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1

Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

Hammons, R.O.

1981-01-01

2

Physical and Chemical Characterizations of Normal and High-Oleic Oils from Nine Commercial Cultivars of Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Density and viscosity data as a function of temperature (5 to 100°C) were collected for oils (normal and high-oleic) from 9 cultivars of peanut. Density decreased linearly (R squared, greater than or equal to 0.99) with increasing temperature for all oils, whereas viscosity (dynamic or kinematic) d...

3

The Naturally Occurring High Oleate Oil Character in Some Peanut Varieties Results from Reduced Oleoyl-PC Desaturase Activity from Mutation of Aspartate 150 to Asparagine  

Microsoft Academic Search

tive breeding with little effect on the agronomic charac- teristics of the plant. For example, a high oleate peanut Commercially important high oleate seed oils, meaning that they cultivar called SunOleic 95R has been developed by the are low in polyunsaturated fatty acid content, are resistant to devel- University of Florida, in which the polyunsaturated fatty oping rancidity. A peanut

Ann C. Bruner; Sook Jung; Albert G. Abbott; Gary L. Powell

2001-01-01

4

Genetic studies of peanut proteins and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six peanut cultivars (Chico, Argentine, Tennessee Red, Florunner, F334A-B-14, and Florida Jumbo) and their F2 seed populations were used to determine the inheritance of protein and oil contents. The results suggested that both protein\\u000a and oil contents were quantitatively inherited. Calculated correlation coefficients between protein and oil contents were\\u000a negative and varied from nonsignificant to highly significant in both parental

Y. P. Tai; Clyde T. Young

1975-01-01

5

Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil.

Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

1997-01-01

6

Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect

Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

Goodrum, J.W.

1983-06-01

7

Will peanut hulls replace oil  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

Not Available

1980-12-01

8

Characteristics and composition of peanut oil prepared by an aqueous extraction method.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the crops being tested for NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for future long-duration human space missions. The ALS program is developing an integrated system for biomass (food, oxygen) production and resource recycling. Oil will be used mainly for cooking and its availability is important for food preparation. Peanut seeds contain 40-50% oil and hence are considered an excellent source of oil. In the ALS environment, a simple, compact, and energy-efficient system is needed. The feasibility of such a method, peanut oil preparation by water extraction, was investigated. The results indicated the important processing conditions to be: a peanut particle size of 0.02 cm or less, a pH of 4, simmering for 20 min plus churning at 65 degrees C for a few hours, and a centrifugation at 6000 x gn to separate the oil. The oil recovery yield was about 80%. The saponification value, specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity were similar to that of commercial peanut oil except the color was lighter for the water-extracted oil. Gas and thin-layer chromatographic analyses showed that fatty acid and lipid profiles were similar to the commercial peanut oil. The only difference observed was that the oil prepared by the aqueous method had lower linoleic and higher oleic acids than the commercial peanut oil. The oil prepared by this aqueous method appeared to be of high quality. PMID:11541680

Shi, L; Lu, J Y; Jones, G; Loretan, P A; Hill, W A

1998-01-01

9

RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

10

Evaluation of peanut and cottonseed oils for deep frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of cottonseed and peanut oils for frying of potato chips was undertaken. Industrial scale frying was conducted\\u000a for 5 days with cottonseed and 5 days with peanut oil and frying oils and chips were sampled twice a day. Frying oils and\\u000a oils extracted from stored chips were analyzed for ultraviolet absorption (A232 and A268), peroxide and acid

L. M. Du Plessis; P. Van Twisk; P. J. van Niekerk; M. Steyn

1981-01-01

11

Genomics of Peanut, a Major Source of Oil and Protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is the second-most important grain legume cultivated, of importance for being a source of oil and protein. The perceived lack of variation in the cultivated species has resulted in a focus until recently on characterization and mapping of wild species, and on transformation of peanut with ge...

12

Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays  

PubMed Central

Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B), oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues.

Payton, Paxton; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Guo, Baozhu; Burow, Mark; Puppala, Naveen; Gallo, Maria

2009-01-01

13

Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo systems  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-? in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-? and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-? translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-? inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-? and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion Oleic acid was found to be effective in reversing the inhibitory effect in insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. This finding is consistent with the reported therapeutic characteristics of other monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, a diet high in oleic acid, which can be easily achieved through consumption of peanuts and olive oil, can have a beneficial effect in type II diabetes and ultimately reverse the negative effects of inflammatory cytokines observed in obesity and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

2009-01-01

14

Long term testing of peanut oil in engines  

SciTech Connect

Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

Goodrum, J.W.

1985-01-01

15

Acylglycerol structure of peanut oils of different atherogenic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigation was made of the triacylglycerol structure of native, simulated, and interesterified peanut oils, which\\u000a had previously been shown to differ markedly in their atherogenic potential. By means of chromatographic and stereospecific\\u000a analyses, it was shown that the more atherogenic native oil contains a significantly greater proportion of triacylglycerols\\u000a with linoleic insn-2-position and arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids insn-3-position

J. J. Myher; L. Marai; A. Kuksis; D. Kritchevsky

1977-01-01

16

Synthesis of structured triglycerides from peanut oil with immobilized lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured triglycerides (ST) that contain medium- and long-chain fatty acids were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed interesterification\\u000a between tricaprylin and peanut oil. To select appropriate enzymes, we investigated nine commercial lipase preparations for\\u000a their ability to hydrolyze pure triglycerides as well as natural oils. Three microbial lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (RML), Candida sp. (CSL), and Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL) gave good results, and

Mohamed M. Soumanou; Uwe T. Bornscheuer; Ulrich Menge; Rolf D. Schmid

1997-01-01

17

EFFECT OF THE HIGH-OLEIC TRAIT AND PASTE STORAGE VARIABLES ON SENSORY ATTRIBUTE STABILITY OF ROASTED PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There has been much interest in the effect of the high-oleic acid trait of peanuts on various quality factors since discovery of high levels of oleic acid in a peanut mutant genotype. The trait provides greater oxidative stability for the high-oleic oil and seed. Several research groups have investi...

18

Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

19

Oil migration in chocolate-peanut butter paste confectionery as a function of chocolate formulation.  

PubMed

Migration of oil from high oil content filling to the chocolate coating can result in undesirable quality changes in filled chocolate confectionery products. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in a 2-layer chocolate-peanut butter paste model confectionery. Spatial and temporal oil content changes were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Five formulations of chocolate, which varied in chocolate particle size, milk fat content, and emulsifier level, were assessed at 2 temperatures, 20 and 30 degrees C. The spatial and temporal experimental data were modeled using a Fickian-based diffusion model, fitting for the diffusion coefficient, D, over a time frame of 17 d. Values of the diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.82 to 3.23 x 10(-11) m2/s for the chocolate formulations stored at 30 degrees C. No significant mass transfer took place in the 20 degrees C samples over the experimental time frame. This study describes the dynamic nature of the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste layers, quantifies the mass transfer from the peanut butter paste to the chocolate, and reinforces the importance of temperature control. PMID:19241547

McCarthy, K L; McCarthy, M J

2008-08-01

20

De Novo Assembly of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Unigenes for Oil Accumulation Pathways.  

PubMed

Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

2013-09-10

21

Phase relations pertaining to the solvent winterization of cottonseed and peanut oils in acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  Systematic physical chemical data on the solventwinterization behavior of cottonseed and peanut oils with acetone have been\\u000a obtained which should serve as a basis for selecting the conditions necessary for the effective solvent winterization of these\\u000a oils in acetone.\\u000a \\u000a Cottonseed and peanut oils are only partially miscible with acetone below certain temperatures which have been determined.\\u000a In peanut

Evald L. Skau; W. N. Dopp; E. G. Burleigh; L. F. Banowetz

1950-01-01

22

Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends  

SciTech Connect

Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

1982-07-01

23

Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... or not you should avoid peanut oil. A study showed that unlike other legumes, there is a strong possibility of cross-reaction between peanuts and lupine. Arachis oil is peanut oil. Sunflower seeds are often produced on equipment shared with ...

24

Determination of protein levels in soy and peanut oils by colorimetric assay and ELISA.  

PubMed

Analytical methods are needed for measuring the levels of protein from allergenic food transferred into cooking oil. A simple method for determination of total protein in cooking oils was developed. Oil was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween (PBST) and the extracts were partitioned with hexane to remove residual oil. Total protein in the PBST extracts was assayed with bicinchoninic acid (BCA), micro-BCA, reducing-agent compatible BCA and CB-XT kits. These methods were used to measure recovery of protein from peanut butter spikes of soy and peanut oil in the range of 50-1000 ppm. Recoveries were generally above 70%. However, the BCA and micro-BCA assays were subject to interference and enhanced color formation which were probably due to co-extracted antioxidants present in oil. The reducing agent-compatible BCA and CB-X protein assays reduced interference and gave lower protein values in crude, cold-pressed, and refined peanut oils. Heating oil to 180 degrees C before extraction also reduced interference-induced color enhancement. A commercial ELISA test kit was also used to measure peanut protein in oil spiked with peanut butter. Recovery of peanut residues measured by ELISA was significantly decreased when the peanut butter-spiked oil was heated to 180 degrees C compared to unheated oil. Recovery of spiked peanut butter protein measured by the buffer extraction-colorimetric method was not decreased in heated oil. The method developed here could be used to determine protein levels in crude and refined oil, and to assess the potential for allergen cross-contact from reused cooking oil. PMID:20334183

Jablonski, Joseph E; Fu, Tong-Jen; Jackson, Lauren S; Gendel, Steven M

25

Biological observations from feeding heated corn oil and heated peanut oil to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five groups of male weanling rats were provided purified diets containing 75% by weight of either fresh or laboratory?heated corn oil (FCO, HCO) or fresh, laboratory?heated, or commercial pressure deep?fry peanut oil (FPO, HPO, PPO). Total weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were consistently greater for the FCO, FPO, and PPO groups. Although relative heart weights were unaffected, the

J. C. Alexander; V. E. Valli; B. E. Chanin

1987-01-01

26

Effects of pulsed electric field treatments on quality of peanut oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment on physicochemical properties of peanut oil were investigated in this paper. Compositions of fatty acid, acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), as well as carbonyl group value (CGV) of various PEF-treated peanut oil samples with different storage time were determined by GC\\/MS and AOCS standard methods. GC\\/MS analysis showed that little change

Xin-an Zeng; Zhong Han; Zhi-hong Zi

2010-01-01

27

Performance of sunflower oil with high levels of oleic and palmitic acids during industrial frying of almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-oleic, high-palmitic sunflower oil (HOHPSO) is a seed oil from a new mutant sunflower line characterized by increased\\u000a levels of both oleic acid (>50%) and palmitic acid (>25%) and a high oxidative stability. In this study, its performance at\\u000a frying temperature was compared with that of palm olein in thermoxidative assays (4 h, 180C). Also, industrial discontinuous\\u000a frying of almonds,

S. Marmesat; M. Mancha; M. V. Ruiz-Méndez; M. C. Dobarganes

2005-01-01

28

Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.  

PubMed

Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds. PMID:23104473

Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

2012-10-29

29

Factors affecting the stability of crude oils of 16 varieties of peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relation between fatty acid compositions, tocopherol contents, and autoxidative stabilities of a series of 16 crude oils\\u000a from different varieties of peanuts has been investigated. It was found that the relative linoleic acid content of the oils\\u000a is one of the major factors affecting the variations in the stabilities of the oils tested. With the exception of the oils

Sara P. Fore; Nelle J. Morris; C. H. Mack; A. F. Freeman; W. G. Bickford

1953-01-01

30

Polyphenolic and antioxidant changes during storage of normal, mid, and high oleic acid peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of dry roasted peanuts is highly dependent on storage conditions for preventing oxidation of fatty acids; however, changes in polyphenolics affecting antioxidant capacity due to co-oxidative reactions are unknown. The objective of this work was to evaluate oxidative stability of polyphenolics in peanut kernels with naturally varying rates of lipid oxidation. Three peanut varieties containing varying levels of

Stephen T Talcott; Christopher E Duncan; David Del Pozo-Insfran; Daniel W Gorbet

2005-01-01

31

Putranjiva roxburghii oil—A potential herbal preservative for peanuts during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of peanut seeds were collected from stores in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India and examined for their associated mycoflora and insects. Fifteen species of fungi and one insect, Trogoderma granarium, were isolated from the samples. Volatile constituents extracted in the form of essential oils from 32 plant species were evaluated against the dominant fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, as

N. N. Tripathi; Narendra Kumar

2007-01-01

32

Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 ?l/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), ?-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), ?-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

2012-11-09

33

A method for the separation of seed oil steryl esters and free sterols: Application to peanut and corn oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for separating and quantitating seed oil steryl esters and free sterols was developed using a combination of preparative\\u000a column, thin layer (TLC), and gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Cholesteryl heneicosanoate and cholesterol served as internal\\u000a standards. The method was applied to corn-oil samples (Mazola, Kroger) obtained from the local market and peanut-oil samples\\u000a prepared in the laboratory from commercial

R. E. Worthington; H. L. Hitchcock

1984-01-01

34

Acylglycerol structure of genetic varieties of peanut oils of varying atherogenic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed investigation was made of the triacylglycerol structure of three varieties of peanut oils of varying atherogenic\\u000a activity. By means of chromatographic and stereospecific analyses, it was shown that all the oils had markedly nonrandom enantiomeric\\u000a structures with the long chain saturated fatty acids (C20?C24) confined exclusively to thesn-3-position, whereas the palmitic and oleic acids were distributed about equally between

F. MANGANAROa; J. J. Myher; A. Kuksis; D. Kritchevsky

1981-01-01

35

The high oleate trait in the cultivated peanut [ Arachis hypogaea L.]. I. Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant oils rich in oleate are considered superior products compared to oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the major oilseed crops, and high oleate mutant varieties with as much as 85% oleate have been reported. We\\u000a examined the possibility that this mutant phenotype resulted from reduction in the activity or the transcript level

S. Jung; D. Swift; E. Sengoku; M. Patel; F. Teulé; G. Powell; K. Moore; A. Abbott

2000-01-01

36

Identification of fruity/fermented odorants in high-temperature-cured roasted peanuts.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/olfactometry on a concentrate of volatiles obtained by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from roasted peanuts containing a fruity/fermented off-note was used to identify the odorants responsible for the flavor defect. Freshly dug peanuts were divided into two classes, mature and immature, using pod mesocarp color, and subjected to normal (27 degrees C) and high (40 degrees C) temperature curing. Sensory evaluation of the roasted peanuts found that immature peanuts cured at high temperature contained the fruity/fermented off-note. Mature peanuts cured at high temperature and both immature and mature peanuts cured at low temperature were free of the off-note. Peanuts with the off-flavor were found to contain fruit-like esters (ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate) along with increased levels of short chain organic acids (butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and hexanoic). These findings were confirmed by sensory evaluation of models, where the addition of these compounds produced the fruity/fermented flavor defect in a control peanut paste. This is the first time that the odorants responsible for this off-note in roasted peanuts have been identified. PMID:15264922

Didzbalis, John; Ritter, Karl A; Trail, Amy C; Plog, Fred J

2004-07-28

37

EFFECT OF THE HIGH OLEIC TRAIT ON ROASTED PEANUT FLAVOR IN BACKCROSS-DERIVED BREEDING LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high-oleic trait of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been suggested to have a positive impact on roasted peanut sensory attribute. A series of lines derived by backcrossing the high-oleic trait into several existing cultivars were compared with their parent cultivars at locations in Florida, Geo...

