = 4.11 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) for men and women, respectively, with 75% and 72% of the variance explained. For the submaximal performance models accuracy were 14.1% (SEE = 6.24 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) and 14.4% (SEE = 5.17 mL⋅kg-1⋅min-1) for men and women, respectively, with 55% and 56% of the variance explained. The validation and cross-validation samples displayed SEE and variance explained in agreement with the total sample. Cross-classification between measured and predicted VO2peak accurately classified 91% of the participants within the correct or nearest quintile of measured VO2peak. Conclusion Judicious use of the exercise prediction models presented in this study offers valuable information in providing a fairly accurate assessment of VO2peak, which may be beneficial for risk stratification in health care settings. PMID:26794677

  14. Two classes of speculative peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2001-10-01

    Speculation not only occurs in financial markets but also in numerous other markets, e.g. commodities, real estate, collectibles, and so on. Such speculative movements result in price peaks which share many common characteristics: same order of magnitude of duration with respect to amplitude, same shape (the so-called sharp-peak pattern). Such similarities suggest (at least as a first approximation) a common speculative behavior. However, a closer examination shows that in fact there are (at least) two distinct classes of speculative peaks. For the first, referred to as class U, (i) the amplitude of the peak is negatively correlated with the price at the start of the peak (ii) the ensemble coefficient of variation exhibits a trough. Opposite results are observed for the second class that we refer to as class S. Once these empirical observations have been made we try to understand how they should be interpreted. First, we show that the two properties are in fact related in the sense that the second is a consequence of the first. Secondly, by listing a number of cases belonging to each class we observe that the markets in the S-class offer collection of items from which investors can select those they prefer. On the contrary, U-markets consist of undifferentiated products for which a selection cannot be made in the same way. All prices considered in the paper are real (i.e., deflated) prices.

  15. Hubbert's Peak: A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Oil and its by-products, as used in manufacturing, agriculture, and transportation, are the lifeblood of today's 7 billion-person population and our 65T world economy. Despite this importance, estimates of future oil production seem dominated by wishful thinking rather than quantitative analysis. Better studies are needed. In 1956, Dr. M.King Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Thus, the peak of oil production is referred to as ``Hubbert's Peak.'' Prof. Al Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on population and oil. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. This paper extends this line of work to include analyses of individual countries, inclusion of multiple Gaussian peaks, and analysis of reserves data. While this is not strictly a predictive theory, we will demonstrate a ``closed'' story connecting production, oil-in-place, and reserves. This gives us the ``most likely'' estimate of future oil availability. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  16. Stochastic acceleration in peaked spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zasenko, V.; Zagorodny, A.; Weiland, J.

    2005-06-15

    Diffusion in velocity space of test particles undergoing external random electric fields with spectra varying from low intensive and broad to high intensive and narrow (peaked) is considered. It is shown that to achieve consistency between simulation and prediction of the microscopic model, which is reduced to Fokker-Planck-type equation, it is necessary, in the case of peaked spectrum, to account for temporal variation of diffusion coefficient occurring in the early stage. An analytical approximation for the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a time and velocity dependent diffusion coefficients is proposed.

  17. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  18. Measuring Your Peak Flow Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... meter. Proper cleaning with mild detergent in hot water will keep your peak flow meter working accurately and may keep you healthier. Related Content News: American Lung Association Applauds EPA’s Update to Cross-State Air Pollution Rule News: American Lung Association Invests More Than $ ...

  19. Peak Stress Testing Protocol Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of peak flows during wet weather is a common challenge across the country for municipal wastewater utilities with separate and/or combined sewer systems. Increases in wastewater flow resulting from infiltration and inflow (I/I) during wet weather events can result in op...

  20. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  1. An Experimental Study of Cutting Performances of Worn Picks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogruoz, Cihan; Bolukbasi, Naci; Rostami, Jamal; Acar, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    The best means to assess rock cuttability and efficiency of cutting process for using mechanical excavation is specific energy (SE), measured in full-scale rock cutting test. This is especially true for the application of roadheaders, often fitted with drag-type cutting tools. Radial picks or drag bits are changed during the operation as they reach a certain amount of wear and become blunt. In this study, full-scale cutting tests in different sedimentary rock types with bits having various degree of wear were used to evaluate the influence of bit wear on cutting forces and specific energy. The relationship between the amount of wear as represented by the size of the wear flats at the tip of the bit, and cutting forces as well as specific energy was examined. The influence of various rock properties such as mineral content, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, indentation index, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with required SE of cutting using different levels of tool wear was also studied. The preliminary analysis of the data shows that the mean cutting forces increase 2-3 times and SE by 4-5 times when cutting with 4 mm wear flat as compared to cutting with new or sharp wedge shape bits. The grain size distribution of the muck for cutting different rock types and different level of bit wear was analyzed and discussed. The best fit prediction models for SE based on statistical analysis of laboratory test results are introduced. The model can be used for estimating the performance of mechanical excavators using radial tools, especially roadheaders, continuous miners and longwall drum shearers.

  2. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  3. [Fast spectral modeling based on Voigt peaks].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Dai, Lian-kui

    2012-03-01

    Indirect hard modeling (IHM) is a recently introduced method for quantitative spectral analysis, which was applied to the analysis of nonlinear relation between mixture spectrum and component concentration. In addition, IHM is an effectual technology for the analysis of components of mixture with molecular interactions and strongly overlapping bands. Before the establishment of regression model, IHM needs to model the measured spectrum as a sum of Voigt peaks. The precision of the spectral model has immediate impact on the accuracy of the regression model. A spectrum often includes dozens or even hundreds of Voigt peaks, which mean that spectral modeling is a optimization problem with high dimensionality in fact. So, large operation overhead is needed and the solution would not be numerically unique due to the ill-condition of the optimization problem. An improved spectral modeling method is presented in the present paper, which reduces the dimensionality of optimization problem by determining the overlapped peaks in spectrum. Experimental results show that the spectral modeling based on the new method is more accurate and needs much shorter running time than conventional method. PMID:22582612

  4. Pulmonary Involvement in Niemann-Pick Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    PubMed

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Pereira Freitas, Heloisa Maria; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Hochhegger, Bruno; Escuissato, Dante; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; da Silva, Thiago Krieger Bento; Marchiori, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease with three subtypes. Types A and B result from a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase activity, associated with the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages (so-called Niemann-Pick cells) in various tissues, especially the liver and spleen. Type A is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infancy. Type B Niemann-Pick disease is a less severe form with milder neurological involvement, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, hyperlipidemia, and pulmonary involvement; most patients live into adulthood. Type C Niemann-Pick disease is a complex lipid storage disorder caused by defects in cholesterol trafficking, resulting in a clinical presentation dominated by neurological involvement. Pulmonary involvement occurs in all three types of Niemann-Pick disease, but most frequently in type B. Respiratory manifestations range from a lack of symptoms to respiratory failure. Progression of respiratory disease is slow, but inexorable, due to the accumulation of Niemann-Pick cells in the alveolar septa, bronchial walls, and pleura, potentially leading to a progressively worsening restrictive pattern on pulmonary function testing. Bronchoalveolar lavage has important diagnostic value because it shows the presence of characteristic Niemann-Pick cells. Radiographic findings consist of a reticular or reticulonodular pattern and, eventually, honeycombing, involving mainly the lower lung zones. The most common changes identified by high-resolution computed tomography are ground-glass opacities, mild smooth interlobular septal thickening, and intralobular lines. The aim of this review is to describe the main clinical, imaging, and pathological aspects of Niemann-Pick disease, with a focus on pulmonary involvement. PMID:27164983

  5. Niemann-Pick Disease Type B in a 21 Year Old Male.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Miah, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorder of lipid storage with progressive accumulation of sphingomyelin and other lipids in the lysosomes of various tissues. We are reporting a 21 year old male who had hepatosplenomegaly, cherry red macula and normal cognitive function. Bone marrow biopsy showed plenty of foam cells and sphingomyelinase level was low, thus conforming our diagnosis. Survival into adulthood and absence of gross neurological involvement suggests Niemann-Pick disease type B. PMID:27277377

  6. Not Just Being Lifted: Infants are Sensitive to Delay During a Pick-Up Routine.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Valentina; Markova, Gabriela; Fasulo, Alessandra; Costall, Alan; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we observed whether infants show online adjustments to the mother's incipient action by looking at their sensitivity to changes as the pick-up unfolded. Twenty-three 3-month-old infants and their mothers were observed in the lab, where mothers were instructed (1) to pick-up their infants as they usually did (normal pick-up), and then (2) to delay the pick-up for 6 s after placing their hands on the infants' waist (delayed pick-up). In both Normal and Delayed conditions infant's body tension, affective displays and gaze shifts were coded during three phases: Approach, Contact, and Lift. Additionally, a measure of infants' head support in terms of head lag at the beginning and end of Lift was computed. Results showed that during normal pick-up infants tensed up their body during the Approach phase and increased their tension during contact, maintaining it through Lift; their head was also supported and in line with their body during Lift. When the pick-up was delayed, infants also tensed their body during Approach, yet this tension did not increase during the Contact phase and was significantly lower at Lift. Their head support was also lower in the Delayed condition and they shifted their gazes away from their mothers' face more often than in the Normal condition. These results suggest that infants are sensitive to changes of the timing of the pick-up sequence, which in turn may have affected their contribution to the interaction. PMID:26834674

  7. Habit Reversal as a Treatment for Chronic Skin Picking: A Pilot Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Ellen J.; Woods, Douglas W.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of habit reversal (HR) to a wait-list control as a treatment for chronic skin picking in adults. Twenty-five adults with a chronic skin-picking problem were randomly assigned to a wait-list control or HR group. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up, self-reported skin…

  8. Not Just Being Lifted: Infants are Sensitive to Delay During a Pick-Up Routine

    PubMed Central

    Fantasia, Valentina; Markova, Gabriela; Fasulo, Alessandra; Costall, Alan; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we observed whether infants show online adjustments to the mother’s incipient action by looking at their sensitivity to changes as the pick-up unfolded. Twenty-three 3-month-old infants and their mothers were observed in the lab, where mothers were instructed (1) to pick-up their infants as they usually did (normal pick-up), and then (2) to delay the pick-up for 6 s after placing their hands on the infants’ waist (delayed pick-up). In both Normal and Delayed conditions infant’s body tension, affective displays and gaze shifts were coded during three phases: Approach, Contact, and Lift. Additionally, a measure of infants’ head support in terms of head lag at the beginning and end of Lift was computed. Results showed that during normal pick-up infants tensed up their body during the Approach phase and increased their tension during contact, maintaining it through Lift; their head was also supported and in line with their body during Lift. When the pick-up was delayed, infants also tensed their body during Approach, yet this tension did not increase during the Contact phase and was significantly lower at Lift. Their head support was also lower in the Delayed condition and they shifted their gazes away from their mothers’ face more often than in the Normal condition. These results suggest that infants are sensitive to changes of the timing of the pick-up sequence, which in turn may have affected their contribution to the interaction. PMID:26834674

  9. Semi-Automated Digital Image Analysis of Pick's Disease and TDP-43 Proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David J; Byrne, Matthew D; McMillan, Corey T; Cooper, Felicia; Arnold, Steven E; Lee, Edward B; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Xie, Sharon X; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q

    2016-01-01

    Digital image analysis of histology sections provides reliable, high-throughput methods for neuropathological studies but data is scant in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), which has an added challenge of study due to morphologically diverse pathologies. Here, we describe a novel method of semi-automated digital image analysis in FTLD subtypes including: Pick's disease (PiD, n=11) with tau-positive intracellular inclusions and neuropil threads, and TDP-43 pathology type C (FTLD-TDPC, n=10), defined by TDP-43-positive aggregates predominantly in large dystrophic neurites. To do this, we examined three FTLD-associated cortical regions: mid-frontal gyrus (MFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) by immunohistochemistry. We used a color deconvolution process to isolate signal from the chromogen and applied both object detection and intensity thresholding algorithms to quantify pathological burden. We found object-detection algorithms had good agreement with gold-standard manual quantification of tau- and TDP-43-positive inclusions. Our sampling method was reliable across three separate investigators and we obtained similar results in a pilot analysis using open-source software. Regional comparisons using these algorithms finds differences in regional anatomic disease burden between PiD and FTLD-TDP not detected using traditional ordinal scale data, suggesting digital image analysis is a powerful tool for clinicopathological studies in morphologically diverse FTLD syndromes. PMID:26538548

  10. Hubbert's Peak: the Impending World oil Shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffeyes, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Global oil production will probably reach a peak sometime during this decade. After the peak, the world's production of crude oil will fall, never to rise again. The world will not run out of energy, but developing alternative energy sources on a large scale will take at least 10 years. The slowdown in oil production may already be beginning; the current price fluctuations for crude oil and natural gas may be the preamble to a major crisis. In 1956, the geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s.1 Almost everyone, inside and outside the oil industry, rejected Hubbert's analysis. The controversy raged until 1970, when the U.S. production of crude oil started to fall. Hubbert was right. Around 1995, several analysts began applying Hubbert's method to world oil production, and most of them estimate that the peak year for world oil will be between 2004 and 2008. These analyses were reported in some of the most widely circulated sources: Nature, Science, and Scientific American.2 None of our political leaders seem to be paying attention. If the predictions are correct, there will be enormous effects on the world economy. Even the poorest nations need fuel to run irrigation pumps. The industrialized nations will be bidding against one another for the dwindling oil supply. The good news is that we will put less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The bad news is that my pickup truck has a 25-gallon tank.

  11. Quantifying peak discharges for historical floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    It is usually advantageous to use information regarding historical floods, if available, to define the flood-frequency relation for a stream. Peak stages can sometimes be determined for outstanding floods that occurred many years ago before systematic gaging of streams began. In the United States, this information is usually not available for more than 100-200 years, but in countries with long cultural histories, such as China, historical flood data are available at some sites as far back as 2,000 years or more. It is important in flood studies to be able to assign a maximum discharge rate and an associated error range to the historical flood. This paper describes the significant characteristics and uncertainties of four commonly used methods for estimating the peak discharge of a flood. These methods are: (1) rating curve (stage-discharge relation) extension; (2) slope conveyance; (3) slope area; and (4) step backwater. Logarithmic extensions of rating curves are based on theoretical plotting techniques that results in straight line extensions provided that channel shape and roughness do not change significantly. The slope-conveyance and slope-area methods are based on the Manning equation, which requires specific data on channel size, shape and roughness, as well as the water-surface slope for one or more cross-sections in a relatively straight reach of channel. The slope-conveyance method is used primarily for shaping and extending rating curves, whereas the slope-area method is used for specific floods. The step-backwater method, also based on the Manning equation, requires more cross-section data than the slope-area ethod, but has a water-surface profile convergence characteristic that negates the need for known or estimated water-surface slope. Uncertainties in calculating peak discharge for historical floods may be quite large. Various investigations have shown that errors in calculating peak discharges by the slope-area method under ideal conditions for

  12. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  13. Solar cycle variation of interstellar neutral He, Ne, O density and pick-up ions along the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokół, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Möbius, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    We simulated the modulation of the interstellar neutral (ISN) He, Ne, and O density and pick-up ion (PUI) production rate and count rate along the Earth's orbit over the solar cycle (SC) from 2002 to 2013 to verify if SC-related effects may modify the inferred ecliptic longitude of the ISN inflow direction. We adopted the classical PUI model with isotropic distribution function and adiabatic cooling, modified by time- and heliolatitude-dependent ionization rates and non-zero injection speed of PUIs. We found that the ionization losses have a noticeable effect on the derivation of the ISN inflow longitude based on the Gaussian fit to the crescent and cone peak locations. We conclude that the non-zero radial velocity of the ISN flow and the energy range of the PUI distribution function that is accumulated are of importance for a precise reproduction of the PUI count rate along the Earth orbit. However, the temporal and latitudinal variations of the ionization in the heliosphere, and particularly their variation on the SC time-scale, may significantly modify the shape of PUI cone and crescent and also their peak positions from year to year and thus bias by a few degrees the derived longitude of the ISN gas inflow direction.

  14. PICK1 confers anti-inflammatory effects in acute liver injury via suppressing M1 macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juan; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Qun; Yang, Yang; Tian, Yuanyao; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Li, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a scaffolding protein mainly implicated in neurological diseases, however, the function of PICK1 in acute liver injury (ALI) remains unknown. Our study found a dramatical decrease in mRNA and protein levels of PICK1 in liver tissues and isolated Kupffer cells (KCs) from the liver in mice with ALI. Furthermore, pretreatment the mice with ALI with FSC-231, a pharmacological inhibitor of PICK1, could significantly augment inflammatory response. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) significantly reduced the expression of PICK1, while IL-4 elevated its expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, over-expression of PICK1 inhibited the expression of M1 biomarkers by suppressing NF-κB activity, and enhanced the expression of M2 biomarkers by promoting STAT6 activity. In contrast, knockdown of PICK1 or FSC-231 pretreatment promoted M1 polarization and suppressed M2 polarization. Besides, caveolin-1 was identified as a potential target gene controlled by PICK1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed a dual role of PICK1 in regulating macrophage polarization and implied PICK1 as a potential therapeutic target in ALI. PMID:27157267

  15. The Sacramento Peak fast microphotometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrambide, M. R.; Dunn, R. B.; Healy, A. W.; Porter, R.; Widener, A. L.; November, L. J.; Spence, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sacramento Peak Observatory Fast Microphotometer translates an optical system that includes a laser and photodiode detector across the film to scan the Y direction. A stepping motor moves the film gate in the X direction. This arrangement affords high positional accuracy, low noise (0.002 RMS density units), modest speed (5000 points/second), large dynamic range (4.5 density units), high stability (0.005 density units), and low scattered light. The Fast Microphotometer is interfaced to the host computer by a 6502 microprocessor.

  16. Solar investigation at Terskol Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlov-Vasiljev, K. A.; Vasiljeva, I. E.

    2003-04-01

    During 1980--1990 regular observations of the solar disk spectrum and active solar structures were carried out with SEF-1 and ATsU-26 telescopes at Terskol Peak in the framework of the program ``Energy distribution in the solar spectrum in absolute energy units''. In order to refine the fine structure of telluric lines, observations with ATsU-26 telescope were carried out in parallel. This telescope was also used for the investigation of the solar active structures. In this paper the observational technique is described. The obtained results and energy distribution in the solar disk center in absolute energy units are presented.

  17. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  18. Maxometers (peak wind speed anemometers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W.; Camp, D. W.; Turner, R. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An instrument for measuring peak wind speeds under severe environmental conditions is described, comprising an elongated cylinder housed in an outer casing. The cylinder contains a piston attached to a longitudinally movable guided rod having a pressure disk mounted on one projecting end. Wind pressure against the pressure disk depresses the movable rod. When the wind reaches its maximum speed, the rod is locked by a ball clutch mechanism in the position of maximum inward movement. Thereafter maximum wind speed or pressure readings may be taken from calibrated indexing means.

  19. Consistent phase picking for regional tomography models: application to the greater Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, T.; Kissling, E.; Husen, S.; Aldersons, F.

    2009-02-01

    The resolution and reliability of tomographic velocity models strongly depends on quality and consistency of available traveltime data. Arrival times routinely picked by network analysts on a day-to-day basis often yield a high level of noise due to mispicks and other inconsistencies, particularly in error assessment. Furthermore, tomographic studies at regional scales require merging of phase picks from several networks. Since a common quality assessment is not usually available for phase data provided by different networks, additional inconsistencies are introduced by the merging process. Considerable improvement in the quality of phase data can only be achieved through complete repicking of seismograms. Considering the amount of data necessary for regional high-resolution tomography, algorithms combining accurate picking with an automated error assessment represent the best tool to derive large suitable data sets. In this work, we present procedures for consistent automated and routine picking of P-wave arrival times at local to regional scales including consistent picking error assessment. Quality-attributed automatic picks are derived from the MPX picking system. The application to earthquakes in the greater Alpine region demonstrates the potential of such a repicking approach. The final data set consists of more than 13000 high-quality first-arrivals and it is used to derive regional 1-D and preliminary 3-D P-wave models of the greater Alpine region. The comparison with a tomographic model based on routine phase data extracted from the ISC Bulletin illustrates effects on tomographic results due to consistency and reliability of our high-quality data set.

  20. Peak, multi-peak and broadband absorption in graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloua, R.; Kebbab, Z.; Chiker, F.; Khadraoui, M.; Sahraoui, K.; Bouzidi, A.; Medles, M.; Mathieu, C.; Benramdane, N.

    2014-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of enhancing light absorption in graphene-based one dimensional photonic crystal. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve total light absorption at technologically important wavelengths using one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystals. By means of the transfer matrix method, we investigate the effect of refractive indices and layer numbers on the optical response of the structure. We found that it is possible to achieve one peak, multi-peak or broadband, and complete optical absorption. As a result, the proposed photonic structures enable myriad potential applications such as photodetection, shielding and optical sensing.

  1. Neuron curve as a tool for performance evaluation of MLP and RBF architecture in first break picking of seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahrizi, Amin; Hashemi, Hosein

    2014-09-01

    Recently wide applications of neural networks are reported in geophysical scientific papers, mostly lack the consideration of their mathematical evaluation and performance. In these general estimators/regression function/classifiers, parameters to be tuned are the number of layers, neurons, type of transfer function, minimum size of training set, etc. These will be carefully tuned per each physical problem. Among all, the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each hidden layer are the two important parameters to be decided and normally no rules are available for finding them precisely. In this paper a method to find the hidden layer size is described beside the main purpose of the paper which is to compare the performance of the first break picker networks. We used a known learning-curve and introduce a measure named “neuron-curve” to find the optimal layer size & minimum size of training set. This paper shows the application of these two curves in finding the first break picks of seismic refraction data. Furthermore, the effect of noise on the architecture of two known neural networks (multilayer perceptron and radial basis function) in the first break picking is also investigated.

  2. Skin Picking Disorder in University Students: Health Correlates and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, Brian L.; Lust, Katherine; Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the prevalence of skin picking disorder (SPD) in a university sample and assess associated physical and mental health correlates. Methods A 54-item anonymous, voluntary survey was distributed via random email generation to a sample of 6,000 university students. Current psychological and physical status was assessed, along with academic performance. Positive screens for SPD were determined based upon individuals meeting full proposed DSM-V criteria. Results A total of 1,916 participants (31.9%; mean age 22.7±5.1; 58.1% female) responded and were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of SPD was 4.2% (females=5.8%; males=2.0%). SPD was associated with significantly higher lifetime rates of affective, anxiety, eating, substance use, and impulse control disorders. Men with SPD had significantly higher BMI ratings and perceived themselves as significantly less attractive to others while women had significantly higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion SPD is common in both genders and is associated with significant mental and physical health detriments, including as higher levels of stress, more psychiatric comorbidity, and poorer perceived health. Academic institutions, clinicians, and public health officials should be aware of the multimodal presentation of SPD and screen for it in primary care and dermatologic settings. PMID:23123103

  3. Development of a bile acid-based newborn screen for Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Covey, Douglas F; Scherrer, David E; Earley, Brian; Gale, Sarah E; Farhat, Nicole Y; Porter, Forbes D; Dietzen, Dennis J; Orsini, Joseph J; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xiaokui; Reunert, Janice; Marquardt, Thorsten; Runz, Heiko; Giugliani, Roberto; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, neurodegenerative, cholesterol storage disorder. With new therapeutics in clinical trials, it is imperative to improve diagnostics and facilitate early intervention. We used metabolomic profiling to identify potential markers and discovered three unknown bile acids that were increased in plasma from NPC but not control subjects. The bile acids most elevated in the NPC subjects were identified as 3β,5α,6β-trihydroxycholanic acid and its glycine conjugate, which were shown to be metabolites of cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, an oxysterol elevated in NPC. A high-throughput mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated to measure the glycine-conjugated bile acid in dried blood spots. Analysis of dried blood spots from 4992 controls, 134 NPC carriers, and 44 NPC subjects provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the study samples. Quantification of the bile acid in dried blood spots, therefore, provides the basis for a newborn screen for NPC that is ready for piloting in newborn screening programs. PMID:27147587

  4. In vivo quantification of brain injury in adult Niemann-Pick Disease Type C.

    PubMed

    Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Crespy, Lydie; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Soulier, Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Kaphan, Elsa; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Development of surrogate markers is necessary to assess the potential efficacy of new therapeutics in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NP-C). In the present study, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a quantitative MRI imaging technique sensitive to subtle brain microstructural changes, was applied in two patients suffering from adult NP-C. Statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each patient's MTR maps with those of a group of 34 healthy controls to quantify and localize the extent of brain injury of each patient. Using this method, pathological changes were evidenced in the cerebellum, the thalami and the lenticular nuclei in both patients and also in the fronto-temporal cortices in the patient with the worse functional deficit. In addition, white matter changes were located in the midbrain, the cerebellum and the fronto-temporal lobes in the patient with the higher level of disability and in only one limited periventricular white matter region in the other patient. A 6-month follow-up was performed in the patient with the lower functional deficit and evidenced significant extension of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injuries during the following period (14% of increased injury for GM and 53% for WM). This study demonstrates that significant brain injury related to clinical deficit can be assessed in vivo in adult NP-C using MTR imaging. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that MTR imaging may be a relevant candidate for the development of biomarker in NP-C. PMID:21397539

  5. Automatic quality assessment and peak identification of auditory brainstem responses with fitted parametric peaks.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Joaquin T; de la Torre, Angel; Alvarez, Isaac; Segura, Jose Carlos; Thornton, A Roger D; Sainz, Manuel; Vargas, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The recording of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is used worldwide for hearing screening purposes. In this process, a precise estimation of the most relevant components is essential for an accurate interpretation of these signals. This evaluation is usually carried out subjectively by an audiologist. However, the use of automatic methods for this purpose is being encouraged nowadays in order to reduce human evaluation biases and ensure uniformity among test conditions, patients, and screening personnel. This article describes a new method that performs automatic quality assessment and identification of the peaks, the fitted parametric peaks (FPP). This method is based on the use of synthesized peaks that are adjusted to the ABR response. The FPP is validated, on one hand, by an analysis of amplitudes and latencies measured manually by an audiologist and automatically by the FPP method in ABR signals recorded at different stimulation rates; and on the other hand, contrasting the performance of the FPP method with the automatic evaluation techniques based on the correlation coefficient, FSP, and cross correlation with a predefined template waveform by comparing the automatic evaluations of the quality of these methods with subjective evaluations provided by five experienced evaluators on a set of ABR signals of different quality. The results of this study suggest (a) that the FPP method can be used to provide an accurate parameterization of the peaks in terms of amplitude, latency, and width, and (b) that the FPP remains as the method that best approaches the averaged subjective quality evaluation, as well as provides the best results in terms of sensitivity and specificity in ABR signals validation. The significance of these findings and the clinical value of the FPP method are highlighted on this paper. PMID:24661606

  6. UNCERTAINTY IN PHASE ARRIVAL TIME PICKS FOR REGIONAL SEISMIC EVENTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    A. VELASCO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The detection and timing of seismic arrivals play a critical role in the ability to locate seismic events, especially at low magnitude. Errors can occur with the determination of the timing of the arrivals, whether these errors are made by automated processing or by an analyst. One of the major obstacles encountered in properly estimating travel-time picking error is the lack of a clear and comprehensive discussion of all of the factors that influence phase picks. This report discusses possible factors that need to be modeled to properly study phase arrival time picking errors. We have developed a multivariate statistical model, experimental design, and analysis strategy that can be used in this study. We have embedded a general form of the International Data Center(IDC)/U.S. National Data Center (USNDC) phase pick measurement error model into our statistical model. We can use this statistical model to optimally calibrate a picking error model to regional data. A follow-on report will present the results of this analysis plan applied to an implementation of an experiment/data-gathering task.

