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1

Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

Hammons, R.O.

1981-01-01

2

Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

3

Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

Goodrum, J.W.

1983-06-01

4

Will peanut hulls replace oil  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

Not Available

1980-12-01

5

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2013-07-01

6

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2012-07-01

7

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2011-07-01

8

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2014-07-01

9

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2010-07-01

10

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and application on peanut oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many materials were previously studied using far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) in transmission and reflection modes. Recently, there has been a remarkable effort in employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for investigating material properties, including environment pollutants, semiconductors, polymers, explosive materials, and gases, etc. Since the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the material studied are directly related to the amplitude and phase respectively of the transmitted field, both parts of the complex permittivity can be obtained by THz-TDS. In this letter, the optical properties of peanut oils in the frequency range from 0.2 to 2.5 THz were studied by employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Several peanut oils, such as clean unused peanut oil, peanut oil after five minutes of boiling, and peanut oil after ten minutes of boiling were tested. The time delays of clean unused peanut oil, peanut oil after five minutes of boiling, and peanut oil after ten minutes of boiling are 8.33ps, 8.46ps and 8.46ps, respectively. The refractive indices of the three oil samples show slow a decrease as the terahertz wave frequency increases. The power absorption coefficients increase as the frequency increases within the investigated terahertz wave frequency range.

Li, Jiusheng; Yao, Jianquan; Li, Jianrui

2008-12-01

11

Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

12

Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

13

Assessment and Characterization of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut skins are a low-value material from peanut processing and are a good source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have a significant use other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high antioxidant activity, while little is known s...

14

Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

15

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.  

PubMed

Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

2014-10-01

16

Long term testing of peanut oil in engines  

SciTech Connect

Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

Goodrum, J.W.

1985-01-01

17

Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

18

Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

19

Genetic enhancement of peanut oil quality and disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this project were to develop recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from SunOleic 97R x NC94022 ) for genetic and genomic studies and enhancement of peanut oil quality and disease resistance. The major fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid) were 83.5%, 1.8%, an...

20

Acylglycerol structure of peanut oils of different atherogenic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigation was made of the triacylglycerol structure of native, simulated, and interesterified peanut oils, which\\u000a had previously been shown to differ markedly in their atherogenic potential. By means of chromatographic and stereospecific\\u000a analyses, it was shown that the more atherogenic native oil contains a significantly greater proportion of triacylglycerols\\u000a with linoleic insn-2-position and arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids insn-3-position

J. J. Myher; L. Marai; A. Kuksis; D. Kritchevsky

1977-01-01

21

De Novo Assembly of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Unigenes for Oil Accumulation Pathways  

PubMed Central

Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

2013-01-01

22

Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

2008-03-01

23

40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

2011-07-01

24

40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

2013-07-01

25

40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

2010-07-01

26

40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

2014-07-01

27

40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

2012-07-01

28

Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends  

SciTech Connect

Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

1982-07-01

29

A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

30

Peanut oil press redesign for Developing countries  

E-print Network

One of the causes of malnutrition among the rural inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa is the high cost of dietary fats that are necessary to maintain normal body functions. Though the Food and Agriculture Organization of the ...

Lee, Daipan

2007-01-01

31

Application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy on Determination of Moisture, Total oil and Protein Contents of In-shell Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moisture, total oil and protein content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and protein ...

32

Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.  

PubMed

Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

2010-01-01

33

Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time.

Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

2015-01-01

34

Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

35

Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 ?l/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), ?-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), ?-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

2013-02-01

36

Highly collimated laser emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly collimated laser emission from a largely deformed microcavity laser (peanut-shaped microcavity laser) was observed. Emission divergence of 2° was achieved. The microcavity laser was found to be operated on a hybrid lasing mode that formed with a combination of whispering gallery orbit and multiple-bouncing orbit.

Shang, Lei; Liu, Liying; Xu, Lei

2008-02-01

37

A review of the nutritional composition, organoleptic characteristics and biological effects of the high oleic peanut.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature has been published on the health benefits of peanuts, but the potential biological effects of high-oleic (HO) peanuts, along with their organoleptic characteristics have not been reviewed to date. In this paper, examination of evidence showed that HO peanuts provide a spectrum of nutrients and have improved sensory properties and technological advances, such as enhanced shelf life, beyond that of conventional peanuts. This may be attributed to their oleic to linoleic ratio (OL ratio) which is substantially (around 10 times) higher than normal peanuts. In terms of their biological effects, HO peanuts appear to be no more allergenic, and could even be less allergenic than conventional peanuts. There is also emerging evidence that HO peanuts may improve lipid profile and markers of glycemic control. Further randomized controlled human trials are now needed to build on animal and in vitro studies. PMID:25017702

Derbyshire, E J

2014-11-01

38

The high oleate trait in the cultivated peanut [ Arachis hypogaea L.]. I. Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant oils rich in oleate are considered superior products compared to oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the major oilseed crops, and high oleate mutant varieties with as much as 85% oleate have been reported. We\\u000a examined the possibility that this mutant phenotype resulted from reduction in the activity or the transcript level

S. Jung; D. Swift; E. Sengoku; M. Patel; F. Teulé; G. Powell; K. Moore; A. Abbott

2000-01-01

39

Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

40

Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

1985-09-01

41

Oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, and resveratrol content variability and FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection.  

PubMed

Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical composition within the mini-core was evaluated from freshly harvested seeds for two years. Oil, fatty acid composition, and flavonoid/resveratrol content were quantified by NMR, GC, and HPLC, respectively. Significant variability was detected in seed chemical composition among accessions and botanical varieties. Accessions were further genotyped with a functional SNP marker from the FAD2A gene using real-time PCR and classified into three genotypes with significantly different O/L ratios: wild type (G/G with a low O/L ratio <1.7), heterozygote (G/A with O/L ratio >1.4 but <1.7), and mutant (A/A with a high O/L ratio >1.7). The results from real-time PCR genotyping and GC fatty acid analysis were consistent. Accessions with high amounts of oil, quercetin, high seed weight, and O/L ratio were identified. The results from this study may be useful not only for peanut breeders, food processors, and product consumers to select suitable accessions or cultivars but also for curators to potentially expand the mini-core collection. PMID:23379758

Wang, Ming Li; Chen, Charles Y; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David L; Pittman, Roy N; Davis, Jerry; Holbrook, C Corley; Stalker, H Thomas; Pederson, Gary A

2013-03-20

42

Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier  

E-print Network

: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization pine pellets and peanut hulls, generates a hydrocarbon-rich liquid product (bio-oil) consisting of oily solubility. Peanut hull bio-oil is much more compositionally complex and contains more nitrogen

Weston, Ken

43

Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Sesame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have come up with a novel, integrated approach for making biodiesel by in-house producion of ethanol after fermentation\\u000a of hexane extracted edible oil cake fiber. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from commonly\\u000a available oil cakes (such as canola, sunflower, sesame, soy, peanut) and dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS). The\\u000a edible oil cakes and

Venkatesh Balan; Chad A. Rogers; Shishir P. S. Chundawat; Leonardo da Costa Sousa; Patricia J. Slininger; Rajesh Gupta; Bruce E. Dale

2009-01-01

44

Assessment of cadmium bioaccumulation and distribution in the kernels of peanut widely cultivated in China.  

PubMed

To determine the low Cd accumulation genotypes of peanut and the key factor contributing to high Cd accumulation in peanut kernels, cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation and distribution in the kernels of nineteen genotypes of peanut widely cultivated in China were estimated in field experiment during duration of 130 days. Results showed that only four genotypes (Yuhua9626, Jihua9606, Luhua11 and Quanhua646) were identified as low-Cd accumulation group according to hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd accumulated in the nutritional tissues of the kernels followed in the order: extracted protein>residues>peanut oil. The protein plays a key role in the abnormal accumulation of Cd in the kernels of peanut. Thus, the control of human ingestion risk can be done by the extraction of peanut oil during deep processing of peanut. Meanwhile, the protein and residues of peanut should be paid more public attention when they enter into the food chain. PMID:25038268

Wang, Shanshan; Li, Gang

2014-10-01

45

Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R × NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

46

Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

BackgroundPeanut is one of the major source for human consumption worldwide and its seed contain approximately 50% oil. Improvement of oil content and quality traits (high oleic and low linoleic acid) in peanut could be accelerated by exploiting linked markers through molecular breeding. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs associated with oil content, and estimate relative contribution of FAD2 genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) to oil quality traits in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations.ResultsImproved genetic linkage maps were developed for S-population (SunOleic 97R × NC94022) with 206 (1780.6 cM) and T-population (Tifrunner × GT-C20) with 378 (2487.4 cM) marker loci. A total of 6 and 9 QTLs controlling oil content were identified in the S- and T-population, respectively. The contribution of each QTL towards oil content variation ranged from 3.07 to 10.23% in the S-population and from 3.93 to 14.07% in the T-population. The mapping positions for ahFAD2A (A sub-genome) and ahFAD2B (B sub-genome) genes were assigned on a09 and b09 linkage groups. The ahFAD2B gene (26.54%, 25.59% and 41.02% PVE) had higher phenotypic effect on oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic/linoleic acid ratio (O/L ratio) than ahFAD2A gene (8.08%, 6.86% and 3.78% PVE). The FAD2 genes had no effect on oil content. This study identified a total of 78 main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) with up to 42.33% phenotypic variation (PVE) and 10 epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) up to 3.31% PVE for oil content and quality traits.ConclusionsA total of 78 main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and 10 E-QTLs have been detected for oil content and oil quality traits. One major QTL (more than 10% PVE) was identified in both the populations for oil content with source alleles from NC94022 and GT-C20 parental genotypes. FAD2 genes showed high effect for oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and O/L ratio while no effect on total oil content. The information on phenotypic effect of FAD2 genes for oleic acid, linoleic acid and O/L ratio, and oil content will be applied in breeding selection. PMID:25491595

Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Ming; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Khera, Pawan; Wang, Hui; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

2014-12-10

47

In situ high-resolution valence photoelectron spectra of a peanut-shaped C60 polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To elucidate the origins of the metallic properties of the peanut-shaped C60 polymer, we examined the valence photoelectron spectra of the polymer using in situ high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and found that the density-of-states (DOS) of the polymer clearly comes across the Fermi edge in a manner similar to that of Au film used as a reference, indicating that the peanut-shaped C60 polymer exhibits metallic properties.

Onoe, J.; Ito, T.; Kimura, S.; Ohno, K.

2007-07-01

48

Variables affecting the yield of normal oleic acid produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of cottonseed and peanut oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. The effects of the following factors have been investigated in the hydrogenation of cottonseed and peanut oils: temperature,\\u000a concentration of catalyst, pressure of the hydrogen, degree of agitation, and nature of the nickel catalyst.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The formation of stearic acid was found to be repressed and the formation of “iso-oleic” acid simultaneously favored by\\u000a increasing the temperature, increasing the

A. E. Bailey; R. O. Feuge; B. A. Smith

1942-01-01

49

Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... Nut pieces Peanut butter Peanut flour Peanut protein hydrolysate Peanut is sometimes found in the following: Baked ... before eating a food that you have not prepared yourself. Keep the following in mind: Certain food ...

50

Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press  

E-print Network

The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

2007-01-01

51

High-yield expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and characterization of properly folded major peanut allergen Ara h 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic reactions to peanuts are a serious health problem because of their high prevalence, associated with potential severity, and chronicity. One of the three major allergens in peanut, Ara h 2, is a member of the conglutin family of seed storage proteins. Ara h 2 shows high sequence homology to proteins of the 2S albumin family. Presently, only very few

Katrin Lehmann; Silke Hoffmann; Philipp Neudecker; Martin Suhr; Wolf-Meinhard Becker; Paul Rösch

2003-01-01

52

Modification of vegetable oils. VII. Alkali catalyzed interesterification of peanut oil with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE alkali-catalyzed displacement of the glycerol in a fat by methanol or ethanol is an important reaction in fat and oil technology. Besides producing monoesters for use as such, the reaction simplifies the manufacture of some soaps, especially anhydrous soaps (2, 3); and it is valuable in conjunction with processes for fraetionating fatty acids. Potentially the reaction is important in

R. O. Feuge; Audrey T. Gros

1949-01-01

53

Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

54

Effects of cooking methods on peanut allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Allergy to peanut is a significant health problem. Interestingly, the prevalence of peanut allergy in China is much lower than that in the United States, despite a high rate of peanut consumption in China. In China, peanuts are commonly fried or boiled, whereas in the United States peanuts are typically dry roasted. Objective: The aim of this study was

Kirsten Beyer; Ellen Morrow; Xiu-Min Li; Ludmilla Bardina; Gary A. Bannon; A. Wesley Burks; Hugh A. Sampson

2001-01-01

55

YELLOW NUTSEDGE (Cyperus esculentus L.) MANAGEMENT WITH DICLOSULAM AND METOLACHLOR COMBINATIONS IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. B.L. PORTER, P.A. DOTRAY,  

E-print Network

IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. B.L. PORTER, P.A. DOTRAY, J.W. KEELING, and T.A. BAUGHMAN; Texas Tech. Metolachlor has been used to control yellow nutsedge in peanut for several years. Due to concern about), and combinations of these herbicides. Florunner peanut was planted in 2000 in a producer's field near Denver City

Mukhtar, Saqib

56

Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

Kurt F. Wollenberg

1990-01-01

57

Biosensors for monitoring the isothermal breakdown kinetics of peanut oil heated at 180°C. Comparison with results obtained for extra virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The present research was devoted to studying the kinetics of the artificial rancidification of peanut oil (PO) when a sample of this oil was isothermally heated at 180°C in an air stream. The formation of radical species due to heating was evaluated using a radical index whose value was determined using a biosensor method based on a superoxide dismutase (SOD), while the increasing toxicity was monitored using a suitable toxicity measuring probe based on the Clark electrode and immobilized yeast cells. An extra virgin olive oil was isothermally rancidified under the same experimental conditions and the corresponding data were used for the purpose of comparison. Both the so-called "model-fitting" and the classical kinetic methods were applied to the isothermal process biosensor data in order to obtain the kinetic constant rate value at 180°C. PMID:23692756

Tomassetti, M; Vecchio, S; Campanella, L; Dragone, R

2013-10-15

58

A high temperature sensor based on a peanut-shape structure Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber temperature sensor with high sensitivity based on a Michelson interferometer is realized by fusion-splicing a peanut-shape structure in single-mode fiber (SMF). The theory and experimental results show that the peanut-shape structure can couple the light energy of the core mode into the cladding and re-couple the light in the cladding into the core. A high-quality interference spectrum with a fringe visibility of about 18 dB is observed. Experimental demonstration shows that the device can be heated up to 900 °C with a sensitivity of about ˜0.096 nm/°C. The device has the advantages of low-cost, high sensitivity and easy fabrication, which makes it attractive for sensing applications.

Wu, Di; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Min

2012-11-01

59

PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

60

Peanut Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the burning of peanut and the subsequent transfer of heat energy to a container of water. A laboratory activity guides students through a procedure where a peanut is mounted on a cork and placed in a "chimney" can. The temperature of water poised in a small can above the peanut is recorded before and after the peanut is burned.

61

A high temperature sensor based on a peanut structure-based Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fiber temperature sensor with high sensitivity based on a Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber is constructed and demonstrated. The sensor consists of a peanut-shape structure and we demonstrated that the peanut-shape structure can couple the light energy of the core mode into the cladding and re-couple the light in the cladding into the core. The experimental results show that the device can be heated up to 900°C with the sensitive of 0.096nm/° when the sensor length L is ~21mm. Such kind of simple, low-cost, and highly sensitive fiber-optic temperature sensor would find applications in sensing fields.

Zhu, Tao; Wu, Di; Duan, De-Wen; Chiang, Kinseng; Rao, Yun-Jiang

2012-02-01

62

Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

Forrest, G.T.

1993-07-20

63

High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

2000-01-01

64

Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.  

PubMed

To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 ?L/g of boldo and 3 and 5 ?L/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, ?-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and ?-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. PMID:24211775

Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

2014-01-01

65

Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9?gkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9?gkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0?gkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0?gkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

2015-06-01

66

High-oleate peanut mutants result from a MITE insertion into the FAD2 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-oleate trait in the cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) was reported to rely on the allelic composition of the two homeologous, microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase genes ( ahFAD2A or ahFAD2B). The enzyme activity of either ahFAD2A or ahFAD2B is sufficient for a normal oleate phenotype, and a significant reduction in the levels of ahFAD2B and a mutation in ahFAD2A

M. Patel; S. Jung; K. Moore; G. Powell; C. Ainsworth; A. Abbott

2004-01-01

67

Distribution of peanut protein in the home environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to halt the rise in peanut allergy, we must determine how children become sensitized to peanut. High household peanut consumption used as an indirect marker of environmental peanut exposure is associated with the development of peanut allergy. We want to validate a method to quantify enviro...

68

An aptamer based surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the detection of ochratoxin A in wine and peanut oil.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA), as a kind of chlorophenolic mycotoxin, exist widely in plant origin food and is harmful to human. Herein, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor using an anti-OTA aptamer immobilized sensor chip was developed to measure ochratoxin A (OTA) quantificationally through a straightforward direct binding assay. The streptavidin protein as a crosslinker was immobilized onto the surface of a sensor chip and the biotin-aptamer was captured through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The biosensor exhibited a detection range from 0.094 to 100ng/mL (linear range from 0.094 to 10ng/mL) of OTA with a lower detection limit of 0.005ng/mL. Detection of OTA in wine and peanut oil was further performed in the SPR biosensor using simple liquid-liquid extraction for sample pretreatments. Recoveries of ochratoxin A from spiked samples ranged from 86.9% to 116.5% and coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 0.2% to 6.9%. The developed methods in our studies showed good analytical performances with limits of detection much lower than the maximum residue limit, as well as a good reproducibility and stability. PMID:25461176

Zhu, Zhiling; Feng, Mengxue; Zuo, Limin; Zhu, Zhentai; Wang, Fengwei; Chen, Long; Li, Jinghua; Shan, Guangzhi; Luo, Shi-Zhong

2014-10-30

69

Seed chemical composition variability and FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut seeds are nutritious containing high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemic...

70

Marker-assisted selection to pyramid nematode resistance and the high oleic trait in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dynamic challenges of peanut farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars that can cope with new problems. Application of molecular markers in peanut breeding programs can greatly compress the cultivar development process from ten to fifteen years to less than three yea...

71

STRONGARM PERFORMANCE IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. J.R. Karnei, P.A. Dotray, J.W. Keeling, and T.A. Baughman. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and Texas Tech University, Lubbock and Texas  

E-print Network

STRONGARM PERFORMANCE IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. J.R. Karnei, P.A. Dotray, J.W. Keeling, and T Extension Service, Vernon. ABSTRACT Field studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate weed control and peanut controlled shining tickseed 60-70% late season. Peanut growth and yield response to Strongarm was observed

Mukhtar, Saqib

72

Oral Sensitization to Peanut Is Highly Enhanced by Application of Peanut Extracts to Intact Skin, but Is Prevented when CpG and Cholera Toxin Are Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CpG oligonucleotides might offer an alternative to conventional immunotherapy in preventing and potentially reversing Th2-biased immune deregulation which leads to allergy. However, non-invasive ways of administration, especially in peanut-allergic patients, should be explored. Methods: One hundred micrograms of whole peanut protein extract (PE) alone, or mixed with cholera toxin (CT, 50 ?g) plus CpG (100 ?g) as adjuvant, was

Karine Adel-Patient; Sandrine Ah-Leung; Hervé Bernard; Coralie Durieux-Alexandrenne; Christophe Créminon; Jean-Michel Wal

2007-01-01

73

Peanut immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy. Recent developments involve the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment. Various routes of administration are being investigated, including subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous routes. Other forms of treatment, such as the use of vaccines and anti-IgE molecules, are also under investigation. So far, results from immunotherapy studies have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitisation to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the issue of long-term tolerance has not been fully addressed yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. An assessment of cost/benefit ratio is also required prior to implementing this form of treatment. The use of immunotherapy for peanut allergy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use and should not be attempted outside specialist allergy units. PMID:25276342

2014-01-01

74

Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

75

Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

76

Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

77

Nut and Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... or, in some cases, handles) a peanut or tree nut, the body thinks the proteins are harmful invaders. The immune system responds by kicking into high gear to fend off the "invader." This causes an allergic reaction, in which chemicals like histamine are released in the body. The ...

78

STORAGE WATER ACTIVITY EFFECT ON OXIDATION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-OLEIC PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts were stored under different water activities and maintained using saturated salt solutions, for 14 wks. Peroxide values, percent moisture, and sensory attributes were determined at 2 wk intervals. Peroxide values increased over time for all treatments. The highest oxidation values were obser...