38

Transcriptome sequencing of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis under desiccation and starvation stress in peanut oil.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that Salmonella can survive long-term starvation and desiccation stresses and contaminate foods that have intermediate to low water activities; however, little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its survival and persistence in low water activity foods. In this study, we used the RNA-seq approach to compare the transcriptomes (27-33 million 36-bp reads per sample) of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enteric serovar Enteritidis strain ATCC BAA-1045 after inoculation in peanut oil (water activity 0.30) for 72 h, 216 h and 528 h to those grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth for 12 h and 312 h. Our results showed that desiccated Salmonella cells in peanut oil were in a physiologically dormant state with <5% of its genome being transcribed compared to 78% in LB broth. Among the few detected transcripts in peanut oil, genes involved in heat and cold shock response, DNA protection and regulatory functions likely play roles in cross protecting Salmonella from desiccation and starvation stresses. In addition, non-coding RNAs may also play roles in Salmonella desiccation stress response. This is the first report of using RNA-seq technology in characterizing bacterial transcriptomes in a food matrix. PMID:22265317

Deng, Xiangyu; Li, Zengxin; Zhang, Wei

2011-11-13

39

21 CFR 73.3110 - Chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...percent concentration with a mixture of palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut...complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut...complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated...

2010-04-01

40

Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.  

PubMed

Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed). PMID:21741232

Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

2011-07-07

41

Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Soybean Oil, Peanut Oil and Sesame Oil by Low-Temperature Extraction and GC-FPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-temperature clean-up method for residue determination was developed and validated for 14 organophosphorus pesticides\\u000a in soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil by gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). A different matrix\\u000a influenced the response and retention time of pesticides. Hence matrix-matched calibration standards were used to counteract\\u000a the matrix effect. The pesticide responses in blank samples of

Li Li; Zhiqiang Zhou; Canping Pan; Chuanfan Qian; Shuren Jiang; Fengmao Liu

2007-01-01

42

Oil, Fatty Acid, Flavonoid, and Resveratrol Content Variability and FAD2A Functional SNP Genotypes in the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Collection.  

PubMed

Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical composition within the mini-core was evaluated from freshly harvested seeds for two years. Oil, fatty acid composition, and flavonoid/resveratrol content were quantified by NMR, GC, and HPLC, respectively. Significant variability was detected in seed chemical composition among accessions and botanical varieties. Accessions were further genotyped with a functional SNP marker from the FAD2A gene using real-time PCR and classified into three genotypes with significantly different O/L ratios: wild type (G/G with a low O/L ratio <1.7), heterozygote (G/A with O/L ratio >1.4 but <1.7), and mutant (A/A with a high O/L ratio >1.7). The results from real-time PCR genotyping and GC fatty acid analysis were consistent. Accessions with high amounts of oil, quercetin, high seed weight, and O/L ratio were identified. The results from this study may be useful not only for peanut breeders, food processors, and product consumers to select suitable accessions or cultivars but also for curators to potentially expand the mini-core collection. PMID:23379758

Wang, Ming Li; Chen, Charles Y; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David L; Pittman, Roy N; Davis, Jerry; Holbrook, C Corley; Stalker, H Thomas; Pederson, Gary A

2013-03-01

43

Analyses of pecan, peanut, and other oils by gas-liquid chromatography and ultra-violet spectrophotometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analyses of oils obtained from 12 varieties of pecans, 11 of peanuts, two of avocados and one each of citrus seed,\\u000a Wesson oil, corn, and of lard by GLC and UV procedures showed good agreement except for Wesson oil, corn oil, and lard. Iodine\\u000a values computed from GLC results checked Wijs values closely. Oleic acid ranged from 51 to

R. B. French

1962-01-01

44

Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

1985-09-01

45

Effects of Foliar Applications of a Benomyl-Oil-Water Emulsion on the Epidemiology of 'Cercospora L' Leaf Spot on Peanuts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foliar applications of a benomyl-oil-water emulsion suppressed the development of peanut leaf spot epidemics more effectively than foliar applications of a benomyl-water suspension. Foliar applications of an oil-water emulsion were ineffective. The benomy...

D. H. Smith F. L. Crosby

1973-01-01

46

Peanut digestion and energy balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To explore the effects of peanut consumption on fecal energy excretion with a balanced, non-vegetarian diet.Design:Four arm parallel group design (that is, whole peanut (P), peanut butter (PB), peanut oil (PO) or peanut flour (PF) consumption) with one crossover (control and intervention).Subjects:In total 63 healthy men and women from Ghana, Brazil and USA (N=15–16 per group) with an average body

C J Traoret; P Lokko; A C R F Cruz; C G Oliveira; N M B Costa; J Bressan; R C G Alfenas; R D Mattes

2008-01-01

47

A comparative study on the susceptibilities of soybean, sunflower and peanut oils to singlet molecular oxygen photooxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibilities of crude soybean, sunflower and peanut oils to singlet oxygen photooxidation were determined in a kinetic\\u000a study. The accumulation of photosensitized hydroperoxides, determined spectroscopically, and the quenching of singlet molecular\\u000a oxygen phosphorescence by the crude oils and their fatty acid methyl esters were compared.\\u000a \\u000a The relative tendency to photooxidation for the oils and the methyl esters was soybean

Monica M. Neumann; Silvia N. Fusero; Norman A. García

1991-01-01

48

Structure of peanut oil triacylglycerols from cultivars of diverse genetic background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacylglycerols (TG) were isolated from peanut cultivars chosen to embrace known extremes in oleic and linoleic acid content,\\u000a and the TG structure were determined using pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. Molar concentrations of oleic and linoleic acid insn-2-monoacylglycerols (MG) were highly correlated with molar concentrations in TG. Correlation coefficients were 0.99 in each\\u000a case. Molar concentrations of oleic and linoleic in 2-MG

J. C. Hokes; R. E. Worthington

1979-01-01

49

Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding

Paxton Payton; Kameswara Rao Kottapalli; Diane Rowland; Wilson Faircloth; Baozhu Guo; Mark Burow; Naveen Puppala; Maria Gallo

2009-01-01

50

High-yield expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and characterization of properly folded major peanut allergen Ara h 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic reactions to peanuts are a serious health problem because of their high prevalence, associated with potential severity, and chronicity. One of the three major allergens in peanut, Ara h 2, is a member of the conglutin family of seed storage proteins. Ara h 2 shows high sequence homology to proteins of the 2S albumin family. Presently, only very few

Katrin Lehmann; Silke Hoffmann; Philipp Neudecker; Martin Suhr; Wolf-Meinhard Becker; Paul Rösch

2003-01-01

51

Effects of cooking methods on peanut allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Allergy to peanut is a significant health problem. Interestingly, the prevalence of peanut allergy in China is much lower than that in the United States, despite a high rate of peanut consumption in China. In China, peanuts are commonly fried or boiled, whereas in the United States peanuts are typically dry roasted. Objective: The aim of this study was

Kirsten Beyer; Ellen Morrow; Xiu-Min Li; Ludmilla Bardina; Gary A. Bannon; A. Wesley Burks; Hugh A. Sampson

2001-01-01

52

Weed Control in Peanut Grown in a High-Residue Conservation-Tillage System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Information is needed on the role of cover crops as a weed control alternative due to the increase in adoption of conservation-tillage in peanut production. Field experiments were conducted from fall 1994 through fall 1997 in Alabama to evaluate three winter cereal cover crops in a high-residue con...

53

Peanut Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the burning of peanut and the subsequent transfer of heat energy to a container of water. A laboratory activity guides students through a procedure where a peanut is mounted on a cork and placed in a "chimney" can. The temperature of water poised in a small can above the peanut is recorded before and after the peanut is burned.

54

Process development and characterization of spray dried protein/peptide concentrates derived from peanut meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut meal is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil from peanut kernels. Despite being an excellent source of protein (45-55%), the high levels of aflatoxin typically associated with this material currently limit applications to feed or fertilizer markets. Previously, ou...

55

A high temperature sensor based on a peanut-shape structure Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber temperature sensor with high sensitivity based on a Michelson interferometer is realized by fusion-splicing a peanut-shape structure in single-mode fiber (SMF). The theory and experimental results show that the peanut-shape structure can couple the light energy of the core mode into the cladding and re-couple the light in the cladding into the core. A high-quality interference spectrum with a fringe visibility of about 18 dB is observed. Experimental demonstration shows that the device can be heated up to 900 °C with a sensitivity of about ˜0.096 nm/°C. The device has the advantages of low-cost, high sensitivity and easy fabrication, which makes it attractive for sensing applications.

Wu, Di; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Min

2012-11-01

56

Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems.  

PubMed

Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences. PMID:20492171

Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

57

Allergenic properties of enzymatically hydrolyzed peanut flour extracts.  

PubMed

Background: Peanut flour is a high-protein, low-oil, powdered material prepared from roasted peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a processing strategy to generate hydrolysates from peanut flour with reduced allergenicity. Methods: Soluble fractions of 10% (w/v) light roasted peanut flour dispersions were hydrolyzed with the following proteases: Alcalase (pH 8.0, 60°C), pepsin (pH 2.0, 37°C) or Flavourzyme (pH 7.0, 50°C) for 60 min. Western blotting, inhibition ELISA and basophil activation tests were used to examine IgE reactivity. Results: Western blotting experiments revealed the hydrolysates retained IgE binding reactivity and these IgE-reactive peptides were primarily Ara h 2 fragments regardless of the protease tested. Inhibition ELISA assays demonstrated that each of the hydrolysates had decreased capacity to bind peanut-specific IgE compared with nonhydrolyzed controls. Basophil activation tests revealed that all hydrolysates were comparable (p > 0.05) to nonhydrolyzed controls in IgE cross-linking capacity. Conclusions: These results indicate that hydrolysis of peanut flour reduced IgE binding capacity; however, IgE cross-linking capacity during hydrolysis was retained, thus suggesting such hydrolysates are not hypoallergenic. PMID:23921317

Shi, Xiaolei; Guo, Rishu; White, Brittany L; Yancey, Adrienne; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P; Burks, A Wesley; Kulis, Michael

2013-07-31

58

A high temperature sensor based on a peanut structure-based Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel fiber temperature sensor with high sensitivity based on a Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber is constructed and demonstrated. The sensor consists of a peanut-shape structure and we demonstrated that the peanut-shape structure can couple the light energy of the core mode into the cladding and re-couple the light in the cladding into the core. The experimental results show that the device can be heated up to 900°C with the sensitive of 0.096nm/° when the sensor length L is ~21mm. Such kind of simple, low-cost, and highly sensitive fiber-optic temperature sensor would find applications in sensing fields.

Zhu, Tao; Wu, Di; Duan, De-Wen; Chiang, Kinseng; Rao, Yun-Jiang

2012-01-01

59

A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed significant stretches of conserved gene clusters spread across the peanut genome. A higher level of colinearity was detected between A. duranensis and Glycine than with Medicago. Conclusions The first high-density, gene-based linkage map for A. duranensis was generated that can serve as a reference map for both wild and cultivated Arachis species. The markers developed here are valuable resources for the peanut, and more broadly, to the legume research community. The A-genome map will have utility for fine mapping in other peanut species and has already had application for mapping a nematode resistance gene that was introgressed into A. hypogaea from A. cardenasii.

2012-01-01

60

Partial Dominance, Pleiotropism, and Epistasis in the Inheritance of the High-Oleate Trait in Peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier reports of the high-oleate (low-linoleate) trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) indicated that it was controlled by completely dominant gene action. However, linoleate content intermediate to that in low- and normal-linoleate seeds was found among progeny when the trait was backcrossed into five virginia-type cultivars, suggesting partial dominance of the gene controlling the trait. Although BC1F2 results were inconsistent

T. G. Isleib; R. F. Wilson; W. P. Novitzky

2006-01-01

61

Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil (87% oleic acid) were compared with those of regular sunflower (17% oleic acid), soybean, corn, and peanut oils during storage at 55°C and simulated deep fat frying at 185°C. Oxidative stability was evaluated by measuring the oxygen content and volatile compounds in the sample bottle headspace and peroxide

Stephanie A. Smith; Robert E. King; David B. Min

2007-01-01

62

Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs) are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD) was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

2012-01-01

63

GEORGANIC - A PEANUT CULTIVAR FOR ORGANIC FARMING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a rapidly growing market for organic peanuts and peanut products. Organic growers in the Southeastern U.S. need peanut cultivars that compete well with weeds and that have high levels of resistance to multiple pests. Georganic is a peanut cultivar that was released to meet those needs. ...

64

Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

65

Genetic Transformation in Arachis hypogaea L. (Peanut)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and oil legume crop grown in the warmer areas of all six continents. Commercial production occurs\\u000a primarily in India, China, the United States, and Africa, as well as in South America, where peanut is believed to have originated.\\u000a In the United States, peanut represents a total economic output across peanut

J. A. Schnall; A. K. Weissinger

66

IMPROVING SHELF LIFE OF ROASTED AND SALTED INSHELL PEANUTS USING HIGH OLEIC FATTY ACID CHEMISTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Major markets for the large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) include roasted inshell and salted inshell products with short shelf life being a common consumer complaint. Unlike many other peanut products, it is not economically possible to package these inshell peanuts in nitrogen ...