  7. Relationships between Electroencephalographic Spectral Peaks Across Frequency Bands

    PubMed Central

    van Albada, S. J.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which electroencephalographic spectral peaks are independent, and the relationships between their frequencies have been debated. A novel fitting method was used to determine peak parameters in the range 2–35 Hz from a large sample of eyes-closed spectra, and their interrelationships were investigated. Findings were compared with a mean-field model of thalamocortical activity, which predicts near-harmonic relationships between peaks. The subject set consisted of 1424 healthy subjects from the Brain Resource International Database. Peaks in the theta range occurred on average near half the alpha peak frequency, while peaks in the beta range tended to occur near twice and three times the alpha peak frequency on an individual-subject basis. Moreover, for the majority of subjects, alpha peak frequencies were significantly positively correlated with frequencies of peaks in the theta and low and high beta ranges. Such a harmonic progression agrees semiquantitatively with theoretical predictions from the mean-field model. These findings indicate a common or analogous source for different rhythms, and help to define appropriate individual frequency bands for peak identification. PMID:23483663

  8. PICK1/calcineurin suppress ASIC1-mediated Ca2+ entry in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Lindsay M; Nitta, Carlos H; Yellowhair, Tracylyn R; Browning, Carly; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V; Resta, Thomas C; Jernigan, Nikki L

    2016-03-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) contributes to Ca(2+) influx and contraction in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). ASIC1 binds the PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain of the protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1), and this interaction is important for the subcellular localization and/or activity of ASIC1. Therefore, we first hypothesized that PICK1 facilitates ASIC1-dependent Ca(2+) influx in PASMC by promoting plasma membrane localization. Using Duolink to determine protein-protein interactions and a biotinylation assay to assess membrane localization, we demonstrated that the PICK1 PDZ domain inhibitor FSC231 diminished the colocalization of PICK1 and ASIC1 but did not limit ASIC1 plasma membrane localization. Although stimulation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) greatly enhanced colocalization between ASIC1 and PICK1, both FSC231 and shRNA knockdown of PICK1 largely augmented SOCE. These data suggest PICK1 imparts a basal inhibitory effect on ASIC1 Ca(2+) entry in PASMC and led to an alternative hypothesis that PICK1 facilitates the interaction between ASIC1 and negative intracellular modulators, namely PKC and/or the calcium-calmodulin-activated phosphatase calcineurin. FSC231 limited PKC-mediated inhibition of SOCE, supporting a potential role for PICK1 in this response. Additionally, we found PICK1 inhibits ASIC1-mediated SOCE through an effect of calcineurin to dephosphorylate the channel. Furthermore, it appears PICK1/calcineurin-mediated regulation of SOCE opposes PKA phosphorylation and activation of ASIC1. Together our data suggest PKA and PICK1/calcineurin differentially regulate ASIC1-mediated SOCE and these modulatory complexes are important in determining downstream Ca(2+) signaling. PMID:26702130

  9. Hepatic Primary and Secondary Cholesterol Deposition and Damage in Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Marta; Fajardo, Alba; Alcalá-Vida, Rafael; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Cardellach, Francesc; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Pol, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC gene that result in systemic accumulation of intracellular cholesterol. Although neurodegeneration defines the disease's severity, in most patients it is preceded by hepatic complications such as cholestatic jaundice or hepatomegaly. To analyze the contribution of the hepatic disease in Niemann-Pick C disease progression and to evaluate the degree of primary and secondary hepatic damage, we generated a transgenic mouse with liver-selective expression of NPC1 from embryonic stages. Hepatic NPC1 re-expression did not ameliorate the onset and progression of neurodegeneration of the NPC1-null animal. However, the mice showed reduced hepatomegalia and dramatic, although not complete, reduction of hepatic cholesterol and serum bile salts, bilirubin, and transaminase levels. Therefore, hepatic primary and secondary cholesterol deposition and damage occur simultaneously during Niemann-Pick C disease progression. PMID:26784526

  10. Niemann-Pick type C disease: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Anton I.; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is an important lipid of mammalian cells. Its unique physicochemical properties modulate membrane behavior and it serves as the precursor for steroid hormones, oxysterols and vitamin D. Cholesterol is effluxed from the late endosomes/lysosomes via the concerted action of at least two distinct proteins: Niemann-Pick C1 and Niemann-Pick C2. Mutations in these two proteins manifest as Niemann-Pick type C disease – a very rare, usually fatal, autosomal, recessive, neurovisceral, lysosomal storage disorder. In this review we discuss the possible mechanisms of action for NPC1 and NPC2 in mediating cholesterol efflux, as well as the different therapeutic approaches being pursued for the treatment of this lipid storage disorder. PMID:20807315

  11. Skills and offensive tactics used in pick-up basketball games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe skills and offensive tactics frequently used in pick-up basketball games. 65 participants were recruited from public basketball courts. An observational instrument was developed to analyze the performances of pick-up games. Participants' performances were videotaped and coded. Results indicated that the passing skills most frequently observed in the games were chest pass, overhead pass, and bounce pass. For dribbling, crossover dribble and change-of-pace dribble were frequently observed. Jump shot, set shot, and layup were also frequently used. The offensive tactics frequently used included drive, cut, and set screen. The study may be beneficial for helping young people prepare to play pick-up basketball games. PMID:20038001

  12. Detection of singly ionized energetic lunar pick-up ions upstream of earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchenbach, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Moebius, E.

    1992-01-01

    Singly ionized suprathermal ions upstream of the earth's bow shock have been detected by using the time-of-flight spectrometer SULEICA on the AMPTE/IRM satellite. The data were collected between August and December 1985. The flux of the ions in the mass range between 23 and 37 amu is highly anisotropic towards the earth. The ions are observed with a period of about 29 days around new moon (+/- 3 days). The correlation of the energy of the ions with the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field orientation indicates the relation to the pick-up process. We conclude that the source of these pick-up ions is the moon. We argue that due to the impinging solar wind, atoms are sputtered off the lunar surface, ionized in the sputtering process or by ensuing photoionization and picked up by the solar wind.

  13. Calculating weighted estimates of peak streamflow statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, Timothy A.; Berenbrock, Charles; Kiang, Julie E.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Federal guidelines for flood-frequency estimation, the uncertainty of peak streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flow at a streamgage, can be reduced by combining the at-site estimate with the regional regression estimate to obtain a weighted estimate of the flow statistic. The procedure assumes the estimates are independent, which is reasonable in most practical situations. The purpose of this publication is to describe and make available a method for calculating a weighted estimate from the uncertainty or variance of the two independent estimates.

  14. Comparison of ultrasound-guided vs laparoscopic transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) in simmental heifers.

    PubMed

    Santl, B; Wenigerkind, H; Schernthaner, W; Mödl, J; Stojkovic, M; Prelle, K; Holtz, W; Brem, G; Wolf, E

    1998-07-01

    Transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) offers several advantages over standard embryo transfer procedures. For a systematic comparison of the ultrasound-guided (U-OPU) and the laparoscopic OPU (L-OPU) method, groups of Simmental heifers were subjected to 1 of the 2 OPU-methods for 8 wk (15 sessions) followed by a treatment-free interval of 11 wk and then another 8-wk period of OPU using the alternative method. Parameters that were evaluated included the number of follicles aspirated, number and morphology of recovered cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), and developmental capacity of oocytes after in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF). Blood samples were also taken from the donors twice a wk for progesterone measurement. To evaluate effects of long-term OPU on subsequent fertility of donors, all heifers (n = 14) were inseminated during the first natural estrus after the OPU experiment. The proportion of Class I oocytes was significantly (P < 0.001) higher after U-OPU than after L-OPU (38.7% vs 21.0%). Following IVM/IVF, this difference in oocyte quality was reflected by the cleavage rate (U-OPU: 58.1%; L-OPU: 52.1%; P < 0.05) and the rate of development to morulae and blastocysts (U-OPU: 27.1%; L-OPU: 13.9%; P < 0.001). Among other factors, the greater changes in vacuum pressure during L-OPU vs U-OPU might be responsible for the difference in oocyte quality. This problem may be overcome by a more flexible system for regulating the vacuum. Progesterone levels were higher during the L-OPU than the U-OPU periods. Seven donors (50%) were diagnosed pregnant by ultrasonography on Day 28 and by palpation per rectum on Day 42. PMID:10734477

  15. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 AUs from the sun. This 'pick-up' hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cu cm, respectively.

  16. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks: Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator was constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  17. Visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks - Human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Tendick, Frank; Stark, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    A teleoperation simulator has been constructed with vector display system, joysticks, and a simulated cylindrical manipulator, in order to quantitatively evaluate various display conditions. The first of two experiments thus conducted investigated the effects of perspective parameter variations on human operators' pick-and-place performance, using a monoscopic perspective display. The second experiment involved visual enhancements of the monoscopic perspective display, by adding a grid and reference lines, by comparison with visual enhancements of a stereoscopic display; results indicate that stereoscopy generally permits superior pick-and-place performance, but that monoscopy nevertheless allows equivalent performance when defined with appropriate perspective parameter values and adequate visual enhancements.

  18. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  19. Determination of peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Kano, S; Burton, D L; Lanteri, C J; Sly, P D

    1993-10-01

    It is still unknown whether peak expiratory flow (PEF) is determined by "wave speed" flow limitation in the airways. To investigate the influences of airway mechanical properties on PEF, five healthy adults performed maximal forced expiratory effort (MFEE) manoeuvres, in the standard manner and following breathholds at total lung capacity (TLC) of 2 s and 10 s. Oesophageal pressure (Poes) was measured as an index of respiratory effort. Subjects also performed a MFEE following a 10 s breathhold during which intrathoracic pressure was voluntarily raised by a Valsalva manoeuvre, which would increase transmural pressure and cross-sectional area of the extrathoracic airway. Additional MFEEs were performed with the neck fully flexed and extended, to change longitudinal tracheal tension. In separate studies, PEF was measured with a spirometer and with a pneumotachograph. Breathholds at TLC (2 s and 10 s), and neck flexion reduced PEF by a mean of 9.8% (SD 2.9%), 9.6% (SD 1.6%), and 8.7% (SD 2.8%), respectively, when measured with the spirometer. The same pattern of results was seen when measured with the pneumotachograph. These reductions occurred despite similar respiratory effort. Voluntarily raising intrathoracic pressure during a 10 s breathhold did not reverse a fall in PEF. MFEE manoeuvre with neck extension did not result in an increase in PEF, the group mean % changes being -3.0% (SD 5.0%). We conclude that these results do not allow the hypothesis that "wave-speed" (Vws) is reached at PEF to be rejected. A breathhold at TLC could increase airway wall compliance by allowing stress-relaxation of the airway, thus reducing the "Vws" achievable. PMID:8287953

  20. Robust detection of peak signals for lateral flow immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Jong Dae; Nahm, Kie Bong; Choi, Eui Yul; Lee, Geumyoung

    2011-02-01

    Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.

  1. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  2. Measuring non-local Lagrangian peak bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Desjacques, Vincent; Paranjape, Aseem

    2014-06-01

    We investigate non-local Lagrangian bias contributions involving gradients of the linear density field, for which we have predictions from the excursion set peak formalism. We begin by writing down a bias expansion which includes all the bias terms, including the non-local ones. Having checked that the model furnishes a reasonable fit to the halo mass function, we develop a one-point cross-correlation technique to measure bias factors associated with χ2-distributed quantities. We validate the method with numerical realizations of peaks of Gaussian random fields before we apply it to N-body simulations. We focus on the lowest (quadratic) order non-local contributions -2χ _{10}(k_1\\cdot k_2) and χ _{01}[3(k_1\\cdot k_2)^2-k_1^2 k_2^2], where k_1, k_2 are wave modes. We can reproduce our measurement of χ10 if we allow for an offset between the Lagrangian halo centre-of-mass and the peak position. The sign and magnitude of χ10 is consistent with Lagrangian haloes sitting near linear density maxima. The resulting contribution to the halo bias can safely be ignored for M = 1013 M⊙ h-1, but could become relevant at larger halo masses. For the second non-local bias χ01 however, we measure a much larger magnitude than predicted by our model. We speculate that some of this discrepancy might originate from non-local Lagrangian contributions induced by non-spherical collapse.

  3. Identification of novel bile acids as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Niemann-Pick C disease.

    PubMed

    Mazzacuva, Francesca; Mills, Philippa; Mills, Kevin; Camuzeaux, Stephane; Gissen, Paul; Nicoli, Elena-Raluca; Wassif, Christopher; Te Vruchte, Danielle; Porter, Forbes D; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Mano, Nariyasu; Iida, Takashi; Platt, Frances; Clayton, Peter T

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a rapid UPLC-MS/MS method to quantitate novel bile acids in biological fluids and the evaluation of their diagnostic potential in Niemann-Pick C (NPC). Two new compounds, NPCBA1 (3β-hydroxy,7β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholenoic acid) and NPCBA2 (probably 3β,5α,6β-trihydroxycholanoyl-glycine), were observed to accumulate preferentially in NPC patients: median plasma concentrations of NPCBA1 and NPCBA2 were 40- and 10-fold higher in patients than in controls. However, NPCBA1 concentrations were normal in some patients because they carried a common mutation inactivating the GlcNAc transferase required for the synthesis of this bile acid. NPCBA2, not containing a GlcNAc moiety, is thus a better NPC biomarker. PMID:27139891

  4. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for a bi-objective pick-up and delivery problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, N.; Dejax, P.; Guéret, C.; Prins, C.

    2012-03-01

    Some companies must transport their personnel within facilities. This is especially the case for oil companies that use helicopters to transport engineers, technicians and assistant personnel from platform to platform. This operation has the potential to become expensive if the transportation routes are not correctly planned and provide a bad quality of service. Here this issue is modelled as a pick-up and delivery problem where a set of transportation requests should be scheduled in routes, minimizing the total transportation cost while the most urgent requests are satisfied by priority. To solve the problem, a method based on a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is proposed. This algorithm is tested on both randomly generated and real instances provided by a petroleum company. The results show that the proposed algorithm improves the best-known solutions.

  5. Electronic Transport of Encapsulated WSe2 Fabricated by Pick-up of Pre-patterned hBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yafang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; MIT Team

    We report high quality WSe2 devices encapsulated between two hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) flakes using a pick-up method with etched hBN flakes. Previous work on graphene has shown that sample disorder can be greatly reduced via isolation from charge impurities in the substrate by means of encapsulation. However, the effect of encapsulation still remains unknown for dichalcogenides devices. Besides, the quality of contact to TMDs is also a critical factor limiting the transport performance of such devices. To measure the transport properties of dichalcogenide devices as a function of temperature, low resistance electrical contacts must be made to the material. To achieve this, we encapsulate few-layer WSe2 in hexagonal boron nitride that has been patterned to allow ionic liquid doping of the contact region. This technique simultaneously protects the WSe2 surface above and below, resulting in the highest mobility few-layer WSe2 devices reported to date.

  6. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  7. Continuous Access to Competing Stimulation as Intervention for Self-Injurious Skin Picking in a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Mara V.; Luiselli, James K.; Baker, Lorianne

    2009-01-01

    Children with autism frequently display self-injurious behavior (SIB), but skin picking--a less severe topography of SIB--has not been the focus of much clinical research. The present study evaluated a home-based intervention that was implemented with a 9-year-old girl who had autism and picked her fingers with resulting tissue damage. The…

  8. The class characteristic mark of the H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool in toolmarks examination.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2014-07-01

    Mul-T-Lock is a high security lock cylinder distinguished by the use of a telescoping "pin-in-pin"-tumbler design. Picking the Mul-T-Lock cylinder with a traditional picking tool is highly complicated because it can get stuck between the inner and outer pins. The H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool was designed to overcome this problem and facilitate the picking of the "pin-in-pin" cylinder. The purpose of this research is to determine whether H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool leaves class characteristic mark and whether it can be distinguished from traditional picking tools marks and from regular key marks. It also describes and determines the class characteristic mark left on telescopic pins, its origin, recurrence, and its benefit to the toolmarks examiner. When receiving a Mul-T-Lock from a crime scene, a toolmarks examiner can quickly determine whether or not it was picked by an H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool by noticing the class characteristic mark which this typical tool leaves. PMID:24840506

  9. Baseline studies on the feasibility of detecting a coal/shale interface with a self-powered sensitized pick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. R., II

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a sensitized pick to discriminate between cutting coal and roof material during the longwall mining process was investigated. A conventional longwall mining pick was instrumented and cutting force magnitudes were determined for a variety of materials, including Illinois #6 coal, shale type materials, and synthetic coal/shale materials.

  10. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  11. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  12. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  14. PICK1 and ICA69 control insulin granule trafficking and their deficiencies lead to impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mian; Mao, Zhuo; Kam, Chuen; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Xiaoxing; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Kenneth K Y; Xu, Aimin; Lee, Kwong-Man; Jiang, Liwen; Xia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules. PMID:23630453

  15. Picking Teams: Motivational Effects of Team Selection Strategies in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.; Beddoes, Zack; Eggett, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The tacitly sanctioned practice of publicly picking teams in physical education has been categorized as instructionally inappropriate, yet its practice persists. Therefore, the purpose of this two-study article was to examine its effects on achievement goals orientations and motivational profiles of male junior high school physical education…

  16. A Normative Study of the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the…

  17. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  18. Pathological and biochemical studies on a case of Pick disease with severe white matter atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kazuo; Takanashi, Masashi; Watanabe, Masao; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Hasegawa, Masato; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Tanaka, Shigeki; Mori, Hideo

    2006-12-01

    We report on a male patient with Pick disease who had shown severe white matter atrophy and dilatation of the lateral ventricle in the frontal lobe from an early stage. Upon admission to our hospital 2 years after disease onset, the patient showed apathy, and MRI revealed severe atrophy of the cortex and white matter of the frontal lobe. He died at age 74, 11 years after disease onset. Autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, severe loss of white matter in the frontal lobe, dilatation of the lateral ventricles, and cortical thinning. Histopathological examination showed severe loss of myelinated fibers in the frontal white matter and severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the frontal and temporal cortices. Many Pick bodies were seen. Our patient had a rare case of Pick disease predominantly affecting the frontal lobe with severe involvement of the white matter from an early stage. This case suggests that myelinated fibers in the white matter as well as cerebral neurons are primarily affected in Pick disease. PMID:17203597

  19. DeepPicker: A deep learning approach for fully automated particle picking in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gong, Huichao; Liu, Gaochao; Li, Meijing; Yan, Chuangye; Xia, Tian; Li, Xueming; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-09-01

    Particle picking is a time-consuming step in single-particle analysis and often requires significant interventions from users, which has become a bottleneck for future automated electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). Here we report a deep learning framework, called DeepPicker, to address this problem and fill the current gaps toward a fully automated cryo-EM pipeline. DeepPicker employs a novel cross-molecule training strategy to capture common features of particles from previously-analyzed micrographs, and thus does not require any human intervention during particle picking. Tests on the recently-published cryo-EM data of three complexes have demonstrated that our deep learning based scheme can successfully accomplish the human-level particle picking process and identify a sufficient number of particles that are comparable to those picked manually by human experts. These results indicate that DeepPicker can provide a practically useful tool to significantly reduce the time and manual effort spent in single-particle analysis and thus greatly facilitate high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination. DeepPicker is released as an open-source program, which can be downloaded from https://github.com/nejyeah/DeepPicker-python. PMID:27424268

  20. White Speck, A Dye Defect in Mechanically and Hand Picked Cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The textile industry is often caught off guard by white specks showing up in dyed fabrics. The current grading system does not always pick up the level of maturity that causes white specks. Research using international cottons is aimed at finding high-speed measurement systems that can be used to ...

  1. What Skills and Tactics Are Needed to Play Adult Pick-Up Basketball Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…

  2. An Investigation of the Look-Ask-Pick Mnemonic to Improve Fraction Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Gregory E.; Harsy, Jennifer D.; Hupp, Stephen D. A.; Jewell, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the Look-Ask-Pick (LAP) mnemonic on the addition and subtraction of fraction skills of 3 general education sixth graders. Following identification of fraction skill deficits, participants were taught to add and subtract fractions with like denominators, unlike denominators where one divides evenly into…

  3. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  4. Peak Ring Craters and Multiring Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding of the mechanics of peak-ring crater and basin formation has expanded greatly due to the high precision data on lunar gravity from GRAIL. Peak rings coincide with the edges of underlying mantle uplifts on the Moon.

  5. Niemann-Pick disease type C clinical database: cognitive and coordination deficits are early disease indicators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is characterized by a broad clinical variability involving neurological, psychiatric and systemic signs. Diverse patterns of disease manifestation and progression considerably delay its diagnosis. Here we introduce the NP-C clinical database (NPC-cdb) to systematically obtain, store and analyze diagnostic and clinical findings in patients with NP-C. We apply NPC-cdb to study NP-C temporal expression in a large German-Swiss patient cohort. Methods Current and past medical history was systematically acquired from 42 patients using tailored questionnaires. Manifestation of 72 distinct neuropsychiatric signs was modeled over the course of disease. The sequence of disease progression was re-constructed by a novel clinical outcome scale (NPC-cdb score). Results The efficiency of current clinical diagnostic standards negatively correlates with duration of disease (p<3.9x10-4), suggesting insufficient sensitivity in patients early in the disease process. Neurological signs considered as typical for NP-C were frequent (e.g., cognitive impairment 86%, ataxia 79%, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy 76%) and their presence co-occurred with accelerated diagnosis. However, less specific neuropsychiatric signs were reported to arise considerably more early in the disease process (e.g., clumsiness -4.9±1.1 y before diagnosis). Most patients showed a steady disease progression that correlated with age at neurological onset. However, a distinct subcohort (n=6) with initially steadily progressing disease later showed a 2.9-fold accelerated progression that was associated with the onset of seizures (p<7x10-4), suggesting seizures as predictive for a poor prognosis. Conclusions Considering early, but less specific neuropsychiatric signs may accelerate the path to diagnosing NP-C in a patient. PMID:23433426

  6. Combining in situ and Remote Measurements with Models: Picking the Right Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Hains, J. C.; Burrows, J. P.