79

Some characteristics of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, yield, protein and oil accumulation in irrigated peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential of peanuts for symbiotic nitrogen fixation is considerable and under optimal edaphic and climatic conditions it reached 222 kg N2\\/ha, which was 58% of the nitrogen accumulated in the plants. The effect of the Rhizobium inoculation on crude protein accumulation in the yield (kg\\/ha) was 3–4 times greater than its effect on the yield of pods and

E. I. Ratner; Rina Lobel; Helena Feldhay; A. Hartzook

1979-01-01

80

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22

81

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

82

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

83

Relationship between biomass, seed components and seed Cd concentration in various peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars grown on Cd-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) exhibit high genotypic variations in seed Cd accumulation, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to reveal the main factors that determine Cd concentration in peanut seeds. The biomasses and Cd accumulation in plant tissues as well as the Cd distribution in the seeds of 15 peanut cultivars were analyzed in a pot experiment at 4mgkg(-1) Cd (treatment) and 0mgkg(-1) Cd (control). Peanuts exhibited large variations among cultivars in terms of Cd accumulation and distribution at the whole-plant and seed levels. The peanut cultivars were divided into three groups based on [Cd]embryos as follows: (i) high Cd accumulators (Zhenghong 3 and Haihua 1), (ii) low Cd accumulators (Qishan 208, Luhua 8, and Yuhua 15), and (iii) intermediate Cd accumulators (10 remaining cultivars). [Cd]embryos was significantly correlated with [Cd]testae and [Cd]oils at control conditions, whereas in the 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatment, [Cd]embryos was negatively correlated with plant biomass, total Cd and its proportion in vegetative organs, and seed oil contents. [Cd]embryos was positively correlated with protein contents, [Cd]oils, and proportion of Cd in protein extracts at 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatments. The attenuation of Cd by high biomass of vegetative tissues and Cd-binding proteins in seeds mainly determined the Cd concentration in peanut seeds. PMID:25244685

Shi, Gangrong; Su, Gengqiang; Lu, Ziwei; Liu, Caifeng; Wang, Xvming

2014-12-01

84

Revisiting T-population derived from Tifrunner x GT-C20 for achieving high density genetic maps and detecting disease resistance QTLs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Realizing the serious threats from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spots (LS) to sustainable peanut production, high-density genetic linkage maps based on F2 and recombinant inbred line (RIL) T-population (Tifrunner × GT-C20) have been constructed and QTLs were identified in order to aid i...

85

Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy  

PubMed Central

Background History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Methods Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ?5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. Results There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P < .01). The effect of EPE on peanut SPT sensitization was augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P < .01) and augmented even further in children with a history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P < .01); the effect of EPE on PA was also augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Conclusion Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. PMID:25457149

Brough, Helen A.; Liu, Andrew H.; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J.; Stephens, Alick C.; Irwin McLean, W.H.; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

2015-01-01

86

Preliminary Screening of Peanut Germplasm in the U.S. Collection for TSWV Resistance and High Flavonoid Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extensive genetic variation exists within peanut germplasm. For a small-scale screening of resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and flavonoid content, twenty-four accessions were selected from peanut germplasm in the U.S. collection and planted in the greenhouse. Plant response to TSWV w...

87

BREEDING FOR EARLY-MATURING PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The quality of peanut grown in West Texas is affected by a shorter growing season, longer time to maturity, and reduced oleic to linoleic ratios (O/L). We have begun development of material to combine earlier maturity, high O/L, and acceptable sucrose content. F2:6 runner and Spanish peanuts were ...

88

Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

89

Biochemical and structural analysis of the IgE binding sites on ara h1, an abundant and highly allergenic peanut protein.  

PubMed

Allergy to peanut is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the high prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Ara h1, an abundant peanut protein, is recognized by serum IgE from >90% of peanut-sensitive individuals. It has been shown to belong to the vicilin family of seed storage proteins and to contain 23 linear IgE binding epitopes. In this communication, we have determined the critical amino acids within each of the IgE binding epitopes of Ara h1 that are important for immunoglobulin binding. Surprisingly, substitution of a single amino acid within each of the epitopes led to loss of IgE binding. In addition, hydrophobic residues appeared to be most critical for IgE binding. The position of each of the IgE binding epitopes on a homology-based molecular model of Ara h1 showed that they were clustered into two main regions, despite their more even distribution in the primary sequence. Finally, we have shown that Ara h1 forms a stable trimer by the use of a reproducible fluorescence assay. This information will be important in studies designed to reduce the risk of peanut-induced anaphylaxis by lowering the IgE binding capacity of the allergen. PMID:9593717

Shin, D S; Compadre, C M; Maleki, S J; Kopper, R A; Sampson, H; Huang, S K; Burks, A W; Bannon, G A

1998-05-29

90

National Peanut Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those with an interest in peanuts, the National Peanut Board Web site will provide a host of information on this well-known legume. The site has different themed sections dealing with the history of the peanut, and continue on to give a detailed explanation of the production process involved with turning peanuts into a host of products. Additionally, the extensive research and promotion activities of the National Peanut Board are detailed on the site. A map shows the primary peanut growing regions on the United States and a cookbook offers a multitude of ways to use peanuts in different dishes. Perhaps the most interesting part of the site is a section offering a range of facts on the peanut and its uses throughout the world.

2000-01-01

91

Burn a Peanut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

2012-06-26

92

Industrial uses of high erucic oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils rich in erucic acid have desirable properties for a variety of applications. At present, only a fraction of\\u000a the potential that exists for commercial exploitation of high erucic oils in the United States is fulfilled with 10 million\\u000a pounds of rapeseed oil imported annually. Though rape is not a crop in the United States, another member of the

H. J. Nieschlag; I. A. Wolff

1971-01-01

93

Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)-A review.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

2015-02-01

94

Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites as anode electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries.Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05916b

Wang, Shengbin; Ren, Yanbiao; Liu, Guanrao; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Shichao

2014-03-01

95

Rapid, non-destructive selection of peanuts for high aflatoxin content by soaking and tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Peanut lots are subject to aflatoxin levels high enough to cause concern to health agencies and trade channels. A possible solution would be to mechanically sort out high aflatoxin nuts from the process stream. Only highly contaminated nuts would need to be removed. However, there exists at present no sorting mechanism which meets commercial needs of adequate reduction and product preservation. To build such a sorter requires knowledge of the properties that can be used for sorting. The first step in the design is to select on the order of one hundred undamaged contaminated nuts which can be compared with noncontaminated ones. Because contaminated nuts are rare, a very large number of nuts needs to be examined nondestructively. We present a method to rapidly carry out such a selection. The method is based on dipping nuts into extraction fluid and examining the resulting fluid by tandem MS without preliminary cleanup. This method has been applied to examine over 65,000 nuts, yielding approximately 120 nuts, each containing more than 250-43000 ng/g aflatoxin (depending on process stream). PMID:11982442

Schatzki, Thomas F; Haddon, William F

2002-05-01

96

Profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmosphere pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a novel mixed-mode column.  

PubMed

In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for profiling of TAGs in plant oils by liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as ?-? interactions. Compared with two traditionally columns used in TAG separation - the C18 column and silver-ion column, this column exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs with great efficiency and rapid speed. By comparison with a novel mix-mode column (Ag-HiSep OTS column), which can also provide both hydrophobic interactions as well as ?-? interactions for the separation of TAGs, phenyl-hexyl column exhibited excellent stability. LC method using phenyl-hexyl column coupled with APCI-MS was successfully applied for the profiling of TAGs in soybean oils, peanut oils, corn oils, and sesame oils. 29 TAGs in peanut oils, 22 TAGs in soybean oils, 19 TAGs in corn oils, and 19 TAGs in sesame oils were determined and quantified. The LC-MS data was analyzed by barcodes and principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting barcodes constitute a simple tool to display differences between different plant oils. Results of PCA also enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs in plant oils at high selectivity. It has great potential as a routine analytical method for analysis of edible oil quality and authenticity control. PMID:25444539

Hu, Na; Wei, Fang; Lv, Xin; Wu, Lin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

2014-12-01

97

Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

2014-07-15

98

Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) ?mol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts. PMID:25148966

Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B

2015-01-15

99

Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

NONE

1996-12-31

100

Study on the Effects of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Physical, Functional and Chemical Properties of Peanut Protein Isolates Extracted from Defatted Heat Pressed Peanut Meal Flour (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, chemical and functional properties of peanut protein isolates (HPI) and hydrolysis (HPH) extracted from peanut meal obtained from heat treated peanut oil extraction method were analyzed. HPH exhibited superior functional properties such as whipping, emulsification, fat and water absorption properties. Thermal denaturation profiles indicate that there is no significant difference (p<0.05) between HPI and HPH at both onset and

Regena Juliana Kain; Zhengxing Chenc; Tamba Steven Sonda; John Christian Abu-Kpawoh

2009-01-01

101

Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

102

Detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen by Real-time PCR method with internal amplification control.  

PubMed

Specific primer sets were designed based on the DNA sequence of Ara h 1, one of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens, and a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was designed by compound primer technology. By choosing 314copies/PCR as the IAC dosage, a Real-time PCR method with IAC was established for detecting peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA. The method showed high specificity with a detection limit of 0.005% peanut. A series of commercial food products with/without peanut components were tested. Among these products, the peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA could be detected in 12 products labelled containing peanut ingredients, in two without a declaration of peanut and one labelled that was produced in a facility that produced peanut-containing foods. This indicates that the method is highly sensitive for the detection of peanut ingredients in foods. PMID:25529717

Zhang, Wen-Ju; Cai, Qin; Guan, Xiao; Chen, Qin

2015-05-01

103

Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field  

E-print Network

1 Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance

Blumwald, Eduardo

104

Peanut variety tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

105

Functional Components in Peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut

Maria Leonora D. L. Francisco; A. V. A. Resurreccion

2008-01-01

106

International peanut yield gains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is grown in more than 100 countries, with China, India, the U.S., Nigeria, and Indonesia being the largest producers. Peanut production systems range from very primitive with only hand labor and few inputs of fertilizer or chemical controls for weeds or diseases to other systems that are h...

107

REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

108

High-oleic safflower oil. Stability and chemical modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-oleic acid safflower oil has been shown to have high-temperature oxidative stability comparable with that of hydrogenated\\u000a vegetable oils. This stability, added to the ease of handling at low temperatures, should make the oil attractive as a commercial\\u000a cooking oil. Epoxidation of the new safflower oil led to a product similar to epoxidized olive oil but lighter in color.

G. Fuller; M. J. Diamond; T. H. Applewhite

1967-01-01

109

Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

2014-10-01

110

The effects of infra-red drying upon Spanish peanut quality  

E-print Network

of Rd value, "a" value, b value, percent transmit- tance of oil at 450 mu (T g 450), percent transmit- tance of oil at 480 mu (XT 8 480), and shear press values in raw peanuts 26 Simple correlations among the physical attributes of Rd value, "a..." value, b value, percent transmit- tance of oil at 450 mu (XT 8 450), percent trans- mittance of oil at 480 mu (XT 8 480), and shear press values in roasted peanuts 27 Simple correlations among chemical and physical attributes of raw peanuts 28...

Norris, J. R

1967-01-01

111

Production of Virginia Peanuts in the Rolling Plains and Southern High Plains of Texas  

E-print Network

into the pod develop- ment zone (upper 2 to 3 inches of soil). Micronutrients Micronutrients include zinc, iron, manganese, cop- per, boron and molybdenum. Iron, zinc and copper deficiencies have been observed in west Texas. Iron Iron chlorosis problems... sulfate or similar copper-containing materi- als applied at early-bloom correct problem fields. Foliar fungicides containing copper also may correct the problem. Zinc Zinc availability is reduced when soil pH is high. Deficiency symptoms include...

Lemon, Robert G.; Lee, Thomas A.

1995-08-01

112

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

113

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2012-04-01

114

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2013-04-01

115

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2014-04-01

116

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2011-04-01

117

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2010-04-01

118

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS  

E-print Network

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data Tidewater Agricultural Research; Wondi Mersie, Interim Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. PEANUT VARIETY from the following institutions and organizations: SC PEANUT GROWERSSC PEANUT GROWERS NC STATENC STATE

Liskiewicz, Maciej

119

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION Quality Data  

E-print Network

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data Tidewater Agricultural Research, Virginia State, Petersburg. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2009 II. Quality Data Maria PEANUT GROWERSSC PEANUT GROWERS NC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY #12;ii TECHNICAL SUPPORT

Liskiewicz, Maciej

120

Packing Peanut Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with various types of packing peanuts to investigate states of matter and chemical and physical changes. One of the activities involves making slime. The activities can easily be modified for students with learning disabilities.

Hall, Dori; Hall, Sue

2002-02-02

121

Detecting internal quality of peanuts during storage using electronic nose responses combined with physicochemical methods.  

PubMed

In this study, the changes in the quality of unshelled peanuts and peanut kernels during storage were analyzed using an electronic nose (e-nose). The physicochemical indexes (acid and peroxide values) of peanut kernels were tested by traditional method as a reference. The storage time of peanut kernels increases from left to right in the cluster analysis plot based on the physicochemical indexes. The "maximum values", "area values", and "70th s values" methods were applied to extract the feature data from the e-nose responses. Principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated that the "70th s values" method produced the most accurate results, furthermore, unshelled peanut and peanut kernel samples presented similar characteristics in the PCA plots; the partial least squares regression (PLSR) results showed that the features of unshelled peanuts and peanut kernels are highly correlated with acid and peroxide values, respectively. PMID:25660862

Wei, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Weilin

2015-06-15

122

Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air  

SciTech Connect

Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

Young, J.H.

1983-06-01

123

Annotation of stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an internationally important crop for human consumption as a good source of protein and vegetable oil. Peanut is widely cultivated around the world in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate climate. Because of its huge genome size (2.8 Gb) and unsequenced genome, studies on genomics and genetic modification of peanut are less as compared to other model crops. As peanut can be cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions, and its growth is drastically affected by various stresses that reduces the yield. Therefore, study on stress responsive genes and its regulation are very much important. Here we report about the identification and annotation of some stress responsive candidate genes using peanut Expressed Sequences Tags (ESTs). The selection of genes was based on the publically available expression data. Due to good expression data and lack of available literature in peanut some of the stress responsive genes were screened. Individual EST of the said group were further searched in peanut ESTs (1, 78,490 whole EST sequences) using computational approach. Various tools like Vec-Screen, Repeat Masker, EST Trimmer, DNA Baser and WISE2 were being used for stress responsive gene identification and annotation. Research progress made towards contigs assembly, determination of biological function of genes, and prediction of domain as well as 3D structure for related protein are included. PMID:25183351

Ranjan, Amar; Kumari, Archana; Pandey, Dev Mani

2014-09-01

124

Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGA.) from peanut expressed sequence tage (EST.) and development of RGA-SSR markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and oil crop grown in more than 100 countries for providing edible oil and protein. A wide variety of pathogens including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes severely constrain peanut yield and quality. Therefore, it is very imp...

125

Peanut response to naturally-derived herbicides used in organic crop production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed-free irrigated trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to quantify phytotoxic effects of herbicides with the potential to be used in organic peanut production. Clove oil and citric plus acetic acid were each applied at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), two weeks after VE (2 wk), four weeks a...

126

Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated peanut is an important source of protein and oil. However, low genetic diversity makes peanut vulnerable to many diseases. Several hundred of partial genomic DNA sequences targeting nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance (R) genes have been reported. Only a small...

127

High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale  

SciTech Connect

The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

2006-07-01

128

Peanut Butter Banana Nuggets Ingredients  

E-print Network

Peanut Butter Banana Nuggets Ingredients: 1 cup whole wheat natural cereal 2 tablespoons peanut butter, chunky 2 bananas Directions 1. Place cereal in a zippered plastic bag and close zipper. 2. Use and cut bananas into 2" slices. 6. Using a toothpick to pick up bananas, cover bananas in peanut butter

Liskiewicz, Maciej

129

Peanut-Cotton-Rye Rotations and Soil Chemical Treatment for Managing Nematodes and Thrips  

PubMed Central

In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Todd, J. W.; Herzog, G. A.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.; Bondari, Y.

1998-01-01

130

Preparation and use of partially defatted peanut flour in breakfast cereal flakes  

E-print Network

This study investigated preparation of partially defatted peanut flours by extrusion, screw pressing, and use of the flours in breakfast cereal flakes. Release of oil by wet and dry extrusion was evaluated. Wet extrusion (using an Anderson...

Cheewapramong, Panjama

1998-01-01

131

Determining the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed: a comparison of two methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

132

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS  

E-print Network

Mr. K. Bennett, Birdsong Peanut Mr. J. Laine, Wakefield Peanut Company Amadas Industries DuPont AMVAC, Virginia Peanut Board Mr. B. Sutter, North Carolina Peanut Board Companies Mr. F. Garner, Birdsong Peanut BASF Corporation Dow Agro Sciences LLC Bayer Crop Science Helena Coastal Chemical Corporation Syngenta

Liskiewicz, Maciej

133

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS  

E-print Network

#12;ii PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2013 II. Quality Data Maria Balota, Ph. Isleib, Ph.D. Peanut Breeder North Carolina State University Shyam Tallury, Ph.D. Peanut Breeder Clemson Station NC State University Virginia Carolina Peanut Association South Carolina Peanut Growers North

Liskiewicz, Maciej

134

Genetic variability of cultivated rhizoma perennial peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a vegetatively propagated tropical legume that combines high forage nutritive value and long-term persistence under a wide range of grazing and harvested hay systems. The objectives of this study were to measure the genetic relatedness amo...

135

Registration of "Sugg" Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

136

REGISTRATION OF 'TIFRUNNER' PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and the College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences of the University of Georgia announce the cultivar release of a new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), Tifrunner. This line has resistance to both tomato spotted wilt virus...

137

Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.  

PubMed

The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

2014-11-01

138

Novel strategy to create hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. Polyphenolic phytochemicals have high affinity to bind proteins and form soluble and insoluble complexes with unique functionality. This study investigated the allergenicity of polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices prepared by complexing various polyphenol-rich plant juices and extracts with peanut flour. Polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices reduced IgE binding to one or more peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested changes in secondary protein structure. Peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol fortified matrices triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than unmodified flour in an ex vivo assay using human blood and less mast cell degranulation when used to orally challenge peanut-allergic mice. Polyphenol fortification of peanut flour resulted in a hypoallergenic matrix with reduced IgE binding and degranulation capacity, likely due to changes in protein secondary structure or masking of epitopes, suggesting potential applications for oral immunotherapy. PMID:24758688

Plundrich, Nathalie J; Kulis, Mike; White, Brittany L; Grace, Mary H; Guo, Rishu; Burks, A Wesley; Davis, Jack P; Lila, Mary Ann

2014-07-23

139

Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora  

PubMed Central

A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

2002-01-01

140

PROGRESS REPORT: WEED MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC PEANUT PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have been conducted in Tifton, GA since 2003 to develop weed management systems for organic peanut production. Trials in conventional tillage production systems evaluated row patterns, cultivation, and remedial weed management using propane flaming, clove oil, and citric acid. Weed control...

141

7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

142

7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

143

7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

144

7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

145

7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

146

Isolation and characterization of the ?12-fatty acid desaturase in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and search for polymorphisms for the high oleate trait in Spanish market-type lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for increased oleic acid accumulation would open avenues\\u000a to alter peanut fatty acid composition and allow detection of polymorphic regions which can be used for marker assisted selection\\u000a (MAS). ?12-Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) was isolated and characterized from genotypes having a low or high oleic to linoleic acid O\\/L\\u000a ratio –

Y. López; H. L. Nadaf; O. D. Smith; J. P. Connell; A. S. Reddy; A. K. Fritz

2000-01-01

147

Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity  

PubMed Central

Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

2014-01-01

148

Comparative effectiveness of different organic and industrial wastes on peanut: Plant growth, yield, oil content, protein content, mineral composition and hydration coefficient of kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of different organic and industrial wastes, namely, farmyard manure (FYM), water hyacinth (WH) and paper factory sludge (PFS) in combination with chemical fertilizer (CF) along with or without soil amendments like lime or rice husk ash (RHA) on plant growth, yield, mineral composition, oil content, protein content and hydration coefficient of

Manisha Basu; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria; Subhas Chandra Mahapatra

2007-01-01

149

The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil), storage packets for seasonings or other ingredients and encapsulation for pharmaceutical use.

Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

1998-01-01

150

Formation process and electron-beam incident energy dependence of one-dimensional uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer studied using in situ high-resolution infrared spectroscopy and density-functional calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3 kV electron-beam irradiation of a C60 film gives rise to formation of one-dimensional (1D) uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer with a cross-linked structure close to that of the P08 C120 stable isomer obtained from the general Stone-Wales rearrangement. In this study, we examined the evolution of infrared (IR) spectra of C60 films with respect to electron beam (EB) irradiation time, using in situ high-resolution IR spectroscopy and first-principles density-functional calculations, and found semi-quantitatively that the 1D uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer is formed via intermediate polymers with a cross-linkage close to that of P04 and P06 C120 isomers obtained from GWS rearrangement. In addition, we examined the dependence of EB-induced C60 polymerization on an incident energy of EB in the range 3-7 kV. IR spectra obtained for 5 and 7 kV EB irradiation of C60films showed the same product as for 3 kV EB irradiation. However, when 5 and 7 kV EBs continued to irradiate C60 films for a long time after the polymer formation, the 1D peanut-shaped polymer did not proceed to become 1D polymers with a more coalesced linkage than that of the P08 one but was destroyed to become amorphous carbons.

Takashima, Akito; Nishii, Toshiaki; Onoe, Jun

2012-12-01

151

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS  

E-print Network

Peanut Mr. J. Laine, Wakefield Peanut Company Amadas Industries DuPont AMVAC BASF Corporation Dow Agro. Sutter, North Carolina Peanut Board Companies Mr. F. Garner, Birdsong Peanut Mr. K. Bennett, Birdsong Sciences LLC Bayer Crop Science Helena Coastal Chemical Corporation Syngenta Crop Protection Monsanto

Liskiewicz, Maciej

152

7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

2013-01-01

153

7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

2013-01-01

154

7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

2014-01-01

155

7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

2014-01-01

156

7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

2011-01-01

157

7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

2011-01-01

158

7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

2012-01-01

159

7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

2012-01-01

160

7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

2010-01-01

161

7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

2010-01-01

162

The natural history of peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has traditionally been assumed that peanut allergy is rarely outgrown. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the number of children with peanut allergy who become tolerant of peanut. Methods: Patients aged 4 to 20 years with a diagnosis of peanut allergy were evaluated by questionnaire, skin testing, and a quantitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay. Patients who

Helen S. Skolnick; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Celide Barnes Koerner; Hugh A. Sampson; Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

2001-01-01

163

Bioavailability and Hypolipidemic Effects of Peanut Skin Polyphenols.  

PubMed

Abstract Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins. Peanut skin proanthocyanidins mainly consist of a subgroup called procyanidins. Peanut-based procyanidins contain oligomers of both type A and type B procyanidins. Recent studies have shown that peanut skin extracts exert protection against hepatic steatosis induced on rats fed with a high-fat diet. Studies have shown that proanthocyanidins protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The mechanism of CVD protection and hypolipidemic effect of peanut skin procyanidins has been gradually revealed in recent years. Due to the high molecular weight of procyanidins, they are not readily absorbed through the gut barrier. It is hypothesized that procyanidins exert their effect by inhibiting the absorption of dietary lipid and chylomicron secretion by enterocytes. In this review, we aim to highlight the hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin polyphenols and discuss the various molecular mechanisms, with which the polyphenols may exert the lipid-lowering function observed by weighing the absorption characteristics as well as gene expression mechanism responsible for lipid homeostasis. PMID:25184693

Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Williams, Leonard L; Yu, Jianmei

2014-09-01

164

A narrow ``peanut'' pentaquark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the decay ?s(1/2+) ? NK in a non-relativistic Fock space description using three and five constituent quarks for the nucleon and the pentaquark, respectively. Following Jaffe and Wilczek, we assume that quark-quark correlations in spin-zero state play an important role for the pentaquark internal structure. Within this scenario, a strong dynamical suppression of the decay width is shown to be possible only if the pentaquark has an asymmetric "peanut" structure with the strange antiquark in the center and the two extended composite diquarks rotating around. In this case a decay width of ? 1 MeV may be a natural possibility.

Melikhov, Dmitri

2005-04-01

165

Peanut Diseases Atlas.  

E-print Network

nodules. Light in festations may result only in small galls on the roots. These require close observation for iden tification. Nematode-induced galls are formed in the root structure itself and are not attached to the side of the root as is the case... with nitrogen nodules. Peanut plants severely affected by root knot nematodes are stunted and may be lighter in color. This nematode seriously damages yield potential. Observing roots, pegs and pods is the most accurate method of diagnosis. Plants should...

Horne, Wendell C.

1974-01-01

166

Peanuts in Texas.  

E-print Network

as the Western Cross Timbers and Associated Interior Prairies. T other region is the East Texas Timber Country and Flatwoods Regic comprising thirty counties lying along the eastern border of the St: and extending from the Red River to the Gulf Coast Prairies... Peanuts are planted when danger of late frost is over, and the tempera- ture of the soil warm enough for germination of the seed. From the middle of March to the middle of July are the extreme limits of the. planting season. The most favorable time...

McNess, George Thomas

1928-01-01

167

An endurance-enhancing effect of peanut meal protein hydrolysate in mice: possible involvement of a specific peanut peptide.  

PubMed

To improve the functional properties of peanut meal protein for wide utilization, hydrolysis was conducted by alcalase. Compared with saline and peanut meal protein, intragastric administration of low molecular weight (<1 kD) peanut meal peptide (PPH I) could significantly prolong swimming time, increase levels of blood sugar, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and liver glycogen and decrease blood lactate content in mice. Levels of Pro, Leu, Val and His in low molecular weight peanut meal peptides were higher significantly than those in other peanut meal protein hydrolysates. Hydrophobic amino acids, such as Pro, Tyr and His, could perhaps capture free radical and increase antioxidant capacity of peanut peptide and retard fatigue induced by free radical. After separation by HPLC, a primary peptide P1, Pro-Glu-Ile-Glu-Val, was sequenced. Its N-terminal was Val, and it was rich in antioxidant amino acid, Pro and Ile. Levels of plasma glucose, NEFA and liver glycogen in PPH I group were higher than those in mice intragastric administration with peptide P1, and the swimming time is longer in PPH I group than in P1 group. So, the high content of P1 was one of the reason why PPH I had high endurance-enhancing capacity. PMID:24164258

Liu, J; Chen, L W; Ji, K M; Yu, L; Zhang, Z J

2014-10-01

168

High-frequency EPR study of crude oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four different samples of crude oil were studied by means of high-frequency W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with the aim to develop new methods of crude oil quality control. High spectral resolution of W-band allowed to avoid an overlap of spectra contributors. The ratio K between the integral intensity of the low-field EPR component of the vanadyl complexes to that of free radical line was chosen as an attribute of each sample. Using the K-parameters and EPR spectra simulations the crude oil leaking between adjacent horizons is shown. Pulsed EPR experiments allowed detecting free radicals signals only. It is demonstrated that the extracted transverse relaxation time could be used as an additional parameter which characterizes the origin of the crude oil and nature of the oil paramagnetic centers.

Volodin, M. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Izotov, V. V.; Orlinskii, S. B.

2013-12-01

169

Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.  

PubMed

We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface. PMID:24020650

de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

2014-02-01

170

Increased Water Activity Reduces the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Butter  

PubMed Central

Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90°C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126°C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K.; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou

2013-01-01

171

Association of nitrogen fixation to water use efficiency and yield traits of peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of N2 fixation might be an effective strategy in peanut breeding for high yield under drought stress conditions. However, under water limited conditions peanut varieties having high water-use efficiency (WUE) are favorable. A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at ...

172

Epidemiology of childhood peanut allergy.  

PubMed

Although peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies, no study has comprehensively described the epidemiology of the condition among the general pediatric population. Our objective was to better characterize peanut allergy prevalence, diagnosis trends, and reaction history among affected children identified from a representative sample of United States households with children. A randomized, cross sectional survey was administered to parents from June 2009 to February 2010. Data from 38,480 parents were collected and analyzed in regard to demographics, allergic symptoms associated with food ingestion, and methods of food allergy diagnosis. Adjusted models were estimated to examine association of these characteristics with odds of peanut allergy. Of the 3218 children identified with food allergy, 754 (24.8%) were reported to have a peanut allergy. Peanut allergy was reported most often among 6- to 10-year-old children (25.5%), white children (47.7%), and children from households with an annual income of $50,000-$99,999 (41.7%). Although peanut allergy was diagnosed by a physician in 76% of cases, significantly more peanut allergy reactions were severe as compared with reactions to other foods (53.7% versus 41.0%, p < 0.001). Parents were significantly less likely to report tolerance to peanut as compared with the odds of tolerance reported for other foods (odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9). Childhood peanut allergy, which represents nearly a quarter of all food allergy, presents more severe reactions and is least likely to be outgrown. Although it is diagnosed by a physician in nearly three-fourths of all cases, socioeconomic disparities in regard to diagnosis persist. PMID:25562557

Dyer, Ashley A; Rivkina, Victoria; Perumal, Dhivya; Smeltzer, Brandon M; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

2015-01-01

173

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

174

Oxidative stability of high oleic sunflower and safflower oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High oleic sunflower seed progenies derived from normal seed by chemical mutagenesis were extracted and their oils refined\\u000a by standard laboratory procedures. Oxidative stability was related directly to linoleic acid content with an AOM value of\\u000a 100 hr obtained at 1% linoleate. Data is presented comparing linoleate concentration and oxidative stability of oils obtained\\u000a from normal sunflower seed and high

Richard H. Purdy; V. Paganuzzi; E. Leoni

1985-01-01

175

Restricted Defect Dynamics in Colloidal Peanut Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that monolayers of hard peanut-shaped colloidal particles consisting of two connected spherical lobes order into a crystalline phase at high area fractions. In this ``lobe-close-packed'' (LCP) crystal, the peanut particle lobes occupy triangular lattice sites, much like close-packed spheres, while the connections between lobe pairs are randomly oriented, uniformly populating the three crystalline directions of the underlying lattice. Using optical microscopy, we directly observe defect nucleation and dynamics in sheared LCP crystals. We find that many particle configurations form obstacles blocking dislocation glide. Consequently, in stark contrast to colloidal monolayers of close-packed spheres, single dislocation pair nucleation is not the only significant energetic barrier to relieving an imposed shear strain. Dislocation propagation beyond such obstructions can proceed only through additional mechanisms such as dislocation reactions. We discuss the implications of such restricted defect mobility for the plasticity of LCP crystals.

Gerbode, Sharon; Lee, Stephanie; John, Bettina; Wolfgang, Angie; Liddell, Chekesha; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai

2008-03-01

176

Restricted Defect Dynamics in Colloidal Peanut Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that monolayers of hard peanut-shaped colloidal particles consisting of two connected spherical lobes order into a crystalline phase at high area fractions. In this ``lobe- close-packed'' (LCP) crystal, the peanut particle lobes occupy triangular lattice sites, much like close-packed spheres, while the connections between lobe pairs are randomly oriented, uniformly populating the three crystalline directions of the underlying lattice. Using optical microscopy, we directly observe defect nucleation and dynamics in sheared LCP crystals. We find that many particle configurations form obstacles blocking dislocation glide. Consequently, in stark contrast to colloidal monolayers of close-packed spheres, single dislocation pair nucleation is not the only significant energetic barrier to relieving an imposed shear strain. Dislocation propagation beyond such obstructions can proceed only through additional mechanisms such as dislocation reactions. We discuss the implications of such restricted defect mobility for the plasticity of LCP crystals.

Gerbode, Sharon; Lee, Stephanie; John, Bettina; Wolfgang, Angie; Liddell, Chakesha; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai

2008-03-01

177

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which...

2012-01-01

178

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which...

2013-01-01

179

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which...

2014-01-01

180

High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

2014-03-01

181

Composition of Human VLDL Triacylglycerols after Ingestion of Olive Oil and High Oleic Sunflower Oil1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet

Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez; Nora Morgado; JoseLuis Prada; Francisco Perez-Jimenez; Francisco J. G. Muriana

182

A narrow "peanut" pentaquark  

E-print Network

We analyse the decay $\\Theta_s(1/2^+)\\to NK$ in a non-relativistic Fock space description using three and five constituent quarks for the nucleon and the pentaquark, respectively. Following Jaffe and Wilczek \\cite{jw}, we assume that quark-quark correlations in spin-zero state play an important role for the pentaquark internal structure. Within this scenario, a strong dynamical suppression of the decay width is shown to be possible only if the pentaquark has an asymmetric "peanut" structure with the strange antiquark in the center and the two extended composite diquarks rotating around. In this case a decay width of $\\simeq$ 1 MeV may be a natural possibility.

Dmitri Melikhov

2005-01-19

183

A narrow "peanut" pentaquark  

E-print Network

We analyse the decay $\\Theta_s(1/2^+)\\to NK$ in a non-relativistic Fock space description using three and five constituent quarks for the nucleon and the pentaquark, respectively. Following Jaffe and Wilczek \\cite{jw}, we assume that quark-quark correlations in spin-zero state play an important role for the pentaquark internal structure. Within this scenario, a strong dynamical suppression of the decay width is shown to be possible only if the pentaquark has an asymmetric "peanut" structure with the strange antiquark in the center and the two extended composite diquarks rotating around. In this case a decay width of $\\simeq$ 1 MeV may be a natural possibility.

Melikhov, D

2005-01-01

184

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

185

Analysis of olive oil and seed oil triglycerides by capillary gas chromatography as a tool for the detection of the adulteration of olive oil.  

PubMed

Individual triglyceride (TG) species of olive oil and several seed oils (corn, cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean, and sunflower) are baseline separated on a WCOT TAP CB fused-silica capillary column by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a flame-ionization detector (FID) and either cold on-column or split injection. An adulteration of olive oil with a low content (< 5%) of these seed oils (except peanut oil) can be verified by the detection of the increasing levels of trilinolein or tripalmitin in olive oil in which these TG species are normally absent or present at very low levels (< 0.5%). An adulteration with over 20% peanut oil can be detected by the increasing levels of palmitodilinolein. TG species that can be coeluted with trilinolein in the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) mode are baseline separated by the CGC technique, and their structures are identified by selective ion monitoring mass spectrometry. The following comparisons--the CGC-FID and RP-HPLC methods for detection of adulteration, cold on-column and split-injection modes for CGC-FID, and silylation or thin-layer chromatography pretreatment and simple dilution of one or more of the oil samples--are also presented. The normalized percentage area of the TG species is sufficient for the method limits used in this study. Mixtures of virgin olive oil with refined or residue olive oil could not be distinguished from the virgin type by the method used in this study. PMID:11318065

Andrikopoulos, N K; Giannakis, I G; Tzamtzis, V

2001-04-01

186

Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

187

REDUCING THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF PEANUT EXTRACTS BY REMOVING PEANUT ALLERGENS WITH PHYTIC ACIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

People are allergic to peanuts because peanuts contain proteins called allergens. Removing these proteins from a peanut kernel or extract is thought to help reduce or prevent peanut allergy. Phytic acid, which functions as the chief storage form of phosphate and inositol in mature seeds, can chelate...

188

Volumetric properties of sunflower methyl ester oil at high pressure.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel oil (DO), because it is a fuel obtained from renewable resources that has lower emissions than DO. Biomass production should promote agricultural activity to obtain fuels for the transport sector. The study of the behavior of biodiesel at varying pressure and temperature is very interesting because diesel engines are mechanical systems that work with fuels submitted to high pressure. The specific volume, isothermal compressibility, and cubic expansion coefficients of refined sunflower methyl ester oil (SMEO) and unrefined sunflower methyl ester oil (URSMEO) were obtained and compared with those of DO from 0.1 to 350 MPa and 288.15 to 328.15 K. This work shows that oil refinement did not significantly modify any of the properties studied of the final biodiesel. Compared with DO, both SMEOs were about 6% denser, whereas isothermal compressibility and cubic expansion coefficients were bigger or smaller for DO depending on pressure and temperature. PMID:17691803

Aparicio, Cristina; Guignon, Bérengère; Rodríguez-Antón, Luis M; Sanz, Pedro D

2007-09-01

189

Phenotypic evaluation of the Chinese mini-mini core collection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and assessment for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to utilize the germplasm more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions was developed previously from a collection of 6,839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Resear...

190

Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

2014-10-01

191

Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.  

PubMed

Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10°C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed. PMID:25442612

Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

2015-04-01

192

Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5°. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiao, Yun-Feng

2011-05-01

193

Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity  

SciTech Connect

Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5 deg. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

Shu Fangjie [Department of Physics, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); State Key Lab for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zou Changling; Sun Fangwen [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xiao Yunfeng [State Key Lab for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-05-15

194

Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria,and Other Nematodes and Crop Yields in Rotations of Cotton, Peanut, and Wheat Under Minimum Tillage  

PubMed Central

Wheat, cotton, and peanut were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos (6.7 kg a.i./ha) and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage and irrigation for 6 years. The cropping sequences included a wheat winter cover crop each year and summer crops of cotton every year, peanut every year, or cotton rotated every other year with peanut. The population densities of Meloidogyne spp. and Helicotylenchus dihystera were determined monthly during the experiment. Numbers of M. incognita increased on cotton and decreased on peanut, whereas M. arenaria increased on peanut, and decreased on cotton; both nematode species remained in moderate to high numbers in plots of wheat. Root damage was more severe on cotton than peanut and was not affected by fenamiphos treatment. The H. dihystera population densities were highest in plots with cotton every summer, intermediate in the cotton-peanut rotation, and lowest in plots with peanut every summer. Over all years and cropping sequences, yield increases in fenamiphos treatment over untreated control were 9% for wheat, 8% for cotton, and 0% for peanut. Peanut yields following cotton were generally higher than yields following peanut. These results show that nematode problems may be manageable in cotton and peanut production under conservation tillage and irrigation in the southeastern United States. PMID:19270949

Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Handoo, Z. A.

2000-01-01

195

Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (? 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (? 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ? 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

2015-04-01

196

Immunogenicity of Peanut Proteins Containing Poly(Anhydride) Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced TH1 and TH2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic TH2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both TH1 (gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-TH1 immune response. PMID:24899075

De S. Rebouças, Juliana; Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana I.; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Sanz, María L.

2014-01-01

197

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN PEANUT PLANT PARTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

More than 60% of peanut plant biomass remains after peanut pods are harvested. This biomass includes leaves, roots and testa. Freeze dried peanut plant leaves and roots, as well as oven blanched skins were analyzed for total phenolic compound concentation by the Folin Ciocalteu method and reported...

198

78 FR 37200 - Peanut Standards Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0035; FV13-996-1] Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

2013-06-20

199

Peanut shaped structures edgeon galaxies Giuseppe Aronica  

E-print Network

Peanut shaped structures edge­on galaxies Giuseppe Aronica AIRUB, Germany E­mail: aronica@astro.rub.de photometric analysis sample of edge­on galaxies harboring peanut shaped structure presented. structure a peanut shaped structure. rearrangement material in vertical direction through presence a is evidenced

Bureau, Martin

200

77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-12-0036; FV12-996-1] Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

2012-09-12

201

Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

1991-01-01

202

PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS  

E-print Network

#12;ii PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2011 II. Quality Data Maria Balota, Ph from the following institutions and organizations: SC PEANUT GROWERS NC STATE UNIVERSITY #12;ii Co., NC Mr. C. Fountain, Duplin Co., NC Commodity Groups Mr. D. Cotton, Virginia Peanut Board Mr. B

Liskiewicz, Maciej

203

Whole Grains Recipes Peanut Butter Cookies  

E-print Network

Whole Grains Recipes Peanut Butter Cookies 1 cup margarine, softened 1 cup white sugar 1 cup brown sugar 1 cup peanut butter 2 eggs 2 tsp. baking soda 1 tsp. salt 2 ¾ cup flour (substitute with ½ whole wheat flour) 2/3 cup ground flax 2 tsp. vanilla extract Mix margarine and peanut butter, add sugars

de Lijser, Peter

204

76 FR 31574 - Peanut Standards Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0044; FV11-996-1] Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

2011-06-01

205

Registration of 'Tamrun OL07' peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Productivity and quality of peanut are adversely affected by the fungus Sclerotinia minor which causes Sclerotinia blight disease. This paper reports on the release of a Sclerotinia-resistant runner peanut cultivar named 'Tamrun OL07'. This peanut cultivar possesses desirable agronomic traits such...

206

The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-shaped Bulges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts that would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment s4. We demonstrate our method on N-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations i~=30deg, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions, as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, the signature of a peanut in s4 is weakened. Thus the same kinematic signature of peanuts can be used to explore bulge formation mechanisms. The observational requirements for identifying peanuts with this method are challenging, but feasible.

Debattista, Victor P.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Mayer, Lucio; Moore, Ben

2005-08-01

207

The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-Shaped Bulges  

E-print Network

We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts which would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment $s_4$. We demonstrate our method on $N$-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations $i \\simeq 30\\degrees$, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, that the signature of a peanut in $s_4$ is weakened. Thus the same kinematic signature of peanuts can be used to explore bulge formation mechanisms. The observational requirements for identifying peanuts with this method are challenging, but feasible.