67

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

Arachis hypogea (peanut, groundnut), an annual oil seed belonging to the Leguminosae family and the Papillionacea subfamily, is a legume native to South America but now grown in diverse environments in six continents between latitudes 40 degrees N and 40 degrees S. Arachis hypogea can grow in a wide range of climatic conditions. The low yields of this crop are mainly attributed to unreliable rainfall patterns with frequent droughts, lack of high-yielding adapted cultivars, damage by diseases and pests, poor agronomic practices, and limited use of inputs. Genetic engineering approaches have been shown to be comparatively fast, leading to better isolation and cloning of desired traits for combating the various biotic and abiotic stresses. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in peanut using the cotyledon system. The system described here is potentially applicable to a vast range of genotypes with a high transformation frequency of >70% based on the preliminary molecular data, indicating the production of a large number of independently transformed transgenic plants. The method reported here provides opportunities for crop improvement of this important legume crop via genetic transformation. PMID:16988358

Sharma, Kiran Kumar; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja

2006-01-01

68

Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

Forrest, G.T.

1993-07-20

69

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter...

2013-04-01

70

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter...

2010-04-01

71

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter...

2009-04-01

72

Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

73

Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut meal (PM) is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil. Despite being an excellent source of high quality protein, applications of PM are limited to feed markets as this material typically contains high concentrations of aflatoxin. Our research group has developed a nov...

74

High-capacity disordered carbons derived from peanut shells as lithium-intercalating anode materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time initial lithium intake capacities for pyrolytic carbonaceous materials far exceeding even the theoretical value for metallic lithium. The carbonaceous materials were synthesized by pyrolysis of peanut shells under argon. Thermal conditions for the pyrolysis were optimized in order to obtain materials with desirable electrochemical properties. Peanut shells carbonized in a two-step process that occurred

G. Ting-Kuo Fey; D. C. Lee; Y. Y. Lin; T. Prem Kumar

2003-01-01

75

The high oleate trait in the cultivated peanut [ Arachis hypogaea L.]. II. Molecular basis and genetics of the trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peanut variety with high oleate content has previously been described. When this high oleate variety was used in breeding\\u000a crosses, the F2 segregation ratio of high oleate to normal oleate progeny was 3:1 or 15:1 depending on the normal oleate varieties used in\\u000a the crosses. These data suggested that the high oleate trait is controlled by two recessive genes,

S. Jung; G. Powell; K. Moore; A. Abbott

2000-01-01

76

Food uses of peanut protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 19 million metric tons of peanuts (Arachis lypogae L.) are harvested annually, and contribute over 3.5 million tons to the world’s protein pool for food and feed uses. Peanut\\u000a is the world’s fourth most important source of edible vegetable oil and the third most important source of vegetable protein\\u000a feed meal. About 70% of the U.S. Crop is consumed

E. W. Lusas

1979-01-01

77

CONTINUOUS MICROWAVE Procession OF PEANUT BEVERAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of sterilization of peanut beverages by continuous microwave heating as an alternative to conventional Ultra High Temperature System (UHT) processing was studied. Dielectric properties of two products, Peanut Punch (Nestle, Trinidad and Tobago Ltd.) and Jamaican Irish Moss Peanut Dri...

78

Oral Sensitization to Peanut Is Highly Enhanced by Application of Peanut Extracts to Intact Skin, but Is Prevented when CpG and Cholera Toxin Are Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CpG oligonucleotides might offer an alternative to conventional immunotherapy in preventing and potentially reversing Th2-biased immune deregulation which leads to allergy. However, non-invasive ways of administration, especially in peanut-allergic patients, should be explored. Methods: One hundred micrograms of whole peanut protein extract (PE) alone, or mixed with cholera toxin (CT, 50 ?g) plus CpG (100 ?g) as adjuvant, was

Karine Adel-Patient; Sandrine Ah-Leung; Hervé Bernard; Coralie Durieux-Alexandrenne; Christophe Créminon; Jean-Michel Wal

2007-01-01

79

Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection: collaborative study.  

PubMed

The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of a method using immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup with postcolumn derivatization and LC with a fluorescence detector (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AFs; sum of AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2) in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil have been established in a collaborative study involving 15 laboratories from six countries. Blind duplicate samples of blank, spiked at levels ranging from 0.25 to 20.0 microg/kg for AF, were analyzed. A naturally contaminated peanut oil sample was also included. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an IAC, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC-FLD analysis after postcolumn derivatization. Average recoveries of AFs from olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 84 to 92% (at spiking levels ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg); of AFB1 from 86 to 93% (at spiking levels ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg); of AFB2 from 89 to 95% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg); of AFG1 from 85 to 97% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microg/kg); and of AFG2 from 76 to 85% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg). RSDs for within-laboratory repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 3.4 to 10.2% for AF, from 3.5 to 10.9% for AFB1, from 3.2 to 9.5% for AFB2, from 6.5 to 14.9% for AFG1, and from 4.8 to 14.2% for AFG2. RSDs for between-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 6.1 to 14.5% for AF, from 7.5 to 15.4% for AFB1, from 7.1 to 14.6% for AFB2, from 10.8 to 18.1% for AFG1, and from 7.6 to 23.7% for AFG2. Horwitz ratio values were < or = 2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:23451385

Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

80

The freeze fracture ultrastructure of peanut oil and other natural and synthetic triacylglycerol droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freeze fracture morphology of some emulsified natural and synthetic triacylglycerol oils was examined. Emulsions were\\u000a frozen by two methods, immersion in liquid melted Freon 22 (rate ? 100 K\\/ sec) or by a jet of liquefied propane (rate ? 10,000\\u000a K\\/sec). Emulsion droplets appeared spherical regardless of freezing method. Droplets frozen with propane appeared featureless\\u000a in cross-fracture and demonstrated

M. W. Rigler; I. L. Roth; D. Kritchevsky; J. S. Patton

1983-01-01

81

STORAGE WATER ACTIVITY EFFECT ON OXIDATION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-OLEIC PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts were stored under different water activities and maintained using saturated salt solutions, for 14 wks. Peroxide values, percent moisture, and sensory attributes were determined at 2 wk intervals. Peroxide values increased over time for all treatments. The highest oxidation values were obser...

82

Quantitation of Key Peanut Aroma Compounds in Raw Peanuts and Pan-Roasted Peanut Meal. Aroma Reconstitution and Comparison with Commercial Peanut Products.  

PubMed

By means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), 26 odor-active compounds, previously characterized by GC-olfactometry (GC-O), were quantitated in raw peanuts, and the concentrations of 38 odorants were determined in pan-roasted peanut meal. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds determined in vegetable oil, the odor activity values (OAVs) of the most important aroma compounds in raw as well as in pan-roasted peanut meal were calculated. 3-Isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, acetic acid, and 3-(methylthio)propanal showed the highest OAVs in raw peanuts, whereas methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as the intensely popcorn-like smelling 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline revealed the highest OAV in the pan-roasted peanut meal. Aroma recombination studies confirmed the importance, in particular, of methanethiol and of lipid degradation products in the characteristic aroma of the freshly roasted peanut material. To evaluate additive effects on the overall aroma, the concentrations of eight pyrazines, previously not detected by GC-O among the odor-active volatiles, were additionally quantitated in the pan-roasted peanut meal. A sensory experiment in which the eight pyrazines were added to the recombinate clearly revealed that these volatiles did not show an impact on the overall aroma. Finally, selected odorants were quantitated in commercial peanut products to confirm their important role in peanut aroma. PMID:20866052

Chetschik, Irene; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

2010-09-24

83

In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators. PMID:23179691

Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

2013-01-01

84

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Cortex fraxini and use in peanut oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortex fraxini was extracted with 95% ethanol to obtain a crude antioxidant extract. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the linoleic acid peroxidation method and the free radical scavenging assays, namely 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. Cortex fraxini extract (CFE) showed high inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid when compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). CFE also exhibited excellent scavenging activity

Yingming Pan; Jinchan Zhu; Hengshan Wang; Xiaopu Zhang; Ye Zhang; Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Haiyun Li

2007-01-01

85

REMOVAL OF FRUITY FERMENTED OFF-FLAVOR IN ROASTED PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The production of fruity fermented off-flavor due to high temperature curing is a significant problem in peanuts. Because peanut flowering is indeterminate, a range of maturity stages is present at harvest. Immature peanuts are associated with increased fruity fermented off-flavor, and upon roasting...

86

Maternal Consumption of Peanut during Pregnancy is Associated with Peanut Sensitization in Atopic Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut allergy is typically severe, life-long and prevalent. Objective To identify factors associated with peanut sensitization. Methods We evaluated 503 infants 3–15 months of age (mean, 9.4 months) with likely milk or egg allergy but no previous diagnosis of peanut allergy. A total of 308 had experienced an immediate allergic reaction to cow’s milk and/or egg and 204 had moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and a positive allergy test to milk and/or egg. A peanut IgE level of ? 5 kUA/L was considered likely indicative of peanut allergy. Results A total of 140 (27.8%) infants had PN-IgE levels ?5 kUA/L. Multivariate analysis including clinical, laboratory and demographic variables showed frequent peanut consumption during pregnancy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7–4.9, p < 0.001), IgE levels to milk (p = 0.001) and egg (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.02) and non-white race (p = 0.02) to be the primary factors associated with peanut IgE ?5 kUA/L. Frequency of peanut consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding showed a dose-response association with peanut IgE ? 5 kUA/L, but only consumption during pregnancy was a significant predictor. Among 71 infants never breastfed, frequent consumption of peanut during pregnancy was strongly associated with peanut IgE ? 5 kUA/L (OR-4.99, 95% CI-1.69–14.74, p < 0.004). Conclusions In this cohort of infants with likely milk or egg allergy, maternal ingestion of peanut during pregnancy was strongly associated with a high level of peanut sensitization.

Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Stablein, Donald; Lindblad, Robert; Burks, A. Wesley; Liu, Andrew H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Fleischer, David M.; Leung, Donald YM; Sampson, Hugh A.

2010-01-01

87

National Peanut Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those with an interest in peanuts, the National Peanut Board Web site will provide a host of information on this well-known legume. The site has different themed sections dealing with the history of the peanut, and continue on to give a detailed explanation of the production process involved with turning peanuts into a host of products. Additionally, the extensive research and promotion activities of the National Peanut Board are detailed on the site. A map shows the primary peanut growing regions on the United States and a cookbook offers a multitude of ways to use peanuts in different dishes. Perhaps the most interesting part of the site is a section offering a range of facts on the peanut and its uses throughout the world.

2000-01-01

88

Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

89

PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

90

Peanut Allergens and Processing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolu...

91

Nut and Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... life threatening. Although a small amount of peanut protein can set off a severe reaction, it is rare that people get an allergic reaction just from breathing in small particles of nuts or peanuts. Most foods with peanuts in them don't allow enough of the protein to escape into the air to cause a ...

92

Influence of partially hydrogenated vegetable and marine oils on lipid metabolism in rat liver and heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially hydrogenated marine oils containing 18?1-, 20?1- and 22?1-isomers and partially hydrogenated peanut oil containing\\u000a 18?1-isomers were fed as 24–28 wt % of the diet with or without supplement of linoleic acid. Reference groups were fed peanut,\\u000a soybean, or rapeseed oils with low or high erucic acid content. Dietary monoene isomers reduced the conversion of linoleic\\u000a acid into arachidonic acid

G. Hølmer; C.-E. Høy; D. Kirstein

1982-01-01

93

Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.  

PubMed

Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

94

[Effects of applying calcium on peanut physiological characteristics, its yield and kernel quality under cadmium stress].  

PubMed

Taking high-oil peanut cultivar Yuhua15 and high-protein peanut cultivar XB023 as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted in both 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of applying different concentration calcium (Ca) on the vegetative growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and protective enzyme activities, as well as the yield and kernel quality of the cultivars under cadmium (Cd) stress. Applying Ca alleviated the inhibitory effects of Cd on the height growth of peanut main stem and the length growth of the branches, resulting in the increase of plant dry mass, and mitigated the Cd damage on peanut leaf, manifesting in the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catlase (CAT) activities, and soluble protein content, and the decrease of leaf malondialdeyde (MDA) content. Under the application of Ca, both the pod yield and the kernel yield increased, mainly because of the increase of pod number per plant and of the kernel number per pod. Applying Ca also promoted the transformation of soluble sugar into fat and protein in peanut kernel, increased the kernel fat and protein contents, and improved the kernel quality under Cd stress. Ca application decreased the kernel Cd content of the cultivars, with better effect on Yuhua15 than on XB023. PMID:22303668

Gao, Fang; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Yang, Chuan-Ting; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Kang; Lin, Ying-Jie; Li, Xiang-Dong

2011-11-01

95

Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

96

Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the most important oil and protein producing crops in the world. Yet the amounts of peanut processing by-products containing proteins, fiber and polyphenolics are staggering. With the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for landfilling, wastes/by-product utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several peanut by-products are produced from crush peanut processes and harvested peanut, including peanut meal, peanut skin, peanut hull and peanut vine. Some of peanut by-products/waste materials could possibility be used in food processing industry, The by-products of peanut contain many functional compounds, such as protein, fiber and polyphenolics, which can be incorporated into processed foods to serve as functional ingredients. This paper briefly describes various peanut by-products produced, as well as current best recovering and recycling use options for these peanut byproducts. Materials, productions, properties, potential applications in food manufacture of emerging materials, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. PMID:24082262

Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Du, Fangling

2011-07-15

97

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22

98

The Peanut Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Peanut Software website is a data-sharing project through which teachers share material they wrote as they used Peanut Software to teach mathematics. A link from this website provides access to the free Peanut Software. The instructions and tutorials posted on this website were written by users of the Peanut programs, which were written by Rick Parris, of Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. Most of the investigations described by teachers focus on plotting and geometry. The programs are frequently updated. Some materials are also available in French and in Portuguese.

99

Peanut Allergy: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergies have been increasing in prevalence in most industrialized countries. Onset is typically in early childhood, with a trend towards earlier ages of presentation. The allergy is lifelong in most affected children, although 15-22% will outgrow their peanut allergy, usually before their teenage years. Manifestations of peanut allergy range from mild to severe, and risk factors predisposing to severe reactions are discussed. However, even in the absence of risk factors, peanut allergic individuals may still experience life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Approaches to investigation and treatment, patterns of cross-reactivity and possible causes of rising prevalence are discussed.

2008-01-01

100

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

101

Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

102

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

103

Specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to peanut over time in relation to peanut intake, symptoms and age.  