    2004-05-01

    Visibility reduction, photochemical smog, and the global climate changes these pollutants engender involve complex interactions of emissions, atmospheric transformations, and transport. In situ measurements, numerical simulations, and remotely sensed data all have strengths and weaknesses, but picking the right combination of tools can avoid the limitations of any one method to advance the science and provide policy-relevant research on the causes and nature of air pollution. The Regional Atmospheric Measurement, Modeling, and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) seeks a balanced approach to air pollution studies in the Mid Atlantic. We employ surface and airborne measurements as input and tests for air quality models of the Baltimore/Washington area. Both ozone and summertime haze tend to form in blobs covering areas hundreds of km on a side and lasting several days. Point and aircraft measurements offer high accuracy, but cannot always characterize the spatial and temporal extent of these masses. To provide the big picture, we are exploring the use of satellite data including GOME and SCIAMACHY for SO2, TOMS for tropospheric O3, and MODIS for aerosol optical depth. Comparison with direct measurements can greatly improve retrievals of atmospheric composition. For example, GOME identified a persistent hot spot in SO2 over eastern North America where many large, coal-fired power plants are located. Aircraft measurements confirmed the presence of this hotspot, but indicated an average column content of 0.65 DU (m atm cm), while the satellite instrument, indicated only 0.14 DU. GOME uses, however, an initial guess for the altitudinal distribution of the SO2, and when the retrieval algorithm is corrected with the observed profile, the result is 0.42 DU. Further improving the retrieval with more representative background values yields a mean SO2 column content of 0.52 DU, within experimental uncertainty of the aircraft value. Ozone and aerosol retrievals can be similarly

  7. PICK1 and ICA69 Control Insulin Granule Trafficking and Their Deficiencies Lead to Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Chuen; Xiao, Nan; Cao, Xiaoxing; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Kenneth K. Y.; Xu, Aimin; Lee, Kwong-Man; Jiang, Liwen; Xia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN). A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules. Author Summary Insulin is a key regulator of blood glucose and insufficient insulin leads to diabetes. Insulin is synthesized as proinsulin, processed in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and eventually packaged into insulin granules, a type of dense core vesicles. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms governing the biogenesis and maturation of insulin granules are not fully understood. In this study, we identified two cytosolic proteins, PICK1 and ICA69, as important regulators of insulin granule

  8. Microwave peak absorption frequency of liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guangze; Chen, Mingdong

    2008-09-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is a new effective method which has practical applications in many fields. Microwave heating is one of its physical mechanisms, and it also has the characteristic of selectivity. When the applied microwave frequency equals a certain absorption frequency of the material (or specific component), the material will intensively absorb microwave energy. This is also known as resonant absorption, and the frequency is called the peak absorption frequency which depends on the physical structure of the material. In this work, dynamic hydrogen bond energy was included in molecular activation energy; with the liquid cell model, the expression of interaction energy between dipolar molecules was derived. The rotational relaxation time was gotten from the Eyring viscosity formula. Then based on the relationship between dielectric dissipation coefficient and relaxation time, the expression of microwave peak absorption frequency as a function of the material physical structure, rotational inertia and electrical dipole moment of molecules was established. These theoretical formulas were applied to water and benzene, and the calculated results agree fairly well with the experimental data. This work can not only deepen the study of the interaction between microwave and material, but also provide a possible guide for the experiment of microwave-assisted extraction.

  9. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder

    PubMed Central

    George, Nneka M.; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Fletcher, Craig A.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine’s mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly

  10. Discourse Peak as Zone of Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longacre, Robert E.

    Defining peak as the climax of discourse, this paper argues that it is important to identify peak in order to get at the overall grammar of a given discourse. The paper presents case studies in which four instances of peak in narrative discourses occur in languages from four different parts of the world. It also illustrates the occurrence of a…

  11. PolyaPeak: Detecting Transcription Factor Binding Sites from ChIP-seq Using Peak Shape Information

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Ji, Hongkai

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful technology for detecting genomic regions where a protein of interest interacts with DNA. ChIP-seq data for mapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) have a characteristic pattern: around each binding site, sequence reads aligned to the forward and reverse strands of the reference genome form two separate peaks shifted away from each other, and the true binding site is located in between these two peaks. While it has been shown previously that the accuracy and resolution of binding site detection can be improved by modeling the pattern, efficient methods are unavailable to fully utilize that information in TFBS detection procedure. We present PolyaPeak, a new method to improve TFBS detection by incorporating the peak shape information. PolyaPeak describes peak shapes using a flexible Pólya model. The shapes are automatically learnt from the data using Minorization-Maximization (MM) algorithm, then integrated with the read count information via a hierarchical model to distinguish true binding sites from background noises. Extensive real data analyses show that PolyaPeak is capable of robustly improving TFBS detection compared with existing methods. An R package is freely available. PMID:24608116

  12. Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

    The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

  13. D-peaks: a visual tool to display ChIP-seq peaks along the genome.

    PubMed

    Brohée, Sylvain; Bontempi, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    ChIP-sequencing is a method of choice to localize the positions of protein binding sites on DNA on a whole genomic scale. The deciphering of the sequencing data produced by this novel technique is challenging and it is achieved by their rigorous interpretation using dedicated tools and adapted visualization programs. Here, we present a bioinformatics tool (D-peaks) that adds several possibilities (including, user-friendliness, high-quality, relative position with respect to the genomic features) to the well-known visualization browsers or databases already existing. D-peaks is directly available through its web interface http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/dpeaks/ as well as a command line tool. PMID:23132505

  14. Determination of the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Lebanowski, Logan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-08-01

    A physically motivated function was developed to accurately determine the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter and to overcome biases present in many commonly used methods. The function is the convolution of a detector resolution function with the sum of a delta function, which represents the complete absorption of energy, and a tail function, which describes the partial absorption of energy and depends on the detector materials and structures. Its performance was tested with the simulation of three typical cases. The accuracy of the extracted peak value, resolution, and peak area was improved by an order of magnitude on average, relative to the Crystal Ball function.

  15. On the trail of double peak hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Juilleret, Jérôme; François Iffly, Jean; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A double peak hydrograph features two peaks as a response to a unique rainfall pulse. The first peak occurs at the same time or shortly after the precipitation has started and it corresponds to a fast catchment response to precipitation. The delayed peak normally starts during the recession of the first peak, when the precipitation has already ceased. Double peak hydrographs may occur for various reasons. They can occur (i) in large catchments when lag times in tributary responses are large, (ii) in urban catchments where the first peak is often caused by direct surface runoff on impervious land cover, and the delayed peak to slower subsurface flow, and (iii) in non-urban catchments, where the first and the delayed discharge peaks are explained by different runoff mechanisms (e.g. overland flow, subsurface flow and/or deep groundwater flow) that have different response times. Here we focus on the third case, as a formal description of the different hydrological mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across catchments with diverse physiographic characteristics is still needed. Based on a review of studies documenting double peak events we have established a formal classification of catchments presenting double peak events based on their regolith structure (geological substratum and/or its weathered products). We describe the different hydrological mechanisms that trigger these complex hydrological dynamics across each catchment type. We then use hydrometric time series of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture and groundwater levels collected in the Weierbach (0.46 km2) headwater catchment (Luxembourg) to better understand double peak hydrograph generation. Specifically, we aim to find out (1) if the generation of a double peak hydrograph is a threshold process, (2) if the hysteretic relationships between storage and discharge are consistent during single and double peak hydrographs, and (3) if different functional landscape units (the hillslopes

  16. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality.

    PubMed

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-05-19

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  17. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    PubMed Central

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O.; Lauridsen, Felicia B.; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  18. 41 CFR 102-36.135 - How much time do we have to pick up excess personal property that has been approved for transfer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to pick up excess personal property that has been approved for transfer? 102-36.135 Section 102-36... pick up excess personal property that has been approved for transfer? Normally, you have 15 calendar days from the date of GSA allocation to pick up the excess personal property for transfer, and you...

  19. Phase space diffusion and anisotropic pick-up ion distributions in the solar wind: an injection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalov, S. V.; Fahr, H. J.

    1998-07-01

    Pick-up ions are produced all over the interplanetary space by ionization of neutral interstellar atoms. Over the last decade it was generally expected that after pick-up these ions quickly are isotropized in the velocity space comoving with the solar wind by strong pitch-angle scattering, though not assimilating to the thermodynamic state of solar wind ions. Recent studies of pick-up ion data obtained with plasma analyzers on AMPTE and ULYSSES have, however, revealed that during extended time periods substantially anisotropic distributions prevail. In this paper we want to improve the understanding of the evolutionary behaviour of pick-up ions in interplanetary phase space by an pick-up ion injection study taking into account all relevant diffusion terms describing pitch angle scattering, adiabatic cooling, drifts and energy diffusion. For particles injected at 1 AU the resulting distribution function stays substantially anisotropic up to distances of the order of 6 AU, unless increased isotropic turbulence levels and non-dissipative wave spectra are considered. The average bulk velocity of pick-up ions within this distance range is smaller than the solar wind velocity by factors of between 0.6 and 1.0. Pick-ups are shown to substantially become spread out from that solar wind parcel into which they were originally injected. Derivations of interstellar gas parameters using pick-up ion flux data can only be dared with additional care in the interpretation. As a consequence the location of the LISM helium cone axis and the LISM helium temperature are faked in the associated He(+) pick-up ion flux pattern.

  20. A simple pharmacokinetics subroutine for modeling double peak phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Massoud

    2006-04-01

    Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs. Numerous reasons have been implicated in causing the double peak. DRUG-KNT--a pharmacokinetic software developed previously for fitting one and two compartment kinetics using the iterative curve stripping method--was modified and a revised subroutine was incorporated to solve double-peak models. This subroutine considers the double peak as two hypothetical doses administered with a time gap. The fitting capability of the presented model was verified using four sets of data showing double peak profiles extracted from the literature (piroxicam, ranitidine, phenazopyridine and talinolol). Visual inspection and statistical diagnostics showed that the present algorithm provided adequate curve fit disregarding the mechanism involved in the emergence of the secondary peaks. Statistical diagnostic parameters (RSS, AIC and R2) generally showed good fitness in the plasma profile prediction by this model. It was concluded that the algorithm presented herein provides adequate predicted curves in cases of the double peak phenomenon. PMID:16400712

  1. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  2. Origin of the O(+) pick-up ions in the hehiosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Mall, U.

    1994-01-01

    The main sources for the ions in the interplanetary medium are the solar wind and the interstellar gas intruding into the heliosphere. Other sources, i.e. comets and planets can, however, contribute significantly locally. We present approximate expressions for deriving fluxes of pick-up ions originating from local neutral gas sources. Since the Io-torus is thought to be a relatively strong emitter of fast atoms, particular O and S, we used the O(+) data obtained by SWICS-Ulysses as a function of distance from Jupiter, both in and out-off the ecliptic plane in order to recognize a possible contribution of the Ionian source to the measured O(+). We find that - except for a very limited zone near the Jovian magnetosphere - the contribution of the Io-torus to the O(+) fluxes is minor, thus confirming our previous results on the pick-up H(+), He(+), N(+), O(+), and Ne(+) fluxes of interstellar origin.

  3. Design of a slim-type optical pick-up actuator using PMN-PT bimorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Byeongsik; Jung, Jung-Sub; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, a new optical pick-up actuator is proposed using PMN-PT (lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) bimorphs for slim and small form factor optical disk drives. We suggest a novel structure enabling both tracking and focusing motions by changing the moving directions of the two parallel bimorphs. A cymbal-type flextensional structure is used as a displacement amplifier in order to meet the stroke requirement for optical pick-up actuators. We have performed the theoretical analyses for the bimorph actuator and displacement amplifier to predict the resultant force and displacement. The proposed actuator based on PMN-PT bimorphs and displacement amplifier has been manufactured, and the experimental results are compared to the analytical predictions. Experimental results agree well with the analytical predictions, showing that the cymbal structure amplifies the displacement twice and the focusing stroke is 52 µm at 10 V.

  4. Type a niemann-pick disease. Description of three cases with delayed myelination.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, A; Sibilio, M; Caranci, F; Bartiromo, F; Taurisano, R; Balivo, F; Melis, D; Parenti, G; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Brunetti, A

    2008-06-01

    We describe three patients with type A Niemann-Pick disease (NPD-A). NPD-A is an autosomal recessive neuronal storage disease classified among the sphingolipidoses, characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues and in the brain. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) of our three patients showed a marked delay of myelination with frontal atrophy. Few descriptions of this MRI pattern of delayed myelination have been published to date. PMID:24256898

  5. Niemann-Pick disease type C or Gaucher’s disease type 3? A clinical conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Pandi, Suresh; Chandran, Vijay; Deshpande, Anirudda; Kurien, Annamma

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a neurovisceral syndrome characterised by ataxia, bulbar dysfunction, supranuclear gaze palsy, splenomegaly and foamy histiocytes in the bone marrow. This presentation was suggestive of a lysosomal storage disorder such as Niemann-Pick disease type C or Gaucher's disease type 3. We review the presentation of these disorders, with a focus on the neurological features. In addition, we briefly discuss the disease-modifying therapeutic options which have recently become available. PMID:24811560

  6. Resonant Orbits and the High Velocity Peaks toward the Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Matthew; Smith, Martin C.; Evans, N. Wyn; Shen, Juntai

    2015-10-01

    We extract the resonant orbits from an N-body bar that is a good representation of the Milky Way, using the method recently introduced by Molloy et al. By decomposing the bar into its constituent orbit families, we show that they are intimately connected to the boxy-peanut shape of the density. We highlight the imprint due solely to resonant orbits on the kinematic landscape toward the Galactic center. The resonant orbits are shown to have distinct kinematic features and may be used to explain the cold velocity peak seen in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment commissioning data. We show that high velocity peaks are a natural consequence of the motions of stars in the 2:1 orbit family and that stars on other higher order resonances can contribute to the peaks. The locations of the peaks vary with bar angle and, with the tacit assumption that the observed peaks are due to the 2:1 family, we find that the locations of the high velocity peaks correspond to bar angles in the range {10}\\circ ≲ {θ }{bar}≲ 25^\\circ . However, some important questions about the nature of the peaks remain, such as their apparent absence in other surveys of the Bulge and the deviations from symmetry between equivalent fields in the north and south. We show that the absence of a peak in surveys at higher latitudes is likely due to the combination of a less prominent peak and a lower number density of bar supporting orbits at these latitudes.

  7. Global flood hazard mapping using statistical peak flow estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, C.; Mouton, F.

    2011-01-01

    Our aim is to produce a world map of flooded areas for a 100 year return period, using a method based on large rivers peak flow estimates derived from mean monthly discharge time-series. Therefore, the map is supposed to represent flooding that affects large river floodplains, but not events triggered by specific conditions like coastal or flash flooding for instance. We first generate for each basin a set of hydromorphometric, land cover and climatic variables. In case of an available discharge record station at the basin outlet, we base the hundred year peak flow estimate on the corresponding time-series. Peak flow magnitude for basin outlets without gauging stations is estimated by statistical means, performing several regressions on the basin variables. These peak flow estimates enable the computation of corresponding flooded areas using hydrologic GIS processing on digital elevation model.

  8. Strong Seasonal Variation of Martian Pick-up Ions and Reflected Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Hara, Takuya; Lundin, Rickard; Dubinin, Edik; Fedorov, Andrei; Frahm, Rudy; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmstrom, Mats; Barabash, Stas

    2015-04-01

    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations by the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment's ion mass analyzer (IMA). In the region just outside the bow shock of Mars, IMA frequently observes ring-like distributed ions that include both pick-up ions of exospheric origin and reflected solar wind by the bow shock (Yamauchi et al., 2012). Although there are some restrictions imposed when using the IMA measurements, the length and quality of the IMA data is sufficient to statistically diagnose the seasonal and solar cycle variation. According to this long-term observation, the observation probability of the ring-like distributed ions outside the bow shock with certain intensity strongly depends on the season, i.e., the flux of these ions varies by nearly one order of magnitude every two years. A careful examination reveals that the variation of pick-up ions is locked to the distance from the Sun rather than the tilt angle of the rotation axis. This indicates that the planetary scale variation of solar UV has a drastic effect on the formation of the pick-up ions. Solar cycle effects are not distinguishable partly because they are masked by the seasonal effects and partly because MEX and IMA are optimum for such observations due to the instrumental limitations (FOV and energy range) and the lack of the magnetometer experiment on the Mars Express spacecraft

  9. Development of a tri-axial optical accelerometer using two DVD pick-up heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Liao, Hong-Wei

    2008-12-01

    This study develops a low-cost, highly-sensitive, three-dimensional optical accelerometer in which the seismic mass comprises four rectangular blocks attached to the ends of a cross-form aluminum structure suspended on four thin steel strips. It is shown through ANSYS finite element (FE) simulations that the thin-strip suspension system restricts the seismic mass to just three degrees of motional freedom, namely one translational motion in the vertical direction and two rotational motions. These displacements are detected using two novel optical sensors based on commercial DVD optical pick-up heads. When the accelerometer experiences a vibrational force, the relative motion between the seismic mass and the base results in a change in the distribution of the reflected light spots on the surfaces of the four-quadrant photodetectors within the two pick-up heads. The resulting changes in the output voltage signals of the two pick-up heads are then used to calculate the corresponding acceleration of the base. The experimental results indicate that the resonance frequencies of the accelerometer in the X, Y and Z-axis directions are 130.51 Hz, 130.63 Hz and 130.90 Hz, respectively. Meanwhile, the sensitivities of the accelerometer in the X, Y and Z-axis directions are 21.28 V/g, 22.94 V/g and 22.75 V/g, respectively.

  10. Automatic picking based on an AR-AIC-costfunction appraoach applied on tele-, regional- and induced seismic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Kai; Meier, Thomas; Cristiano, Luigia

    2015-04-01

    A quick picking procedure is an important tool to process large datasets in seismology. Identifying phases and determining the precise onset times at seismological stations is essential not just for localization procedures but also for seismic body-wave tomography. The automated picking procedure should be fast, robust, precise and consistent. In manual processing the speed and consistency are not guaranteed and therefore unreproducible errors may be introduced, especially for large amounts of data. In this work an offline P- and S-phase picker based on an autoregressive-prediction approach is optimized and applied to different data sets. The onset time can be described as the sum of the event source time, the theoretic travel time according to a reference velocity model and a deviation from the theoretic travel time due to lateral heterogeneity or errors in the source location. With this approach the onset time at each station can be found around the theoretical travel time within a time window smaller than the maximum lateral heterogeneity. Around the theoretic travel time an autoregressive prediction error is calculated from one or several components as characteristic function of the waveform. The minimum of the Akaike-Information-Criteria of the characteristic function identifies the phase. As was shown by Küperkoch et al. (2012), the Akaike-Information-Criteria has the tendency to be too late. Therefore, an additional processing step for precise picking is needed. In the vicinity of the minimum of the Akaike-Information-Criteria a cost function is defined and used to find the optimal estimate of the arrival time. The cost function is composed of the CF and three side conditions. The idea behind the use of a cost function is to find the phase pick in the last minimum before the CF rises due to the phase onset. The final onset time is picked in the minimum of the cost function. The automatic picking procedure is applied on datasets recorded at stations of the

  11. Kinetic modeling of Europa's neutral atmosphere and pick-up ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenishev, V.; Rubin, M.; Borovikov, D.; Jia, X.; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2013-12-01

    Europa was the highest priority outer planet exploration target in the 2007 NASA Science Plan, the 2006 Solar System Exploration Roadmap, and the 2003 planetary sciences Decadal Survey. The in-depth exploration of the plasma environment of Jupiter's moon Europa and investigation of its interaction with moon's surface and atmosphere remains a central objective of any proposed Europa Jupiter System Mission. The neutral species in Europa's atmosphere are mostly provided by ion sputtering of the water ice surface. Energetic ions and electrons from the Jovian magnetosphere produce molecular oxygen O2, the dominant species in Europa's atmosphere. Very close to the moon's surface the probability for collisional interaction between the species is close to the limit for a surface bound exosphere. The main loss mechanisms for neutrals are electron impact ionization, photoionization, as well as escape when neutral particles leave Europa's Hill sphere at roughly 8.7 Europa radii. The neutral and plasma environment of Europa are a tightly coupled system. A detailed study of this system requires coupled models of both the plasma and neutral environment. In this study we use coupled state-of-the-art computer models developed at the University of Michigan. In particular we include the BATSRUS MHD code of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) and the Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (AMPS) model based on the DSMC method that both have well proven heritage in numerous space applications. In this investigation we calculate the plasma distribution in the vicinity of Europa at different locations along its orbit. The energetic ion flux derived from these calculations is used for simulation of the neutral particle sputtering that form Europa's atmosphere. The subsequent ionization of these neutral particles is the source of the pick-up ions. Populations of the neutrals and ions are calculated by tracing trajectories of the individual particles with accounting for both Europa

  12. The Boson peak in supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Wikfeldt, K Thor; Schlesinger, Daniel; Pettersson, Lars G M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line TW. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih. PMID:23771033

  13. Weld peaking on heavy aluminum structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, E.; Poorman, R.; Sexton, J.

    1978-01-01

    Weld peaking is usually undesirable in any welded structure. In heavy structures, the forces involved in the welding process become very large and difficult to handle. With the shuttle's solid rocket booster, the weld peaking resulted in two major problems: (1) reduced mechanical properties across the weld joint, and (2) fit-up difficulties in subsequent assembly operation. Peaking from the weld shrinkage forces can be fairly well predicted in simple structures; however, in welding complicated assemblies, the amount of peaking is unpredictable because of unknown stresses from machining and forming, stresses induced by the fixturing, and stresses from welds in other parts of the assembly. When excessive peaking is encountered, it can be corrected using the shrinkage forces resulting from the welding process. Application of these forces is discussed in this report.

  14. Successful treatment of cataplexy in patients with early-infantile Niemann-Pick disease type C: use of tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Cak, Halime Tuna; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Düzgün, Gökçen; Yüce, Aysel; Topçu, Meral

    2014-11-01

    Cataplexy is a brief episode of bilateral loss of muscle tone with intact consciousness, triggered by a variety of strong emotions such as anger, laugh, humor or surprise and it is considered to represent the physiologic atonia of rapid eye movement sleep. On the other hand, Niemann-Pick type C is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease, characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Cataplexy is a relatively specific and common neurologic sign seen in almost 50% of all patients with Niemann-Pick type C. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the successful treatment of cataplexy with the use of a tricyclic antidepressant imipiramine, in two patients between the ages 6-9, with mild to moderate mental retardation, molecularly diagnosed as Niemann-Pick type C 1 and currently under miglustat treatment and to discuss the possible mechanisms of drug action in the light of cataplexy and Niemann-Pick type C pathophysiology. PMID:25139345

  15. Peptide mass fingerprinting peak intensity prediction: extracting knowledge from spectra.

    PubMed

    Gay, Steven; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Appel, Ron D

    2002-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry has become a valuable tool in proteomics. With the increasing acquisition rate of mass spectrometers, one of the major issues is the development of accurate, efficient and automatic peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) identification tools. Current tools are mostly based on counting the number of experimental peptide masses matching with theoretical masses. Almost all of them use additional criteria such as isoelectric point, molecular weight, PTMs, taxonomy or enzymatic cleavage rules to enhance prediction performance. However, these identification tools seldom use peak intensities as parameter as there is currently no model predicting the intensities based on the physicochemical properties of peptides. In this work, we used standard datamining methods such as classification and regression methods to find correlations between peak intensities and the properties of the peptides composing a PMF spectrum. These methods were applied on a dataset comprising a series of PMF experiments involving 157 proteins. We found that the C4.5 method gave the more informative results for the classification task (prediction of the presence or absence of a peptide in a spectra) and M5' for the regression methods (prediction of the normalized intensity of a peptide peak). The C4.5 result correctly classified 88% of the theoretical peaks; whereas the M5' peak intensities had a correlation coefficient of 0.6743 with the experimental peak intensities. These methods enabled us to obtain decision and model trees that can be directly used for prediction and identification of PMF results. The work performed permitted to lay the foundations of a method to analyze factors influencing the peak intensity of PMF spectra. A simple extension of this analysis could lead to improve the accuracy of the results by using a larger dataset. Additional peptide characteristics or even PMF experimental parameters can also be taken into

  16. Autonomous pallet localization and picking for industrial forklifts: a robust range and look method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglivo, L.; Biasi, N.; Biral, F.; Bellomo, N.; Bertolazzi, E.; Da Lio, M.; De Cecco, M.

    2011-08-01

    A combined double-sensor architecture, laser and camera, and a new algorithm named RLPF are presented as a solution to the problem of identifying and localizing a pallet, the position and angle of which are a priori known with large uncertainty. Solving this task for autonomous robot forklifts is of great value for logistics industry. The state-of-the-art is described to show how our approach overcomes the limitations of using either laser ranging or vision. An extensive experimental campaign and uncertainty analysis are presented. For the docking task, new dynamic nonlinear path planning which takes into account vehicle dynamics is proposed.

  17. Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease and their family may need to seek legal advice early in the course of the disorder. Advance care directive , power of attorney, and other legal actions can make it easier to make decisions ...