Victor P. Debattista; C. Marcella Carollo; Lucio Mayer; Ben Moore

2005-04-24

208

The Composition of Peanuts and Peanut By-Products.  

E-print Network

various by-products. PEL4hnTT HAP. There are three varieties of peanut hay: (1) Peanut hay (mou~ed). Sometimes tlie tops are cut off with a mower, and made into hap. The product is peaniit hay, and is secured in an analogous manner to other hays. (2....4 per cent. fat, 6 per cent. water and 5.9 per cent. crude fiber. If we reduce the commercial pel nut ca,ke to 48 per cent. protein and G per cent. fat, it mill contaj abdnt 8.9 per cent. fiber, or less by nearly 3 per cent. than that calci lated...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1917-01-01

209

Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

210

Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European Union. PMID:23802714

Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

2013-01-01

211

Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil  

E-print Network

Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil price? It does not relate to Mick' short stint at the London School of Economics, the oil industry operates on the same principle, at least in the short run. The industry relies on proven

Ahmad, Sajjad

212

[Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].  

PubMed

Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

Jedra, Ma?gorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

2008-01-01

213

Peanut agglutinin appearance in the blood circulation after peanut ingestion mimics the action of endogenous galectin-3 to promote metastasis by interaction with cancer-associated MUC1.  

PubMed

Peanut agglutinin (PNA), which accounts for ~0.15% of the weight of the common peanut, is a carbohydrate-binding protein that binds the oncofoetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) disaccharide (galactose?1,3N-acetylgalactosamine?-) that is overexpressed by ~90% of human cancers. Previous studies have shown that PNA is highly resistant to cooking and digestion and rapidly enters the human blood circulation after peanut ingestion. This study investigates the hypothesis that PNA appearance in the circulation after peanut ingestion may mimic the actions of endogenous TF-binding human galectin-3 in metastasis promotion. It shows that PNA at concentrations similar to those found in blood circulation after peanut ingestion increases cancer cell heterotypic adhesion to the blood vascular endothelium and enhances the formation of tumour cell homotypic aggregates, two important steps in the metastasis cascade, and enhances metastasis in a mouse metastasis model. These effects of PNA are shown to result from its interaction with the cancer-associated TF disaccharide on the transmembrane mucin protein MUC1, causing MUC1 cell surface polarization that reveals underlying cell surface adhesion molecules. Thus, PNA appearance in the blood circulation after peanut ingestion mimics the actions of endogenous galectin-3 and promotes cancer cell metastatic spread by interaction with cancer-associated TF/MUC1. As metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-associated fatality, regular consumption of peanuts by cancer patients would therefore be expected to have an adverse effect on cancer survival. PMID:25326505

Zhao, Qicheng; Duckworth, Carrie A; Wang, Weikun; Guo, Xiuli; Barrow, Hannah; Pritchard, D Mark; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Yu, Lu-Gang

2014-12-01

214

Major and minor QTL and epistasis contribute to fatty acid compositions and oil concentration in high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-oil maize is a useful genetic resource for genomic investigation in plants. To determine the genetic basis of oil concentration\\u000a and composition in maize grain, a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between normal line B73 and high-oil\\u000a line By804 was phenotyped using gas chromatography, and genotyped with 228 molecular markers. A total of 42 individual QTL,\\u000a associated with

Xiaohong Yang; Yuqiu Guo; Jianbing Yan; Jun Zhang; Tongming Song; Torbert Rocheford; Jian-Sheng Li

2010-01-01

215

Exploring soil bacterial communities in different peanut-cropping sequences using multiple molecular approaches.  

PubMed

Soil bacterial communities have significant influence on soilborne plant pathogens and, thus, crop health. The present study focuses on ribotyping soil bacterial communities in different peanut-cropping sequences in Alabama. The objective was to identify changes in microbial assemblages in response to cropping sequences that can play a role in managing soilborne plant pathogens in peanut. Four peanut-cropping sequences were sampled at the Wiregrass Research Station, Headland, AL in 2006 and 2007, including continuous peanut, 4 years of bahiagrass followed by peanut, peanut-cotton, and peanut-corn-cotton. Soil sampling was done at early and mid-season and at harvest. Bacterial community structure was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) combined with 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing. RISA results indicated >70% dissimilarities among different cropping sequences. However, 90% similarities were noticed among replicated plots of the same cropping sequences. Cropping sequences and time of soil sampling had considerable effect on soil microbial community structure. Bahiagrass rotation with peanut was found to have the highest bacterial diversity, as indicated by a high Shannon Weaver Diversity index. Overall, higher bacterial diversity was observed with bahiagrass and corn rotations compared with continuous peanut. The bacterial divisions Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinomycetes were the predominant bacterial phyla found in all peanut-cropping sequences. The Proteobacteria taxa in these soils were negatively correlated with the abundance of members of division Firmicutes but, conversely, had a significant positive correlation with Gemmatimonadetes taxa. The prevalence of the division Actinomycetes was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of members of division Verrucomicrobia. These results indicate complex interactions among soil bacteria that are important contributors to crop health. PMID:21281114

Sudini, Hari; Liles, Mark R; Arias, Covadonga R; Bowen, Kira L; Huettel, Robin N

2011-07-01

216

Effect of maturity on the fatty acid composition of eight varieties of peanuts grown at perkins, Oklahoma in 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight varieties of peanuts were grown under measured field conditions. Seed obtained at five successive harvest dates and\\u000a separated into three maturity levels were analyzed for fatty acid composition of oil. Mature peanuts were mostly higher in\\u000a stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, and lower in linoleic (18:2), arachidic (20:0) and behenic (22:0) acids. Oleic-linoleic\\u000a ratios, which are correlated with

C. T. Young; M. E. Mason; R. S. Matlock; G. R. Waller

1972-01-01

217

PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

2014-08-01

218

Genotypic effect of ahFAD2 on fatty acid profiles in six segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) populations  

PubMed Central

Background Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait because it may affect the flavor and shelf life of resulting food products. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L ? 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait was controlled by recessive alleles of ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B, the former of which is thought to have a high frequency in US runner- and virginia-type cultivars. Functional mutations, G448A in ahFAD2A and 442insA in ahFAD2B eliminate or knock down desaturase activity and have been demonstrated to produce peanut oil with high O/L ratios. In order to employ marker assisted selection (MAS) to select a high oleic disease resistant peanut and to evaluate genotypic and phenotypic variation, crosses were made between high oleic (~80%) and normal oleic (~50%) peanuts to produce segregating populations. Results A total of 539 F2 progenies were randomly selected to empirically determine each ahFAD2 genotype and the resulting fatty acid composition. Five of the six crosses segregated for the high oleic trait in a digenic fashion. The remaining cross was consistent with monogenic segregation because both parental genotypes were fixed for the ahFAD2A mutation. Segregation distortion was significant in ahFAD2A in one cross; however, the remaining crosses showed no distortion. Quantitative analyses revealed that dominance was incomplete for the wild type allele of ahFAD2, and both loci showed significant additive effects. Oleic and linoleic acid displayed five unique phenotypes, based on the number of ahFAD2 mutant alleles. Further, the ahFAD2 loci did exhibit pleiotropic interactions with palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) acids and the O/L ratio. Fatty acid levels in these progeny were affected by the parental genotype suggesting that other genes also influence fatty acid composition in peanut. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first study in which all of the nine possible ahFAD2 genotypes were quantitatively measured. Conclusions The inheritance of the high oleic trait initially was suggested to be controlled by dominant gene action from two homoeologous genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) exhibiting complete recessivity. Analyzing the ahFAD2 genotypes and fatty acid compositions of these segregating peanut populations clearly demonstrated that the fatty acid contents are quantitative in nature although much of the variability in the predominant fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and palmitic) is controlled by only two loci. PMID:23866023

2013-01-01

219

Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

1982-09-01

220

DATES TO REMEMBER July 7 Perennial Peanut Field Day -Moultrie, GA  

E-print Network

AGRONOMY NOTES June, 2003 DATES TO REMEMBER July 7 Perennial Peanut Field Day - Moultrie, GA July 8 Peanut Tour - Macon, GA Sept. 5 Row Crop Field Day - Jay Research Farm Aug. 28 Peanut Field Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PEANUTS Gypsum for Peanuts

Watson, Craig A.

221

ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

222

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

223

Effect of Substitution of High Stearic Low Linolenic Acid Soybean Oil for Hydrogenated Soybean Oil on Fatty Acid Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

High stearic, low ?-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute\\u000a for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on\\u000a fatty acid intake in the United States if HSLL were substituted for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in several food\\u000a categories,

Maureen A. DiRienzo; Shawna L. Lemke; Barbara J. Petersen; Kim M. Smith

2008-01-01

224

7 CFR 1216.56 - Exemption for organic peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Exemption for organic peanuts. 1216.56 Section 1216.56 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

225

7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

226

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2014-01-01

227

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

228

7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

229

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

230

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

231

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

232

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

233

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2013-01-01

234

7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

2010-01-01

235

7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

236

7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

2011-01-01

237

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2011-01-01

238

7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

239

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

240

7 CFR 1216.56 - Exemption for organic peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Exemption for organic peanuts. 1216.56 Section 1216.56 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

241

7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

2012-01-01

242

7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

243

7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

2013-01-01

244

7 CFR 1216.56 - Exemption for organic peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic peanuts. 1216.56 Section 1216.56 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

245

7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

246

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

247

7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

248

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2012-01-01

249

7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

250

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

251

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

252

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

253

7 CFR 1216.56 - Exemption for organic peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Exemption for organic peanuts. 1216.56 Section 1216.56 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2014-01-01

254

7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

2014-01-01

255

7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

256

7 CFR 1216.56 - Exemption for organic peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Exemption for organic peanuts. 1216.56 Section 1216.56 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2013-01-01

257

7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2011-01-01

258

Peanut allergy: Effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations lead to an impaired skin barrier associated with peanut allergy. Household peanut consumption is associated with peanut allergy, and peanut allergen in household dust correlates with household peanut consumption. Objective We sought to determine whether environmental peanut exposure increases the odds of peanut allergy and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. Methods Exposure to peanut antigen in dust within the first year of life was measured in a population-based birth cohort. Peanut sensitization and peanut allergy (defined by using oral food challenges or component-resolved diagnostics [CRD]) were assessed at 8 and 11 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. Results After adjustment for infantile atopic dermatitis and preceding egg skin prick test (SPT) sensitization, we found a strong and significant interaction between natural log (ln [loge]) peanut dust levels and FLG mutations on peanut sensitization and peanut allergy. Among children with FLG mutations, for each ln unit increase in the house dust peanut protein level, there was a more than 6-fold increased odds of peanut SPT sensitization, CRD sensitization, or both in children at ages 8 years, 11 years, or both and a greater than 3-fold increased odds of peanut allergy compared with odds seen in children with wild-type FLG. There was no significant effect of exposure in children without FLG mutations. In children carrying an FLG mutation, the threshold level for peanut SPT sensitization was 0.92 ?g of peanut protein per gram (95% CI, 0.70-1.22 ?g/g), that for CRD sensitization was 1.03 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.90-1.82 ?g/g), and that for peanut allergy was 1.17 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.01-163.83 ?g/g). Conclusion Early-life environmental peanut exposure is associated with an increased risk of peanut sensitization and allergy in children who carry an FLG mutation. These data support the hypothesis that peanut allergy develops through transcutaneous sensitization in children with an impaired skin barrier. PMID:25282568

Brough, Helen A.; Simpson, Angela; Makinson, Kerry; Hankinson, Jenny; Brown, Sara; Douiri, Abdel; Belgrave, Danielle C.M.; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Turcanu, Victor; Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Custovic, Adnan; Lack, Gideon

2014-01-01

259

Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT.  

PubMed

We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

Köster, Johannes; Rahmann, Sven

2014-01-01

260

Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT  

PubMed Central

We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

Rahmann, Sven

2014-01-01

261

Comparative proteomic analysis for assessment of the ecological significance of maize and peanut intercropping.  

PubMed

Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Peanut/maize intercropping is known to improve the iron (Fe) content of peanuts in calcareous soils. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to uncover the ecological significance of peanut/maize intercropping at the molecular level. We demonstrate that photosynthesis-related proteins accumulated in intercropped peanut leaves, suggesting that the intercropped peanuts had a stronger photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, stress-response proteins displayed elevated expression levels in both peanut and maize in a monocropping system. This indicated that intercropping contributes to resistance to stress conditions. Allene oxide synthase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, two key enzymes in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, increased in abundance in the maize roots of the intercropping system, consistent with the upregulation of JA-induced proteins shown by microarray analysis. These results imply that JA may act as a signaling molecule, playing an important role in intercropping through rhizosphere interaction. This study suggests that peanut/maize intercropping results in high Fe availability in the rhizosphere, leading to variation in the proteins related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The advantages of intercropping systems may improve the ecological adaptation of plants to environmental stress. PMID:23103225

Xiong, Hongchun; Shen, Hongyun; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Yanxiang; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Ji, Chunqiao; Zhong, Lina; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

2013-01-14

262

Teaching Case: Peanut Policy in the United States, 1996  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The text of this case is a transcript of a story broadcast on NPR's All Things Considered on January 22, 1996. The story concerns Congressional debate about agricultural programs, particularly the price support program for peanuts. The story includes statements from a member of Congress as well as representatives of peanut growers and peanut processors. The peanut program includes import restrictions, a price floor and peanut growing licenses, and this case describes those and includes statements from peanut growers, processors and consumers.

Velenchik, Ann

263

Determination of aflatoxins in individual peanuts and peanut sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsamples of a given lot of peanuts may vary greatly in aflatoxin content due to extreme variability in the degree of contamination\\u000a of individual kernels. A micro method, adapted from the aqueous acetone procedure recently proposed by Pons and Goldblatt\\u000a for the determination of aflatoxins in cottonseed products, was developed to permit accurate determination of aflatoxins in\\u000a individual kernels and

Alva F. Cucullu; Louise S. Lee; Ruth Y. Mayne; L. A. Goldblatt

1966-01-01

264

Laxative effect of peanut sprout extract.  

PubMed

Certain phenolic compounds are known to exhibit laxative properties. Seed sprouts, such as those of peanut, are known to promote de novo biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to examine the potential laxative properties of 80% (v/v) ethanolic extract of peanut sprout (PSE), which contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds such as resveratrol. For this, SD rats were orally administered PSE while a control group was incubated with saline. Laxative effects were examined in both groups of rats. Constipation induced by loperamide in SD rats was improved by administration of PSE. Constipated rats showed increased intestinal movement of BaSO4 upon administration of PSE compared to the control, and the groups administered 100 or 1,000 mg PSE/kg bw were not significantly different in transit time of the indicator. However, colon length was not statistically different among the experimental groups, although it was longer in the group incubated with 1 g PSE/kg bw compared to other groups. Further, there was no significant difference in stool number among the experimental groups. Taken together, these findings show that PSE has a laxative effect in a rat model of loperamide-induced constipation. PMID:23964312

Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyo Jung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jong-Sang

2013-08-01

265

Laxative effect of peanut sprout extract  

PubMed Central

Certain phenolic compounds are known to exhibit laxative properties. Seed sprouts, such as those of peanut, are known to promote de novo biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to examine the potential laxative properties of 80% (v/v) ethanolic extract of peanut sprout (PSE), which contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds such as resveratrol. For this, SD rats were orally administered PSE while a control group was incubated with saline. Laxative effects were examined in both groups of rats. Constipation induced by loperamide in SD rats was improved by administration of PSE. Constipated rats showed increased intestinal movement of BaSO4 upon administration of PSE compared to the control, and the groups administered 100 or 1,000 mg PSE/kg bw were not significantly different in transit time of the indicator. However, colon length was not statistically different among the experimental groups, although it was longer in the group incubated with 1 g PSE/kg bw compared to other groups. Further, there was no significant difference in stool number among the experimental groups. Taken together, these findings show that PSE has a laxative effect in a rat model of loperamide-induced constipation. PMID:23964312

Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyo Jung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hak-Yong

2013-01-01

266

Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

267

The Peanut Plant and Light: Spermidines from Peanut Flowers and Studies of their Photoisomerization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

268

Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

269

EFFECTS OF HIGH-OIL CORN AND SOYBEAN OIL ADDITIVES ON DUSTINESS OF GROUND CORN AND FEED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial dust originating from feed is a major contributor to poor air quality in swine confinement buildings. Studies have shown that addition of fats and oils to swine feed reduces its dustiness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of several high-oil corn (HOC) varieties on reducing aerodynamic dust segregation (ADS) as compared with conventional or normal

A. J. Heber

270

A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility  

SciTech Connect

Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Fair, W.T. [Long Shot, Inc., Seminole, TX (United States); Butts, C. [National Peanut Research Lab., Dawson, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

271

The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466 g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12 g/kg DM) and P (1.7 g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani × Rambouillet) wethers (60?±?2.5 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P?peanut hay in the ration. Nitrogen retention in the body increased (P?peanut hay. These findings showed that substitution of wheat straw with peanut hay can improve DM and nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep. PMID:23080339

Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur

2013-03-01

272

The natural history of peanut allergy in young children and its association with serum peanut-specific IgE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To observe the nature and frequency of adverse reactions caused by accidental peanut exposure in young children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity and to determine the value of serum peanut-specific IgE levels during follow-up. Study design: Eighty-three children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity diagnosed before their fourth birthdays were contacted yearly to track adverse peanut reactions. Serum peanut-specific IgE levels were

Timothy K. Vander Leek; Andrew H. Liu; Kay Stefanski; Betty Blacker; S. Allan Bock

2000-01-01

273

High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

2014-05-01

274

Peanut–Induced Anaphylactic Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergies, particularly to peanuts, are a common cause of anaphylaxis. Approximately 125 people die each year in the USA secondary to food–induced anaphylaxis. Clinical anaphylaxis is a syndrome of diverse etiology and dramatic presentation of symptoms associated with the classic features of type I, IgE–mediated hypersensitivity [1]. Typically the term anaphylaxis connotes an immunologically–mediated event that occurs after exposure

Wesley Burks; Gary A. Bannon; Scott Sicherer; Hugh A. Sampson

1999-01-01

275

Peanuts, Pecans, and Peas, Please  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EconEdLink lesson plan from the National Council on Economic Education focuses on how George Washington Carver helped save agriculture in the South by creating a national demand for peanut products. While the discussion questions that accompany the lesson focus mainly on economic concepts, the lesson as a whole provides an excellent, interdisciplinary way to learn about nitrogen fixation and crop rotation. The site provides student and teacher versions of the lesson plan, the teacher version offering more background information.

2003-01-01

276

Moringa oleifera oil: A possible source of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the

Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe

2008-01-01

277

Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

2008-07-01

278

Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first definitive study of the fate of the aflatoxins in vegetable oils undergoing processing.\\u000a Crude oils, obtained by solvent extraction or by hydraulic pressing of ground moldy peanuts (not suitable for human consumption),\\u000a contained only small fractions of the aflatoxin originally present in the peanuts; the meals retained the bulk of the aflatoxin.\\u000a Conventional alkali

Wilbur A. Parker; Daniel Melnick

1966-01-01

279

Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

2008-01-01

280

Controlled evaluation of fat intake in the Mediterranean diet: comparative activities of olive oil and corn oil on plasma lipids and platelets in high-risk patients13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of low-fat diets with olive oil or corn oil on lipids and platelets were studied in 23 middle-aged patients with high atherosclerosis risk for 8 wk. The olive oil diet had a polyunsaturated-saturated ratio of 0.33 vs 1.28 for the corn oil diet. Plasma total cholesterol was reduced with corn oil, but high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower with

Cesare R Sirtori; Elena Tremoli; Ennio Gatti; Guido Montanan; Marina Sirtori; Susanna Coii; Gemma Gianfranceschi; Paola Maderna; Cinzia Zucchi Dentone; Giulio Testolin; Claudio Gaii

281

High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900°C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear

Harry P. Leftin; David S. Newsome

1986-01-01

282

Fortification of cookies with peanut skins: effects on the composition, polyphenols, antioxidant properties, and sensory quality.  

PubMed

Food fortification may be carried out to improve the health status of consumers. In this study, peanut skins were added at 1.3, 1.8, and 2.5% to cookies to increase their polyphenol content. Insoluble fiber was increased by up to 52%. In addition, total phenolic content and the corresponding antioxidant capacities also increased as evidenced by increases of epicatechin and procyanidin dimers A and B. In addition, trimers and tetramers of procyanidins were identified only in peanut skin-fortified cookies. Addition of 2.5% peanut skins rendered an increase of up to 30% in the total polyphenols as evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). Sensory evaluation results demonstrated that peanut skin-fortified cookies were well accepted, which suggests that the present formulation may lend itself for commercial exploitation. PMID:25350915

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Vidal, Carolina Maldonado Martins; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2014-11-19

283

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

284

The molecular basis of peanut allergy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

285

SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

1986-01-01

286

PLANTING PATTERNS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at NPRL. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relationships. A diamond-pattern seed placement usua...