PubMed

The clinical outcome of peanut allergy and some factors associated with development of peanut allergy remain unsolved. It has not been clarified to what extent peanut intake affects immunoglobulin (IgE) antibody formation in peanut sensitized individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the development of peanut hypersensitivity in children and adolescents with specific IgE antibodies to peanut, using questionnaires and current serum tests and comparing it to information obtained 5-6 yr earlier, to investigate how peanut intake during this period related to subject age, IgE antibody levels and symptoms and to investigate what information this patient group was given at the time of diagnosis regarding avoidance of peanut related food. All patients with detectable peanut-specific IgE antibodies investigated during 1994-1996 deriving from two allergy laboratories in the western region of Sweden were traced and reinvestigated (n=132). A total of 111 subjects (63 with peanut allergy and 48 peanut sensitized) participated in the questionnaire. Eighty-six of them consented to be enrolled in a further interview and renewed testing of specific IgE antibody to peanut 5 yr later. All tests were done using the Pharmacia CAP system. Increased IgE antibody levels during follow-up was related to age; subjects 0-6 yr at initial test occasion were more likely to have higher IgE antibody class than the older individuals (p=0.018). Exposure to peanut during the study, i.e. 5-6 yr since diagnosis, did not seem to affect the result. During the follow-up period, 29 out of 86 (34%) increased their IgE antibody class. At the second test occasion the remaining subjects had similar (28%) or lowered (38%) levels of IgE antibodies. Exposure to peanut during follow-up was more common in subjects with IgE antibody class 1-3 compared to subjects with high value (> 3) at the initial test (p=0.003). Reported symptoms during follow-up were also more common in subjects with initially high IgE antibody value. Individuals with initially high IgE antibodies to peanut had been given more information about peanut allergy and cross-reacting allergens than other individuals. The subjects over 6 yr of age showed a decrease in peanut-specific IgE class over a 5-yr period. Together with the literature, our result suggest that follow-up and renewed testing is recommended, since there may be a change in IgE antibody classes and clinical sensitivity over time. Even in Sweden, with a low consumption of peanuts, the youngest individuals with peanut sensitization experienced a similar course of events that has been reported in other countries. PMID:15482520

van Odijk, J; Bengtsson, U; Borres, M P; Hulthén, L; Ahlstedt, S

2004-10-01

104

Breeding a hypoallergenic peanut.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 700 varieties of peanut, including irradiated mutants, were previously screened to determine if variations could be found in the levels of allergenic proteins, Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Some irradiated peanuts were found to contain mutations resulting in the lack of one of the allergen isofor...

105

Registration of 'Olin' peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, is a major disease of peanut in Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia. The disease causes reduction in yield and quality of peanut, as well as increasing production costs. Therefore, our main interest and research goal is to enhan...

106

Analyzing the major peanut allergens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. Boiled, fried, and roasted peanut proteins wer...

107

Redefining the major peanut allergens.  

PubMed

Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor Fc?RI (IgE/Fc?RI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/Fc?RI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in loss of potency. Using these criteria, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are the major peanut allergens. PMID:22948807

Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

2013-03-01

108

Functional components in peanuts.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut industry's byproducts such as peanut hulls and shells, skins, and even leaves and roots have also been identified as possible sources of bioactive compounds. New uses for these underutilized renewable sources can create new market opportunities and increase the value of agricultural residues. PMID:18756396

Francisco, Maria Leonora D L; Resurreccion, A V A

2008-09-01

109

Exogenous calcium alleviates photoinhibition of PSII by improving the xanthophyll cycle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves during heat stress under high irradiance.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca(2+)-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca(2+)-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca(2+) could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca(2+) channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca(2+)/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

2013-08-07

110

Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance  

PubMed Central

Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m?2 s?1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle.

Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

2013-01-01

111

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

112

Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

113

Effects of processing methods and extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of peanut skin phenolics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut skin is a by-product of the peanut industry that has low economic value despite its high content of antioxidants such as phenolics. The effects of three skin removal methods (direct peeling, blanching, and roasting) and extraction solvents (water, ethanol, and methanol) on total phenolics and total antioxidant activities (TAA) of peanut skin extracts were studied, and the composition of

Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe

2005-01-01

114

Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air  

SciTech Connect

Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

Young, J.H.

1983-06-01

115

Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication provides the results of cooperative research among the U.S. Department of Agriculture and certain state universities in the 1992 Uniform Peanut Performance Tests. These tests evaluate the adaptability of advance peanut breeding lines in th...

T. A. Coffelt

1995-01-01

116

Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides the results of cooperative research among the U.S. Department of Agriculture and certain state universities in the 1993 Uniform Peanut Performance Tests. These tests evaluate the adaptability of advance peanut breeding lines in t...

T. A. Coffelt

1995-01-01

117

Uniform Peanut Performanace Tests 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication provides the results of cooperative research among the U.S. Department of Agriculture and certain state universities in the 1991 Uniform Peanut Performance Tests. These tests evaluate the adaptability of advance peanut breeding lines in t...

T. A. Coffelt W. D. Branch D. W. Gorbet J. S. Kirby D. A. Knauft C. E. Simpson O. D. Smith T. G. Isleib

1994-01-01

118

Thermal inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the rates of thermal inactivation of three Salmonella Tennessee strains in peanut butter associated with an outbreak and to compare them to the rates of inactivation of Salmonella strains of other serotypes (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg) (SSOS) and of clinical isolates of Salmonella Tennessee from sporadic cases (STSC). Commercial peanut butter was inoculated with Salmonella isolates and heated at 71, 77, 83, and 90 degrees C. The thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (20 min) of heating followed by lower death rates thereafter. The first-order kinetics approach and nonlinear Weibull model were used to fit the inactivation curves and describe the rates of thermal inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter. The calculated minimum times needed to obtain a 7-log reduction at 90 degrees C for the composited three outbreak-associated strains were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those of SSOS and STSC. Approximately 120 min were needed to reduce the outbreak strains of Salmonella Tennessee by 7 log, whereas 86 and 55 min were needed for SSOS and STSC, respectively. These results indicate that the outbreak-associated Salmonella strains were more thermotolerant than the other Salmonella strains tested, and this greater thermal resistance was not serotype specific. Thermal treatments of peanut butter at 90 degrees C for less than 30 min are not sufficient to kill large populations (5 log CFU/g) of Salmonella in highly contaminated peanut butter. PMID:19722389

Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mantripragada, Vijaya; Ezeoke, Ifeoma; Doyle, Michael P

2009-08-01

119

High Seas Oil Containment Barrier Mooring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mooring system was designed, fabricated and tested to moor the Air Deployable Lightweight High Seas Oil Containment Barrier, a component of the U.S. Coast Guard's High Seas Oil Spill Response System. The key criteria to which the mooring system was bu...

K. R. Bitting

1975-01-01

120

U.S. Peanut Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States, with 25 percent of world peanut exports and 10 percent of world peanut production, is the leading peanut exporter and the third largest producer; only India and China produce more. U.S. production has nearly doubled since the early fift...

W. C. McArthur V. N. Grise H. O. Doty D. Hacklander

1982-01-01

121

Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2011  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 3 Georgia lines,...

122

What Has Been Done in Peanut Breeding (Chto sdelano po Selektsii Arakhisa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The industrial and agricultural importance of the peanut has led to an active interest and rapid development in this southern oilseed crop in many countries of the world. In particular much interest was shown in peanuts by the oil-extracting industry of t...

D. P. Umen

1975-01-01

123

Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000?L/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000?L/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500?L/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000?L/L) and clove oils (3000?L/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000?L/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

2012-09-12

124

High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ?6/?3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

125

Industrial uses of high erucic oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils rich in erucic acid have desirable properties for a variety of applications. At present, only a fraction of\\u000a the potential that exists for commercial exploitation of high erucic oils in the United States is fulfilled with 10 million\\u000a pounds of rapeseed oil imported annually. Though rape is not a crop in the United States, another member of the

H. J. Nieschlag; I. A. Wolff

1971-01-01

126

MEASURING AIRFLOW DISTRIBUTION IN PEANUT DRYING TRAILERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to measure airflow distribution within a filled peanut drying trailer was developed. Six 6.4-m peanut drying wagons were loaded with dry farmer stock peanuts at a local peanut processing facility. Three wagons had floors with 23% O.A. and three had floors with 40% O.A. Peanuts were level...

127

Peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to limited hectares and production in comparison to field corn, soybean, and wheat, commercial research and development efforts by major manufacturers for potential new peanut herbicides are minimal. Field trials were conducted in Ty Ty and Plains Georgia in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the tolera...

128

High conformance oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conformance of an enhanced oil recovery process, including waterflood, surfactant or other chemicalized water flood process, in a formation containing at least two strata or zones of varying permeability, the permeability of one zone being at least 50 percent greater than the permeability of the other zone, is improved by flooding until the higher permeability zone has been depleted,

J. E. Varnon; M. V. Kudchadker; A. Brown; L. E. Whittington

1979-01-01

129

7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

130

Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly. PMID:12462617

Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

2002-11-01

131

IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE RELATED GENE IN PEANUT USING MICROARRAY ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the principle legume crops globally valued for its protein, oil content, and quality. The major issues in the southeastern U.S. are food safety of aflatoxin contamination and leaf diseases of leaf spots. They are quantity traits. To identify important resistanc...

132

PROGRESS REPORT: WEED MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC PEANUT PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have been conducted in Tifton, GA since 2003 to develop weed management systems for organic peanut production. Trials in conventional tillage production systems evaluated row patterns, cultivation, and remedial weed management using propane flaming, clove oil, and citric acid. Weed control...

133

Evaluation of Peanut Cultivars for Suitability in Biodiesel Production Systems.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nineteen currently and previously available peanut cultivars were field tested for oil production capability in a low-input production system designed for biodiesel use. This low input system was characterized by strip tillage into a rolled rye cover crop, no use of either insecticides or fungicid...

134

Effect of Feeding High-Oleic-Acid Peanuts to Growing-Finishing Swine on Resulting Carcass Fatty Acid Profile and on Carcass and Meit Quality Characteristics1r2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-oleic-acid peanut breeding line was used in a study designed to determine the effects of feeding swine diets containing elevated levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as a means to increase the level of monounsaturates and total unsaturates in the resulting carcass fat. Forty eight pigs were allotted to four treatments that consisted of corn-soybean meal diets that con- tained

D. D. Johnson; D. A. Knauftt; D. W. GorbetJ; J. H. Brendemuhl; R. Walker

2010-01-01

135

Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 ?/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

1996-09-01

136

Abundant Microsatellite Diversity and Oil Content in Wild Arachis Species  

PubMed Central

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great potential to increase the oil content in A. hypogaea by using the wild Arachis germplasm.

Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Xinyan; Tang, Mei; Huang, Jiaquan; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Liao, Boshou

2012-01-01

137

Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.  

PubMed

The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

1990-04-01

138

7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the...

2010-01-01

139

7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the...

2009-01-01

140

Behavior of peanut bulk under static loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the method of peanut shelling is selected as application of pressure on peanut bulk for the design of shelling machine and thus behavior of peanut bulk has been investigated. To this end, medium-size peanuts have been placed inside an iron cylinder of 70mm height and 90mm diameter to form one, two and three layers, each singly at

E. Güzel; ?. D. Akçal?; A. ?nce

2007-01-01

141

The natural history of peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has traditionally been assumed that peanut allergy is rarely outgrown. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the number of children with peanut allergy who become tolerant of peanut. Methods: Patients aged 4 to 20 years with a diagnosis of peanut allergy were evaluated by questionnaire, skin testing, and a quantitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay. Patients who

Helen S. Skolnick; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Celide Barnes Koerner; Hugh A. Sampson; Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

2001-01-01

142

USDA: National Peanut Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The National Peanut Research Laboratory's mission is to conduct basic and applied research to develop knowledge of the factors affecting the production, harvesting, storage, quality, and safety of peanuts." And, this exceptionally well-designed and informative site is a good example of all of the lab's work. Visitors can get a good appraisal of what's going on at the lab by checking out the Research site, where links such as Crop Production Technology, Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts, Maintaining Peanut Quality During Postharvest Processing, and more, take the visitor to subpages that are full of information about the relative research program. Also available at the site are links to the lab's publications from the past several decades as well as information on how to order software to assist in management of peanut production and management. Also available at the On-line Tools link are helpful tools such as a Warehouse Ventilation Calculator, and free upgrades for previous software editions.

2006-02-01

143

A High Speed Oil Diffusion Pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peculiarities of design in this pump are, the use of streamlines in regions of high pressure and the introduction of small angle conical surfaces for baffles in the regions of lower pressures. The conical baffles are particularly effective in preventing oil vapor from entering the chamber to be evacuated and at the same time in offering a minimum of

Hiram W. Edwards

1935-01-01

144

Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

PubMed

An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-07-07

145

Formation process and electron-beam incident energy dependence of one-dimensional uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer studied using in situ high-resolution infrared spectroscopy and density-functional calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3 kV electron-beam irradiation of a C60 film gives rise to formation of one-dimensional (1D) uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer with a cross-linked structure close to that of the P08 C120 stable isomer obtained from the general Stone-Wales rearrangement. In this study, we examined the evolution of infrared (IR) spectra of C60 films with respect to electron beam (EB) irradiation time, using in situ high-resolution IR spectroscopy and first-principles density-functional calculations, and found semi-quantitatively that the 1D uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer is formed via intermediate polymers with a cross-linkage close to that of P04 and P06 C120 isomers obtained from GWS rearrangement. In addition, we examined the dependence of EB-induced C60 polymerization on an incident energy of EB in the range 3-7 kV. IR spectra obtained for 5 and 7 kV EB irradiation of C60films showed the same product as for 3 kV EB irradiation. However, when 5 and 7 kV EBs continued to irradiate C60 films for a long time after the polymer formation, the 1D peanut-shaped polymer did not proceed to become 1D polymers with a more coalesced linkage than that of the P08 one but was destroyed to become amorphous carbons.