  18. Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Head CT scan Tests of sensation, thinking and reasoning (cognitive function), and motor function A brain biopsy ... GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  19. PeakRanger: A cloud-enabled peak caller for ChIP-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), coupled with massively parallel short-read sequencing (seq) is used to probe chromatin dynamics. Although there are many algorithms to call peaks from ChIP-seq datasets, most are tuned either to handle punctate sites, such as transcriptional factor binding sites, or broad regions, such as histone modification marks; few can do both. Other algorithms are limited in their configurability, performance on large data sets, and ability to distinguish closely-spaced peaks. Results In this paper, we introduce PeakRanger, a peak caller software package that works equally well on punctate and broad sites, can resolve closely-spaced peaks, has excellent performance, and is easily customized. In addition, PeakRanger can be run in a parallel cloud computing environment to obtain extremely high performance on very large data sets. We present a series of benchmarks to evaluate PeakRanger against 10 other peak callers, and demonstrate the performance of PeakRanger on both real and synthetic data sets. We also present real world usages of PeakRanger, including peak-calling in the modENCODE project. Conclusions Compared to other peak callers tested, PeakRanger offers improved resolution in distinguishing extremely closely-spaced peaks. PeakRanger has above-average spatial accuracy in terms of identifying the precise location of binding events. PeakRanger also has excellent sensitivity and specificity in all benchmarks evaluated. In addition, PeakRanger offers significant improvements in run time when running on a single processor system, and very marked improvements when allowed to take advantage of the MapReduce parallel environment offered by a cloud computing resource. PeakRanger can be downloaded at the official site of modENCODE project: http://www.modencode.org/software/ranger/ PMID:21554709

  20. A Computationally Efficient Method for Polyphonic Pitch Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruohua; Reiss, Joshua D.; Mattavelli, Marco; Zoia, Giorgio

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient method for polyphonic pitch estimation. The method employs the Fast Resonator Time-Frequency Image (RTFI) as the basic time-frequency analysis tool. The approach is composed of two main stages. First, a preliminary pitch estimation is obtained by means of a simple peak-picking procedure in the pitch energy spectrum. Such spectrum is calculated from the original RTFI energy spectrum according to harmonic grouping principles. Then the incorrect estimations are removed according to spectral irregularity and knowledge of the harmonic structures of the music notes played on commonly used music instruments. The new approach is compared with a variety of other frame-based polyphonic pitch estimation methods, and results demonstrate the high performance and computational efficiency of the approach.

  1. Clinical evaluation of chitotriosidase enzyme activity in Gaucher and Niemann Pick A/B diseases: A retrospective study from India.

    PubMed

    Kadali, Srilatha; Kolusu, Anusha; Sunkara, Satish; Gummadi, Maheshwar Reddy; Undamatla, Jayanthi

    2016-06-01

    Plasma chitotriosidase originates from activated macrophages and is reported to be elevated in many Lysosomal Storage Disorders. Measurement of this enzyme activity has been an available tool for monitoring therapy of Gaucher disease. The degree of elevation of chitotriosidase is useful for differential diagnosis of Gaucher disease and Niemann Pick A/B. However the potential utility of this chitotriosidase assay depends on the frequency of deficient chitotriosidase activity in a particular population. We therefore aim to study the clinical utility of this assay Gaucher and Niemann Pick A/B diseases in the backdrop of chitotriosidase deficiency in our population. The study comprises 173 patients with clinical suspicion of either Gaucher disease (n=108) or Niemann Pick A/B (n=65) and 92 healthy controls. The plasma samples of controls, Gaucher disease, and Niemann Pick A/B showed chitotriosidase deficiency of 12%, 25% and 27% respectively. The degree of elevation of chitotriosidase in Gaucher disease and Niemann Pick A/B patients is 40-326 (11,325.7±6395.4nmol/h/ml) and 7-22 folds (1192.5±463.0nmol/h/ml) respectively. In view of these findings of distinguishable fold elevation of chitotriosidase in Gaucher disease or Niemann Pick A/B, it can be a potential surrogate differential diagnostic marker for these groups of diseases, except in the patients in whom this enzyme is deficient. PMID:26975750

  2. PICK1 is implicated in organelle motility in an Arp2/3 complex-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Madasu, Yadaiah; Yang, Changsong; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Bethoney, Kelley A; Zwolak, Adam; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    PICK1 is a modular scaffold implicated in synaptic receptor trafficking. It features a PDZ domain, a BAR domain, and an acidic C-terminal tail (ACT). Analysis by small- angle x-ray scattering suggests a structural model that places the receptor-binding site of the PDZ domain and membrane-binding surfaces of the BAR and PDZ domains adjacent to each other on the concave side of the banana-shaped PICK1 dimer. In the model, the ACT of one subunit of the dimer interacts with the PDZ and BAR domains of the other subunit, possibly accounting for autoinhibition. Consistently, full-length PICK1 shows diffuse cytoplasmic localization, but it clusters on vesicle-like structures that colocalize with the trans-Golgi network marker TGN38 upon deletion of either the ACT or PDZ domain. This localization is driven by the BAR domain. Live-cell imaging further reveals that PICK1-associated vesicles undergo fast, nondirectional motility in an F-actin-dependent manner, but deleting the ACT dramatically reduces vesicle speed. Thus the ACT links PICK1-associated vesicles to a motility factor, likely myosin, but, contrary to previous reports, PICK1 neither binds nor inhibits Arp2/3 complex. PMID:25657323

  3. Mass-concentration relation and weak lensing peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, V. F.; Camera, S.; Sereno, M.; Covone, G.; Maoli, R.; Scaramella, R.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The statistics of peaks in weak lensing convergence maps is a promising tool for investigating both the properties of dark matter haloes and constraining the cosmological parameters. Aims: We study how the number of detectable peaks and its scaling with redshift depend upon the cluster's dark matter halo profiles and use peak statistics to constrain the parameters of the mass-concentration (MC) relation. We investigate which constraints the Euclid mission can set on the MC coefficients taking degeneracies with the cosmological parameters into account, too. Methods: To this end, we first estimated the number of peaks and its redshift distribution for different MC relations and found that the steeper the mass dependence and the greater the normalisation, the larger the number of detectable clusters, with the total number of peaks changing up to 40% depending on the MC relation. We then performed a Fisher matrix forecast of the errors on the MC relation parameters, as well as on cosmological parameters. Results: We find that peak number counts detected by Euclid can determine the normalization Av, the mass Bv, redshift Cv slopes, and intrinsic scatter σv of the MC relation to an unprecedented accuracy, which is σ(Av) /Av = 1%, σ(Bv) /Bv = 4%, σ(Cv) /Cv = 9%, and σ(σv) /σv = 1% if all cosmological parameters are assumed to be known. If we relax this severe assumption, constraints are degraded, but remarkably good results can be restored by setting only some of the parameters or combining peak counts with Planck data. This precision can give insight into competing scenarios of structure formation and evolution and into the role of baryons in cluster assembling. Alternatively, for a fixed MC relation, future peak counts can perform as well as current BAO and SNeIa when combined with Planck.

  4. Peaks theory and the excursion set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2012-11-01

    We describe a model of dark matter halo abundances and clustering which combines the two most widely used approaches to this problem: that based on peaks and the other based on excursion sets. Our approach can be thought of as addressing the cloud-in-cloud problem for peaks and/or modifying the excursion set approach so that it averages over a special subset, rather than all possible walks. In this respect, it seeks to account for correlations between steps in the walk as well as correlations between walks. We first show how the excursion set and peaks models can be written in the same formalism, and then use this correspondence to write our combined excursion set peaks model. We then give simple expressions for the mass function and bias, showing that even the linear halo bias factor is predicted to be k-dependent as a consequence of the non-locality associated with the peak constraint. At large masses, our model has little or no need to rescale the variable δc from the value associated with spherical collapse, and suggests a simple explanation for why the linear halo bias factor appears to lie above that based on the peak-background split at high masses when such a rescaling is assumed. Although we have concentrated on peaks, our analysis is more generally applicable to other traditionally single-scale analyses of large-scale structure.

  5. An Assessment of the Efficacy and Safety of CROSS Technique with 100% TCA in the Management of Ice Pick Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Deepali; Khunger, Niti

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) is a technique using high concentrations of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) focally on atrophic acne scars to induce inflammation followed by collagenisation. This can lead to reduction in the appearance of scars and cosmetic improvement. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the safety of the CROSS technique, using 100% TCA, for atrophic ice pick acne scars. Settings and Design: Open prospective study. Material and Methods: Twelve patients with predominant atrophic ice pick post acne scars were treated with the CROSS technique, using 100% TCA, applied with a wooden toothpick, at two weekly intervals for four sittings. Efficacy was assessed on the basis of the physician’s clinical assessment, photographic evaluation at each sitting and patient’s feedback after the fourth treatment, and at the three-month and six-month follow-up period, after the last treatment. Results: More than 70% improvement was seen in eight out of ten patients evaluated and good results (50 – 70% improvement) were observed in the remaining two patients. No significant side effects were noted. Transient hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation was observed in one patient each. Physician’s findings were in conformity with the patient’s assessment. Three months after the last treatment, one patient noted a decrease in improvement with no further improvement even at the six-month follow-up period. Conclusion: The CROSS technique with 100% TCA is a safe, efficacious, cost-effective and minimally invasive technique for the management of ice pick acne scars that are otherwise generally difficult to treat. In few patients the improvement may not be sustained, probably due to inadequate or delayed collagenisation. PMID:21031068

  6. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000–15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert’s visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition. PMID:21544266

  7. Plasma spectrum peak extraction algorithm of laser film damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan; Su, Jun-hong; Xu, Jun-qi

    2012-10-01

    The plasma spectrometry is an emerging method to distinguish the thin-film laser damage. Laser irradiation film surface occurrence of flash, using the spectrometer receives the flash spectrum, extracting the spectral peak, and by means of the spectra of the thin-film materials and the atmosphere has determine the difference, as a standard to determine the film damage. Plasma spectrometry can eliminate the miscarriage of justice which caused by atmospheric flashes, and distinguish high accuracy. Plasma spectra extraction algorithm is the key technology of Plasma spectrometry. Firstly, data de noising and smoothing filter is introduced in this paper, and then during the peak is detecting, the data packet is proposed, and this method can increase the stability and accuracy of the spectral peak recognition. Such algorithm makes simultaneous measurement of Plasma spectrometry to detect thin film laser damage, and greatly improves work efficiency.

  8. Measuring peak expiratory flow in general practice: comparison of mini Wright peak flow meter and turbine spirometer.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K P; Mullee, M A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate taken by the mini Wright peak flow meter and the turbine spirometer. DESIGN--Pragmatic study with randomised order of use of recording instruments. Phase 1 compared a peak expiratory flow type expiration recorded by the mini Wright peak flow meter with an expiration to forced vital capacity recorded by the turbine spirometer. Phase 2 compared peak expiratory flow type expirations recorded by both meters. Reproducibility was assessed separately. SETTING--Routine surgeries at Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton. SUBJECTS--212 Patients aged 4 to 78 presenting with asthma or obstructive airways disease. Each patient contributed only once to each phase (105 in phase 1, 107 in phase 2), but some entered both phases on separate occasions. Reproducibility was tested on a further 31 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--95% Limits of agreement between measurements on the two meters. RESULTS--208 (98%) Of the readings taken by the mini Wright meter were higher than the corresponding readings taken by the turbine spirometer, but the 95% limits of agreement (mean difference (2 SD] were wide (1 to 173 l/min). Differences due to errors in reproducibility were not sufficient to predict this level of disagreement. Analysis by age, sex, order of use, and the type of expiration did not detect any significant differences. CONCLUSIONS--The two methods of measuring peak expiratory flow rate were not comparable. The mini Wright meter is likely to remain the preferred instrument in general practice. PMID:2142611

  9. In Brief: Timing of peak oil uncertain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    According to the Hubbert peak theory, oil production in any geographic area will follow a bellshaped curve. The timing of the `peak' in global oil production is important because after that point, there will be less and less oil available for consumption. A new report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office found that most studies estimate that peak oil production will occur sometime between now and 2040. The uncertainty in these estimates could be reduced with better information about worldwide supply and demand, and alternative fuels and transportation technologies could mitigate the effects of a global decline in oil production. However, the report found no coordinated U.S. federal strategy to address these issues. The report, ``Uncertainty about Future Oil Supply Makes It Important to Develop a Strategy for Addressing a Peak and Decline in Oil Production,'' is available at http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-07-283

  10. Reducing Peak Demand by Time Zone Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2014-09-01

    For a large country like India, the electrical power demand is also large and the infrastructure cost for power is the largest among all the core sectors of economy. India has an emerging economy which requires high rate of growth of infrastructure in the power generation, transmission and distribution. The current peak demand in the country is approximately 1,50,000 MW which shall have a planned growth of at least 50 % over the next five years (Seventeenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority, Government of India, March 2007). By implementing the time zone divisions each comprising of an integral number of contiguous states based on their total peak demand and geographical location, the total peak demand of the nation can be significantly cut down by spreading the peak demand of various states over time. The projected reduction in capital expenditure over a plan period of 5 years is substantial. Also, the estimated reduction in operations expenditure cannot be ignored.

  11. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  12. Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157852.html Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet This year's vaccine ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be the mildest in the ...

  13. Observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Presents an abridged version of a chapter from the author's book "In Quest of Telescopes." Includes personal experiences at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and comments on telescopes, photographs, and making observations. (SK)

  14. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  15. Forward-peaked scattering of polarized light.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2014-11-15

    Polarized light propagation in a multiple scattering medium is governed by the vector radiative transfer equation. We analyze the vector radiative transfer equation in asymptotic limit of forward-peaked scattering and derive an approximate system of equations for the Stokes parameters, which we call the vector Fokker-Planck approximation. The vector Fokker-Planck approximation provides valuable insight into several outstanding issues regarding the forward-peaked scattering of polarized light such as the polarization memory phenomenon. PMID:25490484

  16. Cosmic microwave background acoustic peak locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Knox, L.; Mulroe, B.; Narimani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and 12 extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g. that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 deg out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models versus numerical calculations. Here, we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential transients, neutrino free-streaming, the breakdown of tight coupling, the shape of the primordial power spectrum, details of the geometric projection from three to two dimensions, and the thickness of the last scattering surface. We also compare the peak locations determined from Planck measurements to expectations under the Λ cold dark matter model. Taking into account how the peak locations were determined, we find them to be in agreement.

  17. Peak Effect in High-Tc Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xinsheng

    1996-03-01

    Like many low-Tc superconductors, high-quality YBCO single crystals are found(X.S. Ling and J.I. Budnick, in Magnetic Susceptibility of Superconductors and Other Spin Systems), edited by R.A. Hein, T.L. Francavilla, and D.H. Liebenberg (Plenum Press, New York, 1991), p.377. to exhibit a striking peak effect. In a magnetic field, the temperature dependence of the critical current has a pronounced peak below T_c(H). Pippard(A.B. Pippard, Phil. Mag. 19), 217 (1969)., and subsequently Larkin and Ovchinnikov(A.I. Larkin and Yu.N. Ovchinnikov, J. Low Temp. Phys. 34), 409 (1979)., attributed the onset of the peak effect to a softening of the vortex lattice. In this talk, the experimental discovery^1 of the peak effect in high-Tc superconductors will be described, followed by a brief historical perspective of the understanding of this phenomenon and a discussion of a new model(X.S. Ling, C. Tang, S. Bhattacharya, and P.M. Chaikin, cond-mat/9504109, (NEC Preprint 1995).) for the peak effect. In this model, the peak effect is an interesting manifestation of the vortex-lattice melting in the presence of weak random pinning potentials. The rise of critical current with increasing temperature is a signature of the ``melting'' of the Larkin domains. This work is done in collaboration with Joe Budnick, Chao Tang, Shobo Bhattacharya, Paul Chaikin, and Boyd Veal.

  18. Pre-Peak and Post-Peak Rock Strain Characteristics During Uniaxial Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, H.; Taheri, A.; Chanda, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    A non-contact optical method for strain measurement applying three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) in uniaxial compression is presented. A series of monotonic uniaxial compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions on Hawkesbury sandstone specimens were conducted. A prescribed constant lateral-strain rate to control the applied axial load in a closed-loop system allowed capturing the complete stress-strain behaviour of the rock, i.e. the pre-peak and post-peak stress-strain regimes. 3D DIC uses two digital cameras to acquire images of the undeformed and deformed shape of an object to perform image analysis and provides deformation and motion measurements. Observations showed that 3D DIC provides strains free from bedding error in contrast to strains from LVDT. Erroneous measurements due to the compliance of the compressive machine are also eliminated. Furthermore, by 3D DIC technique relatively large strains developed in the post-peak regime, in particular within localised zones, difficult to capture by bonded strain gauges, can be measured in a straight forward manner. Field of strains and eventual strain localisation in the rock surface were analysed by 3D DIC method, coupled with the respective stress levels in the rock. Field strain development in the rock samples, both in axial and shear strain domains suggested that strain localisation takes place progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. It is accelerated, otherwise, in post-peak regime associated with the increasing rate of strength degradation. The results show that a major failure plane, due to strain localisation, becomes noticeable only long after the peak stress took place. In addition, post-peak stress-strain behaviour was observed to be either in a form of localised strain in a shearing zone or inelastic unloading outside of the shearing zone.

  19. Bio-Pick, Place, and Perfuse: A New Instrument for Three-Dimensional Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Andrew M.; Manning, Kali L.; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2015-01-01

    A grand challenge of tissue engineering is the fabrication of large constructs with a high density of living cells. By adapting the principles of pick-and-place machines used in the high-speed assembly of electronics, we have developed an innovative instrument, the Bio-Pick, Place, and Perfuse (Bio-P3), which picks up large complex multicellular building parts, transports them to a build area, and precisely places the parts at desired locations while perfusing the parts. These assembled parts subsequently fuse to form a larger contiguous tissue construct. Multicellular microtissues were formed by seeding cells into nonadhesive micro-molds, wherein cells self-assembled scaffold-free parts in the shape of spheroids, toroids, and honeycombs. After removal from the molds, the parts were gripped, transported (using an x, y, z controller), and released using the Bio-P3 with little to no effect on cell viability or part structure. As many as 16 toroids were stacked over a 170 μm diameter post where they fused over the course of 48 h to form a single tissue. Larger honeycomb parts were also gripped and stacked onto a build head that, like the gripper head, provided fluid suction to hold and perfuse the parts during assembly. Scaffold-free building parts help to address several of the engineering and biological challenges to large tissue biofabrication, and the Bio-P3 described in this article is a novel instrument for the controlled gripping, placing, stacking, and perfusing of living building parts for solid organ fabrication. PMID:25530515

  20. Analysis of the Magnitude and Frequency of Peak Discharge and Maximum Observed Peak Discharge in New Mexico and Surrounding Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    (mean value is 62, and median value is 59) for the 100-year flood. The 1996 investigation standard error of prediction for the flood regions ranged from 41 to 96 percent (mean value is 67, and median value is 68) for the 100-year flood that was analyzed by using generalized least-squares regression analysis. Overall, the equations based on generalized least-squares regression techniques are more reliable than those in the 1996 report because of the increased length of record and improved geographic information system (GIS) method to determine basin and climatic characteristics. Flood-frequency estimates can be made for ungaged sites upstream or downstream from gaging stations by using a method that transfers flood-frequency data at the gaging station to the ungaged site by using a drainage-area ratio adjustment equation. The peak discharge for a given recurrence interval at the gaging station, drainage-area ratio, and the drainage-area exponent from the regional regression equation of the respective region is used to transfer the peak discharge for the recurrence interval to the ungaged site. Maximum observed peak discharge as related to drainage area was determined for New Mexico. Extreme events are commonly used in the design and appraisal of bridge crossings and other structures. Bridge-scour evaluations are commonly made by using the 500-year peak discharge for these appraisals. Peak-discharge data collected at 293 gaging stations and 367 miscellaneous sites were used to develop a maximum peak-discharge relation as an alternative method of estimating peak discharge of an extreme event such as a maximum probable flood.

  1. Stellar wind interaction and pick-up ion escape of the Kepler-11 "super-Earths"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Johnstone, Colin; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai; Lammer, Helmut; Lüftinger, Theresa; Holmstöm, Mats; Khodachenko, Maxim; Güdel, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of modeling of the interactions between stellar wind and the extended hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres of planets and estimate the resulting escape of planetary pick-up ions from the 5 «super-Earths» in the compact Kepler-11 system. We compare the escape rates with the efficiency of the thermal escape of neutral hydrogen atoms. Assuming the stellar wind of Kepler-11 is similar to the solar wind, we used a polytropic 1D hydrodynamic wind model to estimate the wind properties at the planetary orbits. We applied a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Model to model the hydrogen coronae and the stellar wind plasma interaction around Kepler-11b-f planets within a realistic expected heating efficiency range of 15-40%. The same model was used to estimate the ion pick-up escape from the XUV heated and hydrodynamically extended upper atmospheres of Kepler-11b-f. Modeling clarifies the influence of possible magnetic moments on escape processes and allows to estimate the charge exchange and photoionization production rates of planetary ions as well as the loss rates of pick-up H+ ions for all five planets. This study presents also the comparison of the results between the five 'super-Earths' and in a more general sense also with the thermal escape rates of the neutral planetary hydrogen atoms. Our results show that for all Kepler-11b-f exoplanets, a huge neutral hydrogen corona is formed around the planet. The non-symmetric form of the corona changes from planet to planet and is defined mostly by radiation pressure, charge-exchange and gravitational effects. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape rates of pick-up ionized hydrogen atoms for Kepler-11 «super-Earths» vary between ~ 6.4 × 1030 s-1 and ~ 4.1 × 1031 s-1 depending on the planet's orbital location and assumed heating efficiency. These values correspond to non-thermal mass loss rates of ~ 1.07 × 107 g·s-1 and ~ 6.8 × 107 g·s-1 respectively, which is a few percent of the thermal

  2. Detection of Avian bornavirus 5 RNA in Eclectus roratus with feather picking disorder.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masayuki; Ueda, Kengo; Ueda, Akiko; Honda, Tomoyuki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2012-05-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) was discovered recently in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a fatal neurological disease. Although ABV has been shown to be a causative agent of PDD, its virological characteristics are largely unknown. Here we report the detection of ABV genotype 5 RNA in an Eclectus roratus with feather picking disorder (FPD). Interestingly, although the bird was persistently infected with ABV5 for at least 8 months, it had no clinical signs of PDD. Although it remains unclear whether ABV5 is associated with FPD, these findings raise the importance of epidemiological studies of birds with diseases other than PDD. PMID:22309239

  3. Energetic cometary ion flows in the pick-up region of Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hynds, R. J.; Daly, P. W.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    The properties of energetic water-group ions in the extended pick-up region surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner are examined using three-dimensional 65-95-keV ion observations from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The ion distribution is inferred to retain a significant ring-beam anisotropy beyond about 400,000 km from the comet though effects of partial scattering are also present. Closer to the comet, the ions are found to be isotropic, or nearly so, in the solar wind frame due to increased scattering by MHD waves.

  4. Comparison of picked-up protons and water group ions upstream of Comet Halley's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Coates, A. J.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The similarities and differences between the picked-up cometary protons and water-group (WG) ions upstream of the bow shock of Comet Halley are examined using measurements obtained by the ion mass spectrometer and plasma analyzer experiments on board Giotto. It was found that the dependencies of the pitch angle and the energy diffusion rates of the cometary protons and WG ions on the ion densities and on the angle alpha between the interplanetary field and the solar wind velocity vector were very different. This finding could not be explained in terms of presently available theories and models.

  5. Estimating peak oxygen uptake based on postexercise measurements in swimming.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Diego; Iglesias, Xavier; Schuller, Thorsten; Hoffmann, Uwe; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of postexercise measurements in estimating peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) in swimming, we compared oxygen uptake (V̇O2) measurements during supramaximal exercise with various commonly adopted methods, including a recently developed heart rate - V̇O2 modelling procedure. Thirty-one elite swimmers performed a 200-m maximal swim where V̇O2 was measured breath-by-breath using a portable gas analyzer connected to a respiratory snorkel, 1 min before, during, and 3 min postexercise. V̇O2peak(-20-0) was the average of the last 20 s of effort. The following postexercise measures were compared: (i) first 20-s average (V̇O2peak(0-20)); (ii) linear backward extrapolation (BE) of the first 20 s (BE(20)), 30 s, and 3 × 20-, 4 × 20-, and 3 or 4 × 20-s averages; (iii) semilogarithmic BE at 20 s (LOG(20)) and at the other same time intervals as in linear BE; and (iv) predicted V̇O2peak using mathematical modelling (pV̇O2(0-20)]. Repeated-measures ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni tests compared V̇O2peak (criterion) and each estimated value. Pearson's coefficient of determination (r(2)) was used to assess correlation. Exercise V̇O2peak(-20-0) (mean ± SD 3531 ± 738 mL·min(-1)) was not different (p > 0.30) from pV̇O2(0-20) (3571 ± 735 mL·min(-1)), BE(20) (3617 ± 708 mL·min(-1)), or LOG(20) (3627 ± 746 mL·min(-1)). pV̇O2(0-20) was very strongly correlated with exercise V̇O2peak (r(2) = 0.962; p < 0.001), and showed a low standard error of the estimate (146 mL·min(-1), 4.1%) and the lowest mean difference (40 mL·min(-1); 1.1%). We confirm that the new modelling procedure based on postexercise V̇O2 and heart rate measurements is a valid and accurate procedure for estimating V̇O2peak in swimmers and avoids the estimation bias produced by other methods. PMID:27226382

  6. Errors in trough: peak ratio determinations induced by patient behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dutrey-Dupagne; Vaur; Genès; Mallion; Meredith; Elkik

    1996-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Trough: peak ratio is often used to evaluate the duration of antihypertensive action. Whatever the method of measurement chosen, trough effect has to be measured 24 h after the last drug intake for a once daily regimen. Peak effect is usually measured 4-6 h after drug intake. If patients' compliance to therapeutic instructions is perfect, then the 'intrinsic' trough: peak ratio of the drug is equal to the measured trough: peak ratio. Some patients do not follow these instructions, leading to biases in the evaluation of the ratio. For trough evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the last dose of the drug the day before blood pressure measurement. However, if some patients (n1) wrongly take the drug in the morning of the visit, they will be evaluated at peak (type A error). For peak evaluation, all patients (N) are supposed to take the drug a few hours before blood pressure measurement. If some patients (n2) miss their morning dose, they will be evaluated at trough (type B error). METHODS: In the MACH 1 study, the use of an electronic pill count monitor allowed us to quantify n1/N and n2/N. A total of 452 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group 1 received written instructions to take their last dose during the morning of the day before the visit, whereas patients of group 2 had to take their last dose on the morning of the visit. RESULTS: Electronic pill-box recording revealed that 32.9%: of patients in group 1 committed type A error, whereas 27.7% of patients in group 2 committed type B error. The resulting 'pill-box corrected' trough: peak ratio was lower (87.5% for diastolic blood pressure and 93.1% for systolic blood pressure) than the uncorrected trough: peak ratio (95.2% for diastolic blood pressure and 96.0% for systolic blood pressure) of the population. CONCLUSION: The random behaviour of patients, with respect to treatment compliance, results in a systematic overestimation of the measured trough

  7. A simple multi-scale Gaussian smoothing-based strategy for automatic chromatographic peak extraction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Guo, Jun-Wei; Yu, Yong-Jie; Li, He-Dong; Cui, Hua-Peng; Liu, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing; Wang, Sheng; Lu, Peng

    2016-06-24

    Peak detection is a critical step in chromatographic data analysis. In the present work, we developed a multi-scale Gaussian smoothing-based strategy for accurate peak extraction. The strategy consisted of three stages: background drift correction, peak detection, and peak filtration. Background drift correction was implemented using a moving window strategy. The new peak detection method is a variant of the system used by the well-known MassSpecWavelet, i.e., chromatographic peaks are found at local maximum values under various smoothing window scales. Therefore, peaks can be detected through the ridge lines of maximum values under these window scales, and signals that are monotonously increased/decreased around the peak position could be treated as part of the peak. Instrumental noise was estimated after peak elimination, and a peak filtration strategy was performed to remove peaks with signal-to-noise ratios smaller than 3. The performance of our method was evaluated using two complex datasets. These datasets include essential oil samples for quality control obtained from gas chromatography and tobacco plant samples for metabolic profiling analysis obtained from gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results confirmed the reasonability of the developed method. PMID:27207578

  8. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.