287

REGISTRATION OF 'TAMRUN OL 02' PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, is a major disease of peanut in Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia. The disease causes reduction in yield and quality of peanut, as well as increasing production costs. Therefore, our main interest and research goal is to enhan...

288

Registration of ‘NC- Miller’ soybean with high yield and high seed oil content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘NC-Miller’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was developed and released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2011 as a high yielding and high oil late maturity group V, conventional cultivar. NC-Miller is an F5 selection from the cross of cultivars ‘Santee’ and ‘Holladay’. In the North Car...

289

Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to biological processes such as fungal diseases and water limited stress. Moreover, it will also facilitate basic and applied research on the genetics of peanut through the development of new molecular markers and the study of adaptive variation across the genus. PMID:22888963

2012-01-01

290

Performance of Equipment for In-field Peanut Shelling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs included in growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for the edible market. These processes are cost-prohibitive when producing peanuts for biodiesel. Shelling peanuts during harvest would significantly reduc...

291

Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

292

Myocardial Alteration in Rats Fed Rapeseed Oils Containing High or Low Levels of Erucic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature male rats fed rapeseed oil for 16 weeks had a higher incidence of cardiac lesions than did control rats fed a mixture of lard and corn oil. Both high-erucic and low-erucic rapeseed oils were associated with cardiac necrosis and fibrosis. A dose response in the incidence of such lesions was obtained after 16 weeks of feeding various levels of

J. L. Beare-Rogers; E. A. Nera; H. A. Heggtveit

1974-01-01

293

Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

294

Surface modification of high calcium fly ash for its application in oil spill clean up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims at utilising an inorganic industrial by-product, high calcium fly ash (HCFA), in an environmental field: oil spill clean up. Properties, such as fine particle size, floating ability, hydrophobic character and porosity, make this material attractive for such a use. In order to investigate the oil sorption behaviour of HCFA an oil spill has been simulated, by

O. K. Karakasi; A. Moutsatsou

2010-01-01

295

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2012-02-17

296

The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-Shaped Bulges  

E-print Network

We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts which would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment $s_4$. We demonstrate our method on $N$-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations $i \\simeq 30\\degrees$, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, that the signature of a peanut in $s_4$ is weakened...

Debattista, V P; Mayer, L; Moore, B; Debattista, Victor P.; Mayer, Lucio

2005-01-01

297

Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:18474424

Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

2008-11-01

298

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaOfree and SO3 in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash

C Freidin

1998-01-01

299

Design of New Genome- and Gene-Sourced Primers and Identification of QTL for Seed Oil Content in a Specially High-Oil Brassica napus Cultivar  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future. PMID:23077542

Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

2012-01-01

300

Oil stability prediction by high-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

(13)C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 66 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the potential use of those fractions in predicting oil stabilities and to compare those results with oil stability prediction by using chemical determinations. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north Africa; "lampante" olive, refined olive, refined olive pomace, low-erucic rapeseed, high-oleic sunflower, corn, grapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils. Oils were analyzed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, as well as for phenol and tocopherol contents. By using stepwise linear regression analysis (SLRA), the chemical determinations and the (13)C NMR data that better explained the oil stability determined by the Rancimat were selected. These selected variables were related to both the susceptibility of the oil to be oxidized and the content of minor components that most contributed to oil stability. Because (13)C NMR considered many more variables than those determined by chemical analysis, the predicted stabilities calculated by using NMR data were always better than those obtained by using chemical determinations. All these results suggest that (13)C NMR may be a powerful tool to predict oil stabilities when applied to chromatographically enriched oil fractions. PMID:12358445

Hidalgo, Francisco J; Gómez, Gemma; Navarro, José L; Zamora, Rosario

2002-10-01

301

Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut  

PubMed Central

The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5–0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria. PMID:24804045

Bassey, Francisca I; Mcwatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2013-01-01

302

Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut.  

PubMed

The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5-0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria. PMID:24804045

Bassey, Francisca I; McWatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2013-09-01

303

Boxy/Peanut Bulges and Stellar Bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boxy/peanut bulges in disk galaxies have been associated with stellar bars. We analyze their properties in a large sample of N-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape, and possible asymmetry, and then to intercompare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Athanassoula, E.

2008-06-01

304

Boxy/Peanut bulges and stellar bars  

E-print Network

Boxy/peanut bulges in disc galaxies have been associated to stellar bars. We analyse their properties in a large sample of $N$-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

Martinez-Valpuesta; I.; Athanassoula; E.

2008-01-21

305

Boxy/Peanut bulges and stellar bars  

E-print Network

Boxy/peanut bulges in disc galaxies have been associated to stellar bars. We analyse their properties in a large sample of $N$-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

Martinez-Valpuesta, I

2008-01-01

306

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5¥10 DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5¥10 DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet

Stanley I. Pinel; Hans R. Signer; Erwin V. Zaretsky

2001-01-01

307

DATES TO REMEMBER Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day -Moultrie, GA June 11th  

E-print Network

AGRONOMY NOTES June, 2005 DATES TO REMEMBER 5th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day - Moultrie, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PEANUTS Calcium Nutrition of Peanut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Control of Hairy Indigo in Peanuts

Watson, Craig A.

308

Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

309

Rheological properties of starch-oil composites with high oil: starch ratios  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many applications have been developed for aqueous dispersions of jet-cooked starch-oil composites prepared by excess steam jet cooking. Previous formulations have typically contained between 20% and 50% oil by weight based on the weight of starch. In order to expand the range of potential applicat...

310

Unusual high acidity oils from the Great Palogue Field, Melut Basin, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oils produced from the Great Palogue Field in the Melut Basin, Sudan display unusually high total acid number values (TAN, up to 10.4mg KOH\\/g oil). This field was discovered in 2002 and produces oils of highly variable (15–31°) API gravity. The main production comes from the Paleogene Samma and Yabus Formations, with the Upper Cretaceous Melut Formation being a

Lirong Dou; Dingsheng Cheng; Maowen Li; Kunye Xiao; Buqing Shi; Zhi Li

2008-01-01

311

The Case of the Disappearing "Peanuts."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of investigations focusing on the biodegradable packing materials ("peanuts"), which provide a method for exploring science through experimentation. These activities can help fourth through sixth graders sharpen their critical thinking and science process skills. (PR)

Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail

1994-01-01

312

Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

313

PEANUT SHELL FUEL FOR THE GAMBIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project will develop a household-scale human-powered briquette maker that will convert peanut shells into an efficient cooking fuel. The briquette maker will be designed such that it can be manufactured and used in The Gambia. ...

314

Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.  

PubMed

We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. PMID:25442530

Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

2015-04-01

315

Testing Falling Peanut Butter Sandwich Myth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to rotational inertia (page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a bit of scientific experimenting to test if open-faced peanut butter sandwiches really do always land peanut butter side down. Learners will also test other variables, such as drop height, size of bread slice, and whatever else learners can think of, to arrive at some sound conclusions. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Microgravity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

316

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

317

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.

1983-01-01

318

Motion, deformation and break-up of aqueous drops in oils under high electric field strengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the chemical and oil industries, high electrostatic fields have been applied to separate aqueous drops from an oil phase by electrocoalescence. However, very high electrostatic fields can also cause disintegration of aqueous drops which is detrimental to the overall efficiency of the electrocoalescence process. The limit above which an electrostatic field can deform and break up the drops instead

John S Eow; Mojtaba Ghadiri

2003-01-01

319

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Jacobson, S.R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

320

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

321

Occurrence of resveratrol in edible peanuts.  

PubMed

Resveratrol has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced cancer risk. This phytoalexin has been reported in a number of plant species, including grapes, and may be one of the compounds responsible for the health benefits of red wine. Analytical methods for measuring resveratrol in wine and peanuts were adapted to isolate, identify, and quantify resveratrol in several cultivars of peanuts. Aqueous ethanol (80% v/v) extracts from peanuts without seed coats were purified over alumina/silica gel columns and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC using a C-18 column. Peanuts from each market type, Virginia, runner, and Spanish, produced in four different locations contained from 0.03 to 0.14 microg of resveratrol/g. Seed coats from runner and Virginia types contained approximately 0.65 microg/g of seed coat, which is equivalent to <0.04 microg/seed. Quantitative analysis of 15 cultivars representing 3 peanut market types, which had been cold stored for up to 3 years, indicated a range of 0.02-1.79 microg/g of peanut compared to 0.6-8.0 microg/mL in red wines. PMID:10775379

Sanders, T H; McMichael, R W; Hendrix, K W

2000-04-01

322

Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

2006-01-01

323

A RIGID, PERFORATED PLATE OIL BOOM FOR HIGH CURRENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A boom capable of diverting oil spills toward shore in a 3-knot (1.5 m/s) river or tidal current has been developed. Loss of No. 2 and No. 4 Fuel Oil at this velocity is typically less than 15 percent when the angle of the boom is 45 degrees to the shoreline. In contrast, convent...

324

Rheology of Oil Films at High Contact Pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE report here a new approach to studying the shear behaviour of thin films of oil under conditions of elastohydrodynamic lubrication such as arise at points of contact in ball bearings or between gear teeth. During its passage through the contact the oil is rapidly compressed to pressures in the region of 104 bar and then sheared by the sliding

K. L. Johnson; A. D. Roberts

1972-01-01

325

Background and Impact of Recent High Crude Oil Prices (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) temporarily fell to $10 a barrel, reflecting the Asian financial crisis that took place in 1997 and 1998, but global oil prices subsequently began to climb from around 2004, given rising demand from China, the disruption caused by hurricanes in the United States, and supply problems in Russia. In early

HASEGAWA Eiichi

2008-01-01

326

The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment.The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much

Aidan Meyler

2009-01-01

327

Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

328

Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

329

Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.  

PubMed

Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

2014-07-01

330

Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

331

The peanut genome consortium and peanut genome sequence: Creating a better future through global food security  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. The U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) was launched in 2004, and expanded to a gl...

332

Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide  

PubMed Central

Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

2014-01-01

333

Dynamic stability analysis of cages in high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the cage stability of high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings, a dynamic model of cages is\\u000a developed on the basis of Gupta’s and Meeks’ work. The model can simulate the cage motion under oil lubrication with all six\\u000a degrees of freedom. Particularly, the model introduces oil-film damping and hysteresis damping, and deals with the collision\\u000a contact as imperfect

Xiuhai Liu; Sier Deng; Hongfei Teng

2011-01-01

334

Overexpression of peanut diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar 'Luhua 14' using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a-GST, or AhDGAT2b-GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2b-GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4-2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2a-GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for efficient FA production in E. coli. PMID:23593473

Peng, Zhenying; Li, Lan; Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

2013-01-01

335

Detection of olive oil adulteration with linoleic acid-rich oils by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Adulteration of olive oil with very low levels (1-2%) of linoleic acid-rich oils can be unequivocally detected by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on columns packed with C18 alkyl bonded-phase particles. Triglyceride fractionation according to their equivalent carbon numbers is effected in 22-25 min by eluting the column with a non-aqueous mobile phase (acetonitrile-absolute ethanol-isopropanol, 72:18:10), compatible with UV-detector systems. PMID:3782323

Kapoulas, V M; Andrikopoulos, N K

1986-09-24

336

7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of...

2011-01-01

337

7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of...

2013-01-01

338

7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of...

2012-01-01

339

Peanut Variety and Quality eValuation results  

E-print Network

, to David Jordan and Josh Gaddy for their help in coordinating summer and fall tours of Peanut Variety Valent USA Corporation ­ Herbicide and Insecticide Virginia Peanut Growers Association ­ Grant Virginia

Liskiewicz, Maciej

340

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accompany each peanut lot and be presented to the Inspection Service at the time of inspection. (b) Importers shall report to AMS the entry number, container number, and inspection certificate of those peanuts which are sampled and inspected but...

2010-01-01

341

Infants with Eczema May Be More Prone to Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... or had moderate to severe eczema and were allergic to cow's milk or eggs. The investigators found that exposure to peanut protein in household dust early in life doubled a child's risk of peanut ...

342

Drying Spanish peanuts with intermittent heating, aerating and tempering processes  

E-print Network

. Theoretical Aspects of Crop Drying. Research in Artificial Drying of Peanuts. Intermittent and Direct Heating Processes Recent Study in Peanut Drying 5 8 12 14 III. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 16 Peanuts Heating Airflow Resistance. Aeration. Tempering... or graphical representations of these experiments as functions of dry- ing time are, however, not available. Drying curves for artificial drying of Spanish peanuts by con- tinuous aeration were produced by Butt (7) in 1949. He worked with air heated to 115...

Farouk, Shah Muhammad

2012-06-07

343

Inactivation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores by high hydrostatic pressure combined with citral or lemongrass essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the main post-harvest disease of the papaya. Inactivation of the spores of C. gloeosporioides in saline solution by the use of high hydrostatic pressure, citral oil and lemongrass oil, alone and in combination, was studied. C. gloeosporioides spores were efficiently inhibited after a pressure treatment of 350 MPa for 30 min. When

Fernando L Palhano; Thabita T. B Vilches; Reginaldo B Santos; Marcos T. D Orlando; J. Aires Ventura; Patricia M. B Fernandes

2004-01-01

344

Oil palm shell as a lightweight aggregate for production high strength lightweight concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malaysia, oil palm shell (OPS) is an agricultural solid waste originating from the palm oil industry. In this investigation old OPS was used for production of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLC). The density, air content, workability, cube compressive strength and water absorption were measured. The effect of five types of curing conditions on 28-day compressive strength was studied. The

Payam Shafigh; Mohd Zamin Jumaat; Hilmi Mahmud

2011-01-01

345

Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

1987-09-02

346

Collimated directional emission from a peanut-shaped microresonator  

E-print Network

Collimated directional emission is essentially required an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with the emission divergence as small as 2.5o. The mechanism of the collimated emission is explained with the short-term ray trajectory and the intuitive lens model in detail. Wave simulation also confirms these results. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds a great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

Shu, Fang-Jie; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiao, Yun-Feng

2011-01-01

347

Restricted dislocation mobility in crystals of peanut-shaped colloidal particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in colloidal particle synthesis techniques have enabled the production of a variety of anisotropic yet monodisperse particles, including colloidal ``peanuts,'' which consist of two connected spherical lobes. Since their shape crudely approximates a dimer, colloidal peanut particles constitute a simple but fundamental extension of the classic system of colloidal spheres. Experimental investigations as well as simulations of colloidal peanut monolayers have shown that at high area fractions the particles form a degenerate crystal (DC). In this structure, the peanut particle lobes order into a triangular lattice, much like close-packed spheres, while the connections between lobe pairs are randomly oriented, uniformly populating the three crystalline directions of the underlying lattice. Comparative studies of crystal formation in rapidly compressed monolayers of peanut-shaped versus spherical particles show that DCs harbor many more defects than equivalent crystals of spheres. This suggests that defect annealing may be frustrated by the constraining rigid connections between particle lobes. To elucidate the interactions between these geometric constraints and defect mobility, we directly examine the mechanisms for dislocation nucleation and propagation in DCs. In particular, we show that obstacles formed by certain particle orientations severely limit the range over which dislocations can glide. Furthermore, we observe that transport over longer distances can proceed through dislocation reactions, which switch the direction of propagation and allow dislocations to bypass such obstacles. In this talk I will discuss the impact that these restricted mechanisms have on the macroscopic properties of DCs.

Cohen, Itai

2009-03-01

348

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances §...

2011-07-01

349

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances §...

2014-07-01

350

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances §...

2012-07-01

351

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances §...

2013-07-01

352

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances §...

2010-07-01

353

Nutritional value of a genetically improved high-lysine, high-oil corn for young pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to compare the nutritional adequacy of a genetically im- proved high-lysine, high-oil corn (HLHOC; .408% ly- sine, 6.21% fat, as-fed basis) and a high-oil corn (HOC; .289% lysine, 5.97% fat, as-fed basis) for young growing pigs. Experiment 1 used four non-littermate barrows (initially 20.0 kg BW) fitted with ileal T-cannulas in a crossover-designed digestion study. The

P. R. O'Quinn; J. L. Nelssen; R. D. Goodband; D. A. Knabe; J. C. Woodworth; M. D. Tokach; T. T. Lohrmann

354

Effect of Non-Thermal Processing on Peanut Allergens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergy is on the rise, and the reason is still unclear. Previously, roasting by thermal method has been shown to increase the allergenic potency of peanuts. In this study, we determined if non-thermal methods, such as, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and pulsed UV lights (PUV) affect peanut all...

355

Heat and pressure treatments effects on peanut allergenicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in IgE binding capacity of peanut proteins produced by thermal-processing methods, including autoclaving. Immunoreactivity to raw and thermally processed peanut extracts was ev...

356

2012 Beckham County Peanut Variety Trial Summary Location: Sayre, OK  

E-print Network

2012 Beckham County Peanut Variety Trial Summary Location: Sayre, OK Date Planted: 5/15/2012 Date. Peanuts were placed in a drier until moisture reached 10%. Total sound mature kernels (TSMK, respectively. Some pod rot was visible at harvest and ratings are provided in Table 1 . #12;Table 1. Peanut

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

357

75 FR 38771 - Notice of the Peanut Standards Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-10-0036; FV10-996-1 N] Notice of the Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

2010-07-06

358

2012 Blaine County Peanut Variety Trial Summary Location: Weatherford, OK  

E-print Network

2012 Blaine County Peanut Variety Trial Summary Location: Weatherford, OK Date Planted: 5 later. Peanuts were placed in a drier until moisture reached 10%. Total sound mature kernels (TSMK yielding variety. #12;Table 1. Peanut yields and grades from Blaine County variety tests in 2012. Variety

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

359

DATES TO REMEMBER Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day, Moultrie, GA  

E-print Network

AGRONOMY NOTES May, 2004 DATES TO REMEMBER May 22 4th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day, Moultrie Cotton and Peanut in Dry Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Section / University of Florida / , Larry Arrington, Interim Dean. #12;2 Planting Cotton and Peanut in Dry Soil Record

Watson, Craig A.

360

DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND VARIABLE PLANTING PATTERNS IN PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at the USDA-ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relations...

361

Damage Functions for Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut  

PubMed Central

Microplot experiments were conducted in 1989 and 1990 to determine the relationship between yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and inoculum density ofMeloidogyne arenaria race 1. Nine inoculum densities were used, ranging from 0-200 eggs/100 cm³ soil (1989) or from 0-100 eggs/100 cm³ (1990), and each density was replicated 10 times. In 1989, higher final densities (mean of 1,171 juveniles [J2]/100 cm³ soil) were obtained in plots inoculated with 0.5 to 50 eggs/100 cm³ soil than in plots inoculated with 100 to 200 eggs/100 cm³ (313 J2/100 cm³ soil). In 1990, final densities of M. arenaria reached high levels (? 1,111 J2/100 cm³ soil) in all inoculated plots. Pod yield and dry weight of foliage at harvest were negatively correlated (P ? 0.05) with inoculum density in both seasons. In 1989, the relationship between pod weight (y) and initial density (x) was described by Seinhorst's equation, with y = 0.088 + 0.91(0.90)?x?¹? and r² = 0.826. In 1990, the relationship was y = 0.22 + 0.78(0.97)?x?¹? and r² = 0.794. These equations suggest tolerance limits of approximately 1 egg/100 cm³ soil, which may require specialized methods, such as bioassay, for detection. PMID:19283223

McSorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Candanedo-Lay, E. M.; Hewlett, T. E.; Frederick, J. J.