Takashima, Akito; Nishii, Toshiaki; Onoe, Jun

2012-12-01

146

Gas chromatographic characterization of soapstocks from vegetable oil refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography was used after trimethylsilyl derivatization to determine the composition of soapstocks from corn germ and peanut oil refining. Soap fatty acids, polyalcohols, small carbohydrates, sterols, steryl glycosides, mono-, di- and triglycerides were measured using a hexamethyldisilazane\\/pyridine preparation and a high-temperature capillary column. Additional peaks associated with the fatty acids appeared in the chromatograms when pyridine was incorporated into

Michael K Dowd

1998-01-01

147

Effect of Aspergillus parasiticus soil inoculum on invasion of peanut seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental control plots adjusted to late season drought and elevated soil temperatures where inoculated at peanut planting with low and high levels of conidia, sclerotia, and mycelium from a brown conidial mutant ofAspergillus parasiticus. Percentage infection of peanut seeds from undamaged pods was greatest for the subplot containing the high sclerotial inoculum (15\\/cm2 soil surface). Sclerotia did not germinate sporogenically

Bruce W. Horn; Joe W. Dorner; Ronald L. Greene; Paul D. Blankenship; Richard J. Cole

1994-01-01

148

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which...

2010-01-01

149

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which...

2009-01-01

150

Semisynthetic motor oils derived from high paraffinic petroleum base stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To prepare semi-synthetic oils satisfying the classification API SF\\/CC and SAE 10W30 from mineral base oils derived from high paraffinic petroleum, synthetic alkylbenzenes base oils, and suitable additives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The mixtures of base mineral oils of deep hydro-isomerization derived from high-paraffinic petroleum (viscosity at 100°C is 12.5 cSt) and the mixtures of the synthetic alkyl aromatics oils

F. T. Sejidov; Y. Mansoori

2007-01-01

151

Ageing of biodegradable oils for high voltage insulation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most items of high voltage equipment a mineral or synthetic oil is still used in conjunction with paper as the dielectric medium. However, the environmental impact, lack of natural oil reserves and the difficulties associated with the disposal of used oils, have prompted researchers to direct their focus onto renewable and biodegradable materials. Originally used in capacitors, these oils

I. L. Hosier; A. S. Vaughan; F. A. Montjen

2006-01-01

152

CDNA CLONING OF A PUTATIVE PEANUT TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WITH HOMOLOGY TO PEANUT ALLERGENS ARA H 3 AND ARA H 4  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Peanut allergens and peanut trypsin inhibitors are seed storage proteins. Peanut allergens are known to trigger allergic reactions with symptoms ranging from cutaneous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, systemic to sometimes death. Peanut trypsin inhibitors are pathogenesis-related (PR) pr...

153

Ubiquitous occurrence of high molecular weight hydrocarbons in crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years the presence of waxes in crude oils has been associated with organic matter derived from terrigenous sources. High temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) has been used to establish the ubiquitous presence of high molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons, extending as high as C120, in crude oils. HMW hydrocarbons (>C40+) have been observed in crude oils derived from terrigenous, lacustrine,

Michael Hsieh; R. Paul Philp

2001-01-01

154

COLOR SORTING TO REMOVE FRUITY FERMENTED OFF-FLAVOR IN ROASTED PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruity fermented off-flavor results from high temperature exposure during curing of peanuts. Immature peanuts are associated with increased fruity fermented off-flavor and upon roasting, in any grade size, acquire a darker color and have lower flavor potential. This work was conducted to determine ...

155

The Effects of Transglutaminase on the Functional Properties of Peanut Flour Dispersions Containing Casein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Light roast-12% fat peanut flour (PF) is a high protein food ingredient. Recently, we observed that microbial transglutaminase (TGase) crosslinked peanut proteins and changed the functional characteristics of the final product. Therefore, in this study, we determined the effects of TGase polymeriz...

156

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF AFLA-GUARD®, A BIOPESTICIDE FOR AFLATOXIN CONTROL IN PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have worked for many years on the development of technology for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. The strategy behind this technology is to apply a high level of a nontoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus to soil in which peanuts are growing so that the strain can co...

157

Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

158

UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING PEANUTS TO DETERMINE FRUITY-FERMENTED OFF FLAVOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individual peanut kernels may develop a fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor if exposed to elevated temperatures soon after digging. Typically, high moisture, immature peanuts exposed to temperatures above 35ºC either in the windrow or during artificial curing may develop the FF off-flavor. Because of t...

159

Interrelationship of phytoalexin production and disease resistance in selected peanut genotypes.  

PubMed

In peanuts, a mechanism of resistance to fungal infection is reportedly due to the synthesis of stilbene phytoalexins, which are antibiotic, low molecular weight metabolites. The phytoalexin-associated response of different peanut genotypes to exogenous invasion in the field has not been investigated and may be useful for breeding resistant peanut cultivars. Five peanut genotypes, Georgia Green, Tifton 8, C-99R, GK-7 High Oleic, and MARC I, which differ in resistance to major peanut diseases, were investigated for their ability to produce phytoalexins under field conditions in South Georgia in 2001 and 2002. Five known peanut phytoalexins, trans-resveratrol, trans-arachidin-1, trans-arachidin-2, trans-arachidin-3, and trans-3'-isopentadienyl-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, were quantitated. The phytoalexins were measured in peanuts of different pod maturity (yellow, orange, brown, and black) with or without insect pod damage (externally scarified or penetrated). Kernels from insect-damaged pods of C-99R and Tifton 8 genotypes had significantly higher concentrations of phytoalexins than other genotypes. The same genotypes were the most resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus and late leaf spot, while MARC I, which is highly susceptible to these diseases, produced very low concentrations of phytoalexins. However, there was no significant difference in phytoalexin production by undamaged peanut pods of all tested genotypes. trans-Arachidin-3 and trans-resveratrol were the major phytoalexins produced by insect-damaged peanuts. In damaged seeds, the concentrations of trans-3'-isopentadienyl-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene were significantly higher in Tifton 8 as compared to other genotypes. There was an association between total phytoalexin production and published genotype resistance to major peanut diseases. Stilbene phytoalexins may be considered potential chemical markers in breeding programs for disease-resistant peanuts. PMID:17326657

Sobolev, Victor S; Guo, Baozhu Z; Holbrook, C Corley; Lynch, Robert E

2007-02-28

160

REDUCING THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF PEANUT EXTRACTS BY REMOVING PEANUT ALLERGENS WITH PHYTIC ACIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

People are allergic to peanuts because peanuts contain proteins called allergens. Removing these proteins from a peanut kernel or extract is thought to help reduce or prevent peanut allergy. Phytic acid, which functions as the chief storage form of phosphate and inositol in mature seeds, can chelate...

161

Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

162

High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale  

SciTech Connect

The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

2006-07-01

163

Intraocular inflammation following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The use of a mixture of silicone oil and partially fluorinated alkanes (high-density silicone oil) has recently been suggested as intraocular tamponade in complicated retinal detachment of the inferior quadrants. We describe a series of patients who developed a clinical picture resembling anterior granulomatous uveitis following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil. Methods We evaluated 19 eyes of 18 patients

Thomas Theelen; Maurits A. D. Tilanus; B. Jeroen Klevering

2004-01-01

164

Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.  

PubMed

Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

1998-12-01

165

Expressed sequence tags in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea): discovery of genes in seed development and response to Ralstonia solanacearum challenge.  

PubMed

Although an important oil crop, peanut has only 162,030 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) publicly available, 86,943 of which are from cultivated plants. More ESTs from cultivated peanuts are needed for isolation of stress-resistant, tissue-specific and developmentally important genes. Here, we generated 63,234 ESTs from our 5 constructed peanut cDNA libraries of Ralstonia solanacearum challenged roots, R. solanacearum challenged leaves, and unchallenged cultured peanut roots, leaves and developing seeds. Among these ESTs, there were 14,547 unique sequences with 7,961 tentative consensus sequences and 6,586 singletons. Putative functions for 47.8 % of the sequences were identified, including transcription factors, tissue-specific genes, genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and oil formation regulation, and resistance gene analogue genes. Additionally, differentially expressed genes, including those involved in ethylene and jasmonic acid signal transduction pathways, from both peanut leaves and roots, were identified in R. solanacearum challenged samples. This large expression dataset from different peanut tissues will be a valuable source for marker development and gene expression analysis. It will also be helpful for finding candidate genes for fatty acid synthesis and oil formation regulation as well as for studying mechanisms of interactions between the peanut host and R. solanacearum pathogen. PMID:22648474

Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Lei, Yong; Jiang, Huifang; Ren, Xiaoping; Liao, Boshou

2012-05-31

166

Microsatellite identification and characterization in peanut ( A. hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

A major constraint to the application of biotechnology to the improvement of the allotetraploid peanut, or groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), has been the paucity of polymorphism among germplasm lines using biochemical (seed proteins, isozymes) and DNA markers (RFLPs and RAPDs). Six sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers were previously available that revealed polymorphism in cultivated peanut. Here, we identify and characterize 110 STMS markers that reveal genetic variation in a diverse array of 24 peanut landraces. The simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified with a probe of two 27648-clone genomic libraries: one constructed using PstI and the other using Sau3AI/ BamHI. The most frequent, repeat motifs identified were ATT and GA, which represented 29% and 28%, respectively, of all SSRs identified. These were followed by AT, CTT, and GT. Of the amplifiable primers, 81% of ATT and 70.8% of GA repeats were polymorphic in the cultivated peanut test array. The repeat motif AT showed the maximum number of alleles per locus (5.7). Motifs ATT, GT, and GA had a mean number of alleles per locus of 4.8, 3.8, and 3.6, respectively. The high mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus, combined with their relative frequency in the genome and amenability to probing, make ATT and GA the most useful and appropriate motifs to target to generate further SSR markers for peanut. PMID:15067392

Ferguson, M E; Burow, M D; Schulze, S R; Bramel, P J; Paterson, A H; Kresovich, S; Mitchell, S

2003-12-11

167

Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity  

SciTech Connect

Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5 deg. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

Shu Fangjie [Department of Physics, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); State Key Lab for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zou Changling; Sun Fangwen [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xiao Yunfeng [State Key Lab for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-05-15

168

Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5°. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling; Sun, Fang-Wen; Xiao, Yun-Feng

2011-05-01

169

Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

170

Peanut Prices (Released March 16, 2012).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Peanut prices received by farmers for all farmer stock peanuts averaged 34.5 cents per pound for the week ending March 10, up 0.3 cent from the previous week. Marketings of all farmer stock peanuts for the week ending March 10 totaled 80.6 million pounds,...

2012-01-01

171

Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

172

CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT SPECIFIC T CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reports have detailed fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions occurring in adolescents and adults following the ingestion of peanuts or peanut products. Currently, the only effective treatment for patients with peanut hypersensitivity is avoidance of any food products which contain the allergen...

173

Phylogenetic analyses of peanut resistance gene candidates and screening of different genotypes for polymorphic markers  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich-repeat (NBS–LRR)-encoding gene family has attracted much research interest because approximately 75% of the plant disease resistance genes that have been cloned to date are from this gene family. Here, we describe a collection of peanut NBS–LRR resistance gene candidates (RGCs) isolated from peanut (Arachis) species by mining Gene Bank data base. NBS–LRR sequences assembled into TIR-NBS-LRR (75.4%) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (24.6%) subfamilies. Total of 20 distinct clades were identified and showed a high level of sequence divergence within TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS subfamilies. Thirty-four primer pairs were designed from these RGC sequences and used for screening different genotypes belonging to wild and cultivated peanuts. Therefore, peanut RGC identified in this study will provide useful tools for developing DNA markers and cloning the genes for resistance to different pathogens in peanut.

Radwan, Osman E.; Ahmed, Talaat A.; Knapp, Steven J.

2009-01-01

174

Oil recovery method using high water content oil-external micellar dispersions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high water content oil-external micellar dispersion (containing 55 percent to about 90 percent water) was developed for enhanced oil recovery. The micellar slug contained petroleum sulfonate (molecular weight averaged at about 350 to about 525), hydrocarbon, water and cosurfactant. The micellar slug was driven by a mobility buffer slug, which consisted of No. 530 Pusher, fusel oil and the

S. C. Jones; W. O. Roszelle; M. A. Svaldi

1971-01-01

175

Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.  

PubMed

The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the lysine content of peanuts is higher than wheat, peanuts can be used to supplement wheat flour in food preparation. This study found by partially replacing wheat flour with peanut flour and with incorporation of hydrocolloid emulsifier, such as carrageenan or xanthan gum, dough viscosity, and pasta firmness significantly improved. Peanut pasta with high protein content and balanced amino acid profile can help support consumers with a healthy lifestyle. PMID:21535674

Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

2010-11-10

176

Improving the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated vegetable oils by blending with high-oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing different proportions of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with polyunsaturated vegetable oils provides a simple method\\u000a to prepare more stable edible oils with a wide range of desired fatty acid composition. Oxidative stability of soybean, canola\\u000a and corn oils, blended with different proportions of HOSO to lower the respective levels of linolenate and linoleate, was\\u000a evaluated at 60°C. Oxidation was

E. N. Frankel; S. W. Huang

1994-01-01

177

Pterocarpenes elicited by Aspergillus caelatus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds.  

PubMed

The substituted pterocarpenes named aracarpene-1 (1) and aracarpene-2 (2) were isolated from wounded peanut seeds challenged by a strain of Aspergillus caelatus. The structures of these putative phytoalexins were determined by interpretation of NMR and MS data. The aracarpenes were investigated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities in mammalian cells. Aracarpene-2 demonstrated high antibacterial properties against tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, whereas aracarpene-1 displayed low antibacterial properties against the same bacteria. Both compounds had no antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Together with peanut stilbenoids that are also produced in the challenged seeds, these compounds may represent a class of low-molecular weight peanut metabolites with a defensive role(s) against pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:21030054

Sobolev, Victor S; Neff, Scott A; Gloer, James B; Khan, Shabana I; Tabanca, Nurhayat; De Lucca, Anthony J; Wedge, David E

2010-10-26

178

Immunochemical analytical methods for the determination of peanut proteins in foods.  