    1985-10-01

    Dissolution of (/sup 111/In)labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of (/sup 111/In)lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a (/sup 111/In)salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system.

  9. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Thomas; O'Driscoll, B Ronan

    2006-01-01

    Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min). All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique) or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique). Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p < 0.0001). The mean PEF recorded with the turbine spirometer was 5.5% lower than the Wright meter reading. The Fleisch spirometer result was 19.5% lower than the Wright reading. However, adjustment of the Wrights measurements from the traditional Wright's scale to the new EU Peak Flow scale produced results that were only 7.2% higher than the Fleisch pneumotachograph measurements. Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments. PMID:16787543

  10. Nasal peak inspiratory flow at altitude.

    PubMed

    Barry, P W; Mason, N P; Richalet, J P

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated whether there are changes in nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIF) during hypobaric hypoxia under controlled environmental conditions. During operation Everest III (COMEX '97), eight subjects ascended to a simulated altitude of 8,848 m in a hypobaric chamber. NPIF was recorded at simulated altitudes of 0 m, 5,000 m and 8,000 m. Oral peak inspiratory and expiratory flow (OPIF, OPEF) were also measured. Ambient air temperature and humidity were controlled. NPIF increased by a mean +/- SD of 16 +/- 12% from sea level to 8,000 m, whereas OPIF increased by 47 +/- 14%. NPIF rose by 0.085 +/- 0.03 L x s(-1) per kilometre of ascent (p<0.05), significantly less than the rise in OPIF and OPEF of 0.35 +/- 0.10 and 0.33 +/- 0.04 L x s(-1) per kilometre (p<0.0005). Nasal peak inspiratory flow rises with ascent to altitude. The rise in nasal peak inspiratory flow with altitude was far less than oral peak inspiratory flow and less than the predicted rise according to changes in air density. This suggests flow limitation at the nose, and occurs under controlled environmental conditions, refuting the hypothesis that nasal blockage at altitude is due to the inhalation of cold, dry air. Further work is needed to determine if nasal blockage limits activity at altitude. PMID:11843316

  11. Electronic Transport of Encapsulated WSe2 Fabricated by Pick-up of Pre-patterned hBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yafang; Churchill, Hugh; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    We report high quality WSe2 devices encapsulated between two hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) flakes using a pick-up method with etched hBN flakes. Previous work on graphene has shown that sample disorder can be greatly reduced via isolation from charge impurities in the substrate by means of encapsulation. However, the effect of encapsulation still remains unknown for dichalcogenides devices. Besides, the quality of contact to TMDs is also a critical factor limiting the transport performance of such devices. To measure the transport properties of dichalcogenide devices as a function of temperature, low resistance electrical contacts must be made to the material. To achieve this, we encapsulate few-layer WSe2 in hexagonal boron nitride that has been patterned to allow ionic liquid doping of the contact region. This technique simultaneously protects the WSe2 surface above and below, resulting in the highest mobility few-layer WSe2 devices reported to date. We acknowledge support from ONR Young Investigator Award N00014-13-1-0610.

  12. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of peak discharge and maximum observed peak discharge in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Equations for estimating the magnitude of peak discharges for recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years were updated for New Mexico. The equations represent flood response for eight distinct physiographic regions of New Mexico. Additionally, a regional equation was developed for basins less than 10 square miles and below 7,500 feet in mean basin elevation. Flood-frequency relations were updated for 201 gaging stations on unregulated streams in New Mexico and the bordering areas of adjacent States. The analysis described in this report used data collected through 1993. A low-discharge threshold was applied to frequency analysis of 140 gaging stations. Inclusion of these low peak flows affects the fitting of the lower tail and the upper tail of the distribution. Peak discharges can be estimated at an ungaged site on a stream that has a gaging station upstream or downstream. These estimates are derived using the drainage-area ratio and the drainage-area exponent from the regional regression equation of the respective region. Flood-frequency estimates for 201 gaged sites were weighted by estimates from the regional regression equation. The observed, predicted, and weighted flood-frequency data were computed for each gaging station. A maximum observed peak discharge as related to drainage area was determined for eight physiographic regions in New Mexico. Peak-discharge data collected at 201 gaging stations were used to develop a maximum peak-discharge relation as an alternative method of estimating the peak discharge of an extreme event.

  13. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  14. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  15. Loss of Water from Saturn's E-Ring Through Ion Pick-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisner, J. S.; Russell, C. T.; Dougherty, M. K.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    One of the possible loss processes for Saturn s E-ring is ionization followed by acceleration by the electric field associated with the corotating magnetized plasma. It is possible to determine if this process is occurring by detecting electromagnetic waves at the gyrofrequency of water group ions. If the energy the particle gains in this pick-up process is sufficiently great, the picked up ions will generate ion cyclotron waves. Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 both observed intervals of such waves associated with water group ions during their passes through Saturn s E-ring. Presently the magnetometer onboard the Cassini spacecraft is also seeing water group ion cyclotron oscillations. The Cassini data allow the spatial and temporal behavior of the waves to be mapped in ways not possible during the previous flybys. Analyses of these waves allow us to study the rate of mass loading and its latitudinal and local time variation. In conjunction with previous data, we can then determine the variation as the inclination of the ring to the Sun changes, in accordance with Saturn's seasons. These waves may be the clue to how Saturn powers its magnetosphere as the newly born ions could be the driver for the radial motion of the plasma and to how the E-ring may play the equivalent role to that of Io in the jovian magnetosphere.

  16. Pick and Pack: a just-in-time forms order and delivery system.

    PubMed

    Stewart, M

    1993-01-01

    Since the University of Alabama Hospital at Birmingham (UAB) had an in-plant print shop, the idea of purchasing forms from an outside supplier on a JIT order and delivery system didn't occur to them. But after establishing a successful medical/surgical JIT system at University of Alabama Hospital at Birmingham (UAB), the Director of Support Services and the Director of Purchasing looked at and developed a program to have a JIT forms inventory system by using their own print shop in conjunction with an outside supplier. The system, called Pick and Pack, basically works like this: An outside supplier buys flat-bed forms printed by the UAB Print Shop for resale back to UAB, and also produces their own custom, continuous forms to sell to UAB. The supplier warehouses, then picks and packs per individual UAB patient care unit order and delivers the forms to the UAB Material Management loading dock. Requisitioning is on-line for each patient care unit, Materiel Management and the supplier. Success was achieved in a step-by-step manner, reducing a time-consuming, labor-intensive receiving process to a one-person process. Inventory of forms is estimated to have been reduced by $90,000 and approximately 2,160 cubic feet of space freed for other uses. PMID:10123864

  17. Seasonal variation of Martian pick-up ions: Evidence of breathing exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Hara, T.; Lundin, R.; Dubinin, E.; Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Frahm, R. A.; Ramstad, R.; Futaana, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Barabash, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Express (MEX) Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) found that the detection rate of the ring-like distribution of protons in the solar wind outside of the bow shock to be quite different between Mars orbital summer (around perihelion) and orbital winter (around aphelion) for four Martian years, while the north-south asymmetry is much smaller than the perihelion-aphelion difference. Further analyses using eight years of MEX/IMA solar wind data between 2005 and 2012 has revealed that the detection frequency of the pick-up ions originating from newly ionized exospheric hydrogen with certain flux strongly correlates with the Sun-Mars distance, which changes approximately every two years. Variation due to the solar cycle phase is not distinguishable partly because this effect is masked by the seasonal variation under the MEX capability of plasma measurements. This finding indicates that the variation in solar UV has a major effect on the formation of the pick-up ions, but this is not the only controlling factor.

  18. Exosome Secretion Ameliorates Lysosomal Storage of Cholesterol in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Katrin; Goebel, Cornelia; Runz, Heiko; Möbius, Wiebke; Weiss, Sievert; Feussner, Ivo; Simons, Mikael; Schneider, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 disease is an autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Loss of function of the npc1 gene leads to abnormal accumulation of free cholesterol and sphingolipids within the late endosomal and lysosomal compartments resulting in progressive neurodegeneration and dysmyelination. Here, we show that oligodendroglial cells secrete cholesterol by exosomes when challenged with cholesterol or U18666A, which induces late endosomal cholesterol accumulation. Up-regulation of exosomal cholesterol release was also observed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of NPC1 and in fibroblasts derived from NPC1 patients and could be reversed by expression of wild-type NPC1. We provide evidence that exosomal cholesterol secretion depends on the presence of flotillin. Our findings indicate that exosomal release of cholesterol may serve as a cellular mechanism to partially bypass the traffic block that results in the toxic lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. Furthermore, we suggest that secretion of cholesterol by exosomes contributes to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:20554533

  19. Comparison of high altitude pick-up ions at Mars and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Liemohn, M. W.; McEnulty, T.; Wang, Y.; Johnson, B. C.; Fang, X.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of a dipole magnetic field, the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are especially susceptible to scavenging, but each planet has unique physical processes controlling their planetary ion distributions and atmospheric escape. We present a comparison of virtual detections of atmospheric pick-up ions at Mars and Venus using the combined results from magnetohydrodynamic and test particle simulations. Pick-up ions form when the solar wind directly interacts with the neutral atmosphere, causing the newly created ions to be accelerated by the background convective electric field. In these weakly magnetized environments, heavy ion species can have gyroradii on the planetary scale size. In order to address the role of individual ion motion, this study will provide velocity space distributions and individual particle traces for different species at each planet in multiple locations. It will also quantify the influence of the remnant crustal magnetic fields at Mars and stronger gravitational field at Venus. Additionally, results for different solar conditions will be presented and compared with data observations in order to better describe the evolution of atmospheric volatiles at Mars and Venus.

  20. Spotting fruit versus picking fruit as the selective advantage of human colour vision

    PubMed Central

    Bompas, Aline; Kendall, Grace; Sumner, Petroc

    2013-01-01

    The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy) is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy). We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference) of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach. PMID:23755352

  1. Paleomagnetism of the Becker Peak stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. A.; Housen, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of plutonic rocks, although subject to uncertainty due to lack of paleohorizontal control, can provide important constrains of patterns of regional deformation, and can play a role in evaluation of tectonic models and reconstructions. Many plutonic rocks of the Cascades have been well-studied via paleomagnetism, but there are many that lack robust data sets. One such pluton, the Beckler Peak stock, is a late Cretaceous tonalitic stock, with biotite and amphibole K-Ar ages of 93 to 82 Ma (Engels and Crowder, 1971, Yeats and Engels, 1971). The Beckler Peak stock is considered to be a companion body to the larger Mt. Stuart Batholith, but is separated from the Mt. Stuart Batholith by the Evergreen Fault. For this study five paleomagnetic sites were sampled from the Beckler Peak stock near Skykomish, Washington. After low temperature and thermal demagnetization site means were calculated for the four sites where at least two samples survived demagnetization. Unblocking temperatures were indicative of magnetite and hematite as the carriers of remanence. Two of the site means were disregarded due to anomalous directions likely due to sites being from very large slump blocks. The two acceptable site means, along with a Beckler Peak stock site mean from Beck and Noson (1972) and another from Housen et al. (2003) give a stock-wide mean of D = 3.8°, I = 41.9°, k = 32.9, and α95 = 16.2°. This direction is consistent with mean directions for the Mount Stuart batholith determined by Beck and Noson (1972), Beck et al. (1981), and Housen et al. (2003). This directional consistency supports an association between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith, or at least that these two plutonic bodies were emplaced in the same structural block, and that any post-magnetization deformation (such as rotation and/or tilt associated with the Evergreen Fault) between the Beckler Peak stock and the Mt. Stuart Batholith was minor.

  2. MOSES AND DENNISON PEAK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lipton, David A.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was conducted in the Moses and Dennison Peak Roadless Areas, southeastern Sierra Nevada, California. One area within the Moses Roadless Area is classified as having substantiated mineral-resource potential for small base-metal skarn deposits. Additionally, geochemical data indicate probable potential for small base-metal skarn deposits from one locality within Dennison Peak Roadless Area and for small tungsten skarn deposits from a region within Moses Roadless Area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  3. Peak Stripping Methodology for Plutonium Analysis in the Presence of Neptunium

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Christ

    2005-05-17

    Quantitative Plutonium analysis depends upon the accurate identification of the assay peak. The Np[Pa] equilibrium pair introduces interfering peaks in {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 235}U assay peak region. When an interfering peak is present, it negates the assay unless an appropriate technique can be developed to deal with the interference. Peak Stripping is one such technique. Peak stripping involves an algorithm to strip an entire peak from another, resulting in a spectrum that can then be analyzed for the isotope of interest. A simpler method is a ''pseudo-peak-stripping'' whereby the effects of the interfering peak are quantified and those effects are stripped from the assay data. In this case the integrated peak areas are analyzed and corrected. There are two methods presented in this paper. Both assimilate the integrated data for the assay peak regions (in this case {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 235}U) and for the Neptunium/Protactinium secular equilibrium pair (Np[Pa]). Using Np[Pa] assumes that the Protactinium has come to equilibrium with Neptunium. This requires only {approx}6 months from the time chemical purification. Therefore it is a valid assumption in most cases. A correction is then applied to the assay peak areas to ''strip'' the underlying effects of Np[Pa].

  4. Relationships between peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and modified mercalli intensity in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Heaton, T.H.; Kanamori, H.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed regression relationships between Modified Mercalli Intensity (Imm) and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV) by comparing horizontal peak ground motions to observed intensities for eight significant California earthquakes. For the limited range of Modified Mercalli intensities (Imm), we find that for peak acceleration with V ??? Imm ??? VIII, Imm = 3.66 log(PGA) - 1.66, and for peak velocity with V ??? Imm ??? IX, Imm = 3.47 log(PGV) + 2.35. From comparison with observed intensity maps, we find that a combined regression based on peak velocity for intensity > VII and on peak acceleration for intensity < VII is most suitable for reproducing observed Imm patterns, consistent with high intensities being related to damage (proportional to ground velocity) and with lower intensities determined by felt accounts (most sensitive to higher-frequency ground acceleration). These new Imm relationships are significantly different from the Trifunac and Brady (1975) correlations, which have been used extensively in loss estimation.

  5. Extreme value statistics of weak lensing shear peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischke, R.; Maturi, M.; Bartelmann, M.

    2016-02-01

    The statistics of peaks in weak gravitational lensing maps is a promising technique to constrain cosmological parameters in present and future surveys. Here we investigate its power when using general extreme value statistics which is very sensitive to the exponential tail of the halo mass function. To this end, we use an analytic method to quantify the number of weak lensing peaks caused by galaxy clusters, large-scale structures and observational noise. Doing so, we further improve the method in the regime of high signal-to-noise ratios dominated by non-linear structures by accounting for the embedding of those counts into the surrounding shear caused by large-scale structures. We derive the extreme value and order statistics for both overdensities (positive peaks) and underdensities (negative peaks) and provide an optimized criterion to split a wide field survey into subfields in order to sample the distribution of extreme values such that the expected objects causing the largest signals are mostly due to galaxy clusters. We find good agreement of our model predictions with a ray-tracing N-body simulation. For a Euclid-like survey, we find tight constraints on σ8 and Ωm with relative uncertainties of ˜10-3. In contrast, the equation of state parameter w0 can be constrained only with a 10 per cent level, and wa is out of reach even if we include redshift information.

  6. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements.

    PubMed

    Hourdakis, C J

    2011-04-01

    The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, Ū(P), the average, Ū, the effective, U(eff) or the maximum peak, U(P) tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average Ū or the average peak, Ū(p) voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak k(PPV,kVp) and the average k(PPV,Uav) conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated-according to the proposed method-PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from Ū(p) and Ū measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements. PMID:21403184

  7. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Short, David

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in predicting peak winds at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron requested the AMU develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network , Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) surface observations, and CCAFS sounding s from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created mul tiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence , the temperature inversion depth and strength, wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft.

  8. Absorption, Creativity, Peak Experiences, Empathy, and Psychoticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; And Others

    Tellegen and Atkinson suggested that the trait of absorption may play a part in meditative skill, creativity, capacity for peak experiences, and empathy. Although the absorption-meditative skill relationship has been confirmed, other predictions have not been tested. Tellegen and Atkinson's Absorption Scale was completed by undergraduates in four…

  9. Six Ways To Foster Peak Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla, Christine; Wells, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses six initiatives that organizations can support to ensure peak performance: individual knowledge portfolios; mentoring and apprenticeship relationships; electronic conferencing systems; organizational knowledge repository; community of practice; reward and recognition. Defines each initiative and describes how to make each one work in an…

  10. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-07-31

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

  11. Peak structural response to nonstationary random excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinozuka, M.; Yang, J.-N.

    1971-01-01

    Study establishes distribution function of peak response values, based on frequency interpretation. Excitations considered include impact loading on landing gears and aircraft gust loading. Because of relative severity of excitations, prediction of fatigue and maximum response characteristics is important part of task of structural analysis and design.

  12. Double-peak subauroral ion drifts (DSAIDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Wenbin; Chen, Bo

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports double-peak subauroral ion drifts (DSAIDs), which is unique subset of subauroral ion drifts (SAIDs). A statistical analysis has been carried out for the first time with a database of 454 DSAID events identified from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program observations from 1987 to 2012. Both case studies and statistical analyses show that the two velocity peaks of DSAIDs are associated with two ion temperature peaks and two region-2 field-aligned currents (R2-FACs) peaks in the midlatitude ionospheric trough located in the low-conductance subauroral region. DSAIDs are regional and vary significantly with magnetic local time. DSAIDs can evolve from/to SAIDs during their lifetimes, which are from several minutes to tens of minutes. Comparisons between the ionospheric parameters of DSAIDs and SAIDs indicate that double-layer region-2 field-aligned currents (R2-FACs) may be the main driver of DSAIDs. It is also found that DSAIDs happen during more disturbed conditions compared with SAIDs.

  13. Metals in Particulate Pollutants Affect Peak Expiratory Flow of Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yun-Chul; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yu, Seung-Do; Kim, Dae-Seon

    2007-01-01

    Background The contribution of the metal components of particulate pollutants to acute respiratory effects has not been adequately evaluated. Moreover, little is known about the effects of genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolism on pulmonary function. Objectives This study was conducted to assess lung function decrement associated with metal components in particulate pollutants and genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1. Methods We studied 43 schoolchildren who were in the 3rd to 6th grades. Each student measured peak expiratory flow rate three times a day for 42 days. Particulate air concentrations were monitored every day, and the concentrations of iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and aluminum in the particles were measured. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms were determined using DNA extracted from participant buccal washings. We used a mixed linear regression model to estimate the association between peak expiratory flow rate and particulate air pollutants. Results We found significant reduction in the peak expiratory flow rate after the children’s exposure to particulate pollutants. The effect was shown most significantly 1 day after exposure to the ambient particles. Manganese and lead in the particles also reduced the peak expiratory flow rate. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 did not significantly affect peak expiratory flow rate. Conclusions This study demonstrated that particulate pollutants and metals such as manganese and lead in the particles are associated with a decrement of peak expiratory flow rate. These effects were robust even with consideration of genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase. PMID:17431494

  14. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow generated by a computer driven, servo controlled pump and their response was compared with that of a pneumotachograph. RESULTS: For each device tested the readings were highly repeatable to within the limits of accuracy with which the pointer position can be assessed by eye. The between instrument variation in reading for six identical devices expressed as a 95% confidence limit was, on average across the range of flows, +/- 8.5 l/min for the Mini-Wright, +/- 7.9 l/min for the Vitalograph, and +/- 6.4 l/min for the Ferraris. PEF meters based on the Wright meter all had similar error profiles with overreading of up to 80 l/min in the mid flow range from 300 to 500 l/min. This overreading was greatest for the Mini-Wright and Ferraris devices, and less so for the original Wright and Vitalograph meters. A Micro-Medical Turbine meter was accurate up to 400 l/min and then began to underread by up to 60 l/min at 720 l/min. For the low range devices the Vitalograph device was accurate to within 10 l/min up to 200 l/min, with the Mini-Wright overreading by up to 30 l/min above 150 l/min. CONCLUSION: Although the Mini-Wright, Ferraris, and Vitalograph meters gave remarkably repeatable results their error profiles for the full range meters will lead to important errors in recording PEF variability. This may lead to incorrect diagnosis and bias in implementing strategies of asthma treatment based on PEF measurement. PMID:1465746

  15. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  16. Plasma wave, magnetic field and energetic ion observations in the ion pick-up region of Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Scarf, F. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Sanderson, T. R.; Hynds, R. J.

    Simultaneous plasma wave, magnetic field, and energetic ion observations made by the ICE spacecraft in the extended ion pick-up region surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner are examined to determine the conditions under which two characteristic wave emissions, electrostatic waves at a few kHz, and electromagnetic waves at a few tens of Hz, are generated. The data are consistent with the view that the kHz electrostatic emissions result from an instability of the pick-up photoelectron 'beam' produced when the angle alpha between the magnetic field and the solar wind velocity vector is less than about 60 deg, while the behavior of the tens of Hz electromagnetic waves suggests that they are generated by the pick-up ion 'ring' which is present when alpha exceeds about 60 deg.

  17. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    PubMed

    Mills, Harriet L; Riley, Steven

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city); population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods). Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible. PMID:24722420

  18. Titan's atmospheric sputtering and neutral torus produced by magnetospheric and pick-up ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M.; Smith, H. T.; Johnson, R. E.; Shematovich, V.; Leblanc, F.; Ledvina, S.; Luhmann, J. H.