1992-01-01

362

A murine model of peanut anaphylaxis: T- and B-cell responses to a major peanut allergen mimic human responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy affects 0.6% of the US population. At the present time, allergen avoidance is the only therapeutic option. Animal models of food-induced anaphylaxis would facilitate attempts to design novel immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a murine model of IgE-mediated peanut hypersensitivity that closely mimics human peanut

Xiu-Min Li; Denise Serebrisky; Soo-Young Lee; Chih-Kang Huang; Ludmilla Bardina; Brian H. Schofield; J. Steven Stanley; A. Wesley Burks; Gary A. Bannon; Hugh A. Sampson

2000-01-01

363

Effect of high-oil corn or added corn oil on ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid formation in beef steers fed finishing diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Angus steers (410 kg) cannulated in the proximal duodenum were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid level and oil source on ruminal biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) outflow. Dietary treat- ments included: 1) typical corn (TC; 79.2% typical corn), 2) high-oil corn (HOC; 79.2% high-oil corn), and 3)

S. K. Duckett; J. G. Andrae; F. N. Owens

2010-01-01

364

Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

365

AhDMT1, a Fe(2+) transporter, is involved in improving iron nutrition and N2 fixation in nodules of peanut intercropped with maize in calcareous soils.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume providing edible proteins and N2 fixation. However, iron deficiency severely reduces peanut growth in calcareous soils. The maize/peanut intercropping effectively improves iron nutrition and N2 fixation of peanut under pot and field conditions on calcareous soils. However, little was known of how intercropping regulates iron transporters in peanut. We identified AhDMT1 as a Fe(2+) transporter which was highly expressed in mature nodules with stronger N2 fixation capacity. Promoter expression analysis indicated that AhDMT1 was localized in the vascular tissues of both roots and nodules in peanut. Short-term Fe-deficiency temporarily induced an AhDmt1 expression in mature nodules in contrast to roots. However, analysis of the correlation between the complex regulation pattern of AhDmt1 expression and iron nutrition status indicated that sufficient iron supply for long term was a prerequisite for keeping AhDmt1 at a high expression level in both, peanut roots and mature nodules. The AhDmt1 expression in peanut intercropped with maize under 3 years greenhouse experiments was similar to that of peanut supplied with sufficient iron in laboratory experiments. Thus, the positive interspecific effect of intercropping may supply sufficient iron to enhance the expression of AhDmt1 in peanut roots and mature nodules to improve the iron nutrition and N2 fixation in nodules. This study may also serve as a paradigm in which functionally important genes and their ecological significance in intercropping were characterized using a candidate gene approach. PMID:24519544

Shen, Hongyun; Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

2014-05-01

366

Paramagnetic oil emulsions as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.  

PubMed

The combination of a paramagnetic agent with an oil emulsion can uniformly enhance the small bowel. We discovered that the entire small bowel becomes homogeneously brighter than its surroundings when imaged with all commonly utilized pulse sequences. We have tried various combinations of ferric ammonium citrate, ferrous sulfate, gadolinium-DPTA and corn oil, olive oil and peanut oil. All paramagnetic oil emulsions tested were uniformly distributed throughout the small bowel, but the enhancement effect is much stronger with the ferric ammonium citrate and gadolinium-DPTA oil emulsions. We have also developed a mixture of Geritol, corn oil, ice cream and milk, which uniformly coats the small bowel wall, has good enhancement effect, tastes good, and is nutritious. With this dietary contrast, retroperitoneal structures including the pancreas can be well delineated. We conclude that the combination of a paramagnetic agent with an oil emulsion can work as a safe and effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) oral contrast agent with high patient acceptance. PMID:2082129

Li, K C; Ang, P G; Tart, R P; Storm, B L; Rolfes, R; Ho-Tai, P C

1990-01-01

367

PeanutDB: an integrated bioinformatics web portal for Arachis hypogaea transcriptomics  

PubMed Central

Background The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop cultivated worldwide for oil production and food sources. Its complex genetic architecture (e.g., the large and tetraploid genome possibly due to unique cross of wild diploid relatives and subsequent chromosome duplication: 2n?=?4x?=?40, AABB, 2800?Mb) presents a major challenge for its genome sequencing and makes it a less-studied crop. Without a doubt, transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to harness the genome structure and gene expression dynamics of this non-model species that has a limited genomic resource. Description With the development of next generation sequencing technologies such as 454 pyro-sequencing and Illumina sequencing by synthesis, the transcriptomics data of peanut is rapidly accumulated in both the public databases and private sectors. Integrating 187,636 Sanger reads (103,685,419 bases), 1,165,168 Roche 454 reads (333,862,593 bases) and 57,135,995 Illumina reads (4,073,740,115 bases), we generated the first release of our peanut transcriptome assembly that contains 32,619 contigs. We provided EC, KEGG and GO functional annotations to these contigs and detected SSRs, SNPs and other genetic polymorphisms for each contig. Based on both open-source and our in-house tools, PeanutDB presents many seamlessly integrated web interfaces that allow users to search, filter, navigate and visualize easily the whole transcript assembly, its annotations and detected polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats. For each contig, sequence alignment is presented in both bird’s-eye view and nucleotide level resolution, with colorfully highlighted regions of mismatches, indels and repeats that facilitate close examination of assembly quality, genetic polymorphisms, sequence repeats and/or sequencing errors. Conclusion As a public genomic database that integrates peanut transcriptome data from different sources, PeanutDB (http://bioinfolab.muohio.edu/txid3818v1) provides the Peanut research community with an easy-to-use web portal that will definitely facilitate genomics research and molecular breeding in this less-studied crop. PMID:22712730

2012-01-01

368

Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

369

High-Pour-Point and Asphaltic Crude Oils and Condensates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and transportation of oil and gas can be significantly affected by deposition of paraffin and asphaltenes in the reservoir rock tubulars, pumps, vessels, and pipelines. A wide range of solutions has been developed for the operating problems caused by these deposits. Field examples of problems and solutions are cited.

Robert Tuttle

1983-01-01

370

Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

2014-01-01

371

Upgrading of high-boiling fraction of bio-oil in supercritical methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the upgrading reactions of high-boiling fraction (HBF) of bio-oil were carried out over a series of supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts under the supercritical methanol condition. During these reactions, esterification and cracking (alcoholysis and hydrocracking) were the two dominant processes. PtNi\\/MgO exhibited good performance, and gave a high yield (72.4wt.%) of refined oil. The acid–base properties of

Wang Li; Chunyan Pan; Li Sheng; Zhen Liu; Ping Chen; Hui Lou; Xiaoming Zheng

2011-01-01

372

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

Adams, D.C.

1993-09-29

373

78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...action to ensure that the Board's representation reflects changes in the geographical...action would ensure that the Board's representation reflects changes in the geographical...peanut-producing states'' for purposes of Board representation and voting at meetings. Section...

2013-12-23

374

Magnetic and highly recyclable macroporous carbon nanotubes for spilled oil sorption and separation.  

PubMed

Development of sorbent materials with high selectivity and sorption capacity, easy collection and recyclability is demanding for spilled oil recovery. Although many sorption materials have been proposed, a systematic study on how they can be reused and possible performance degradation during regeneration remains absent. Here we report magnetic carbon nanotube sponges (Me-CNT sponge), which are porous structures consisting of interconnected CNTs with rich Fe encapsulation. The Me-CNT sponges show high mass sorption capacity for diesel oil reached 56 g/g, corresponding to a volume sorption capacity of 99%. The sponges are mechanically strong and oil can be squeezed out by compression. They can be recycled using through reclamation by magnetic force and desorption by simple heat treatment. The Me-CNT sponges maintain original structure, high capacity, and selectivity after 1000 sorption and reclamation cycles. Our results suggest that practical application of CNT macrostructures in the field of spilled oil recovery is feasible. PMID:23721652

Gui, Xuchun; Zeng, Zhiping; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gan, Qiming; Xiang, Rong; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

2013-06-26

375

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

376

Wingeom and Winplot Using Peanut Software to Create Pictures for LATEXDocuments  

E-print Network

Wingeom and Winplot Using Peanut Software to Create Pictures for LATEXDocuments Peanut software has copies of Wingeom and Winplot 1. Make a directory for Peanut Software. My directory is named named peanut. Click on Wingeom (Winplot) on the next page. 5. Save the file in the peanut directory. 6. Click

Lee, Carl

377

Preliminary Heritability Estimates for Drought Resistance Related Traits in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drought is a major factor in reduced productivity in peanuts. Cultivars that have high water-use efficiency have the potential to enhance the yield of the crop. Studies have shown that pod yield is a function of water transpired (T), water-use efficiency (WUE), and harvest index (HI). It is logisti...

378

EFFECTIVENESS OF CATEGORY AND LINE SCALES TO CHARACTERIZE CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF FRUITY FERMENTED FLAVOR IN PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. The 9-point hedonic scale is the most widely used scale to determine consumer acceptance; however, research has indicated that line scales may provide equal reliability and greater sensitivity. T...

379

CCMR: New building Blocks for Colloid- Based Materials by Imprinting Peanut Shape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To form peanut-shaped shells of high refractive index materials, and to then control properties of the different coatings. Hematite particles were first synthesized and then coated with silica, at which point the iron oxide was etched out of the shells.

Jones, Stephanie

2005-08-17

380

Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

381

High-yield enzymatic glycerolysis of fats and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several triglyceride fats and oils were reacted with glycerol using lipase as catalyst. A batch system with magnetic stirring\\u000a was used without the addition of any solvents or emulsifiers. In all cases a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides was obtained.\\u000a However, the yield of monglyceride (MG) depended strongly on the reaction temperature: at higher temperatures approximately\\u000a 30% MG was

Gerald P. McNeill; Shoichi Shimizu; Tsuneo Yamane

1991-01-01

382

High oil- and polyphenol-producing species of the northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of plant species for their potential as renewable sources of industrial raw materials, conducted at the Northern\\u000a Regional Research Center, has been extended to include 110 species from North Dakota (ND), Colorado (CO), and Oregon (OR),\\u000a U.S.A. Plant samples were collected and analyzed for yields of “oil,” “polyphenol,” “hydrocarbon” and crude protein as well\\u000a as for botanical characteristics.

M. E. Carr; M. O. Bagby; W. B. Roth

1986-01-01

383

Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

384

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE PEANUT MINI CORE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirty-one genomic SSR markers with M13-tail attached were used to assess genetic diversity in the peanut mini core, which is maintained by the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (USDA, ARS, PGRCU) in Griffin, GA. The M13-tailed method was effective in discriminating individuals and...

385

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

386

An In-depth Investigation of the Effect of Oil Pressure on the Complete Statistical Performance of a High-pressure Flowing Oil Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure flowing oil dielectric switch was developed for high-performance, high-voltage switching. It was evaluated by a team at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The switch was designed to produce a continuous train of nanosecond-rise electrical impulses, with a peak output power ranging up to several gigawatts, and at repetition frequencies ranging up to several kilohertz. High-pressure flowing oil was proposed

Peter Norgard; Randy D. Curry

2010-01-01

387

Adipose tissue triacylglycerols of rats are modulated differently by dietary isomeric octadecenoic acids from coriander oil and high oleic sunflower oil.  

PubMed

Earlier feeding studies of rats revealed that petroselinic acid [18:1(n-12)] from triacylglycerols of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil is extensively incorporated into the lipids of heart and liver and metabolized via beta-oxidation and chain elongation. We report here the composition and stereospecific distribution of acyl moieties, particularly isomeric octadecenoyl moieties, in adipose tissue triacylglycerols of male weaned Wistar rats fed diets containing, in addition to 20 g corn oil/kg feed, 120 g coriander oil per kg feed at a level of 63 g 18:1(n-12) moieties/100 g acyl moieties of the oil for 10 wk. For comparison, a group of rats was fed a similar corn oil-containing isocaloric diet with large proportions of oleoyl moieties [18:1(n-9)] from high oleic sunflower oil [72 g 18:1(n-9)/100 g acyl moieties of the oil]. The composition of the triacylglycerols of epididymal, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues was very similar for each feeding group, broadly reflecting the composition of the dietary oils. Feeding coriander oil, compared with high oleic sunflower oil, led to extensive incorporation of 18:1(n-12) into the triacylglycerols of the adipose tissues with a concomitant significantly and dramatically lower 18:1(n-9) concentration and, as a consequence, to the generation of triacylglycerol species containing 18:1(n-12) moieties. Petroselinoyl moieties from coriander oil were esterified predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of the adipose tissue triacylglycerols; 18:1(n-9) moieties from high oleic sunflower oil were fairly evenly distributed between the sn-1,3 and sn-2 positions. We suggest that acyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of adipose tissue triacylglycerols direct 18:1(n-12) moieties preferentially to sn-1,3-positions. PMID:10573551

Weber, N; Schönwiese, S; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

1999-12-01

388

Laboratory measurements of high-frequency, acoustic broadband backscattering from sea ice and crude oil.  

PubMed

Recent decreases in summer sea ice cover are spurring interest in hydrocarbon extraction and shipping in Arctic waters, increasing the risk of an oil spill in ice covered waters. With advances in unmanned vehicle operation, there is an interest in identifying techniques for remote, underwater detection of oil spills from below. High-frequency (200-565 kHz), broadband acoustic scattering data demonstrate that oil can be detected and quantified under laboratory grown sea ice and may be of use in natural settings. A simple scattering model based on the reflection coefficients from the interfaces agrees well with the data. PMID:25618096

Bassett, Christopher; Lavery, Andone C; Maksym, Ted; Wilkinson, Jeremy P

2015-01-01

389

Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

390

Effect of High-Oleic and High-Linoleic Safflower Oils on Mammary Tumors Induced in Rats by 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mutant safflower oil, rich in oleic acid, was used for a critical test of the hypothesis that polyunsaturated fats act as co-carcinogens. Weanling female rats were each given 5 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz( «) an thracene. They were then pair-fed diets containing 20%, by weight, of conventional high-linoleic safflower oil; a mutant high-oleic safflower oil; or coconut oil. Half of

SEYMOUR DAYTON; SAM HASHIMOTO

2010-01-01

391

Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-01-01

392

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01

393

High power switching with a V/n oil switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate switching is necessary to get reproducible pulses with minimal jitter from pulse power equipment. On a 10 MV pulse power machine, Aurora, we have improved the triggering of the oil closing switch in various ways. These include suppressing fast current oscillations during capacitive charging of the switch electrodes, using a faster trigger pulse that acts only during a fraction of the switch closure time, and localization of the arc. With additional use of the machine's symmetry the output pulses are now reproducible to better than 2% over the entire pulse shape, and the jitter is reduced about twofold, to 5 ns.

Pereira, N. R.; Gondarenko, N. A.

1996-01-01

394

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

395

7 CFR 407.14 - Area risk protection insurance for peanuts  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for peanuts 407.14 Section 407.14 Agriculture Regulations...REGULATIONS § 407.14 Area risk protection insurance for peanuts The peanut crop insurance provisions for Area Risk...

2014-01-01

396

Detection of olive oil adulteration by measuring its authenticity factor using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of as little as 1% of linoleic-rich vegetable oils to olive oil can be detected easily and quantitatively by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on an octyl-bonded silica stationary phase (Supelcosil-LC 8). The mobile phase was acetone-acetonitrile (70:30, v\\/v), used isocratically. The chromatogram of pure olive oil was compared with those of mixtures of soybean, sunflower and corn oils with

Ali H. El-Hamdy; Naima K. El-Fizga

1995-01-01

397

A parametric study on oil\\/air lubrication of a high-speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ball-bearing is widely used on many high-speed spindles due to its low starting friction and high load capacity. However, heat generation and dynamic loading caused by high-speed rotation have been obstacles for increasing the speed limit in many high-speed ball-bearing applications. Applying an appropriate lubrication and preload cannot be overemphasized. Recently, oil\\/air lubrication has been used on high-speed spindles

Cheng-Hsien Wu; Yu-Tai Kung

2005-01-01

398

Estimation of moisture and oil content of in-shell nuts with a capacitance sensor using discrete wavelet analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

. Moisture and oil contents are important quality factors often measured and monitored in the processing and storage of food products such as corn and peanuts. For estimating these parameters for peanuts nondestructively a parallel-plate capacitance sensor was used in conjunction with an impedance...

399

Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.  

PubMed

Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions. PMID:25089366

Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

2014-08-20

400

[The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].  

PubMed

The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikha?lova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

2005-01-01

401

POMC and orexin mRNA expressions induced by anticipation of a corn-oil emulsion feeding are maintained at the high levels until oil ingestion.  

PubMed

We investigated the gene expression dynamics of several hypothalamic neuropeptides associated with appetite regulation when rats are anticipating being fed a corn-oil emulsion. For 5 days at the same hour each day, rats were fed 5% corn oil emulsified with 0.3% xanthan gum or the vehicle for 20 min. On Day 6, the 5% corn oil emulsion or the vehicle (Vehicle) was presented to the rats, some of which (Oil-intake) were allowed to eat it and some of which (Oil-anticipation) were kept from eating it. Despite waiting a corn-oil, the mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a beta-endorphin precursor, and orexin showed increases, and high levels of mRNAs of POMC and orexin were maintained for 30 min after the corn-oil was placed before the rats, and only gradually decreased through 150 min. However, the mRNA levels of POMC and orexin in the hypothalamus were decreased within 30 min after starting to ingest the corn-oil emulsion. These results suggest that POMC and orexin mRNA expression was induced by the anticipation in rats after learning the palatability of 5% corn oil emulsion, and the induced mRNA expression based on the anticipation was maintained for at least for 30 min as the rats eagerly waited for ingestion. PMID:17099287

Mizushige, Takafumi; Kawai, Takayuki; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Yoneda, Takeshi; Kawada, Teruo; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

2006-10-01

402

Peanut Sensitization Profiles in Italian Children and Adolescents with Specific IgE to Peanuts  

PubMed Central

Peanuts are one of the most relevant foods implicated in IgE-mediated adverse reactions in pediatric population. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of sensitization towards five peanut allergenic components (rAra h 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9) in a population of Italian children and adolescents with specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut. rAra h 9 was the main allergen implicated in peanut sensitization (58%), followed by rAra h 8 (35%), rAra h 2 (27%), rAra h 3 (23%) and rAra h 1 (12.5%). rAra h 1, 2, and 3 were the main allergenic components in young children: 8/13 (62%) between 2 and 5 years, 8/23 (35%) between 6 and 11 years, and 3/12 (25%) between 1 and 16 years. No differences were found among the levels of sIgE towards rAra h 1, 2, 3, and 9 in the three groups; in contrast, the levels of sIgE against rAra h 8 showed an increasing trend according to age. In conclusion rAra h 1, 2, and 3 were the prevalent sensitizing allergens during the first years of life in Italian patients with sIgE to peanuts (“genuine” allergy); in contrast rAra h 9 and 8 were mainly involved in school-age children and adolescents with pollen allergy (“secondary” sensitization). PMID:24324955

Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

403

Evaluation of enzymatic modification of peanut protein isolate  

E-print Network

foods which can replace the milk. The peanut has many properties which make it desirable as a food supplement. Comparatively speaking, peanut protein has a more bland flavor, lighter color and a lower concentration of flatulence... requirements in convenience foods (i . e. , snacks, soups, beverages and extended and/or analog dairy products). Peanut flour can be added to a food system in a higher concentration than soy flour because of its blandness and lower level of flatulence...

Hostetler, Marsha Kay

1979-01-01

404

New Aspects of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, as our understanding of peanut and tree nut allergy has increased, the potential for real therapies has expanded\\u000a greatly. Hope for a cure for peanut and other food allergies is on the horizon. At the same time, the rates of peanut and\\u000a tree nut allergy have continued to increase, and much remains to be learned about these

Corinne A. Keet; Robert A. Wood

405

Stabilisation of high-speed flexible rotors supported by oil-film bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journal bearings are extensively used in turbo-machinery because of their simplicity and effectiveness. However, it is well known that journal bearings introduce stability problems at high speeds, due to hydrodynamic instability, inducing unstable oil whirl at a sub harmonic frequency, typically half of the rotor speed. High performance applications require lighter and faster rotors that are more flexible with lower

Sahinkaya MN; Burrows CR

406

High-speed Oil Engines for Vehicles. Part II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Further progress toward the satisfactory solution of the difficult problem of the distribution and atomization of the injected fuel was made by extensive experimentation with various fuel valves, nozzles, and atomizing devices. Valuable information was also obtained through numerous experimental researches on the combustion of oils and the manner of introducing the combustion air into the cylinder, as well as on the physical processes of atomization, the determination of the size of drops, etc. These researches led to the conclusion that it is possible, even without producing great turbulence in the combustion chamber and at moderate pump pressure, if the degree of atomization and the penetrative power of the fuel jet are adapted to the shape of the combustion chamber and to the dimensions of the cylinder.

Hausfelder, Ludwig

1927-01-01

407

Formulation of new food products using peanut flour and evaluation of their physical and sensory properties.  