PubMed

Peanut proteins can cause allergenic reactions that can result in respiratory and circulatory effects in the body sometimes leading to shock and death. The determination of peanut proteins in foods by analytical methods can reduce the risk of serious reactions in the highly sensitized individual by allowing for the detection of these proteins in a food at various stages of the manufacturing process. The method performance of 4 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits was evaluated for the detection of peanut proteins in milk chocolate, ice cream, cookies, and breakfast cereals: ELISA-TEK Peanut Protein Assay, now known as "Bio-Kit" for peanut proteins, from ELISA Technologies Inc.; Veratox for Peanut Allergens from Neogen Corp.; RIDASCREEN Peanut Kit from R-Biopharm GmbH; and ProLisa from Canadian Food Technology Ltd. The 4 test kits were evaluated for accuracy (recovery) and precision using known concentrations of peanut or peanut proteins in the 4 food matrixes. Two different techniques, incurred and spiked, were used to prepare samples with 4 known concentrations of peanut protein. Defatted peanut flour was added in the incurred samples, and water-soluble peanut proteins were added in the spiked samples. The incurred levels were 0.0, 10, 20, and 100 microg whole peanut per g food; the spiked levels were 0.0, 5, 10, and 20 microg peanut protein per g food. Performance varied by test kit, protein concentration, and food matrix. The Veratox kit had the best accuracy or lowest percent difference between measured and incurred levels of 15.7% when averaged across all incurred levels and food matrixes. Recoveries associated with the Veratox kit varied from 93 to 115% for all food matrixes except cookies. Recoveries for all kits were about 50% for cookies. The analytical precision, as measured by the variance, increased with an increase in protein concentration. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) was stable across the 4 incurred protein levels and was 7.0% when averaged across the 4 food matrixes and analytical kits. The R-Biopharm test kit had the best precision or a CV of 4.2% when averaged across all incurred levels and food matrixes. Because measured protein values varied by test kit and food matrix, a method was developed to normalize or transform measured protein concentrations to an adjusted protein value that was equal to the known protein concentration. The normalization method adjusts measured protein values to equal the true protein value regardless of the type test kit or type food matrix. PMID:15759738

Whitaker, Thomas B; Williams, Kristina M; Trucksess, Mary W; Slate, Andrew B

179

Preparation of peanut butter suspension for determination of peanuts using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits.  

PubMed

Peanuts are one of the 8 most common allergenic foods and a large proportion of peanut-allergic individuals have severe reactions, some to minimal exposure. Specific protein constituents in the peanuts are the cause of the allergic reactions in sensitized individuals who ingest the peanuts. To avoid accidental ingestion of peanut-contaminated food, methods of analysis for the determination of the allergenic proteins in foods are important tools. Such methods could help identify foods inadvertently contaminated with peanuts, thereby reducing the incidence of allergic reactions to peanuts. Commercial immunoassay kits are available but need study for method performance, which requires reference materials for within- and between-laboratory validations. In this study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2387 peanut butter was used. A polytron homogenizer was used to prepare a homogenous aqueous Peanut Butter suspension for the evaluation of method performance of some commercially available immunoassay kits such as Veratox for Peanut Allergen Test (Neogen Corp.), Ridascreen Peanut (R-Biopharm GmbH), and Bio-Kit Peanut Protein Assay Kit (Tepnel). Each gram of the aqueous peanut butter suspension contained 20 mg carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, 643 microg peanut, 0.5 mg thimerosal, and 2.5 mg bovine serum albumin. The suspension was homogenous, stable, reproducible, and applicable for adding to ice cream, cookies, breakfast cereals, and chocolate for recovery studies at spike levels ranging from 12 to 90 microg/g. PMID:15164837

Trucksess, Mary W; Brewer, Vickery A; Williams, Kristina M; Westphal, Carmen D; Heeres, James T

180

Peanut-specific IgE antibodies in asymptomatic Ghanaian children possibly caused by carbohydrate determinant cross-reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of peanut allergy has increased in developed countries, but little is known about developing countries with high peanut consumption and widespread parasitic infections. Objective We sought to investigate peanut allergy in Ghana. Methods In a cross-sectional survey among Ghanaian schoolchildren (n = 1604), data were collected on reported adverse reactions to peanut, peanut sensitization (serum specific IgE and skin reactivity), consumption patterns, and parasitic infections. In a subset (n = 43) IgE against Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 9 as well as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. Cross-reactivity and biological activity were investigated by means of ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release, respectively. Results Adverse reactions to peanut were reported in 1.5%, skin prick test reactivity in 2.0%, and IgE sensitization (?0.35 kU/L) in 17.5% of participants. Moreover, 92.4% of those IgE sensitized to peanut (?0.35 kU/L) had negative peanut skin prick test responses. Schistosoma haematobium infection was positively associated with IgE sensitization (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.37-3.86). In the subset IgE titers to Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 9 were low (<1.3 kU/L), except for 6 moderately strong reactions to Ara h 9. IgE against peanut was strongly correlated with IgE against CCDs (r = 0.89, P < .0001) and could be almost completely inhibited by CCDs, as well as S haematobium soluble egg antigen. Moreover, IgE to peanut showed poor biological activity. Conclusions Parasite-induced IgE against CCDs might account largely for high IgE levels to peanut in our study population of Ghanaian schoolchildren. No evidence of IgE-mediated peanut allergy was found.

Amoah, Abena S.; Obeng, Benedicta B.; Larbi, Irene A.; Versteeg, Serge A.; Aryeetey, Yvonne; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Lidholm, Jonas; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hartgers, Franca C.; Boakye, Daniel A.; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

2013-01-01

181

FIRST REPORT OF PEANUT MOTTLE VIRUS (PMV) IN RHIZOMA PEANUT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

182

Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places\\u000a in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal\\u000a diversity. High Shannon-Index H? was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated\\u000a mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%)

Balaji Venkatesagowda; Ebenezer Ponugupaty; Aneli M. Barbosa; Robert F. H. Dekker

183

Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

184

TRANSFERABILITY OF SOYBEAN SSR MARKERS IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are useful DNA markers in plant genetic research. However, they are not fully exploited in peanut because of the high cost and labor intensity involved in their development. Many studies have showed that DNA markers could be transferable among related species due to th...

185

PEANUT AND OTHER FOOD ALLERGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past decade, there has been an increase in allergic reactions to peanut and other food proteins, often resulting in fatal reactions. The development of improved methods for both diagnosis and treatment of all allergies requires a better understanding of the allergenic proteins and the immune...

186

High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

187

Effect of maturity on the fatty acid composition of eight varieties of peanuts grown at perkins, Oklahoma in 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight varieties of peanuts were grown under measured field conditions. Seed obtained at five successive harvest dates and\\u000a separated into three maturity levels were analyzed for fatty acid composition of oil. Mature peanuts were mostly higher in\\u000a stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, and lower in linoleic (18:2), arachidic (20:0) and behenic (22:0) acids. Oleic-linoleic\\u000a ratios, which are correlated with

C. T. Young; M. E. Mason; R. S. Matlock; G. R. Waller

1972-01-01

188

7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

189

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2009-01-01

190

7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

2012-01-01

191

7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

192

7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

193

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2012-01-01

194

7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

195

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2009-01-01

196

7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

2010-01-01

197

High-value oils from plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years there has been increasing use of these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of using fossil

John M. Dyer; Sten Stymne; Allan G. Green; Anders S. Carlsson

2008-01-01

198

Production of high v. i. lubricating oil stock  

SciTech Connect

A process for the manufacture of high quality lubricating oils having a high viscosity index and low pour point is disclosed which comprises catalytically dewaxing a lubricating oil stock by contacting the same in the presence of hydrogen over a zeolite such as zsm-5 which has been silica-modified.

Chen, N.Y.; Garwood, W.E.; Rodewald, P.G.

1983-03-08

199

ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

200

PEANUT SEED TRANSCRIPTOME: CONSTRUCTION OF SIX PEANUT SEED CDNA LIBRARIES FROM TWO PEANUT CULTIVARS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to revolutionarily enhance crop genetic improvement and production. However, genome research in peanut is far behind those in other crops, such as maize, soybean, wheat, and sorghum due to the shortage of essential genome infrastructure, tools, an...

201

A bioinformatics approach to identify patients with symptomatic peanut allergy using peptide microarray immunoassay  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut allergy is relatively common, typically permanent, and often severe. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy–related disorders. However, the complexity and potential of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cause life-threatening allergic reactions affects its clinical application. A laboratory test that could accurately diagnose symptomatic peanut allergy would greatly facilitate clinical practice. Objective We sought to develop an allergy diagnostic method that could correctly predict symptomatic peanut allergy by using peptide microarray immunoassays and bioinformatic methods. Methods Microarray immunoassays were performed by using the sera from 62 patients (31 with symptomatic peanut allergy and 31 who had outgrown their peanut allergy or were sensitized but were clinically tolerant to peanut). Specific IgE and IgG4 binding to 419 overlapping peptides (15 mers, 3 offset) covering the amino acid sequences of Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 were measured by using a peptide microarray immunoassay. Bioinformatic methods were applied for data analysis. Results Individuals with peanut allergy showed significantly greater IgE binding and broader epitope diversity than did peanut-tolerant individuals. No significant difference in IgG4 binding was found between groups. By using machine learning methods, 4 peptide biomarkers were identified and prediction models that can predict the outcome of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges with high accuracy were developed by using a combination of the biomarkers. Conclusions In this study, we developed a novel diagnostic approach that can predict peanut allergy with high accuracy by combining the results of a peptide microarray immunoassay and bioinformatic methods. Further studies are needed to validate the efficacy of this assay in clinical practice.

Lin, Jing; Bruni, Francesca M.; Fu, Zhiyan; Maloney, Jennifer; Bardina, Ludmilla; Boner, Attilio L.; Gimenez, Gustavo; Sampson, Hugh A.

2013-01-01

202

Comparative proteomic analysis for assessment of the ecological significance of maize and peanut intercropping.  

PubMed

Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Peanut/maize intercropping is known to improve the iron (Fe) content of peanuts in calcareous soils. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to uncover the ecological significance of peanut/maize intercropping at the molecular level. We demonstrate that photosynthesis-related proteins accumulated in intercropped peanut leaves, suggesting that the intercropped peanuts had a stronger photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, stress-response proteins displayed elevated expression levels in both peanut and maize in a monocropping system. This indicated that intercropping contributes to resistance to stress conditions. Allene oxide synthase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, two key enzymes in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, increased in abundance in the maize roots of the intercropping system, consistent with the upregulation of JA-induced proteins shown by microarray analysis. These results imply that JA may act as a signaling molecule, playing an important role in intercropping through rhizosphere interaction. This study suggests that peanut/maize intercropping results in high Fe availability in the rhizosphere, leading to variation in the proteins related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The advantages of intercropping systems may improve the ecological adaptation of plants to environmental stress. PMID:23103225

Xiong, Hongchun; Shen, Hongyun; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Yanxiang; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Ji, Chunqiao; Zhong, Lina; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

2012-10-24

203

Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

204

Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

205

Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ? †  

PubMed Central

Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment.

He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

2011-01-01

206

Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.  

PubMed

This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P < 0.05), oleic (27%, P < 0.01) and eicosenoic (>100%, P < 0.001) acids of VLDL triacylglycerols, whereas there was a significant decrease in linoleic acid (38%, P < 0.001). In addition, the high oleic sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P < 0.05) and total saturated fatty acids (14%, P < 0.05). Both MUFA-rich diets significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the content of sn-glycerol-palmitate-linoleate-oleate, sn-glycerol-palmitoleate-dioleate and sn-glycerol-palmitate-dilinoleate in VLDL with regard to the NCEP-I diet, whereas they increased the content of sn-glycerol-trioleate (>100%, P < 0.001 after the olive oil diet; 80%, P < 0.05 after the high oleic sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P < 0.01) and increased the content of dioleoyl-containing triacylglycerols. MUFA (P < 0.01) and arachidonic acid (P < 0.001) tended to be rich in the sn-2 position of VLDL triacylglycerols during the periods of consuming the olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols may be of major importance in explaining the beneficial effects of dietary olive oil in reducing the atherogenic risk profile in healthy subjects. PMID:9482765

Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

1998-03-01

207

Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

208

Yield Performance and Stability Evaluation of Peanut Breeding Lines with the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multienvironment trials of crop breeding lines consume many resources. Crop models have a potential to assist in this process. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of the CSM- CROPGRO-Peanut model in assisting with yield performance and stability evaluation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding lines. Seventeen peanut lines were tested in 11 environments in Thailand during

B. Suriharn; A. Patanothai; K. Pannangpetch; S. Jogloy; G. Hoogenboom

2008-01-01

209

Determination of aflatoxins in individual peanuts and peanut sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsamples of a given lot of peanuts may vary greatly in aflatoxin content due to extreme variability in the degree of contamination\\u000a of individual kernels. A micro method, adapted from the aqueous acetone procedure recently proposed by Pons and Goldblatt\\u000a for the determination of aflatoxins in cottonseed products, was developed to permit accurate determination of aflatoxins in\\u000a individual kernels and

Alva F. Cucullu; Louise S. Lee; Ruth Y. Mayne; L. A. Goldblatt

1966-01-01

210

The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466 g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12 g/kg DM) and P (1.7 g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani × Rambouillet) wethers (60?±?2.5 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P?peanut hay in the ration. Nitrogen retention in the body increased (P?peanut hay. These findings showed that substitution of wheat straw with peanut hay can improve DM and nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep. PMID:23080339

Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur

2012-10-19

211

Laxative effect of peanut sprout extract.  

PubMed

Certain phenolic compounds are known to exhibit laxative properties. Seed sprouts, such as those of peanut, are known to promote de novo biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to examine the potential laxative properties of 80% (v/v) ethanolic extract of peanut sprout (PSE), which contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds such as resveratrol. For this, SD rats were orally administered PSE while a control group was incubated with saline. Laxative effects were examined in both groups of rats. Constipation induced by loperamide in SD rats was improved by administration of PSE. Constipated rats showed increased intestinal movement of BaSO4 upon administration of PSE compared to the control, and the groups administered 100 or 1,000 mg PSE/kg bw were not significantly different in transit time of the indicator. However, colon length was not statistically different among the experimental groups, although it was longer in the group incubated with 1 g PSE/kg bw compared to other groups. Further, there was no significant difference in stool number among the experimental groups. Taken together, these findings show that PSE has a laxative effect in a rat model of loperamide-induced constipation. PMID:23964312

Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyo Jung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jong-Sang

2013-08-07

212

The natural history of peanut allergy in young children and its association with serum peanut-specific IgE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To observe the nature and frequency of adverse reactions caused by accidental peanut exposure in young children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity and to determine the value of serum peanut-specific IgE levels during follow-up. Study design: Eighty-three children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity diagnosed before their fourth birthdays were contacted yearly to track adverse peanut reactions. Serum peanut-specific IgE levels were

Timothy K. Vander Leek; Andrew H. Liu; Kay Stefanski; Betty Blacker; S. Allan Bock

2000-01-01

213

?-Cyclodextrin-based oil-absorbent microspheres: preparation and high oil absorbency.  