    As Titan does not possess an intrinsic magnetic field, Kronian magnetospheric ions can penetrate Titan's exobase as can locally produced pick-up ions (e.g. Shematovich et al. 2003). This can cause atmospheric loss and heating of the exobase region. Penetration by slowed and deflected magnetospheric ions and by the pick-up ions is described here using a 3-D Monte Carlo model (Michael et al. 2004). The incident ions can lead to the production of fast neutrals that collide with other atmospheric neutrals producing the ejection of both atomic and molecular nitrogen and heating. The recently calculated dissociation cross sections of N2 are used in the present model (Tully and Johnson 2002). The incident flux of slowed magnetospheric N+ ions and pick-up C2H5+ ions is estimated from the work of Brecht et al. (2000). These ions, which have energies less than 1.2 keV, were shown to be more efficient in ejecting material from Titan's atmosphere than the non-deflected co-rotating ions used earlier (Lammer et al. 1993). The loss rates are comparable or larger than those produced by photo-dissociation. Exobse heating rates are given and the loss rates of N and N2 are then used as a source of nitrogen for the Titan neutral torus. If atmospheric sputtering is important this torus will contain both atomic and molecular nitrogen and, therefore, will provide a distributed source of both atomic and molecular nitrogen ions that will be readily detected by Cassini (Smith et al. 2004) Acknowledgment: This work is supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program and by the CAPS-Cassini Instrument. Brecht, S.H., J.G. Luhmann, and D.J. Larson, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13119, 2000. Lammer, H., and S.J. Bauer,. Planet. Space Sci., 41, 657, 1993. Shematovich, V.I.,et al, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 5086, 10.1029/2003JE002096, 2003. Michael, M. et al., submitted, Icarus, 2004. Smith, H.T., et al., Titan Aeronomy Workshop, Paris, January 7-9, 2004. Tully, C., R.E. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6556

  19. Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77 ± 8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2 = 0.09, F(1,21) = 2.05, p = 0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.215, p > 0.05) and Pearson (r = 0.31, p = 0.17) and Spearman (ρ = 0.28, p = 0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak

  20. Algorithm for systematic peak extraction from atomic pair distribution functions.

    PubMed

    Granlund, L; Billinge, S J L; Duxbury, P M

    2015-07-01

    The study presents an algorithm, ParSCAPE, for model-independent extraction of peak positions and intensities from atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). It provides a statistically motivated method for determining parsimony of extracted peak models using the information-theoretic Akaike information criterion (AIC) applied to plausible models generated within an iterative framework of clustering and chi-square fitting. All parameters the algorithm uses are in principle known or estimable from experiment, though careful judgment must be applied when estimating the PDF baseline of nanostructured materials. ParSCAPE has been implemented in the Python program SrMise. Algorithm performance is examined on synchrotron X-ray PDFs of 16 bulk crystals and two nanoparticles using AIC-based multimodeling techniques, and particularly the impact of experimental uncertainties on extracted models. It is quite resistant to misidentification of spurious peaks coming from noise and termination effects, even in the absence of a constraining structural model. Structure solution from automatically extracted peaks using the Liga algorithm is demonstrated for 14 crystals and for C60. Special attention is given to the information content of the PDF, theory and practice of the AIC, as well as the algorithm's limitations. PMID:26131896

  1. Analysis of thermoluminescent glow peaks of zoisite under beta irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Ccallata, Henry Javier; Watanabe, Shigueo

    2010-08-04

    In this study, the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of natural crystal of zoisite were investigated after beta ({sup 90}Sr) irradiation at room temperature (RT). Zoisite, of chemical formula Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})O(OH), is found in Minas Gerais State, Brazil as natural mineral of silicate, member of the epidote group. The glow curve of a natural sample submitted to a heat treatment at 600 deg. C is composed of two broad peaks, centered at about 110-130 deg. C and another one at about 205-210 deg. C. A heating rate of 4 deg. C s{sup -1} was used in the temperature range from RT to 300 deg. C. The additive dose, T{sub m}-T{sub STOP} thermal cleaning, initial rise, variable heating rate and computerized glow curve deconvolution methods have shown that the glow curve is a superposition of six peaks at 100, 130, 155, 175, 200 and 230 deg. C. The trapping parameters for the individual peaks have been calculated. The TL dose response of 130 and 200 deg. C peaks has a linear response. Zoisite is a candidate for a TL dosimeter because of its high sensitivity.

  2. The usefulness of bone marrow aspiration in the diagnosis of Niemann–Pick disease type C in infantile liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, A F; Gray, R G; Preece, M A; Brown, R; Hill, F G; Baumann, U; McKiernan, P J

    2006-01-01

    Background Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which may present in infancy with cholestatic jaundice and/or hepatosplenomegaly. In cholestatic patients with splenomegaly, a bone marrow aspirate has been advocated as a relatively accessible tissue to demonstrate storage phenomena. Typically in patients with NPC, macrophages with abnormal cholesterol storage, so called foam cells, can be detected in the bone marrow. Aim To review our experience of bone marrow aspiration in children with NPC presenting with infantile liver disease. Methods A retrospective analysis of 11 consecutive children (8 males) from Birmingham Children's Hospital with NPC presenting with infantile liver disease was undertaken. The diagnosis of NPC was confirmed in all cases by demonstrating undetectable or low rates of cholesterol esterification and positive filipin staining for free cholesterol in cultured fibroblasts. Results The median age at presentation was 1.5 months (range 0.5–10). Bone marrow aspirates showed storage cells in only 7/11 cases. Bone marrow aspirates which had storage cells were undertaken at a median age of 11 months while those with no storage cells were undertaken at median age 2.3 months. The overall sensitivity of bone marrow aspirates for detecting storage cells in children presenting with infantile liver disease was 64%; however, for children who had bone marrow aspirates in the first year of life it was only 57%. Conclusions The sensitivity of bone marrow aspirate for the diagnosis of NPC disease in patients presenting with infantile liver disease was lower than previously reported. Where NPC is suspected clinically, definitive investigations should be undertaken promptly. There is a need to develop sensitive screening methods for NPC in children presenting with infantile liver disease. PMID:16737996

  3. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  4. Two Siblings with Adolescent/Adult Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yun; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jeong, Young Jin; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo

    2016-07-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NP-C), is caused by NPC1 or NPC2 gene mutations. Progressive neurological, psychiatric, and visceral symptoms are characteristic. Here, we present cases of a brother (Case 1) and sister (Case 2) in their mid-20s with gait disturbance and psychosis. For the Case 1, neurological examination revealed dystonia, ataxia, vertical supranuclear-gaze palsy (VSGP), and global cognitive impairment. Case 2 showed milder, but similar symptoms, with cortical atrophy. Abdominal computed tomography showed hepatosplenomegaly in both cases. NPC1 gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygote for exon 9 (c.1552C>T [R518W]) and exon 18 (c.2780C>T [A927V]). Filipin-staining tests were also positive. When a young patient with ataxia or dystonia shows VSGP, NP-C should be considered. PMID:27366019

  5. Membrane Binding and Modulation of the PDZ Domain of PICK1

    PubMed Central

    Erlendsson, Simon; Madsen, Kenneth Lindegaard

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding proteins serve to assemble protein complexes in dynamic processes by means of specific protein-protein and protein-lipid binding domains. Many of these domains bind either proteins or lipids exclusively; however, it has become increasingly evident that certain domains are capable of binding both. Especially, many PDZ domains, which are highly abundant protein-protein binding domains, bind lipids and membranes. Here we provide an overview of recent large-scale studies trying to generalize and rationalize the binding patterns as well as specificity of PDZ domains towards membrane lipids. Moreover, we review how these PDZ-membrane interactions are regulated in the case of the synaptic scaffolding protein PICK1 and how this might affect cellular localization and function. PMID:26501328

  6. Automatic Recognition Of Moving Objects And Its Application To A Robot For Picking Asparagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylou, P.; Amor, B. El Hadj; Bousseau, G.

    1983-10-01

    After a brief description of the robot for picking white asparagus, a statistical study of the different shapes of asparagus tips allowed us to determine certain discriminating parameters to detect the tips as they appear on the silhouette of the mound of earth. The localisation was done stereometrically with the help of two cameras. As the robot carrying the system of vision-localisation moves, the images are altered and decision cri-teria modified. A study of the image from mobile objects produced by both tube and CCD came-ras was carried out. A simulation of this phenomenon has been achieved in order to determine the modifications concerning object shapes, thresholding levels and decision parameters in function of the robot speed.

  7. Sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease) in a juvenile raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Vapniarsky, N; Wenger, D A; Scheenstra, D; Mete, A

    2013-01-01

    A wild caught juvenile male raccoon with neurological disease was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Necropsy examination revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and multicentric lymphadenomegaly with diffuse hepatic pallor and pulmonary consolidation with pinpoint pale subpleural foci. Microscopically, there was marked pale cytoplasmic swelling of the central and peripheral neurons as well as the glial cells in the brain, accompanied by multiorgan infiltration by abundant foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural investigation revealed accumulation of concentrically arranged lamellar material within lysosomes of the affected neurons, macrophages and endothelial cells. Biochemical enzymatic analysis detected sphingomyelinase deficiency and lysosomal storage disease consistent with sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease [NPD]) was diagnosed. This is the first report of NPD in a raccoon. PMID:23582974

  8. Niemann-Pick disease treatment: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415

  9. On the inlet vortex system. [preventing jet engine damage caused by debris pick-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissinger, N. C.; Braun, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The flow field of a jet engine with an inlet vortex, which can pick up heavy debris from the ground and damage the engine, was simulated in a small water tunnel by means of the hydrogen bubble technique. It was found that the known engine inlet vortex is accompained by a vortex system, consisting of two inlet vortices (the ground based and the trailing one), secondary vortices, and ground vortices. Simulation of the ground effect by an inlet image proved that the inlet vortex feeds on free stream vorticity and can exist without the presence of a ground boundary layer. The structural form of the inlet vortex system was explained by a simple potential flow model, which showed the number, location, and the importance of the stagnation points. A retractable horizontal screen or an up-tilt of the engine is suggested as countermeasure against debris ingestion.

  10. Amelioration of Muscular Dystrophy by Transgenic Expression of Niemann-Pick C1

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Michelle S.; Adams, Marvin E.; Tesch, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and other types of muscular dystrophies are caused by the loss or alteration of different members of the dystrophin protein complex. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which dystrophin-associated protein abnormalities contribute to the onset of muscular dystrophy may identify new therapeutic approaches to these human disorders. By examining gene expression alterations in mouse skeletal muscle lacking α-dystrobrevin (Dtna−/−), we identified a highly significant reduction of the cholesterol trafficking protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). Mutations in NPC1 cause a progressive neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder. Transgenic expression of NPC1 in skeletal muscle ameliorates muscular dystrophy in the Dtna−/− mouse (which has a relatively mild dystrophic phenotype) and in the mdx mouse, a model for DMD. These results identify a new compensatory gene for muscular dystrophy and reveal a potential new therapeutic target for DMD. PMID:18946078

  11. Niemann-Pick disease treatment: a systematic review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415

  12. Design and implementation of a magnetically suspended microrobotic pick-and-place system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shameli, Ehsan; Craig, David G.; Khamesee, Mir Behrad

    2006-04-01

    Micromanipulation is an emerging technology in such diverse areas as precision engineering, microfabrication, and microsurgery. Each of these areas impose certain technological constraints and requirements in fabrication, actuation, and control. This paper performs a review on the latest technologies of microrobotic actuation techniques and suggests a suitable technique for the actuation of a magnetically levitated microrobot. The microrobot, suspended in an externally produced magnetic field, consists of a gripper attached to a series of permanent magnets and is capable of simple pick and place tasks. A number of electromagnets produce the external magnetic field and three laser sensors feedback the position of the levitated microrobot. Through finite element analysis, performance of the levitation system was investigated, and simulations and experiments were carried out to demonstrate the practical capabilities of the proposed system.

  13. Two Siblings with Adolescent/Adult Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease, type C (NP-C), is caused by NPC1 or NPC2 gene mutations. Progressive neurological, psychiatric, and visceral symptoms are characteristic. Here, we present cases of a brother (Case 1) and sister (Case 2) in their mid-20s with gait disturbance and psychosis. For the Case 1, neurological examination revealed dystonia, ataxia, vertical supranuclear-gaze palsy (VSGP), and global cognitive impairment. Case 2 showed milder, but similar symptoms, with cortical atrophy. Abdominal computed tomography showed hepatosplenomegaly in both cases. NPC1 gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygote for exon 9 (c.1552C>T [R518W]) and exon 18 (c.2780C>T [A927V]). Filipin-staining tests were also positive. When a young patient with ataxia or dystonia shows VSGP, NP-C should be considered. PMID:27366019

  14. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on... 12 and 13, T. 7 N., R. 4 W. on the Yountville U.S.G.S. map; (10) Then following the section boundary... elevation, located in section 10, T. N., R. 4 W.; (12) Then northwest in a straight line approximately...

  15. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... miles to the highest point of an unnamed peak of 1268 feet elevation in section 12, T. 6 N., R. 4 W. on... 12 and 13, T. 7 N., R. 4 W. on the Yountville U.S.G.S. map; (10) Then following the section boundary... elevation, located in section 10, T. N., R. 4 W.; (12) Then northwest in a straight line approximately...

  16. Generalized Jeans' Escape of Pick-Up Ions in Quasi-Linear Relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Jeans escape is a well-validated formulation of upper atmospheric escape that we have generalized to estimate plasma escape from ionospheres. It involves the computation of the parts of particle velocity space that are unbound by the gravitational potential at the exobase, followed by a calculation of the flux carried by such unbound particles as they escape from the potential well. To generalize this approach for ions, we superposed an electrostatic ambipolar potential and a centrifugal potential, for motions across and along a divergent magnetic field. We then considered how the presence of superthermal electrons, produced by precipitating auroral primary electrons, controls the ambipolar potential. We also showed that the centrifugal potential plays a small role in controlling the mass escape flux from the terrestrial ionosphere. We then applied the transverse ion velocity distribution produced when ions, picked up by supersonic (i.e., auroral) ionospheric convection, relax via quasi-linear diffusion, as estimated for cometary comas [1]. The results provide a theoretical basis for observed ion escape response to electromagnetic and kinetic energy sources. They also suggest that super-sonic but sub-Alfvenic flow, with ion pick-up, is a unique and important regime of ion-neutral coupling, in which plasma wave-particle interactions are driven by ion-neutral collisions at densities for which the collision frequency falls near or below the gyro-frequency. As another possible illustration of this process, the heliopause ribbon discovered by the IBEX mission involves interactions between the solar wind ions and the interstellar neutral gas, in a regime that may be analogous [2].

  17. Characterization of Wear Mechanisms in Distorted Conical Picks After Coal Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    The interest in understanding the wear mechanisms of cemented carbide (CC) is not a new development. For a long time, there have been studies on different wear mechanisms under different coal/rock cutting conditions. These studies have helped improving the quality of CC, thereby preventing such wearing of tools. Due to highly unpredictable character of coal/rock, the wearing phenomena cannot be attributed to one single domain of conditions. However, one conclusion that can be drawn in this context is that, under similar working conditions, similar types of CC undergo similar nature of wearing process. An optimum combination of high wear resistance, strength and hardness has facilitated widespread application of CC in the field of mining engineering. The abrasive parts of the mining tools are made of CC materials. The current study is focussed on a detailed characterization of the wear mechanisms of conical picks, which are used for coal mining. Conical picks consist of a steel body with an inserted cone-shaped CC tip. After being used for a certain period of time, both, the CC tip and the steel body get distorted. In this study, selection of appropriate samples was followed by critical observation of them through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In the previous study, we explained the distortion process of both, the tip as well as the body, using the SEM images. For the present study, two samples were taken from our previous investigation for further analysis. Three other samples were also included in the present study. Seven different types of wear mechanisms, such as, cracking and crushing, cavity formation, coal intermixing, chemical degradation along with abrasion, long and deep cracks, heating effect and body deformation were observed in the five tool samples.

  18. Endocrinological profile and follicular development in cyclic ewes subjected to repeated ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Valasi, I; Theodosiadou, E; Fthenakis, G C; Papanikolaou, T; Deligiannis, C; Kalogiannis, D; Chadio, S; Amiridis, G S

    2013-05-01

    Blood concentrations of progesterone, FSH and oestradiol in Karagouniko ewes subjected to laparoscopic ovum pick-up (OPU) at specific stages of induced oestrous cycle, were measured. Twenty-four cyclic ewes were randomly allocated into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Oestrus was synchronized with progestagen intravaginal sponges and detected by teaser rams (oestrus: day 0). In group A, during the induced oestrous cycle, OPU was performed on days 4, 9 and 14 (sessions A1, A2 and A3, respectively). In group B and group D, OPU was performed once, on day 9 and 14, respectively. In group C (controls), endoscopic observation of follicular population was performed three times, as in group A. Starting at sponge removal, progesterone was measured in blood samples collected on 22 daily occasions and oestradiol in samples collected on 27 occasions collected at various time-points starting 2h before to 24h after OPU. Follicular populations did not differ among A1, A2, A3 or between C1, C2, C3 and A1, A2, A3 or A1, B, D, respectively. Oocytes of better quality (category '1' or '2') were collected at A3 session compared with A1 (P<0.05). Progesterone concentration and oestrous cycle length did not differ among groups. Decreased oestradiol concentrations followed by FSH increase were recorded 3-5h after OPU. The results confirm the regulatory role of oestradiol on FSH secretion. The quality of collected oocytes was improved in subsequent pick-up sessions in the oestrous cycle. Moreover, OPU at specific stages of the luteal phase of the cycle, even when applied repeatedly, do not affect the normal oestrous cycle length of ewes. PMID:23523233

  19. Escape of Nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere driven by magnetospheric and pick-up ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, M.; Liu, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Shematovich, V. I.

    2003-05-01

    The nitrogen rich atmosphere of Titan is a significant source of the neutrals in Saturn's magnetosphere. As Titan does not posses an intrinsic magnetic field, energetic Kronian magnetospheric ions penetrate Titan's atmospheric exobase as can local pick-up ions (e.g. Shematovich et al. 2003). Penetration by energetic ions is described here using a 3-D Monte Carlo model. The incident ions can lead directly or indirectly to the production of fast neutrals that collide with other atmospheric neutrals. This leads to dissociation and the ejection of both atomic and molecular nitrogen. The recently calculated dissociation cross sections of N2 are used in the present model (Tully and Johnson 2002). The incident flux of slowed magentospheric N+ ions and pick-up C2H_5+ ions is estimated from the work of Brecht et al. (2000). These ions of energy less than 1.2 keV are shown to be more efficient in ejecting material from Titan's atmosphere than the higher energy corotating ions described in early estimates (Lammer et al. 1998). This incident flux of ions are used in the model and the results are used as a source of nitrogen for the Saturnian plasma torus. Acknowledgment: This work is supported by NASA:s Planetary Atmospheres Program. References Brecht, S.H., J.G. Luhmann, and D.J. Larson, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13119, 2000. Lammer, H. W. Stumptner, and S.J. Bauer, Planet. Space Sci., 46, 1207, 1998. Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael and J.G. Luhmann, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2003. Tully, C., R.E. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 6556-6561, 2002.

  20. Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipway, B. J.

    2015-04-01

    Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment that can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down that can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. While multimodal aerosol with N different dispersion characteristics requires 2N+1 inputs to calculate the activation fraction, only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables are needed. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap, physically based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and Numerical Weather Prediction models.

  1. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Romero, E.; Vives, O.

    2016-02-01

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, ET^{miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m_{tilde{g}} ≲ 1.2 TeV, together with a heavy neutralino NLSP of m_{tilde{χ }} ≳ 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out.

  2. Eyesight and the solar Wien peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, James M.

    2003-03-01

    It is sometimes said that humans see best at yellow-green wavelengths because they have evolved under a Sun whose blackbody spectrum has a Wien peak in the green part of the spectrum. However, as a function of frequency, the solar blackbody spectrum peaks in the infrared. Why did human vision not evolve toward a peak sensitivity in this range, if the eye is an efficient quantum detector of photons? The puzzle is resolved if we assume that natural selection acted in such a way as to maximize the amount of energy that can be detected by the retina across a range of wavelengths (whose upper and lower limits are fixed by biological constraints). It is then found that our eyes are indeed perfectly adapted to life under a class G2 star. Extending this reasoning allows educated guesses to be made about the kind of eyesight that might have evolved in extrasolar planetary systems such as that of the red dwarf Gliese 876.

  3. Incorporating peak grouping information for alignment of multiple liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry datasets

    PubMed Central

    Wandy, Joe; Daly, Rónán; Breitling, Rainer; Rogers, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been widely used for large-scale comparative studies in systems biology, including proteomics, glycomics and metabolomics. In almost all experimental design, it is necessary to compare chromatograms across biological or technical replicates and across sample groups. Central to this is the peak alignment step, which is one of the most important but challenging preprocessing steps. Existing alignment tools do not take into account the structural dependencies between related peaks that coelute and are derived from the same metabolite or peptide. We propose a direct matching peak alignment method for LC/MS data that incorporates related peaks information (within each LC/MS run) and investigate its effect on alignment performance (across runs). The groupings of related peaks necessary for our method can be obtained from any peak clustering method and are built into a pair-wise peak similarity score function. The similarity score matrix produced is used by an approximation algorithm for the weighted matching problem to produce the actual alignment result. Results: We demonstrate that related peak information can improve alignment performance. The performance is evaluated on a set of benchmark datasets, where our method performs competitively compared to other popular alignment tools. Availability: The proposed alignment method has been implemented as a stand-alone application in Python, available for download at http://github.com/joewandy/peak-grouping-alignment. Contact: Simon.Rogers@glasgow.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25649621

  4. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  5. Peak detection in mass spectrometry by Gabor filters and envelope analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nha; Huang, Heng; Oraintara, Soontorn; Vo, An

    2009-06-01

    Mass Spectrometry (MS) is increasingly being used to discover diseases-related proteomic patterns. The peak detection step is one of the most important steps in the typical analysis of MS data. Recently, many new algorithms have been proposed to increase true position rate with low false discovery rate in peak detection. Most of them follow two approaches: one is the denoising approach and the other is the decomposing approach. In the previous studies, the decomposition of MS data method shows more potential than the first one. In this paper, we propose two novel methods, named GaborLocal and GaborEnvelop, both of which can detect more true peaks with a lower false discovery rate than previous methods. We employ the method of Gaussian local maxima to detect peaks, because it is robust to noise in signals. A new approach, peak rank, is defined for the first time to identify peaks instead of using the signal-to-noise ratio. Meanwhile, the Gabor filter is used to amplify important information and compress noise in the raw MS signal. Moreover, we also propose the envelope analysis to improve the quantification of peaks and remove more false peaks. The proposed methods have been performed on the real SELDI-TOF spectrum with known polypeptide positions. The experimental results demonstrate that our methods outperform other commonly used methods in the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. PMID:19507289

  6. Opdic (optimized Peak, Distortion and Clutter) Detection Filter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Gregory Philip

    1995-01-01

    Detection is considered. This involves determining regions of interest (ROIs) in a scene: the locations of multiple object classes in a scene in clutter when object distortions and contrast differences are present. High probability of detection P_{D} is essential and low P_{FA } is desirable since subsequent stages in the full system will only decrease P_{FA } and cannot increase P_{D }. Low resolution blob objects and objects with more internal detail are considered with both 3-D aspect view and depression angle distortions present. Extensive tests were conducted on 56 scenes with object classes not present in the training set. A modified MINACE (Minimum Noise and Correlation Energy) distortion-invariant filter was used. This minimizes correlation plane energy due to distortions and clutter while satisfying correlation peak constraint values for various object-aspect views. The filter was modified with a new object model (to give predictable output peak values) and a new correlated noise clutter model; a white Gaussian noise model of distortion was used; and a new techniques to increase the number of training set images (N _{T}) included in the filter were developed. Excellent results were obtained. However, the correlation plane distortion and clutter energy functions were found to become worse as N_{T } was increased and no rigorous method exists to select the best N_{T} (when to stop filter synthesis). A new OPDIC (Optimized Peak, Distortion, and Clutter) filter was thus devised. This filter retained the new object, clutter and distortion models noted. It minimizes the variance of the correlation peak values for all training set images (not just the N_{T} images). As N _{T} increases, the peak variance and the objective functions (correlation plane distortion and clutter energy) are all minimized. Thus, this new filter optimizes the desired functions and provides an easy way to stop filter synthesis (when the objective function is minimized). Tests show

  7. 41 CFR 102-37.60 - How much time does a transferee have to pick up or remove surplus property from holding agency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much time does a transferee have to pick up or remove surplus property from holding agency premises? 102-37.60 Section 102-37... Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.60 How much time does a transferee have to pick up or remove...

  8. Skin-Picking in Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Prevalence, Functional Assessment, and Its Comorbidity with Compulsive and Self-Injurious Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are at increased risk for mental health and behaviour problems, such as skin-picking and compulsive behaviours. Prevalence and functional assessment of skin-picking, and its association with compulsive behaviour and self-injury, were investigated in a large group of individuals with PWS (n =…

  9. Picking Up the Mantle of "Expert": Assigned Roles, Assertion of Identity, and Peer Recognition within a Programming Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Deborah; Enyedy, Noel

    2013-01-01

    Changing an established role in a classroom is difficult. It involves constructing a new set of relations within a community. In this article we investigate how students with newly developed interest and experience in programming developed outside the classroom pick up and establish their roles as experts in programming within the classroom…

  10. 77 FR 40385 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.3; Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Packaging Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material,'' which was issued in March 28... Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal; correction. SUMMARY... Commission) is withdrawing RG 7.3, ``Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive...

  11. Robust automatic P-phase picking: an on-line implementation in the analysis of broadband seismogram recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeman, Reinoud; van Eck, Torild

    1999-06-01

    The onset of a seismic signal is determined through joint AR modeling of the noise and the seismic signal, and the application of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) using the onset time as parameter. This so-called AR-AIC phase picker has been tested successfully and implemented on the Z-component of the broadband station HGN to provide automatic P-phase picks for a rapid warning system. The AR-AIC picker is shown to provide accurate and robust automatic picks on a large experimental database. Out of 1109 P-phase onsets with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) above 1 from local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, our implementation detects 71% and gives a mean difference with manual picks of 0.1 s. An optimal version of the well-established picker of Baer and Kradolfer [Baer, M., Kradolfer, U., An automatic phase picker for local and teleseismic events, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 77 (1987) 1437-1445] detects less than 41% and gives a mean difference with manual picks of 0.3 s using the same dataset.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of the Eco-Pick lift assist: A device designed to facilitate product selection tasks in distribution centers.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Ko, Pei-Ling; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2013-03-01

    Developing lift assist devices to aid workers performing case tasks in distribution centers has been challenging given the movement of workers through a distribution facility. The objective of this work was to biomechanically evaluate a lift assist that can be integrated with pallet jacks and thereby move through the facility with the workers. Twelve participants transferred 16.4 kg boxes from one pallet to another manually and using the Eco-Pick lift assist. Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured bilaterally in the Bicep, Deltoid, Latissimus Dorsi, and Erector Spinae muscles. The analysis showed that the 90th percentile normalized EMG values were significantly reduced in 4 of the 8 muscles sampled when using the Eco-Pick. Likewise, the 50th percentile normalized EMG data were significantly reduced for the Erector Spinae, Latissimus Dorsi, and the Bicep muscles when using the assist. For some of the muscles the advantage of the Eco-Pick was dependent upon the initial lift height or the placement height. Overall, it appears that this evaluation of the Eco-Pick's efficacy indicates that the device has the potential to be an effective means of reducing worker exposure to risk factors associated with back and shoulder injuries experienced during manual palletizing tasks found in distribution centers. PMID:22884290

  13. Teacher-Student Agreement on "Bullies and Kids They Pick On" in Elementary School Classrooms: Gender and Grade Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.; Gest, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examined teacher-student agreement on the measure: "bullies and kids they pick on" in 38 (15 first, 12 third, and 11 fifth grade) elementary school classrooms. Overall agreement between teachers and students was low, 7.9%. The frequency of bully-victim dyads reported by teachers and victim prominence were positive…

  14. 76 FR 47180 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ..., throughout the Upper Great Plains Region. The proposed 2021 PMI (76 FR 12104) was published in the Federal... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power Marketing... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE) published the proposed 2021 Power Marketing...