E-print Network

??Using partially defatted peanut flour, two new products were formulated and analyzed for physical and sensory properties to determine ingredient functionality and consumer acceptability. Peanut… (more)

Howard, Brandy Martin

2008-01-01

408

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM  

E-print Network

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM 2013 D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Examining sorghum for lep larvae Technical Support: Mike Arrington

Liskiewicz, Maciej

409

Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The eliciting dose (ED) for a peanut allergic reaction in 5% of the peanut allergic population, the ED05, is 1.5 mg of peanut protein. This ED05 was derived from oral food challenges (OFC) that use graded, incremental doses administered at fixed time intervals. Individual patients’ threshold doses were used to generate population dose-distribution curves using probability distributions from which the ED05 was then determined. It is important to clinically validate that this dose is predictive of the allergenic response in a further unselected group of peanut-allergic individuals. Methods/Aims This is a multi-centre study involving three national level referral and teaching centres. (Cork University Hospital, Ireland, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.) The study is now in process and will continue to run until all centres have recruited 125 participates in each respective centre. A total of 375 participants, aged 1–18 years will be recruited during routine Allergy appointments in the centres. The aim is to assess the precision of the predicted ED05 using a single dose (6 mg peanut?=?1.5 mg of peanut protein) in the form of a cookie. Validated Food Allergy related Quality of Life Questionnaires-(FAQLQ) will be self-administered prior to OFC and 1 month after challenge to assess the impact of a single dose OFC on FAQL. Serological and cell based in vitro studies will be performed. Conclusion The validation of the ED05 threshold for allergic reactions in peanut allergic subjects has potential value for public health measures. The single dose OFC, based upon the statistical dose-distribution analysis of past challenge trials, promises an efficient approach to identify the most highly sensitive patients within any given food-allergic population. PMID:24028324

2013-01-01

410

Elimination of aflatoxins from peanut meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut meal containing aflatoxins was heat treated in the presence of moisture and chemicals to reduce the aflatoxin content.\\u000a Treatments with ammonia, methylamine, sodium hydroxide and ozone were effective in either destroying aflatoxins or greatly\\u000a reducing aflatoxin levels as indicated both by TLC analysis and feeding experiments with ducklings and rats. Weight gains\\u000a for animals receiving the treated meals were

F. G. Dollear; G. E. Mann; L. P. Codifer; H. K. Gardner; S. P. Koltun; H. L. E. Vix

1968-01-01

411

Plant regeneration from immature embryos of peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration from immature embryos of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can be accomplished through somatic embryogenesis. The highest frequency of somatic embryo formation occurred on B5 medium plus 0.5–1.0 mg\\/l picloram. Shoots and plants developed from the somatic embryos only after extended culture on basal medium. Shoots were excised from thick embryonic roots and rerooted on Murashige and Skoog medium

Peggy Ozias-Akins

1989-01-01

412

Rheological behavior of heavy oil and water mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-print Network

is divided into two categories. The first part was done by using a mercury capillary viscometer. A heavy oil sample (over 2,000 cp at standard condition) and three synthetic oil samples were analyzed at a range of temperatures up to about 350°F. The results...

Setiadarma, Agustinus

2012-06-07

413

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

414

Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

Bagby, M.O.

1986-03-01

415

Upgrading of high-boiling fraction of bio-oil in supercritical methanol.  

PubMed

In this work, the upgrading reactions of high-boiling fraction (HBF) of bio-oil were carried out over a series of supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts under the supercritical methanol condition. During these reactions, esterification and cracking (alcoholysis and hydrocracking) were the two dominant processes. PtNi/MgO exhibited good performance, and gave a high yield (72.4 wt.%) of refined oil. The acid-base properties of the supports have an important effect on the coke deposition on the catalyst surface. The acidic catalysts gave the somewhat lower product yields, but tended to inhibit coking reaction. This would improve the life of the catalysts in the practical applications. The refined oil is believed to be a potential substitute or partial substitute for the fossil transportation fuel. PMID:21835611

Li, Wang; Pan, Chunyan; Sheng, Li; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Ping; Lou, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoming

2011-10-01

416

Transcriptome profiling of peanut gynophores revealed global reprogramming of gene expression during early pod development in darkness  

PubMed Central

Background After the zygote divides few times, the development of peanut pre-globular embryo and fruit is arrested under white or red light. Embryo development could be resumed in dark condition after gynophore is buried in soil. It is interesting to study the mechanisms of gynophore development and pod formation in peanut. Results In this study, transcriptome analysis of peanut gynophore was performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 to understand the mechanisms of geocarpy. More than 13 million short sequences were assembled into 72527 unigenes with average size of 394 bp. A large number of genes that were not identified previously in peanut EST projects were identified in this study, including most genes involved in plant circadian rhythm, intra-cellular transportation, plant spliceosome, eukaryotes basal transcription factors, genes encoding ribosomal proteins, brassinosteriod biosynthesis, light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and TCA cycle. RNA-seq based gene expression profiling results showed that before and after gynophore soil penetration, the transcriptional level of a large number of genes changed significantly. Genes encoding key enzymes for hormone metabolism, signaling, photosynthesis, light signaling, cell division and growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism as well as genes involved in stress responses were high lighted. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of peanut gynophore generated a large number of unigenes which provide useful information for gene cloning and expression study. Digital gene expression study suggested that gynophores experience global changes and reprogram from light to dark grown condition to resume embryo and fruit development. PMID:23895441

2013-01-01

417

High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.  

PubMed

Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

2015-02-01

418

The effects of original and randomized rapeseed oils containing high or very low levels of erucic acid on cardiac lipids and myocardial lesions in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status of the very lowerucate rapeseed oil,Brassica napus var. ‘Tower,’ was compared with that of the high-erucate oil,Brassica napus var. ‘Target’, as well as with corn oil. The effect of randomization on the nutritional qualities of rapeseed oil was investigated\\u000a as well. The feeding of diets containing the original and randomized ‘Tower” oil or the original ‘Target’ oil,

S. Hung; T. Umemura; S. Yamashiro; S. J. Slinger; B. J. Holub

1977-01-01

419

Multicomponent analysis of encapsulated marine oil supplements using high-resolution 1 H and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicomponent high-resolution 1 H and 13 C NMR analysis has been employed for the purpose of detecting and quantifying a wide range of fatty acids (as triacylglycerols or otherwise) in encapsulated marine cod liver oil supple- ments. The 1 H NMR technique provided quantitative data regarding the docosahexaenoic acid content of these prod- ucts, which serves as a valuable index

Navaede Siddiqui; Julia Sim; Christopher J. L. Silwood; Harold Toms; Richard A. Iles; Martin Grootveld

420

A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (O&G) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive O&G include a reduction

M. C. Cammarota; D. M. G. Freire

2006-01-01

421

Microwave Moisture Meter for Rapid and Nondestructive Grading of Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A low-cost microwave moisture meter made with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for the grading of peanuts. The meter allows rapid and nondestructive determination of kernel moisture content from measurements on unshelled peanut pods. Th...

422

Field performance of three peanut entries in Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut entries (Tamrun 96, Tamrun OL02, and TX 994313) were among peanut lines included in four tests in 2006 and 2007. Plots were planted during May and harvested in late September to mid October to attain a growing season of 155 days. Plots were arranged in a complete randomized block design wit...

423

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND...PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50...

2011-01-01

424

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND...PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50...

2010-01-01

425

Peanut EST Project: Gene discovery and marker development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools to study plant-m...

426

Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

427

Marker-assisted selection for biotic stress resistance in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut ranks second to soybean in the world market trade of oilseeds both in area grown and tonnage produced, and is well-suited to contribute significantly to poverty reduction in the developing world. Peanut is a tetrapoid of recent origin, and has shown low levels of molecular marker polymorphis...

428

Energy savings from air recirculation in peanut curing  

SciTech Connect

A thin-layer peanut drying simulation model was adapted to incorporate air recirculation. Laboratory crop dryers were designed and constructed to conduct experiments to verify the model. Five batches of peanuts were dried using different recirculation strategies. The model successfully predicted the results.

Cook, D.F.; Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

1982-12-01

429

Why preserve and evaluate genetic resources in peanut?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts are produced in more than 100 countries with a total global total production in 2010 of 37,953,949 metric tons (FAO statistics, 2010). Because peanut is an important crop, it is imperative that its germplasm be preserved in order to conserve the genetic diversity and provide a resource to i...

430

Glufosinate application timing and rate affect peanut yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted at thirteen locations across the United States peanut belt during 2010-2012 to evaluate peanut response to postemergence applications of glufosinate over a range of dosages. Glufosinate was applied at 0, 41, 82, 164, 328 and 656 g ai/ha at 30, 60, and 90 days after planting (...

431

Valencia Peanut Response to Single, Twin and Diamond Planting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting arrangements. This study was conducted near Clovis, ...

432

Environmental Conditions During Transport of Shelled Peanuts in Overseas Containers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts exported overseas may be in transit from the shelling plant or cold storage to the overseas manufacturer for 30 d or more. In some instances, quality assurance testing at the overseas destination indicates that peanuts no longer meet contractual quality specifications. Considerable effort a...

433

Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

434

MANAGEMENT OF SCLEROTINIA BLIGHT AND VERTICILLIUM WILT IN PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some of the objectives of this research are to study the biology of economically important peanut pathogens including Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), and to determine the role of disease resistance in managing soil-borne peanut pathogens, particularly Sclerotinia blight, Verticillium wilt, and Sou...

435

Interactions of iron nutrition and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen fixation and Fe?deficiency stress response are two processes involving chemical reduction reactions in the root. It is possible that these processes could enhance one another in nodulated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective of this study was to determine the interactions of Fe nutritional stress, nodulation, and N2 fixation in peanuts. Plants were grown in solution culture which allowed

R. E. Terry; A. Hartzook; V. D. Jolley; J. C. Brown

1988-01-01

436

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22

437

The Design and Synthesis of Highly Branched and Spherically Symmetric Fluorinated Oils and Amphiles  

PubMed Central

A new emulsifier design principle, based on concepts borrowed from protein science, is proposed. Using this principle, a class of highly branched and spherically symmetric fluorinated oils and amphiles has been designed and synthesized, for potential applications in the construction of fluorocarbon nanoparticles. The Mitsunobu reaction was employed as the key step for introducing three perfluoro-tert-butoxyl groups into pentaerythritol derivatives with excellent yields and extremely simple isolation procedures. Due to the symmetric arrangement of the fluorine atoms, each fluorinated oil or amphile molecule gives one sharp singlet 19F NMR signal. PMID:18461118

Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Y. Bruce

2007-01-01

438

Biodegradability study of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed-oil-based lubricant additives  

SciTech Connect

A variety of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed (HEAR)-oil-based lubricants, lubricant additives, and greases were examined for biodegradability at the University of Idaho Center for Hazardous Waste Remediation Research. Two standard biodegradability tests were employed, a currently accepted US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol and the Sturm Test. As is normal for tests that employ variable inocula such as sewage as a source of microorganisms, these procedures yielded variable results from one repetition to another. However, a general trend of rapid and complete biodegradability of the HEAR-oil-based materials was observed.

Zhou, E.; Crawford, R.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Shanahan, A.; Mammel, W. Jr. [International Lubricants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

439

Effect of Delta 9–Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid al...

440

Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil comparison of batch and continuous reactor for production of zero trans shortening fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil (HO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different weight ratios (55:45, 60:40, 65:35 and 70:30, HO:FHSBO) was carried out in both a batch-type reactor (BA) and a packed-bed reactor (PBR) to produce zero trans shortening. Interesterified products in both PBR and BA consisted of 34–46g\\/100g saturated fatty acids (SFA) (mainly stearic acid)

D. Li; P. Adhikari; J.-A. Shin; J.-H. Lee; Y.-J. Kim; X.-M. Zhu; J.-N. Hu; J. Jin; C. C. Akoh; K.-T. Lee

2010-01-01

441

Differential Metabolite Profiles during Fruit Development in High-Yielding Oil Palm Mesocarp  

PubMed Central

To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes. PMID:23593468

Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R.

2013-01-01

442

A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

2014-01-01

443

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

444

Peanut-shaped bulges in face-on disk galaxies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution absorption-line spectroscopy of 3 face-on galaxies, NGC 98, NGC 600, and NGC 1703 with the aim of searching for box/peanut (B/P)-shaped bulges. These observations test and confirm the prediction of \\citet{deb_etal_05} that face-on B/P-shaped bulges can be recognized by a double minimum in the profile of the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment h_4. In NGC 1703, which is an unbarred control galaxy, we found no evidence of a B/P bulge. In NGC 98, a clear double minimum in h_4 is present along the major axis of the bar and before the end of the bar, as predicted. In contrast, in NGC 600, which is also a barred galaxy but lacks a substantial bulge, we do not find a significant B/P shape.

Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Debattista, V. P.; De Rijcke, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Pizzella, A.

445

Preferential utilisation of deoxycytidine by undifferentiated (peanut positive) tonsillar lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Peanut agglutinin (PNA), a D-galactose specific lectin, agglutinated 10-18% of lymphocytes isolated from tonsils of 3- to 6-yr-old children. PNA+ cells were found to be mainly B lymphocytes showing a 9.6 times higher specific activity of DNA polymerase alpha compared to the PNA- cells. The specific activity of deoxycytidine kinase as well as the incorporation of [5-3H]deoxycytidine were also much higher in PNA+ cell fraction than in PNA- fraction (7.7-fold and 6-fold, respectively). On the other hand, thymidine kinase activity and [5-3H]deoxythymidine incorporation were only 3.6 and 3.9 times higher, respectively. The data presented here show a high degree of DNA synthesis and preferential utilisation of [5-3H]deoxycytidine for DNA synthesis in this undifferentiated B lymphocyte fraction. PMID:3497870

Taljanidisz, J; Spasokukotskaja, T; Sasvári-Székely, M; Antoni, F; Staub, M

1987-06-01

446

Peanut-shaped bulges in face-on disk galaxies  

E-print Network

We present high resolution absorption-line spectroscopy of 3 face-on galaxies, NGC 98, NGC 600, and NGC 1703 with the aim of searching for box/peanut (B/P)-shaped bulges. These observations test and confirm the prediction of Debattista et al. (2005) that face-on B/P-shaped bulges can be recognized by a double minimum in the profile of the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment h_4. In NGC 1703, which is an unbarred control galaxy, we found no evidence of a B/P bulge. In NGC 98, a clear double minimum in h_4 is present along the major axis of the bar and before the end of the bar, as predicted. In contrast, in NGC 600, which is also a barred galaxy but lacks a substantial bulge, we do not find a significant B/P shape.

Mendez-Abreu, J; Debattista, V P; De Rijcke, S; Aguerri, J A L; Pizzella, A

2010-01-01

447

Novel Strategy to Create Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Edible Matrices for Oral Immunotherapy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. P...

448

IDENTIFICATION OF PEANUT PODS WITH THREE OR MORE KERNELS BY MACHINE VISION AND NEURAL NETWORKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separation of unshelled peanuts containing 3 or more kernels and then niche marketing them can potentially increase the value of unshelled peanuts and thus the profit of peanut producers or processors. Effective identification of peanut pods with 3 or more kernels is a critical step prior to separat...

449

The effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because of the widespread use of peanut products, peanut allergenicity is a major health concern in the United States. The effect or effects of thermal processing (roasting) on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins have rarely been addressed. Objective: We sought to assess the biochemical effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins. Methods: Competitive inhibition ELISA

Soheila J. Maleki; Si-Yin Chung; Elaine T. Champagne; Jean-Pierre Raufman

2000-01-01

450

The natural progression of peanut allergy: Resolution and the possibility of recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It was once thought that peanut allergy is a lifelong problem. We previously reported that about 20% of children outgrow their peanut allergy and that more than 60% of patients with a peanut-IgE level of 5 or less passed an oral challenge. Objective: The goal of this study was to further describe the natural progression of peanut allergy by

David M. Fleischer; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Lynn Christie; A. Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

2003-01-01

451

Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

2012-01-01

452

Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

2012-03-01

453

Iodized oil enhances the thermal effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on ablating experimental liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the biological medium on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for ablating experimental liver\\u000a cancer was studied. In study 1, the temperature rise in the focal zone in the presence of iodized oil or castor oil was observed\\u000a in vitro. The results showed that HIFU with iodized oil produced a higher and faster temperature rise than did HIFU

Shu-Qun Cheng; Xin-Da Zhou; Zhao-You Tang; Yao Yu; Su-Su Bao; De-Chu Qian

1997-01-01

454

High-Concentrate Diets and Polyunsaturated Oils Alter Trans and Conjugated Isomers in Bovine Rumen, Blood, and Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Holstein cows were fed a high-concentrate diet (65:35 concentrate to forage) supplemented with either 5% sunflower oil (SO), 5% linseed oil (LO), or 2.5% fish oil (FO) to examine effects on biohydrogenation and fatty acid profiles in rumen, blood plasma, and milk. Diets were fed in a 3 × 3 Latin square with 4-wk periods with grass hay as

J. J. Loor; A. Ferlay; A. Ollier; K. Ueda; M. Doreau; Y. Chilliard

2005-01-01

455

Effects of high-pressure homogenization on physicochemical properties and storage stability of switchgrass bio-oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique was used to improve the physicochemical properties and storage stability of switchgrass bio-oil. The viscosity, ethanol-insoluble fraction, and mass average molecular weight (Mw) of the bio-oil decreased significantly, and particle size became smaller after HPH processing; however, no significant changes were detected in heating value, water content, density, pH value, or ash content. The bio-oil's

Ronghai He; X. Philip Ye; Federico Harte; Burton English

2009-01-01

456

Selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil over high-silica zeolites.  

PubMed

Four high silica zeolites, i.e., HSZ-385, 890, 960, and 990 were utilized for the selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil from Fallopia japonica to certain chemicals in a fixed-bed reactor. The Beta-type HSZ-960 zeolite showed the highest selectivity to hydrocarbons, especially to aromatics as well as PAH compounds with the lowest unwanted chemicals while HSZ-890 showed high selectivity to aromatics. NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) analysis indicated that different amounts of acid sites in different zeolites determined the catalytic activity for the oxygen removal from bio-oil, in which the acid sites at low temperature (LT) region gave more contribution within the utilized temperature region. The reusability test of HSZ-960 showed the stability of hydrocarbons yield at higher temperature due to the significant contribution of coke gasification which assisted further deoxygenation of bio-oil. These results provide a guidance to select suitable zeolite catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oil in a practical process. PMID:25576987

Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Guan, Guoqing; Rizkiana, Jenny; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhang, Zhonglin; Abudula, Abuliti

2015-03-01

457

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31

458

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Peanut in Low-Fertile Tropical Soil. I. Host-Fungus Compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of inoculation with an indigenous Mozambican and a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculant on two peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars, a traditional, low-yielding Mozambican landrace (Local) and a modern, high-yielding cultivar (Falcon), were tested in a non-sterile and low-fertile Mozambican soil. Host-fungus compatibility was determined as a percentage of root colonization in combination with the effects on plant-growth

O. A. Quilambo; I. Weissenhorn; H. Doddema; P. J. C. Kuiper; I. Stulen

2005-01-01

459

Effect of Anti-IgE Therapy in Patients with Peanut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Peanut-induced anaphylaxis is an IgE-mediated condition that is estimated to affect 1.5 million people and cause 50 to 100 deaths per year in the United States. TNX-901 is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against IgE that recognizes and masks an epitope in the CH3 region of IgE responsible for binding to the high-affinity Fc e recep- tor on mast

Donald Y. M. Leung; Hugh A. Sampson; John W. Yunginger; A. Wesley Burks; Lynda C. Schneider; Cornelis H. Wortel; Frances M. Davis; John D. Hyun; William R. Shanahan

2003-01-01

460

Two-Dimensional Phase Behavior of Colloidal Peanuts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the phase behavior of spherical colloidal suspensions has been well studied, the ordering of non-spherical colloidal particles remains a largely unexplored yet important problem. In this talk we will describe ongoing studies of one very simple extension of the spherical particle: the colloidal peanut. These peanuts have an aspect ratio that makes them comparable to dimer particles. Confining the colloidal peanuts to two dimensions, we find that the suspension can undergo a phase transition from a liquid to an ordered phase in which each individual peanut lobe resides on a triangular lattice site. The lobe packing is very similar to the hexagonally close packed crystalline arrangement formed by spheres in 2D. Unlike their spherical counterparts, however, the colloidal peanuts are not isotropic, and in particular, each peanut has a specific orientation, or director. In this talk we will describe the correlations between defects in the underlying triangular lattice and the local director field. We will also report on our measurements of long-range director correlations, and if time permits, we will describe ongoing work relating to phases formed by peanut particles with different aspect ratios.

Gerbode, Sharon; Wolfgang, Angie; Lee, Stephanie; John, Bettina; Liddell, Chekesha; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai

2007-03-01

461

Rapid extraction of aflatoxin from creamy and crunchy peanut butter.  