PubMed

This article reports the preparation and evaluation of polymeric microspheres as a new class of oil-absorbent (POAMs). Based on our earlier oil-absorbents, the present microspheres contained ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) moieties as both cross-linking agent and porogen agent, and showed exciting high oil absorbency, fast oil absorption speed and good reusability. Such microspheres were prepared via suspension polymerization with octadecyl acrylate and butyl acrylate as co-monomers, ?-CD derivative as cross-linking agent, 2,2'-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator and polyvinylalcohol as stabilizer. Oil absorbency of the POAMs was, for CCl(4), 83.4; CHCl(3), 75.1; xylene, 48.7; toluene, 42.8; gasoline, 30.0; kerosene 27.1; and diesel, 18.2 g/g (oil/POAMs). Saturation oil absorption reached within 3h in CCl(4). The POAMs exhibited high oil retention percentage (>90%), and can be reused for at least 10 times while keeping oil absorbency almost unchanged. PMID:23044125

Song, Ci; Ding, Lei; Yao, Fei; Deng, Jianping; Yang, Wantai

2012-08-17

214

Quantitative risk assessment relating to adventitious presence of allergens in food: a probabilistic model applied to peanut in chocolate.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is a public health concern, owing to the high prevalence in France and the severity of the reactions. Despite peanut-containing product avoidance diets, a risk may exist due to the adventitious presence of peanut allergens in a wide range of food products. Peanut is not mentioned in their ingredients list, but precautionary labeling is often present. A method of quantifying the risk of allergic reactions following the consumption of such products is developed, taking the example of peanut in chocolate tablets. The occurrence of adventitious peanut proteins in chocolate and the dose-response relationship are estimated with a Bayesian approach using available published data. The consumption pattern is described by the French individual consumption survey INCA2. Risk simulations are performed using second-order Monte Carlo simulations, which separately propagates variability and uncertainty of the model input variables. Peanut allergens occur in approximately 36% of the chocolates, leading to a mean exposure level of 0.2 mg of peanut proteins per eating occasion. The estimated risk of reaction averages 0.57% per eating occasion for peanut-allergic adults. The 95% values of the risk stand between 0 and 3.61%, which illustrates the risk variability. The uncertainty, represented by the 95% credible intervals, is concentrated around these risk estimates. Children have similar results. The conclusion is that adventitious peanut allergens induce a risk of reaction for a part of the French peanut-allergic population. The method developed can be generalized to assess the risk due to the consumption of every foodstuff potentially contaminated by allergens. PMID:20002890

Rimbaud, Loup; Heraud, Fanny; La Vieille, Sébastien; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Crepet, Amélie

2009-12-11

215

Peanut sensitisation and allergy: influence of early life exposure to peanuts.  

PubMed

The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the influence of early life exposure (maternal and childhood) to peanuts and the subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts during childhood. Studies were identified using electronic databases and bibliography searches. Studies that assessed the impact of non-avoidance compared with avoidance or reduced quantities of peanuts or peanut products on either sensitisation or allergy to peanuts, or both outcomes, were eligible. Six human studies were identified: two randomised controlled trials, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies. In addition, published animal and mechanistic studies, relevant to the question of whether early life exposure to peanuts affects the subsequent development of peanut sensitisation, were reviewed narratively. Overall, the evidence reviewed was heterogeneous, and was limited in quality, for example, through lack of adjustment for potentially confounding factors. The nature of the evidence has therefore hindered the development of definitive conclusions. The systematic review of human studies and narrative expert-led reviews of animal studies do not provide clear evidence to suggest that either maternal exposure, or early or delayed introduction of peanuts in the diets of children, has an impact upon subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts. Results from some animal studies (and limited evidence from human subjects) suggest that the dose of peanuts is an important mediator of peanut sensitisation and tolerance; low doses tend to lead to sensitisation and higher doses tend to lead to tolerance. PMID:20100372

Thompson, Rachel L; Miles, Lisa M; Lunn, Joanne; Devereux, Graham; Dearman, Rebecca J; Strid, Jessica; Buttriss, Judith L

2010-01-26

216

Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.  

PubMed

Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light, a nonthermal technology, was used to treat both the peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic properties of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated using a Xenon RS-3000C under the following conditions: 3 pulses/s, 14.6 cm from the central axis of the lamp, 4 min (extract) or 3 min (liquid peanut butter). After the treatment, the peanut samples were centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed by SDS-PAGE and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA). For comparison, boiling treatments were also performed. SDS-PAGE showed that while boiling treatment had little effect on the peanut allergens, PUV-light-treated samples displayed a reduced solubility or level of peanut allergens (63 kDa). Solubility of another allergen (18 to 20 kDa) was unaffected. Insoluble aggregates formed were responsible for the reduced level of allergens in PUV-light-treated samples. ciELISA showed that untreated samples exhibited an IgE binding 7-fold higher than the PUV-treated samples. It was concluded that PUV light was effective in reducing IgE binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The current study provides an approach to the development of a possibly less allergenic peanut product. However, the reduction in actual allergenicity needs to be confirmed by clinical studies. PMID:18576985

Chung, S-Y; Yang, W; Krishnamurthy, K

2008-06-01

217

Leaf photosynthesis and Rubisco activity and kinetics of soybean, peanut, and rice grown under elevated atmospheric CO2, supraoptimal air temperature, and soil water deficit.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean, peanut and rice were grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and under varying day/night temperature (T) regimes ranging from 28/18 to 48/38C for soybean and peanut, or soil water deficit for rice, (a) to determine the interactive impacts of high CO2-high T, or high CO2-drought, on midday leaf...

218

Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.  

PubMed

Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world. PMID:21920877

Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

2011-09-15

219

HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

220

Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

221

TECHNOLOGY CHOICE UNDER CHANGING PEANUT POLICIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of marketing quotas and price supports on technology adoption are examined for peanut production in the Southeastern United States using a real options model of investment with output price and yield uncertainty. The optimal choice of peanut production technology (dryland versus irrigate...

222

Genetics of peanut allergy: A twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of genetics in the etiology of peanut allergy is unknown. For complex genetic traits, twin studies can provide information on the relative contribution of genetic factors to a disease, as the relative confounding effects of environmental factors are markedly decreased. Objective: This study was performed to search for evidence that genetic factors influence peanut allergy by comparing

Scott H. Sicherer; Terence J. Furlong; Hermine H. Maes; Robert J. Desnick; Hugh A. Sampson; Bruce D. Gelb

2000-01-01

223

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PEANUT PLANT PARTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antioxidant research is an important topic in the medical field as well as in the food industry. Recent research with important bioactive compounds in many plant and food materials, including peanuts and peanut plants has received much attention. This research being presented is the first step in ...

224

Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

225

PLANTING PATTERNS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at NPRL. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relationships. A diamond-pattern seed placement usua...

226

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PEANUT PLANT TISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Antioxidant research is an important topic in the medical field as well as in the food industry. Recent research with important bioactive compounds in many plant and food materials, including peanuts and peanut plants has received much attention. The research presented here is the first step in iden...

227

OHMSETT 'High Seas' Performance Testing: MARCO Class V Oil Skimmer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at variou...

G. F. Smith W. E. McCracken

1978-01-01

228

High Temperature Corrosion During Combustion of Gas, Coal and Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanism of high temperature corrosion caused by combustion of gas, coal and oil is surveyed by literature. Fuels are subdivided into three groups according to their combustion products, namely, those free from sulfur and ashes, those containing sulfur b...

A. Rahmel

1976-01-01

229

Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

230

Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

231

High seas oil containment barrier mooring system. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mooring system was designed, fabricated and tested to moor the Air Deployable Lightweight High Seas Oil Containment Barrier, a component of the U.S. Coast Guard's High Seas Oil Spill Response System. The key criteria to which the mooring system was built are: (1) deliverable by HH-3 helicopter, (2) holding capacity of 8,500 pounds with 1,000 pound nominal load, (3)

Bitting

1975-01-01

232

Kentucky exploration targets oil in fractured High Bridge, Knox zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-yielding oil well, the Syndicated Options Ltd. of Austria 9372 Ferguson Bros., was completed in late 1990 in Clinton County, south-central Kentucky. Cumulative production for the first 8 weeks was reported to have been nearly 150,000 bbl of oil. The well produced from the Middle Ordovician High Bridge group, which is equivalent to the Stones River group of Tennessee.

Hamilton-Smith

1992-01-01

233

Nutritive value of heated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut, sesame and coconut oils were heated at 270C for 8 hr, in an open iron pan. These fats were fed to albino rats at 15%\\u000a level in otherwise adequate diets. All rats fed heated fats showed a growth depression. Livers of rats receiving heated oil\\u000a were congested and showed extensive periportal fatty infiltration. Rats on heated peanut oil showed

N. V. Raju; M. Narayana Rao; R. Rajagopalan

1965-01-01

234

Screening natural antioxidants in peanut shell using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS methods.  

PubMed

Peanut shell, a byproduct in oil production, is rich in natural antioxidants. Here, a rapid and efficient method using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS was used for the first time to screen antioxidants in peanut shell. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS technique. With this method, three compounds possessing potential antioxidant activities were found abundantly in the methanolic extract of peanut shell. They were identified as 5,7-dihydroxychromone, eriodictyol, and luteolin. The contents of these compounds were 0.59, 0.92, and 2.36 mg/g, respectively, and luteolin possessed the strongest radical scavenging capacity. DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS assay facilitated rapid identification and determination of natural antioxidants in peanut shell, which may be helpful for value-added utilization of peanut processing byproducts. PMID:22980814

Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Leilei; Zhu, Qingjun; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Wenliang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Du, Fangling

2012-07-15

235

Identification and annotation of abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs  

PubMed Central

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ranks fifth among the world oil crops and is widely grown in India and neighbouring countries. Due to its large and unknown genome size, studies on genomics and genetic modification of peanut are still scanty as compared to other model crops like Arabidopsis, rice, cotton and soybean. Because of its favourable cultivation in semi-arid regions, study on abiotic stress responsive genes and its regulation in peanut is very much important. Therefore, we aim to identify and annotate the abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs. Expression data of drought stress responsive corresponding genes and EST sequences were screened from dot blot experiments shown as heat maps and supplementary tables, respectively as reported by Govind et al. (2009). Some of the screened genes having no information about their ESTs in above mentioned supplementary tables were retrieved from NCBI. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to find a group of utmost similar ESTs for each selected gene. Individual EST of the said group were further searched in peanut ESTs (1,78,490 whole EST sequences) using stand alone BLAST. For the prediction as well as annotation of abiotic stress responsive selected genes, various tools (like Vec-Screen, Repeat Masker, EST-Trimmer, DNA Baser, WISE2 and I-TASSER) were used. Here we report the predicted result of Contigs, domain as well as 3D structure for HSP 17.3KDa protein, DnaJ protein and Type 2 Metallothionein protein.

Kumari, Archana; Kumar, Ashutosh; Wany, Aakanksha; Prajapati, Gopal Kumar; Pandey, Dev Mani

2012-01-01

236

Identification and annotation of abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ranks fifth among the world oil crops and is widely grown in India and neighbouring countries. Due to its large and unknown genome size, studies on genomics and genetic modification of peanut are still scanty as compared to other model crops like Arabidopsis, rice, cotton and soybean. Because of its favourable cultivation in semi-arid regions, study on abiotic stress responsive genes and its regulation in peanut is very much important. Therefore, we aim to identify and annotate the abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs. Expression data of drought stress responsive corresponding genes and EST sequences were screened from dot blot experiments shown as heat maps and supplementary tables, respectively as reported by Govind et al. (2009). Some of the screened genes having no information about their ESTs in above mentioned supplementary tables were retrieved from NCBI. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to find a group of utmost similar ESTs for each selected gene. Individual EST of the said group were further searched in peanut ESTs (1,78,490 whole EST sequences) using stand alone BLAST. For the prediction as well as annotation of abiotic stress responsive selected genes, various tools (like Vec-Screen, Repeat Masker, EST-Trimmer, DNA Baser, WISE2 and I-TASSER) were used. Here we report the predicted result of Contigs, domain as well as 3D structure for HSP 17.3KDa protein, DnaJ protein and Type 2 Metallothionein protein. PMID:23275722

Kumari, Archana; Kumar, Ashutosh; Wany, Aakanksha; Prajapati, Gopal Kumar; Pandey, Dev Mani

2012-12-08

237

Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste. PMID:21286847

Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

2011-02-01

238

Population structure and marker-trait association analysis of the US peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. To efficiently utilize the germplasm collection, a peanut mini-core containing 112 accessions was established in the United States. To determine the population structure and its impact on marker-trait association, this mini-core collection was assessed by genotyping 94 accessions with 81 SSR markers and two functional SNP markers from fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2). Seed quality traits (including oil content, fatty acid composition, flavonoids, and resveratrol) were obtained through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis identified four major subpopulations that are related to four botanical varieties. Model comparison with different levels of population structure and kinship control was conducted for each trait and association analyses with the selected models verified that the functional SNP from the FAD2A gene is significantly associated with oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio across this diverse collection. Even though the allele distribution of FAD2A was structured among the four subpopulations, the effect of FAD2A gene remained significant after controlling population structure and had a likelihood-ratio-based R ( 2 ) (R ( LR ) ( 2 ) ) value of 0.05 (oleic acid), 0.09 (linoleic acid), and 0.07 (O/L ratio) because the FAD2A alleles were not completely fixed within subpopulations. Our genetic analysis demonstrated that this peanut mini-core panel is suitable for association mapping. Phenotypic characterization for seed quality traits and association testing of the functional SNP from FAD2A gene provided information for further breeding and genetic research. PMID:21822942

Wang, Ming Li; Sukumaran, Sivakumar; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Chen, Charles Y; Guo, Baozhu; Pittman, Roy N; Stalker, H Thomas; Holbrook, C Corley; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

2011-08-07

239

High-Fat Corn Oil Diet Promotes the Development of High Histologic Grade Rat DMBA-Induced Mammary Adenocarcinomas, While High Olive Oil Diet Does Not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a high corn oil and a high olive oil diet on the histopathologic characteristics of rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary adenocarcinomas were investigated in comparison with those of a control low-fat diet. Two experimental series (A and B) studied the influence of a high corn oil diet on the initiation and the promotion of mammary carcinogenesis, while another one (C)

Irmgard Costa; Raquel Moral; Montserrat Solanas; Eduard Escrich

2004-01-01

240

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

241

Hydro-oleophobic Silica antireflective films with high laser damage threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydro-oleophobic silica antireflective films with high laser damage threshold were prepared by sol-gel process. The highest water contact angle of 136deg and oil (peanut) contact angle of 93deg were obtained. The highest optical transmittance and laser damage threshold (351 nm, 1 ns) were 99.5% and 6 J\\/cm2 respectively.