  15. 76 FR 12104 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...-SMBP--ED Marketing Plan (1985 Plan) was published in the Federal Register (45 FR 71860, October 30... Energy Planning and Management Program (EPAMP) final rule published in the Federal Register (60 FR 54151... Area Power Administration Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division--2021 Power...

  16. ASIC1-mediated calcium entry stimulates NFATc3 nuclear translocation via PICK1 coupling in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V; Plomaritas, Danielle R; Herbert, Lindsay M; Giermakowska, Wieslawa; Browning, Carly; Jernigan, Nikki L

    2016-07-01

    The development of chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) Ca(2+) influx through acid-sensing ion channel-1 (ASIC1) and activation of the Ca(2+)/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor known as nuclear factor of activated T-cells isoform c3 (NFATc3). Whether Ca(2+) influx through ASIC1 contributes to NFATc3 activation in the pulmonary vasculature is unknown. Furthermore, both ASIC1 and calcineurin have been shown to interact with the scaffolding protein known as protein interacting with C kinase-1 (PICK1). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ASIC1 contributes to NFATc3 nuclear translocation in PASMC in a PICK1-dependent manner. Using both ASIC1 knockout (ASIC1(-/-)) mice and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1, we demonstrate that ASIC1 contributes to CH-induced (1 wk at 380 mmHg) and endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced (10(-7) M) Ca(2+) responses and NFATc3 nuclear import in PASMC. The interaction between ASIC1/PICK1/calcineurin was shown using a Duolink in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. Inhibition of PICK1 by using FSC231 abolished ET-1-induced and ionomycin-induced NFATc3 nuclear import, but it did not alter ET-1-mediated Ca(2+) responses, suggesting that PICK1 acts downstream of Ca(2+) influx. The key findings of the present work are that 1) Ca(2+) influx through ASIC1 mediates CH- and ET-1-induced NFATc3 nuclear import and 2) the scaffolding protein PICK1 is necessary for NFATc3 nuclear import. Together, these data provide an essential link between CH-induced ASIC1-mediated Ca(2+) influx and activation of the NFATc3 transcription factor. Identification of this ASIC1/PICK1/NFATc3 signaling complex increases our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the vascular remodeling and increased vascular contractility that are associated with CH-induced pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27190058

  17. Cognitive deficit and development of motor impairment in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Võikar, Vootele; Rauvala, Heikki; Ikonen, Elina

    2002-04-15

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, autosomal recessive lipidosis characterized by a unique error in cellular trafficking of cholesterol. In the disease, unesterified cholesterol as well as sphingolipids accumulate in the late endosomes/lysosomes due to mutations in either of two recently isolated genes, NPC1 or NPC2. A metabolic and neurological disorder reminiscent of human NPC disease has been described in Balb/C mice, and it was recently shown that the mutation in the NPC mice resides in the orthologous murine Npc1 gene. Here we have followed the growth rate and applied behavioural methods in order to establish the onset and development of the major symptoms in the NPC mouse model. Wild type and NPC mice were studied during 28-59 days of age. Both male and female NPC mice displayed retarded growth at the age between 25 and 35 days. At the age of 35-45 days the weight was similar to controls and thereafter very rapidly decreased. The battery of coordination tests (vertical screen, beam balancing, coat hanger and rotating rod) established motor impairment of the NPC mice already at the age of 28-42 days, well before the onset of visually detectable ataxia. Decreased exploratory activity and lack of habituation was revealed in the NPC mice by open field test. The diseased mice were unable to learn and remember the location of the hidden escape platform in spatial water maze task suggesting cognitive impairment. In several tests the male NPC mice were more affected than the females. The present study represents the first behavioural analysis of the NPC mice. The battery of behavioural tests employed here should be valuable in the assessment of effective approaches to treat NPC, for which no preventive or curative measures have so far been established. PMID:11853852

  18. Deconvolution of mixed gamma emitters using peak parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Gadd, Milan S; Garcia, Francisco; Magadalena, Vigil M

    2011-01-14

    When evaluating samples containing mixtures of nuclides using gamma spectroscopy the situation sometimes arises where the nuclides present have photon emissions that cannot be resolved by the detector. An example of this is mixtures of {sup 241}Am and plutonium that have L x-ray emissions with slightly different energies which cannot be resolved using a high-purity germanium detector. It is possible to deconvolute the americium L x-rays from those plutonium based on the {sup 241}Am 59.54 keV photon. However, this requires accurate knowledge of the relative emission yields. Also, it often results in high uncertainties in the plutonium activity estimate due to the americium yields being approximately an order of magnitude greater than those for plutonium. In this work, an alternative method of determining the relative fraction of plutonium in mixtures of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239}Pu based on L x-ray peak location and shape parameters is investigated. The sensitivity and accuracy of the peak parameter method is compared to that for conventional peak decovolution.

  19. Type-I superconductor pick-up coil in superconducting quantum interference device-based ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Seong-min Kim, Kiwoong; Kyu Yu, Kwon; Lee, Seong-Joo; Hyun Shim, Jeong; Körber, Rainer; Burghoff, Martin

    2014-02-10

    In ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (ULF-NMR) with strong prepolarization field (B{sub p}), type-II superconducting pick-up coils may be vulnerable to flux pinning from the strong B{sub p}. Pick-up coils made of NbTi, Nb, and Pb were evaluated in terms of acquired NMR signal quality. The type-II pick-up coils showed degraded signals above 61 mT maximum exposure, while the Pb pick-up coil exhibited no such degradation. Furthermore, a negative counter pulse following a strong B{sub p} was shown to follow magnetic hysteresis loop to unpin the trapped flux in the type-II pick-up coil and restore the NMR signal.

  20. Peak-Seeking Control Using Gradient and Hessian Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Speyer, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    A peak-seeking control method is presented which utilizes a linear time-varying Kalman filter. Performance function coordinate and magnitude measurements are used by the Kalman filter to estimate the gradient and Hessian of the performance function. The gradient and Hessian are used to command the system toward a local extremum. The method is naturally applied to multiple-input multiple-output systems. Applications of this technique to a single-input single-output example and a two-input one-output example are presented.

  1. Discrete Ordinates Solutions for Highly Forward Peaked Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Richard; McCormick, Norman J.

    2004-07-15

    The limitations of asymptotic methods for numerically solving highly forward peaked scattering (HFPS) problems are reviewed before resorting to a discrete ordinates solution for such problems based on biased angular quadrature formulas to increase the precision of the angular representation and on source evaluation from cell-averaged angular fluxes to reduce memory requirements. Also, a twice-collided source is introduced to avoid numerical representation of singularities in the solution. As an example the propagation and spreading of a collimated particle beam in an HFPS medium has been calculated with a discrete ordinates diamond-differenced numerical solution of the transport equation in two-dimensional curvilinear cylindrical coordinates. The calculation was carried out for a strongly forward peaked Henyey-Greenstein scattering law for which Fokker-Planck asymptotic models are not valid. The results show promise for numerically calculated reference solutions based on accurate spatial representations for checking the accuracy of standard asymptotic models for these types of problems.

  2. Evaluation of peak cough flow in Brazilian healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this study we aimed to evaluate the peak cough flow (PCF) in healthy Brazilian subjects. Methods We evaluated 484 healthy subjects between 18 and 40 years old. Subjects were seated and oriented were asked to perform a maximal inspiration followed by a quick, short and explosive expiration on the peak flow meter. Three measures were carried out and recorded the average of the three results for each individual. Results The PCF values ranged between 240 and 500 L/min. The PCF values were lower in females than in males. The PCF was inversely proportional to age. Conclusion The values for Brazilian adult healthy subjects regarding PCF were between 240 and 500 L/min. PMID:23021434

  3. PeakVizor: Visual Analytics of Peaks in Video Clickstreams from Massive Open Online Courses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Chen, Yuanzhe; Liu, Dongyu; Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Qu, Huamin

    2016-10-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) aim to facilitate open-access and massive-participation education. These courses have attracted millions of learners recently. At present, most MOOC platforms record the web log data of learner interactions with course videos. Such large amounts of multivariate data pose a new challenge in terms of analyzing online learning behaviors. Previous studies have mainly focused on the aggregate behaviors of learners from a summative view; however, few attempts have been made to conduct a detailed analysis of such behaviors. To determine complex learning patterns in MOOC video interactions, this paper introduces a comprehensive visualization system called PeakVizor. This system enables course instructors and education experts to analyze the "peaks" or the video segments that generate numerous clickstreams. The system features three views at different levels: the overview with glyphs to display valuable statistics regarding the peaks detected; the flow view to present spatio-temporal information regarding the peaks; and the correlation view to show the correlation between different learner groups and the peaks. Case studies and interviews conducted with domain experts have demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of PeakVizor, and new findings about learning behaviors in MOOC platforms have been reported. PMID:26661473

  4. Documented and potential extreme peak discharges and relation between potential extreme peak discharges and probable maximum flood peak discharges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, W.H.; Slade, R.M., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted a study of extreme flood potential for Texas. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and their contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum expected peak discharge that could occur at a stream site. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were aggregated for 832 sites with and without streamflow-gaging stations in natural basins in Texas. A potential extreme peak discharge curve was developed for each of 11 hydrologic regions in Texas and for the State as a whole, based on documented extreme peak discharges and associated contributing drainage areas. The curve envelops, for a large range of drainage areas, the largest documented extreme peak discharges. Potential extreme peak discharges estimated from the curves were compared to probable maximum flood peak discharges estimated from various simulation models.

  5. Outreach Plans for Storm Peak Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. We plan to create a unique summer undergraduate education experiences for students of diversity at Storm Peak Laboratory. As stressed by the College Pathways to Science Education Standards [Siebert and McIntosh, 2001], to support changes in K-12 science education transformations must first be made at the college level, including inquiry-oriented opportunities to engage in meaningful research. These workshops will be designed to allow students to experience the excitement of science, increasing their likelihood of pursing careers within the fields of scientific education or research.

  6. Low peak-power laser ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, S. G.; Cleary, A.; Veres, I. A.; Culshaw, B.; Thursby, G.; McKee, C.; Swift, C.; Armstrong, I.

    2011-09-01

    Techniques for the successful excitation of guided ultrasonic waves using a low peak-power laser ultrasonic source are discussed and compared with more conventional Q-switched laser sources. The paper considers acoustic propagation in thin plates, in which the frequencies used, typically only the fundamental guided wave modes, are considered. Aspects of excitation and detection geometry are considered along with the physical mechanisms of photo-acoustic generation and the practical issues surrounding available source wavelengths and power outputs. Understanding of the effects of these constraints is critical for the successful application of the technique. Continuous wave excitation and fully arbitrary modulation schemes are compared, and a technique to control the bandwidth of Golay code modulation is introduced. It is shown that earlier work by the authors was capable of guided wave detection at peak-power densities of 104 W cm- 2. Later work has focussed on the use of erbium-doped fibre amplifiers combined with Golay code modulation to improve the recovered signal-to-noise ratio. Two key applications of the techniques are considered: material properties measurements (using inversion of dispersion curve data) and acoustic emission system calibration.

  7. Estimating instantaneous peak flow from mean daily flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    While instantaneous peak flow (IPF) records have historically been necessary for practical applications in flood risk management and hydraulic structure design, mean daily flow (MDF) values are often all that are available. To address this problem, we propose a simple method, which requires only MDF records as its input and uses the rising and falling slopes of daily hydrographs, to estimate IPFs. We applied this method to 144 catchments in Iowa, USA, with drainage areas ranging from about 7 to 220,000 km2. This application involves about 3800 peak flow events originating from different flood generation mechanisms over the period from 1997 to 2014. About 55% of the catchments have prediction errors within ±10%, and 85% of the catchments have predictions errors within ±20%. The method works well for catchments larger than 500 km2, poorly for catchments smaller than 100 km2, and fairly well for catchments in between these sizes. The reduction in the method's effectiveness with decreasing catchment size is due to the fact that the smaller the catchment, the more information is lost when using MDF to characterize the instantaneous flow processes. Our proposed method is simple and promising in terms of estimating IPFs from MDFs for areas where IPF records are unavailable or are insufficient.

  8. Numerical simulation of the generation of turbulence from cometary ion pick-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1987-08-01

    Observations of magnetic field fluctuations near Comet Halley have revealed a rapid development of a Kolmogoroff-like turbulence spectrum extending from below 0.01 Hz to above 0.1 Hz. Spectra obtained far from the comet have a strong peak in power near the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron frequency of singly ionized water. Closer to the comet, the spectrum at higher frequencies is enhanced in power level over the background solar wind spectrum by approximately an order of magnitude. The equations of incompressible MHD are solved using a two-dimensional 256 x 256 mode spectral method code to simulate this spectral evolution as an inertial range turbulent cascade. The initial conditions contained a constant magnetic field and a single coherent wave mode at a low wave number. The solar wind turbulence was modeled by a background noise spectrum having a Kolmogoroff spectral index. The coherent mode decayed into an inertial range spectrum with Kolmogoroff slope within a few eddy-turnover times. Both the time scale and the increase in power level of the turbulence seen in the simulation are in accord with the Giotto observations.

  9. Processing methods for differential analysis of LC/MS profile data

    PubMed Central

    Katajamaa, Mikko; Orešič, Matej

    2005-01-01

    Background Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been widely used in proteomics and metabolomics research. In this context, the technology has been increasingly used for differential profiling, i.e. broad screening of biomolecular components across multiple samples in order to elucidate the observed phenotypes and discover biomarkers. One of the major challenges in this domain remains development of better solutions for processing of LC/MS data. Results We present a software package MZmine that enables differential LC/MS analysis of metabolomics data. This software is a toolbox containing methods for all data processing stages preceding differential analysis: spectral filtering, peak detection, alignment and normalization. Specifically, we developed and implemented a new recursive peak search algorithm and a secondary peak picking method for improving already aligned results, as well as a normalization tool that uses multiple internal standards. Visualization tools enable comparative viewing of data across multiple samples. Peak lists can be exported into other data analysis programs. The toolbox has already been utilized in a wide range of applications. We demonstrate its utility on an example of metabolic profiling of Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Conclusion The software is freely available under the GNU General Public License and it can be obtained from the project web page at: . PMID:16026613

  10. Improved Simulation of Peak Flows Under Climate Change: Post-Processing or Multi-Objective Calibration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Booij, M. J.; Xu, Y. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have large impacts on peak flows. There are, however, large uncertainties in the simulation of peak flows by hydrological models. This study aims to improve the simulation of peak flows under climate change in Lanjiang catchment, East China by comparing two approaches: post-processing of peak flows and multi-objective calibration. Two hydrological models (SWAT and GR4J) are employed to simulate the daily flows and the peaks-over-threshold method is used to extract peak flows from the simulated daily flows. Three post-processing methods, namely the quantile mapping method and two generalized linear models, are set up to correct the biases in the simulated raw peak flows. Besides, a multi-objective calibration of the GR4J model by taking the peak flows into account in the calibration process is carried out. The regional climate model PRECIS with boundary forcing from two GCMs (HadCM3 and ECHAM5) under greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B is applied to produce the climate data for the baseline period and the future period 2011-2040. The results show that the post-processing methods, particularly quantile mapping method, can correct the biases in the raw peak flows effectively. The multi-objective calibration also resulted in a good simulation performance of peak flows. The final estimated peak flows in the future period show an obvious increase compared with those in the baseline period, indicating there are probably more frequent floods in Lanjiang catchment in the future.

  11. On the stability of pick-up ion ring distributions in the outer heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Summerlin, Errol J.; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moore, Thomas E.; Christian, Eric R.; Cooper, John F. E-mail: adolfo.figueroa-vinas-1@nasa.gov E-mail: eric.r.christian@nasa.gov

    2014-10-01

    The 'secondary energetic neutral atom (ENA)' hypothesis for the ribbon feature observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) posits that the neutral component of the solar wind continues beyond the heliopause and charge exchanges with interstellar ions in the Outer Heliosheath (OHS). This creates pick-up ions that gyrate about the draped interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) lines at pitch angles near 90° on the locus where the ISMF lies tangential to the heliopause and perpendicular to the heliocentric radial direction. This location closely coincides with the location of the ribbon feature according to the prevailing inferences of the ISMF orientation and draping. The locally gyrating ions undergo additional charge exchange and escape as free-flying neutral atoms, many of which travel back toward the inner solar system and are imaged by IBEX as a ribbon tracing out the locus described above. For this mechanism to succeed, the pick-up ions must diffuse in pitch angle slowly enough to permit secondary charge exchange before their pitch angle distribution substantially broadens away from 90°. Previous work using linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves has suggested that the ring distribution in the OHS is highly unstable, which, if true, would make the secondary ENA hypothesis incapable of rendering the observed ribbon. In this paper, we extend this earlier work to more realistic ring distribution functions. We find that, at the low densities necessary to produce the observed IBEX ribbon via the secondary ENA hypothesis, growth rates are highly sensitive to the temperature of the beam and that even very modest temperatures of the ring beam corresponding to beam widths of <1° are sufficient to damp the self-generated waves associated with the ring beam. Thus, at least from the perspective of linear Vlasov dispersion analysis of parallel propagating waves, there is no reason to expect that the ring distributions necessary to produce the

  12. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Assmann, W. Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K.; Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V.; Moser, M.; Dollinger, G.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound

  13. Asthma-like peak flow variability in various lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Meena, Pradeep; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal peak flow variability are considered characteristic of asthma patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show poor reversibility. But reversibility and variability in other pulmonary diseases manifesting with airflow obstruction in not known. Therefore, we assessed reversibility and peak flow variability in patients with various lung diseases to recognize the pattern. Materials and Methods: Seventy consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lung diseases manifesting with airflow obstruction were recruited in the study. These included 23 patients with asthma, 11 patients with bronchiectasis, 16 patients with post-tubercular lung disease (PTLD), and 20 patients with COPD. Ten healthy matched control subjects were also selected to pair with asthmatic patients. Bronchodilator reversibility test was done initially and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured for a duration of 1 week by patients themselves on a chart that was given to them. The mean amplitude percentage of these records were analyzed. Results: The mean values of peak flow variability were 14.73% ± 6.1% in asthmatic patients, 11.98% ± 7.5% in patients with bronchiectasis, and 10.54% ± 5.3% in PTLD. The difference in the mean values of peak flow variability between asthma and bronchiectasis, that is, 14.73 (6.1) vs 11.98 (7.5) was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Forced expiratory volume one second (FEV1) reversibility values were 14.77% ± 26.93%, 11.24% ± 20.43%, 10.85% ± 13.02%, 16.83% ± 22.84%, and 5.47% ± 4.99% in asthma, COPD, PTLD, bronchiectasis, and healthy subjects, respectively. Conclusion: Both reversibility and diurnal peak flow variability were higher in patients with various lung diseases compared with normal healthy subjects. Although these are characteristic of asthma, some cases of bronchiectasis and PTLD patients may also manifest asthma-like PEFR variability and reversibility

  14. Chicxulub Peak Ring Characteristics from 2D Reflection Seismic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Cervantes, K.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Gulick, S.

    2007-05-01

    Since 1980's research interest over Chicxulub crater located SE Gulf of Mexico, has grown not only because its relationship with the K-P(Cretaseous -Paleogene) extinction but because of its size (diameter ~ 200 km) and grade of preservation. Based on results from several surveys using different geophysical methods, Chicxulub has been classified as a multiring crater. A topographic high rising from crater floor was first recognized as the Chicxulub peak ring on four 1996 reflection seismic profiles but the low density of this data set made impossible to describe on detail this structure. Recently, during 2005 we carried out a marine survey acquiring 29 profiles. A grid located over the central marine portion of the crater was conformed by eleven profiles 80 km long oriented WSW-ENE and ten 25 km long NW-SE. Data was recorded on 480 channels spaced 12.5 cm on a 6 km streamer and air guns were shot every 50 m allowing us to image the earth up to 14 s TWTT. This new data set along with the 1996 profiles allow us to build up the first 3D image of Chicxulub peak ring as well as to analyze some important features of this ring. Results show that the peak ring lays down closer to the surface and the crater rim on its NW portion where it rises more abruptly from the crater floor reaching up to 430 m. Based on the information of the radial lines this characteristics change in clockwise direction being opposite on the NE. The relationship between the peak ring and other Chicxulub structures,such as the slump blocks and the dipping reflector, change as well in the same direction indicating that the peak ring is displaced to the NW. These asymmetries could be related to the process of formation of the peak ring as a result of: a)an asymmetric collapse of the central uplift which has been proved not to be related to impact direction, b) displacement of the central uplift towards the transient cavity rim or c)heterogeneities on impact surface predating the impact.

  15. Efficacy and safety of BrushPicks, a new cleaning aid, compared to the use of Glide floss.

    PubMed

    Yankell, Samuel L; Shi, Xiuren; Emling, Robert C

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind, four-week clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of BrushPicks, a new cleaning aid, and Glide floss on the reduction of plaque area, gingivitis and bleeding on probing, and to monitor safety when these products were used in addition to toothbrushing with an ADA-Accepted toothbrush (Oral-B P35) and an ADA-Accepted fluoride-containing dentifrice (Crest Regular). No special instructions on or supervision of product use was conducted, other than requesting twice-a-day (morning and evening) use of the assigned products. Following a baseline examination, 63 qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area were randomized into two groups. Subjects were also told to use their assigned dental aid after each toothbrushing. Examinations for efficacy and safety were repeated after two and four weeks' use of the products. Sixty-two subjects completed all aspects of the study. There were no untoward side effects attributed to product use, reported or observed, at the two- or four-week examination times. At baseline, there were no significant differences in plaque, gingivitis or bleeding on probing mean scores between the BrushPicks and Glide floss groups. At the two- and four-week evaluation times, both the BrushPicks and Glide floss had numerically lower plaque scores compared to baseline levels. The only statistically significant reduction (p < 0.01) was in the BrushPicks group, comparing the week two mean with the baseline value. Gingivitis (GI) at four weeks was statistically (p < 0.05) lower in the BrushPicks group as compared to the Glide floss mean value. When the changes in scores from baseline to two weeks and to four weeks were assessed, the mean GI score for the Glide floss group was significantly lower at two weeks (p < 0.01) compared to baseline, and also from two weeks to four weeks (p < 0.001). The change in mean GI score for the Glide floss group from baseline to four weeks was also

  16. Mineral resources of the Redcloud Peak and Handies Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Hinsdale County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, R.F.; Grauch, R.I.; Hon, K.; Bove, D.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Korzeb, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Redcloud Peak and Handies Peak Wilderness Study Areas are located 2-12 mi southwest of Lake City, CO. Much of the study areas has high mineral resource potential for precious and base metals in various ore deposit types. The rest of the study areas has moderate potential for these commodities. Two areas in the Redcloud Peak study area have moderate potential for molybdenum and copper in quartz monzonite-associated porphyry deposits. Part of the Handies Peak study area has moderate potential for molybdenum in granite-related porphyry deposits. The southwestern part of the Redcloud Peak study area has high potential for uranium in vein-type deposits. Moderate potential for this commodity extends over other parts of both study areas. The mineral resource potential for gold and silver (in clastic-sediment-hosted disseminated-type epithermal deposits) is low in those parts of both study areas underlain by the Henson Member of the Silverton Volcanics. The mineral and energy resource potential for aluminum (in alunite deposits), uranium (in disseminated deposits), and geothermal sources is low throughout both study areas. Based on currently available data, there is no energy resource potential for coal, oil, and natural gas. The study areas have no identified resources.

  17. Twin Peaks in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The prominent hills dubbed 'Twin Peaks' approximately 1-2 kilometers away were imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A lander petal and deflated airbag are at the bottom of the image.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. NMR solvent peak suppression by nonlinear excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, Malcolm H.