PubMed

A rapid extraction technique was developed for the isolation and subsequent liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in creamy and crunchy peanut butter. Peanut buftter samples were extracted with a methanol 15% sodium chloride (7 + 3) solution followed by a second extraction with methanol. The extract was subjected to a cleanup using a Vicam Aflatest immunoaffinity column. Control samples for both smooth and crunchy peanut butter were fortified at 4 different levels for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. The average aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 recoveries from smooth peanut buffer were 95.2, 89.9, 94.1, and 62.4%, respectively, and 92.4, 84.3, 85.5, and 53.7%, respectively, from crunchy peanut butter. This extraction method and the official AOAC Method 991.31 produced comparable results for peanut butter samples. This method provides a rapid, specific, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanut butter with minimal solvent usage. Organic solvent consumption was decreased by 85% and hazardous waste production was decreased by 80% in comparison with the AOAC method. Along with the decreased solvent consumption, significant savings in time were observed. PMID:16385986

Vega, Victor A

2005-01-01

462

Hydrogeological conditions of heavy high-viscous oil distribution in northeast Ural-Povolzhye (Udmurtia, Perm, and Kirov Region)  

SciTech Connect

The major question while investigating the origin of subsurface oilfield waters is the development of regional and local hydrogeological oil exploration indices. For determination of the influence of subsurface water on oil pools it is necessary to study paleohydrogeological interrelations and regularities, and the interaction of sub-surface waters and oils. While considering these problems, paleohydrogeological cycles, which include crustal elevation and sea level regression are identified. Nine or ten paleohydrogeological cycles are marked in the Udmurtia, Permian, and Kirov territories, depending on regional paleotectonical history. Mesozoic-Cainozoic tectonic movements are the important cause of generation of heavy high-viscous oil pools.

Kouznetsova, T.A. [All-Russia Petroleum Scientific-Research Geological-Exploration Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

463

A study on the prevalence of bacteria that occupy nodules within single peanut plants.  

PubMed

In this study, bacteria hosted in root nodules of single plants of legume Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) cv Tegua Runner growing at field were isolated. The collection of nodule isolates included both fast and slow growing strains. Their genetic diversity was assessed in order to identify the more frequently rhizobial strain associated to nodules from single plants. Molecular fingerprinting of 213 nodular isolates indicated heterogeneity, absence of a dominant genotype and, therefore, of a unique strains highly competitive. Efficient nitrogen-fixing isolates were identified as Bradyrhizobium sp. by phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of their 16S rRNA genes. The genetic diversity of 68 peanut nodulating isolates from all the collected plants was also analyzed. Considering their ERIC-PCR profiles, they were grouped in eighteen different OTUs for 60% similarity cut-off. Results obtained in this study indicate that the genetic diversity of rhizobia occupying nodules from single plant is very high, without the presence of a dominant strain. Therefore, the identification of useful peanut rhizobia for agricultural purposes requires strongly the selection, among the diverse population, of a very competitive genotype in combination with a high-symbiotic performance. PMID:21442391

Angelini, Jorge; Ibáñez, Fernando; Taurian, Tania; Tonelli, María Laura; Valetti, Lucio; Fabra, Adriana

2011-06-01

464

Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

2014-06-15

465

[Effect of high doses of shark liver oil supplementation on T cell polarization and peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cell function].  

PubMed

Fish oils supplementation has been recently widely used in prevention and treatment of the diseases in humans. Fish oil beneficial effects have been investigated in a number of animal disease models as well as human studies. Here, we examined clinical, immunological and biochemical effects of shark liver oil supplementation in high doses in 13 volunteers. The experiment was based on the consumption of 3.6 g of squalene, 3.6 g of alkylglycerols and 750 mg of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) per day for 4 weeks. We have shown the increased response of neutrophils towards bacteria, the increased level of C4 component of complement in blood, the rise of total antioxidant status of serum, and the predominance of Type I cytokine IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after shark liver oil intake. Moreover, shark liver oil supplementation markedly affect lipid metabolism and cholesterol balance. The increase of total cholesterol level from 182.92 +/- 29.290 mg/dl before oil consumption to 224.46 +/- 62.198 mg/dl after diet rich in oil, and the decrease of HDL fraction were noted. However, metabolism of lipids normalised spontaneously after the end of the experiment in all the individuals. The results of the present study have shown, that the main effects of shark liver oil are the result of the biological activity of squalene and 1-O-alkylglycerols, which dominate in the composition of the oil quantitatively. On the contrary, anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFA do not manifest, when taking together with high doses of squalene and alkylglycerols. On the bases of these observations, we propose that shark liver oil supplementation in high doses is beneficial in bacterial, viral and fungal infections, whereas patients with atherosclerosis or autoimmune diseases should avoid the consumption of high amounts of shark liver oil. PMID:16124384

Lewkowicz, Przemys?aw; Banasik, Ma?gorzata; G?owacka, Ewa; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Tchórzewski, Henryk

2005-06-01

466

A study of the gross compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions using high performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing the compositions of crude oils and fluid inclusion oils is described. The necessary increase in instrumentation sensitivity was accomplished using a narrow bore Waters Spherisorb column with 5?m particle diameter. This HPLC method has advantage over the Iatroscan TLC–FID technique previously described as the

Louis S. K. Pang; Simon C. George; Robinson A. Quezada

1998-01-01

467

Reduction of high content of free fatty acid in sludge palm oil via acid catalyst for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sulphuric acid (H2SO4) was used in the pretreatment of sludge palm oil for biodiesel production by an esterification process, followed by the basic catalyzed transesterification process. The purpose of the pretreatment process was to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content from high content FFA (>23%) of sludge palm oil (SPO) to a minimum level for biodiesel

Adeeb Hayyan; Mohamed E. S. Mirghani; Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi; Noor Irma Nazashida Mohd Hakimi; Yosri Mohd Siran; Shawaluddin Tahiruddin

2011-01-01

468

Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of...

469

?????????????????? ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? Simultaneous Determination of Methanol Ethanol and Fusel oil in Alcoholic Beverage Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol ethanol and fusel oil are important substances in alcoholic beverages that indicate to quality of them. Their concentrations should be closely monitored. In this research, high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection was developed for simultaneous separation of methanol ethanol and fusel oils ( propanol, iso-butyl alcohol and iso-amyl alcohol ). The isocratic elution was optimized for a

Amorn Chaiyasat; Preeyaporn Chaiyasat

470

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

471

A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

472

Combustion of peanut and tamarind shells in a conical fluidized-bed combustor: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Combustion of peanut and tamarind shells was studied in the conical fluidized-bed combustor using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Morphological, thermogravimetric and kinetic characteristics were investigated to compare thermal and combustion reactivity between the biomass fuels. The thermogravimetric kinetics of the biomasses was fitted using the Coats-Redfern method. Experimental tests on the combustor were performed at 60 and 45 kg/h fuel feed rates, with excess air within 20-80%. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured along radial and axial directions in the reactor and at stack. The axial temperature and gas concentration profiles inside the combustor exhibited sensible effects of fuel properties and operating conditions on combustion and emission performance. High (? 99%) combustion efficiency and acceptable levels of CO, CxHy, and NO emissions are achievable when firing peanut shells at excess air of about 40%, whereas 60% is more preferable for burning tamarind shells. PMID:23693147

Kuprianov, Vladimir I; Arromdee, Porametr

2013-07-01

473

A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

474

Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Pratylenchus brachyurus in Peanut Shells  

PubMed Central

Five dosages of methyl bromide were used to fumigate peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) shells and whole pods of peanuts in 1-liter flasks for 24 hr at 25 C. Methyl bromide dosages as low as 24.5 mg/liter killed all Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey) Filip. &Sch. Stech. in peanut shells. Dosages of 44.6 and 50.9 mg/liter killed all but one or two nematodes in shells of whole pods. A 15% reduction in seed germination occurred at the 50.9-mg/liter dosage. PMID:19319321

Minton, N. A.; Gillenwater, H. B.

1973-01-01

475

Cytogenetic Damage in Shallot ( Allium cepa ) Root Meristems Induced by Oil Industry “High-Density Brines”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg dm?3 and 1.61 kg dm?3, respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry “high-density brines.” In our experiment they\\u000a were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol dm?3 to study their cytotoxic effect on the

M. Pavlica; I. Regula; D. Pape

2002-01-01

476

Lipid metabolism in pigs fed beef tallow or high-oleic acid sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to establish the effects of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and beef tallow on tissue fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activities in swine; and to compare effects of HOSO and tallow on swine plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein-cholesterol fractions. Sixteen gilts were divided into two groups: eight fed a control diet containing 10 g\\/100 g beef

Ingrid L. Klingenberg; Darrel A. Knabe; Stephen B. Smith

1995-01-01

477

High yield production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from soybean oil by Ralstonia eutropha and its recombinant strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

High yield production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Ralstonia eutropha H16 and its recombinant strain PHB?4\\/pJRDEE32d13 (a PHA-negative mutant harboring Aeromonas caviae PHA synthase gene, phaCAc) from renewable inexpensive soybean oil was investigated. The PHA production by the wild-type strain H16 was achieved with a high dry cells weight (118–126 g\\/l) and a high poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] content per dry cells of

Prihardi Kahar; Takeharu Tsuge; Kazunori Taguchi; Yoshiharu Doi

2004-01-01

478

Assay of aflatoxin in peanuts and peanut products using acetone-hexane-water for extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method is described for the assay of aflatoxin in peanut products. The procedure involves extraction of aflatoxin\\u000a from the sample with a homogeneous acetone-hexane-water solvent mixture followed by purification of the extract by phasic\\u000a extraction of the aflatoxin with aqueous sodium chloride and then with chloroform. The purified chloroform extract is analyzed\\u000a by thin-layer chromatography by comparison of

J. A. Robertson; Louise S. Lee; Alva F. Cucullu; L. A. Goldblatt

1965-01-01

479

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-01

480

Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

481

An evaluation of the sensitivity of subjects with peanut allergy to very low doses of peanut protein: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The minimum dose of food protein to which subjects with food allergy have reacted in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges is between 50 and 100 mg. However, subjects with peanut allergy often report severe reactions after minimal contact with peanuts, even through intact skin. Objective: We sought to determine whether adults previously proven by challenge to be allergic to peanut

Jonathan O'B. Hourihane; Sally A. Kilburn; Julie A. Nordlee; Susan L. Hefle; Steve L. Taylor; John O. Warner

1997-01-01

482

Unexpectedly high mortality in Pacific herring embryos exposed to the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay.  

PubMed

In November 2007, the container ship Cosco Busan released 54,000 gallons of bunker fuel oil into San Francisco Bay. The accident oiled shoreline near spawning habitats for the largest population of Pacific herring on the west coast of the continental United States. We assessed the health and viability of herring embryos from oiled and unoiled locations that were either deposited by natural spawning or incubated in subtidal cages. Three months after the spill, caged embryos at oiled sites showed sublethal cardiac toxicity, as expected from exposure to oil-derived polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). By contrast, embryos from the adjacent and shallower intertidal zone showed unexpectedly high rates of tissue necrosis and lethality unrelated to cardiotoxicity. No toxicity was observed in embryos from unoiled sites. Patterns of PACs at oiled sites were consistent with oil exposure against a background of urban sources, although tissue concentrations were lower than expected to cause lethality. Embryos sampled 2 y later from oiled sites showed modest sublethal cardiotoxicity but no elevated necrosis or mortality. Bunker oil contains the chemically uncharacterized remains of crude oil refinement, and one or more of these unidentified chemicals likely interacted with natural sunlight in the intertidal zone to kill herring embryos. This reveals an important discrepancy between the resolving power of current forensic analytical chemistry and biological responses of keystone ecological species in oiled habitats. Nevertheless, we successfully delineated the biological impacts of an oil spill in an urbanized coastal estuary with an overlapping backdrop of atmospheric, vessel, and land-based sources of PAC pollution. PMID:22203989

Incardona, John P; Vines, Carol A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Baldwin, David H; Day, Heather L; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Linbo, Tiffany L; Myers, Mark S; Olson, O Paul; Sloan, Catherine A; Sol, Sean; Griffin, Frederick J; Menard, Karl; Morgan, Steven G; West, James E; Collier, Tracy K; Ylitalo, Gina M; Cherr, Gary N; Scholz, Nathaniel L

2012-01-10

483

Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls, scanning electron microscopy images coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the percentage of copper on the modified hulls (2.5 %) was greater than on the unmodified hulls (1.6 %). This study concluded that the adsorption of copper using peanut hulls is a potential method for wastewater treatment and delignification and oxidation of the hulls increases the adsorption capacity approximately three-fold.

Davis, Kanika Octavia

484

Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of 40K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for 226Ra activity peak from 214Bi at 1760 keV and 232Th activity, peak from 208Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

Akkurt, ?skender; Güno?lu, Kadir; Mavi, Betül; Kara, Ayhan

2012-09-01

485

Characterization of peanut-soybean films for food packaging applications  

E-print Network

Edible films made from peanut and soybean were developed using casting and single-screw extrusion methods. The effect of time, formulation and processing method on the rheological, barrier and physical properties of the experimental films were...

Tellez Garay, Angela Maria

2012-06-07

486

Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of {sup 40}K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for {sup 226}Ra activity peak from {sup 214}Bi at 1760 keV and {sup 232}Th activity, peak from {sup 208}Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir; Mavi, Betuel; Kara, Ayhan [Suleyman Demirel University Isparta (Turkey); Amasya University Amasya (Turkey); Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Osmaniye (Turkey)

2012-09-06

487

Childhood Peanut Allergy May Be Linked to Skin Gene Mutation  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Childhood Peanut Allergy May Be Linked to Skin Gene Mutation Study ... Friday, October 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Food Allergy Genes and Gene Therapy Skin Conditions FRIDAY, Oct. ...

488

Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the HR-ToF-AMS. The measurements are interpreted in the context of the measurements over tropical rain forest at Danum and aircraft measurements across Sabah.

Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

2008-12-01

489

Application of high-intensity ultrasound to palm oil in a continuous system.  

PubMed

High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) was used in a continuous system to change the crystallization behavior of palm oil. Different power levels (75, 110, and 180 W) and pulse durations (continuous application and 5, 10, and 15 s pulses) were used to optimize sonication conditions. Results showed that HIU applied at low power level (75 W) was the most efficient condition in inducing palm oil crystallization at 35 °C, generating a crystalline network with higher solid fat content (SFC), higher elasticity, and sharper melting profile after 60 min of crystallization. Changes in elasticity observed as a consequence of sonication were maintained after tempering the samples at 25 °C for 24 h, but were lost after tempering at 5 °C. No significant differences (? = 0.05) were observed in SFC values of the sonicated and nonsonicated samples after tempering, whereas the sharper melting behavior observed in the sonicated sample was maintained after tempering. PMID:25516404

Ye, Yubin; Martini, Silvana

2015-01-14

490

Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

1980-01-01

491

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by Ralstonia eutropha in high cell density palm oil fermentations  

E-print Network

Improved production costs will accelerate commercialization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer and PHA-based products. Plant oils are considered favorable feedstocks, due to their high carbon content and relatively low ...

Yusof, Zainal Abidin Mohd

492

Porous carbon particles derived from natural peanut shells as lithium ion battery anode and its electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned peanut shells, a common farm waste, have caused tremendous environmental pollution and huge waste deposits through burned and buried disposal approaches. In targeting to enhance the potential value of peanut shells and discover a new alternative candidate for lithium ion batteries, we adopted an easy to scale-up and highly repeated method to treat fresh and dry peanut shells via acid-treatment and pyrolysis, making porous structures on carbonized peanut shells. The pyrolysis process transformed the peanut shells to porous carbon (PC) materials in a quartz tube furnace at a series of temperatures from 500°C to 700°C in N2 under the condition of 40°C gradient temperatures with a heating rate of 2°C min-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the irregular porous structures and hundreds of micropores are distributed on the PC materials. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) test and particle size analysis are employed to investigate their characteristics of voltammetry and particle size distribution. PC material obtained at 620°C (PC-620) exhibited good particle distribution, porous structure and less agglomerated particles. When applied as anode materials in lithium ion batteries, the PC-620 electrode displayed the high reversible capacity of 608 mAh g-1. Moreover, the cycling performance of PC-620 was the most stable, with a high Coulombic efficiency of 98.9% at the 20th cycle, demonstrating a reversible capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite. Most importantly, the PC materials harvested from the wastes of natural resources are turned into valuable electrode materials for the high demand energy storage devices, which can significantly reduce severe environmental pollution and alleviate an energy shortage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Cao, Xiaoyu; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

2014-07-01

493

Inactivation of aflatoxins in peanut and cottonseed meals by ammoniation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins in peanut and cottonseed meal can be inactivated by treatment with gaseous ammonia. In pilot plant runs, contaminated\\u000a peanut meal was ammoniated at two levels each of moisture content, reaction time, temperature and ammonia pressure. Thin layer\\u000a chromatography indicated that ammoniation inactivated the aflatoxins (121 ppb) in the meal to a nondetectable level. With\\u000a a similar treatment, total aflatoxins

S. P. Koltun; F. G. Dollear; E. T. Rayner

1971-01-01

494

Select metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural by-products, such as peanut shells, contribute large quantities of lignocellulosic waste to the environment each growing season; but few, if any, value-added uses exist for their disposal. The objective of this study was to convert peanut shells to activated carbons for use in adsorption of select metal ions, namely, cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc

Kermit Wilson; Hong Yang; Chung W. Seo; Wayne E. Marshall

2006-01-01

495

Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Major Peanut Allergen Gene Families  

PubMed Central

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K.; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O.; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

496

Comparative and evolutionary analysis of major peanut allergen gene families.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J; Paterson, Andrew H

2014-09-01

497

A flavonoid antioxidant in Spanish peanuts (Arachia hypogoea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot methanol extracts of Spanish peanuts were found to possess antioxidant activity. Thin layer (TLC) and paper chromatography\\u000a of the methanolic peanut extracts yielded 6 fluorescent bands of which one exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Further\\u000a separation by TLC showed this band to be a complex mixture of 3 components that were tested for antioxidant activity. One\\u000a component demonstrated all of

D. E. Pratt; E. E. Miller

1984-01-01

498

Inheritance of resistance to Sclerotinia blight in spanish peanut crosses  

E-print Network

INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO SCLEROTINIA BLIGHT IN SPANISH PEANUT CROSSES by LISA GALE WILDMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fu?llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Plant Breeding INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE OF SCLEROTINIA SLIGHT IN SPANISH PEANUT CROSSES A Thesis LISA GALE WILDMAN Approved as to style and content by: O. . Smith (Chair of Committee) R. A. Taber (Member) C. E. Si...

Wildman, Lisa Gale

2012-06-07

499

Seasonal nitrogen fixation patterns of four peanut cultivars  

E-print Network

SEASONAL NITROGEN FIXATION PATTERNS OP FOUR PEANUT CULTIVARS A Thesis by WILLIAM HARMON TONN III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1979 Major Subject: Soil Science SEASONAL NITROGEN FIXATION PATTERNS OF FOUR PEANUT CULTIVARS A Thesis by WILLIAM HARMON TONN III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) August 1979 ABSTRACT...

Tonn, William Harmon

1979-01-01

500

High density SNP and SSR-based genetic maps of two independent oil palm hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Oil palm is an important perennial oil crop with an extremely long selection cycle of 10 to 12 years. As such, any tool that speeds up its genetic improvement process, such as marker-assisted breeding is invaluable. Previously, genetic linkage maps based on AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers were developed and QTLs for fatty acid composition and yield components identified. High density genetic maps of crosses of different genetic backgrounds are indispensable tools for investigating oil palm genetics. They are also useful for comparative mapping analyses to identify markers closely linked to traits of interest. Results A 4.5 K customized oil palm SNP array was developed using the Illumina Infinium platform. The SNPs and 252 SSRs were genotyped on two mapping populations, an intraspecific cross with 87 palms and an interspecific cross with 108 palms. Parental maps with 16 linkage groups (LGs), were constructed for the three fruit forms of E. guineensis (dura, pisifera and tenera). Map resolution was further increased by integrating the dura and pisifera maps into an intraspecific integrated map with 1,331 markers spanning 1,867 cM. We also report the first map of a Colombian E. oleifera, comprising 10 LGs with 65 markers spanning 471 cM. Although not very dense due to the high level of homozygosity in E. oleifera, the LGs were successfully integrated with the LGs of the tenera map. Direct comparison between the parental maps identified 603 transferable markers polymorphic in at least two of the parents. Further analysis revealed a high degree of marker transferability covering 1,075 cM, between the intra- and interspecific integrated maps. The interspecific cross displayed higher segregation distortion than the intraspecific cross. However, inclusion of distorted markers in the genetic maps did not disrupt the marker order and no map expansion was observed. Conclusions The high density SNP and SSR-based genetic maps reported in this paper have greatly improved marker density and genome coverage in comparison with the first reference map based on AFLP and SSR markers. Therefore, it is foreseen that they will be more useful for fine mapping of QTLs and whole genome association mapping studies in oil palm. PMID:24767304

2014-01-01