    1988-03-01

    Most existing NMR solvent peak suppression sequences provide a satisfactory dependence of the intensity of excited signals on frequency but poor phase characteristics. In practice this leads to spectral distortions which generally become more severe as the frequency selectivity of the sequence is increased. However, it is shown that by working well outside the linear response regime, excitation schemes which combine high frequency selectivity with good phase properties may be devised. Sequences of six rectangular radio-frequency pulses were discovered using a combination of coherent averaging theory to treat the near-resonant behavior and numerical simulation further from resonance. Extensive use of symmetry greatly simplifies both the coherent averaging calculations and the numerical simulations. The new pulse sequences have been given the acronym NERO (nonlinear excitation rejecting on-resonance). Experimental spectra of an enzyme in dilute aqueous solution are shown.

  19. BUFFALO PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Wood, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Colorado. On the basis of this study there is a probable mineral-resource potential for silver vein and bedding replacement deposits along the Weston Pass fault zone, for hydrothermal vein-type uranium deposits in the vicinity of the Parkdale iron pit, and for gold vein deposits in the parts of the Granite and Four Mile districts that are within the wilderness study area. A probable barite resource potential occurs at Rough and Tumbling Creek and near Spring Creek on the east side of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  20. R-peaks detection based on stationary wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Merah, M; Abdelmalik, T A; Larbi, B H

    2015-10-01

    Automatic detection of the QRS complexes/R-peaks in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is the most important step preceding any kind of ECG processing and analysis. The performance of these systems heavily relies on the accuracy of the QRS detector. The objective of present work is to drive a new robust method based on stationary wavelet transform (SWT) for R-peaks detection. The decimation of the coefficients at each level of the transformation algorithm is omitted, more samples in the coefficient sequences are available and hence a better outlier detection can be performed. Using the information of local maxima, minima and zero crossings of the fourth SWT coefficient detail, the proposed algorithm identifies the significant points for detection and delineation of the QRS complexes, as well as detection and identification of the QRS individual waves peaks of the pre-processed ECG signal. Various experimental results show that the proposed algorithm exhibits reliable QRS detection as well as accurate ECG delineation, achieving excellent performance on different databases, on the MIT-BIH database (Se=99.84%, P=99.88%), on the QT Database (Se=99.94%, P=99.89%) and on MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database, (Se=95.30%, P=93.98%). Reliability and accuracy are close to the highest among the ones obtained in other studies. Experiments results being satisfactory, the SWT may represent a novel QRS detection tool, for a robust ECG signal analysis. PMID:26105724

  1. SLR data screening; location of peak of data distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Andrew T.

    1993-01-01

    At the 5th Laser Ranging Instrumentation Workshop held at Herstmonceux in 1984, consideration was given to the formation of on-site normal points by laser stations, and an algorithm was formulated. The algorithm included a recommendation that an iterated 3.0 x rms rejection criterion should be used to screen the data, and that arithmetic means should be formed within the normal point bins of the retained data. From Sept. 1990 onwards, this algorithm and screening criterion have been brought into effect by various laser stations for forming on-site normal points, and small variants of the algorithm are used by most analysis centers for forming normal points from full-rate data, although the data screening criterion they use ranges from about 2.5 to 3.0 x rms. At the CSTG Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) Subcommission, a working group was set up in Mar. 1991 to review the recommended screening procedure. This paper has been influenced by the discussions of this working group, although the views expressed are primarily those of this author. The main thrust of this paper is that, particularly for single photon systems, a more important issue than data screening is the determination of the peak of a data distribution and hence, the determination of the bias of the peak from the mean. Several methods of determining the peak are discussed.

  2. Sample distribution in peak mode isotachophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Shimon; Schwartz, Ortal; Bercovici, Moran

    2014-01-15

    We present an analytical study of peak mode isotachophoresis (ITP), and provide closed form solutions for sample distribution and electric field, as well as for leading-, trailing-, and counter-ion concentration profiles. Importantly, the solution we present is valid not only for the case of fully ionized species, but also for systems of weak electrolytes which better represent real buffer systems and for multivalent analytes such as proteins and DNA. The model reveals two major scales which govern the electric field and buffer distributions, and an additional length scale governing analyte distribution. Using well-controlled experiments, and numerical simulations, we verify and validate the model and highlight its key merits as well as its limitations. We demonstrate the use of the model for determining the peak concentration of focused sample based on known buffer and analyte properties, and show it differs significantly from commonly used approximations based on the interface width alone. We further apply our model for studying reactions between multiple species having different effective mobilities yet co-focused at a single ITP interface. We find a closed form expression for an effective-on rate which depends on reactants distributions, and derive the conditions for optimizing such reactions. Interestingly, the model reveals that maximum reaction rate is not necessarily obtained when the concentration profiles of the reacting species perfectly overlap. In addition to the exact solutions, we derive throughout several closed form engineering approximations which are based on elementary functions and are simple to implement, yet maintain the interplay between the important scales. Both the exact and approximate solutions provide insight into sample focusing and can be used to design and optimize ITP-based assays.

  3. Probing Cosmology with Weak Lensing Peak Counts and Minkowski Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvil, Jan Michael; Wang, S.; Lim, E. A.; Haiman, Z.; May, M.

    2010-05-01

    The new method of counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters offers advantages over similar, more traditional statistics like cluster counts: Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints which are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. Our pilot study (Kratochvil, Haiman, May 2009), where we investigated three cosmological models with different constant values of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-0.8, w=-1, w=-1.2 and with a fixed normalization of the primordial power spectrum, revealed a parameter sensitivity of w which warrants a numerically very costly in-depth study when marginalization over other uncertain cosmological parameters is included. Towards that goal, we present recent results from a new, extensive simulation suite of ninety 5123-particle N-body simulations, run on New York Blue at BNL, allowing us to vary several cosmological parameters individually and yielding vastly improved statistics. Studies have shown that weak lensing maps likely contain as much information in the nonlinear regime as in the linear one. While being a powerful probe of the nonlinear regime, weak lensing peak counts capture by definition only a subset of the total available information in the convergence maps. In particular, we found that relatively low-amplitude peaks account for most of the parameter sensitivity detected, hinting to a more complicated structure. Therefore, we extend our work by probing the morphology of the maps with Minkowski functionals, in our quest to extract the most possible information from the nonlinear aspects of large-scale structure formation.

  4. Sustained Fixation Induced Changes in Phoria and Convergence Peak Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun H.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Han, Sang J.; Alvarez, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to investigate the influence of phoria adaptation on convergence peak velocity from responses located at different initial vergence positions. Methods Symmetrical 4° convergence step responses and near dissociated phoria (measured at 40 cm from the subject's midline) were recorded from six subjects with normal binocular vision using an infrared limbus tracking system with a haploscope. Two different sustained fixations (1° and 16° convergent rotation along the subject's midline) were used to study whether phoria had an influence on the peak velocity of convergence responses located at two initial vergence positions (1° or ‘far’ steps and 12° or ‘near’ steps). Results Phoria was significantly adapted after a sustained fixation task at near (16°) and far (1°) (p<0.002). A repeated measures ANOVA showed that convergence far steps were significantly faster than the near steps (p<0.03). When comparing convergence steps with the same initial vergence position, steps measured after near phoria adaptation were faster than responses after far adaptation (p<0.02). A regression analysis demonstrated that the change in phoria and the change in convergence peak velocity were significantly correlated for the far convergence steps (r = 0.97, p = 0.001). A weaker correlation was observed for the near convergence steps (r = 0.59, p = 0.20). Conclusion As a result of sustained fixation, phoria was adapted and the peak velocity of the near and far convergence steps was modified. This study has clinical considerations since prisms, which evoke phoria adaptation, can be prescribed to help alleviate visual discomfort. Future investigations should include a systematic study of how prisms may influence convergence and divergence eye movements for those prescribed with prisms within their spectacles. PMID:21698110

  5. DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. THE CASE OF EQUAL PEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Salviander, S.; Stevens, A. C.; Rosario, D. J. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: acs0196@mail.utexas.edu

    2012-06-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked narrow lines (DPAGNs) may be caused by kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs, bipolar outflows, or rotating gaseous disks. We examine the class of DPAGNs in which the two narrow-line components have closely similar intensity as being especially likely to involve disks or jets. Two spectroscopic indicators support this likelihood. For DPAGNs from Smith et al., the 'equal-peaked' objects (EPAGNs) have [Ne V]/[O III]ratios lower than for a control sample of non-double-peaked AGNs. This is unexpected for a pair of normal AGNs in a galactic merger, but may be consistent with [O III] emission from a rotating ring with relatively little gas at small radii. Also, [O III]/H{beta} ratios of the redshifted and blueshifted systems in the EPAGN are more similar to each other than in a control sample, suggestive of a single ionizing source and inconsistent with the binary interpretation.

  6. Diagnostic workup and management of patients with suspected Niemann-Pick type C disease

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Apostolos; Gissen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. It is characterized by lysosomal storage of a broad range of lipids as a result of abnormal intracellular lipid trafficking. Typically patients develop neurodegeneration; however, the speed of disease progression is variable. The exact functions of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins have not been determined and therefore the molecular pathophysiology of NP-C is still not clearly understood. Due to the disease’s rarity and clinical heterogeneity, delays from symptom onset to diagnosis and treatment initiation are common. Current therapeutic approaches focus on multidisciplinary symptom control and deceleration (rather than reversal) of disease progression. Thus identification of cases at early stages of disease is particularly important. Recent advances in genetic and biochemical testing have resulted in the generation of relatively non-invasive, quick and cost-effective laboratory assays that are highly sensitive and specific and have the capacity to enhance the clinicians’ ability to reach a diagnosis earlier. Miglustat is a compound recently licensed in many countries for the treatment of NP-C that has been shown to decelerate neurological regression, whereas many other promising drugs are currently being trialled in preclinical models or human studies. This review summarizes key clinical, genetic and biochemical features of NP-C, suggests a simple diagnostic investigation strategy and gives an overview of available therapeutic options as well as potential novel treatments currently under development. PMID:27134677

  7. Mars atmospheric loss and isotopic fractionation by pick-up-ion sputtering and photochemical escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Pepin, R. O.; Johnson, R. E.; Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the effects of loss of constituents of the Martian atmosphere due to sputtering by solar-wind pick-up ions and photochemical escape during the last 3.8 billion years. Sputtering is capable of efficiently removing species from the upper atmosphere to space, including the light noble gases; nitrogen and oxygen are removed by both sputtering ad photochemical processes. Due to diffusive separation (by mass) above the homopause, removal from the top of the atmosphere will fractionate the isotopes of each species, with the lighter isotope being preferentially lost. This allows current measurements of the isotopic ratios to be used as a measure of the atmospheric evolution as integrated over geologic time. For carbon and oxygen, isotopic fractionation is buffered by exchange of atmospheric species with non-atmospheric reservoirs of CO2 and H2O. This allows us to determine the size of the non-atmospheric reservoirs which are capable of mixing with the atmosphere; these reservoirs can be CO2 absorbed in the regolith and/or H2O in the polar ice caps. Such an exchangeable reservoir is required in order to keep the fractionation of the atmospheric gases as low as is observed.

  8. A case of variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C accompanying savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Mio; Jingami, Naoto; Uemura, Kengo; Nakasone, Naoe; Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-06-22

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The diagnosis of adulthood onset NPC is difficult and challenging, especially for neurologists, because the symptoms and signs are not as clear as those in the classical childhood onset NPC and this subtype is not yet widely known. However, the diagnosis can be made by a combination of filipin staining of fibroblast and/or gene analysis. As a disease-specific therapy for NPC has been approved in Japan, the diagnosis of NPC is of significance. PMID:27181747

  9. Hands-free device control using sound picked up in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Ngia, Lester; Vlach, Chris; Lin, Dong; Birkhimer, Craig; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Hoffman, Orin; Lewis, Tristan

    2008-04-01

    Hands-free control of unmanned ground vehicles is essential for soldiers, bomb disposal squads, and first responders. Having their hands free for other equipment and tasks allows them to be safer and more mobile. Currently, the most successful hands-free control devices are speech-command based. However, these devices use external microphones, and in field environments, e.g., war zones and fire sites, their performance suffers because of loud ambient noise: typically above 90dBA. This paper describes the development of technology using the ear as an output source that can provide excellent command recognition accuracy even in noisy environments. Instead of picking up speech radiating from the mouth, this technology detects speech transmitted internally through the ear canal. Discreet tongue movements also create air pressure changes within the ear canal, and can be used for stealth control. A patented earpiece was developed with a microphone pointed into the ear canal that captures these signals generated by tongue movements and speech. The signals are transmitted from the earpiece to an Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) through a wired connection. The UMPC processes the signals and utilizes them for device control. The processing can include command recognition, ambient noise cancellation, acoustic echo cancellation, and speech equalization. Successful control of an iRobot PackBot has been demonstrated with both speech (13 discrete commands) and tongue (5 discrete commands) signals. In preliminary tests, command recognition accuracy was 95% with speech control and 85% with tongue control.

  10. Necroptosis in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Cougnoux, A; Cluzeau, C; Mitra, S; Li, R; Williams, I; Burkert, K; Xu, X; Wassif, C A; Zheng, W; Porter, F D

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder due to mutation of the NPC1 gene. The NPC1 phenotype is characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction, including cerebellar ataxia and dementia. There is histological evidence of neuroinflammation and progressive neuronal loss, with cerebellar Purkinje cells particularly vulnerable to loss of NPC1 function. Necroptosis was evaluated as a mechanism of neuronal loss. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosomal complex that regulates necroptotic cell death. We report increased expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in NPC1 fibroblasts, NPC1 iPS cell-derived neuronal precursors, and in cerebellar tissue from both NPC1 mice and patients. Our data suggest a positive correlation between NPC1 neurological disease severity and assembly of the necrosome complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreases cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Npc1-mutant mice with necrostatin-1, an allosteric inhibitor of RIP1, significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, progression of neurological symptoms, and death. Collectively, our data identified necroptosis as a key component of the molecular network that contributes to neuronal loss in NPC1 and establish that inhibition of necroptosis is a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:26986514

  11. Ebola Viral Glycoprotein Bound to Its Endosomal Receptor Niemann-Pick C1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Shi, Yi; Song, Jian; Qi, Jianxun; Lu, Guangwen; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-01-14

    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg, cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates. Understanding how these viruses enter host cells could help to develop effective therapeutics. An endosomal protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), has been identified as a necessary entry receptor for this process, and priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) to a fusion-competent state is a prerequisite for NPC1 binding. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the primed GP (GPcl) of Ebola virus bound to domain C of NPC1 (NPC1-C) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. NPC1-C utilizes two protruding loops to engage a hydrophobic cavity on head of GPcl. Upon enzymatic cleavage and NPC1-C binding, conformational change in the GPcl further affects the state of the internal fusion loop, triggering membrane fusion. Our data therefore provide structural insights into filovirus entry in the late endosome and the molecular basis for design of therapeutic inhibitors of viral entry. PMID:26771495

  12. Genetic and pharmacological evidence implicates cathepsins in Niemann-Pick C cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chan; Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Ory, Daniel S; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC) disease, an autosomal recessive lipid trafficking disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration resulting in cognitive impairment, ataxia and early death. Little is known about the cellular pathways leading to neuron loss. Here, we studied the effects of diminishing expression of cystatin B, an endogenous inhibitor of cathepsins B, H and L, on the development of NPC neuropathology. We show that decreased expression of cystatin B in patient fibroblasts enhances cathepsin activity. Deletion of the encoding Cstb gene in Npc1-deficient mice resulted in striking deleterious effects, particularly within the cerebellum where diffuse loss of Purkinje cells was observed in young mice. This severe pathology occurred through cell autonomous mechanisms that triggered Purkinje cell death. Moreover, our analyses demonstrated the mislocalization of lysosomal cathepsins within the cytosol of Npc1-deficient Purkinje cells. We provide evidence that this may be a consequence of damage to lysosomal membranes by reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the leakage of lysosomal contents that culminates in apoptotic cell death. Consistent with this notion, toxicity from ROS was attenuated in an NPC cell model by cystatin B over-expression or pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B. The observation that Npc1 and Cstb deletion genetically interact to potently enhance the degenerative phenotype of the NPC cerebellum provides strong support for the notion that lysosomal membrane permeabilization contributes to cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease. PMID:26908626

  13. Diagnostic workup and management of patients with suspected Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Apostolos; Gissen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. It is characterized by lysosomal storage of a broad range of lipids as a result of abnormal intracellular lipid trafficking. Typically patients develop neurodegeneration; however, the speed of disease progression is variable. The exact functions of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins have not been determined and therefore the molecular pathophysiology of NP-C is still not clearly understood. Due to the disease's rarity and clinical heterogeneity, delays from symptom onset to diagnosis and treatment initiation are common. Current therapeutic approaches focus on multidisciplinary symptom control and deceleration (rather than reversal) of disease progression. Thus identification of cases at early stages of disease is particularly important. Recent advances in genetic and biochemical testing have resulted in the generation of relatively non-invasive, quick and cost-effective laboratory assays that are highly sensitive and specific and have the capacity to enhance the clinicians' ability to reach a diagnosis earlier. Miglustat is a compound recently licensed in many countries for the treatment of NP-C that has been shown to decelerate neurological regression, whereas many other promising drugs are currently being trialled in preclinical models or human studies. This review summarizes key clinical, genetic and biochemical features of NP-C, suggests a simple diagnostic investigation strategy and gives an overview of available therapeutic options as well as potential novel treatments currently under development. PMID:27134677

  14. Necroptosis in Niemann–Pick disease, type C1: a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Cougnoux, A; Cluzeau, C; Mitra, S; Li, R; Williams, I; Burkert, K; Xu, X; Wassif, C A; Zheng, W; Porter, F D

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder due to mutation of the NPC1 gene. The NPC1 phenotype is characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction, including cerebellar ataxia and dementia. There is histological evidence of neuroinflammation and progressive neuronal loss, with cerebellar Purkinje cells particularly vulnerable to loss of NPC1 function. Necroptosis was evaluated as a mechanism of neuronal loss. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosomal complex that regulates necroptotic cell death. We report increased expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in NPC1 fibroblasts, NPC1 iPS cell-derived neuronal precursors, and in cerebellar tissue from both NPC1 mice and patients. Our data suggest a positive correlation between NPC1 neurological disease severity and assembly of the necrosome complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreases cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Npc1-mutant mice with necrostatin-1, an allosteric inhibitor of RIP1, significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, progression of neurological symptoms, and death. Collectively, our data identified necroptosis as a key component of the molecular network that contributes to neuronal loss in NPC1 and establish that inhibition of necroptosis is a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:26986514

  15. Alveolar lipoproteinosis in an acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Machiko; Dhami, Rajwinder; Schuchman, Edward H

    2003-03-01

    Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) are lipid storage disorders caused by the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). In humans, NPD is associated with the dysfunction of numerous organs including the lung. Gene targeting of the ASM gene in transgenic mice produced an animal model with features typical of NPD, including pulmonary inflammation. To assess mechanisms by which ASM perturbed lung function, we studied lung morphology, surfactant content, and metabolism in ASM-deficient mice in vivo. Pulmonary inflammation, with increased cellular infiltrates and the accumulation of alveolar material, was associated with alterations in surfactant content. Saturated phosphatidylcholine (SatPC) content was increased twofold, and sphingomyelin content was increased 5.5-fold in lungs of the ASM knockout (ASMKO) mice. Additional sphingomyelin enhanced the sensitivity of surfactant inhibition by plasma proteins. Clearance of SatPC from the lungs of ASMKO mice was decreased. Catabolism of SatPC by alveolar macrophages from the ASMKO mouse was significantly decreased, likely accounting for decreased pulmonary SatPC in vivo. In summary, ASM is required for normal surfactant catabolism by alveolar macrophages in vivo. Alterations in surfactant composition, including increased sphingomyelin content, contributed to the abnormal surfactant function observed in the ASM-deficient mouse. PMID:12495943

  16. Niemann-Pick C1 Affects the Gene Delivery Efficacy of Degradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite intensive research effort, the rational design of improved nanoparticulate drug carriers remains challenging, in part due to a limited understanding of the determinants of nanoparticle entry and transport in target cells. Recent studies have shown that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), the lysosome membrane protein that mediates trafficking of cholesterol in cells, is involved in the endosomal escape and subsequent infection caused by filoviruses, and that its absence promotes the retention and efficacy of lipid nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA. Here, we report that NPC1 deficiency results in dramatic reduction in internalization and transfection efficiency mediated by degradable cationic gene delivery polymers, poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs). PBAEs utilized cholesterol and dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathways, and these were found to be heavily compromised in NPC1-deficient cells. In contrast, the absence of NPC1 had minor effects on DNA uptake mediated by polyethylenimine or Lipofectamine 2000. Strikingly, stable overexpression of human NPC1 in chinese hamster ovary cells was associated with enhanced gene uptake (3-fold) and transfection (10-fold) by PBAEs. These findings reveal a role of NPC1 in the regulation of endocytic mechanisms affecting nanoparticle trafficking. We hypothesize that in-depth understanding sites of entry and endosomal escape may lead to highly efficient nanotechnologies for drug delivery. PMID:25010491

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblasts derived from patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Woś, Marcin; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Pikuła, Sławomir; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Bandorowicz-Pikuła, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes lead to Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. These mutations result in cholesterol and glycosphingolipid accumulation in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Complications in the storage of cholesterol in NPC1 mutant cells are associated with other anomalies, such as altered distribution of intracellular organelles and properties of the plasma membrane. The pathomechanism of NPC disease is largely unknown. Interestingly, other storage diseases such as Gaucher and Farber diseases are accompanied by severe mitochondrial dysfunction. This prompted us to investigate the effect of absence or dysfunction of the NPC1 protein on mitochondrial properties to confirm or deny a putative relationship between NPC1 mutations and mitochondrial function. This study was performed on primary skin fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies of two NPC patients, carrying mutations in the NPC1 gene. We observed altered organization of mitochondria in NPC1 mutant cells, significant enrichment in mitochondrial cholesterol content, increased respiration, altered composition of the respiratory chain complex, and substantial reduction in cellular ATP level. Thus, a primary lysosomal defect in NPC1 mutant fibroblasts is accompanied by deregulation of the organization and function of the mitochondrial network. PMID:26869201

  18. Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aten, Jan; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Claessen, Nike; Alfonso, Pilar; Irún, Pilar; Giraldo, Pilar; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; van Eijk, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Impaired function of NPC1 or NPC2 lysosomal proteins leads to the intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, the primary defect underlying Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. In addition, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) accumulate in lysosomes as well. Intralysosomal lipid accumulation triggers the activation of a set of genes, including potential biomarkers. Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model. We speculated that Gpnmb could serve as a marker for visceral lipid accumulation in NPC disease. We report that Gpnmb expression is increased at protein level in macrophages in the viscera of Npc1nih/nih mice. Interestingly, soluble Gpnmb was also found to be increased in murine and NPC patient plasma. Exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to the NPC-phenotype-inducing drug U18666A also upregulated Gpnmb expression. Inhibition of GSL synthesis with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin prevented U18666A-induced Gpnmb induction and secretion. In summary, we show that Gpnmb is upregulated in NPC mice and patients, most likely due to GSL accumulation. PMID:26771826

  19. Reducing GBA2 Activity Ameliorates Neuropathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Herrera Moro, Daniela; Claessen, Nike; Vinueza Veloz, María Fernanda; Zhou, Kuikui; Lin, Zhanmin; Mirzaian, Mina; Boot, Rolf G.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Yildiz, Yildiz; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) hydrolyses glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in lysosomes. Markedly reduced GBA activity is associated with severe manifestations of Gaucher disease including neurological involvement. Mutations in the GBA gene have recently also been identified as major genetic risk factor for Parkinsonism. Disturbed metabolism of GlcCer may therefore play a role in neuropathology. Besides lysosomal GBA, cells also contain a non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase (GBA2). Given that the two β-glucosidases share substrates, we speculated that over-activity of GBA2 during severe GBA impairment might influence neuropathology. This hypothesis was studied in Niemann-Pick type C (Npc1-/-) mice showing secondary deficiency in GBA in various tissues. Here we report that GBA2 activity is indeed increased in the brain of Npc1-/- mice. We found that GBA2 is particularly abundant in Purkinje cells (PCs), one of the most affected neuronal populations in NPC disease. Inhibiting GBA2 in Npc1-/- mice with a brain-permeable low nanomolar inhibitor significantly improved motor coordination and extended lifespan in the absence of correction in cholesterol and ganglioside abnormalities. This trend was recapitulated, although not to full extent, by introducing a genetic loss of GBA2 in Npc1-/- mice. Our findings point to GBA2 activity as therapeutic target in NPC. PMID:26275242

  20. Transcriptional regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene by liver receptor homolog-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Sup; Seo, Hyun Jung; Back, Su Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Jeong, Yeon Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

    2015-09-01

    Factors that modulate cholesterol levels have major impacts on cardiovascular disease. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) functions as a sterol transporter mediating intestinal cholesterol absorption and counter-balancing hepatobiliary cholesterol excretion. The liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) had been shown to regulate genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. To study whether human NPC1L1 gene is regulated transcriptionally by LRH-1, we have analyzed evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in HepG2 cells. One ECR was found to be responsive to the LRH-1. Through deletion studies, LRH-1 response element was identified and the binding of LRH-1 was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assays. When SREBP2, one of several transcription factors which had been shown to regulate NPC1L1 gene, was co-expressed with LRH-1, synergistic transcriptional activation resulted. In conclusion, we have identified LRH-1 response elements in NPC1L1 gene and propose that LRH-1 and SREBP may play important roles in regulating NPC1L1 gene. PMID:25739390