Lianghong Yan; Haibing Lv; Xiaodong Yuan; Songnan Zhao; Xibing Li; Haijun Wang

2009-01-01

242

High Temperature Thermal Stability Investigation of Paraffinic Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and thermal properties of paraffinic oil were investigated at 250–360°C to determine its suitability for use as a heat-transfer fluid. Thermal stability test was conducted at 360°C for a period of 480 hr in a stainless steel high-pressure autoclave. The paraffinic oil offered sufficient thermal stability for a period of about 300 hr and then became unstable resulting in thermal

L. O. Oyekunle; A. A. Susu

2005-01-01

243

Structural Characterization of Oil Component of High Temperature Pyrolysis Tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar samples obtained through high temperature carbonization of three different bituminous coals were separated into oil, asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions by soxhlet extraction. The oil fraction was further separated into parafinic, neutral aromatic and polar aromatic sub-fractions by silica gel chromatography. By means of the FT-IR spectroscopy of the sub-fractions, an attempt was made to define the existing functional groups,

H. SUTCU; I. TOROGLU; S. PISKIN

2005-01-01

244

Composition of Human VLDL Triacylglycerols after Ingestion of Olive Oil and High Oleic Sunflower Oil1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet

Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez; Nora Morgado; JoseLuis Prada; Francisco Perez-Jimenez; Francisco J. G. Muriana

245

The influence of diets containing either conventional corn, conventional corn with choice white grease, high oil corn, or high oil high oleic corn on belly\\/bacon quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate diets possessing different fatty acid profiles (as influenced by corn type) with regard to fatty acid profile and firmness of pork bellies. Crossbred barrows (n=196) were fed one of four corn-based diets consisting of conventional corn (CONV), CONV with choice white grease (CWG), high oil corn (HOC), or high oleic, high oil

G Rentfrow; T. E Sauber; G. L Allee; E. P Berg

2003-01-01

246

Evaluation of electrospun polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene fibers as sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A novel, high-capacity oil sorbent consisting of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polystyrene (PS) fiber was prepared by an electrospinning process. The sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, and sorption mechanism of the PVC/PS sorbent were studied. The results showed that the sorption capacities of the PVC/PS sorbent for motor oil, peanut oil, diesel, and ethylene glycol were 146, 119, 38, and 81 g/g, respectively. It was about 5-9 times that of a commercial polypropylene (PP) sorbent. The PVC/PS sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity (about 1000 times) and high buoyancy in the cleanup of oil over water. The SEM analysis indicated that voids among fibers were the key for the high capacity. The electrospun PVC/PS sorbent is a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbent for oil spill cleanup. PMID:21513310

Zhu, Haitao; Qiu, Shanshan; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

2011-04-22

247

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

248

Effects of Highly Consumed Dietary Oils on Several Hepatic Transaminases and Lipid Oxidation in Chick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of cardiovascular disease is well correlated with diets high in saturated fatty acids (such as butter). On the other hand, oils, which are rich in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., sunflower oil and corn oils), reduce cholesterol synthesis and thus show protective effects against arteriosclerosis. However, sunflower oil and corn oil are also considered as risk factors for their

Mustafa Yöntem; Serdar Ergün; Azmi Yerlikaya; ? dris Mehmeto? lu; Recep Gökce; Süleyman Kaleli

2005-01-01

249

CHARACTERISATION OF LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES TO PEANUT IN NORMAL CHILDREN, PEANUT-ALLERGIC CHILDREN AND ALLERGIC CHILDREN WHO ACQUIRED TOLERANCE TO PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Comparing lymphocyte responses to allergenic and non-allergenic foods could reveal the differences between pathogenic and normal immune responses to foods. Thus, defining the cytokine-producing phenotypes of peanut-specific lymphocytes from: 1)peanut-allergic children, 2)children who outgrew peanut ...

250

The Case of the Disappearing "Peanuts."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of investigations focusing on the biodegradable packing materials ("peanuts"), which provide a method for exploring science through experimentation. These activities can help fourth through sixth graders sharpen their critical thinking and science process skills. (PR)

Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail

1994-01-01

251

Peanut-Derived Products Used as Ingredients  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... work with their suppliers to ensure that all peanut-derived products used as ingredients or sold as food are not subject to an on-going product recall ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

252

PEANUT SHELL FUEL FOR THE GAMBIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project will develop a household-scale human-powered briquette maker that will convert peanut shells into an efficient cooking fuel. The briquette maker will be designed such that it can be manufactured and used in The Gambia. ...

253

Aerobiology of Two Peanut Leafspot Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air was sampled continuously for fungal spores with a Hirst spore trap 0.5 m above a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) field during the growing seasons of 1969, 1970, and 1971. Low concentrations of Cercospora arachidicola conidia and Leptosphaerulina crassiasca ...

D. H. Smith F. L. Crosby

1972-01-01

254

High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5% EPT-OILShield and an untreated control SBO were used for intermittent batch frying of tortilla chips at 180 degrees C for up to 65 h. Oil frying stability was measured by free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC). Chips were aged for up to 4 mo at 25 degrees C and evaluated for rancid flavor by a 15-member, trained, experienced analytical sensory panel and for hexanal content as an indicator of oxidation. Oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield had significantly less FFA and TPC than the control. The effect of EPT-OILShield was apparently retained in aged chips because hexanal levels were significantly lower in chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in chips fried in the control. Tortilla chips fried in the control were rancid after 2 mo at 25 degrees C at sampling times evaluated from 25 to 65 h; however, chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield and used for 65 h were described as only slightly rancid after 4 mo. Gamma tocopherol levels were significantly higher in the chips fried in the oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in the control, helping to inhibit oxidation in the tortilla chips during storage. PMID:19723188

Warner, Kathleen; Gehring, Marta Meta

2009-08-01

255

Association of root, specific leaf area and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading to water use efficiency of peanut under different available soil water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Drought is the major abiotic constraint affecting peanut productivity and quality worldwide. There is a pressing need to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) of rain-fed peanut production. Breeding varieties with high water use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. The objective...

256

Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

Blamey, F.P.C.

1983-01-01

257

THE CURRENTLY HIGH OIL PRICES MAKE IMPERATIVE THE GEOGRAPHICAL DIVERSIFICATION OF OIL RESOURCES: THE CASE OF THE GULF OF BIAFRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a broad belief that the currently high oil prices make imperative the geographical diversification of oil resources. This is rather based on the lessons of the energy crisis in the 1970's.The costs of this crisis have been debated a lot and vary from country to country. In the early 1980's the costs of the oil shocks were estimated

Helen KAVVADIA

258

Exposure to peanuts in utero and in infancy and the development of sensitization to peanut allergens in young children.  

PubMed

This study attempted to determine the underlying factors that may influence the development of peanut sensitization in young children in South Africa. One of our objectives was to ascertain whether the consumption of peanuts or peanut-containing foods during pregnancy and lactation by mothers from atopic families impacted upon the development of an allergic response to peanuts in the child. Forty-three children between the ages of 0 and 3 yr participated in this study. There were 25 peanut-sensitized subjects and 18 control subjects (children sensitized to milk and/or egg, but not to peanuts). A significant association was found between peanut sensitization and sensitivity to soya (p=0.0002), wheat (p=0.03), and cod fish. We found that mothers who consumed peanuts more than once a week during pregnancy were more likely to have a peanut-allergic child than mothers who consumed peanuts less than once a week (odds ratio=3.97, 98% confidence interval 0.73-24). Peanuts or peanut butter was introduced into the child's diet from a significantly younger age in the peanut-allergic subjects (p<0.03). There was a positive correlation in the peanut-allergic subjects between age of introduction of peanuts and age at the onset of symptoms (r=0.63). Exclusive breast feeding did not protect against the development of peanut sensitization. Peanut allergy is associated with an increased risk of sensitization to other foods. It is more likely to occur if mothers eat peanuts more frequently during pregnancy and introduce it early to the infant's diet. These features highlight potentially avoidable factors that might prevent sensitization. PMID:10410914

Frank, L; Marian, A; Visser, M; Weinberg, E; Potter, P C

1999-02-01

259

Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

260

Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

261

WATER-USE EFFICIENCY OF PEANUT VARIETIES: VARIATION ACROSS PEANUT PRODUCTION REGIONS AND IRRIGATION TREATMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The picture of water availability across most of the US peanut producing areas is bleak and becoming worse every year. Years of drought and increasing urban drains on water resources are forcing producers to make do with diminishing irrigation stores. The ability of a peanut variety to use water e...

262

Resid hydrotreating with high temperature flash drum recycle oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrotreating process is described, comprising the steps of: mixing recycled flash drum oil with nonhydrotreated virgin resid oil in a feed drum; while concurrently heating the nonhydrotreated virgin resid oil with the recycled flash drum oil; feeding the feed oil comprising the nonhydrotreated virgin resid oil and the recycled flash drum oil to a reactor train comprising a series

N. K. McDaniel; N. C. Vasti; N. R. Woods; R. E. Boening

1989-01-01

263

The effects of oils and frying temperatures on the texture and fat content of potato crisps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of oils and frying temperatures on fat content and texture of potato crisps.The material used for the study consisted of eight kinds of vegetable oils: sunflower, rapeseed, soybean, olive, peanut, palm, partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil (modified oil I) and a mixture of hydrogenated rapeseed oil with palm oil (modified oil

A. Kita; G. Lisi?ska; G. Go?ubowska

2007-01-01

264

Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first definitive study of the fate of the aflatoxins in vegetable oils undergoing processing.\\u000a Crude oils, obtained by solvent extraction or by hydraulic pressing of ground moldy peanuts (not suitable for human consumption),\\u000a contained only small fractions of the aflatoxin originally present in the peanuts; the meals retained the bulk of the aflatoxin.\\u000a Conventional alkali

Wilbur A. Parker; Daniel Melnick

1966-01-01

265

The theory of high-speed oil diffusion pumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of vapour density in the jets of high-speed oil diffusion pumps is stressed. It may be low, firstly, on account of the pressure gradient in the tower up which the vapour is fed from the base of the pump, and secondly, because of the radial spreading of the jet after it leaves the tower. By means of a

L. Riddiford; R. F. Coe

1954-01-01

266

Oil spill detection using a coastal high-resolution radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we propose a new GLRT technique to detect oil spills dipping into a non Gaussian clutter using a coastal (VTS) radar with high resolution and working in X- band. Analyzing a real dataset stored by the IPIX radar in Canada, we show that a non-coherent integration of the received pulses in the slow time domain, particularly over

Fabrizio Santi; Pierfrancesco Lombardo; Debora Pastina

2011-01-01

267

Poster: high performance computing reservoir simulation in the oil industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large reservoir simulation is computationally challenging. High resolution reservoir models provide necessary realism in heterogeneous reservoirs. Large number of simulations of such models is necessary in reducing uncertainties in reservoir characterizations and creating efficient field development plans. To meet such challenges, Saudi Aramco, the world's leading oil producing company, developed a parallel reservoir simulator, POWERS [1], and built a computing

Mohamad Sindi; Majdi Baddourah; M. Ehtesham Hayder

2011-01-01

268

Compositional and mechanical properties of peanuts roasted to equivalent colors using different time/temperature combinations.  

PubMed

Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations, which could affect product quality. To investigate this potential, runner peanuts from a single lot were systematically roasted using 5 roast temperatures (147, 157, 167, 177, and 187 °C) and to Hunter L-values of 53 ± 1, 48.5 ± 1, and 43 ± 1, corresponding to light, medium, and dark roasts, respectively. Moisture contents (MC) ranged from 0.41% to 1.70% after roasting. At equivalent roast temperatures, MC decreased as peanuts became darker; however, for a given color, MC decreased with decreasing roast temperature due to longer roast times required for specified color formation. Initial total tocopherol contents of expressed oils ranged from 164 to 559 ?g/g oil. Peanuts roasted at lower temperatures and darker colors had higher tocopherol contents. Glucose content was roast color and temperature dependent, while fructose was only temperature dependent. Soluble protein was lower at darker roast colors, and when averaged across temperatures, was highest when samples were roasted at 187 °C. Lysine content decreased with increasing roast color but was not dependent on temperature. MC strongly correlated with several components including tocopherols (R(2) = 0.67), soluble protein (R(2) = 0.80), and peak force upon compression (R(2) = 0.64). The variation in characteristics related to roast conditions is sufficient to suggest influences on final product shelf life and consumer acceptability. PMID:23145904

McDaniel, Kristin A; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

2012-11-12

269

Low-molecular weight organic compositions of acid waters from vegetable oil soapstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline extracts (soapstocks) from canola, corn, cottonseed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower oil refining were acidified,\\u000a and identities and concentrations of the low-molecular weight organic components of the resulting acid waters were determined\\u000a by gas chromatography, followed by mass spectroscopy, and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The main components of\\u000a each acid water sample, in order of decreasing concentration and after omitting

Steven L. Johansen; Arunthathi Sivasothy; Michael K. Dowd; Peter J. Reilly; Earl G. Hammond

1996-01-01

270

7 CFR 457.134 - Peanut crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The producer's commitment to plant and grow peanuts, and to deliver the peanut...of pest control measures; (d) Plant disease, but not damage due to insufficient... (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if due to a cause of...

2013-01-01

271

Moringa oleifera oil: A possible source of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the

Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe

2008-01-01

272

Overexpression of peanut diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar 'Luhua 14' using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a-GST, or AhDGAT2b-GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2b-GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4-2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a-GST and AhDGAT2a-GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for efficient FA production in E. coli. PMID:23593473

Peng, Zhenying; Li, Lan; Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

2013-04-11

273

Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics.DESIGN: Thirty-week, cross-over, intervention study. Participants were provided 2113±494 kJ\\/day (505±118 kcal\\/day) as peanuts for 8 weeks with no dietary guidance (free feeding—FF), 3 weeks with instructions to add peanuts to their customary diet (addition—ADD) and 8 weeks where peanuts replaced an equal amount of other fats

CM Alper

2002-01-01

274

Processing of heavy high-sulfur crude oil  

SciTech Connect

Heavy high-sulfur crude oil is subjected to distillation to produce gas and liquid hydrocarbon products and a residuum. The gas and liquid products are desulfurized. Part of the residuum is coked in a delayed coker, and sulfur in the coke is removed by high temperature calcination. The remainder of the residuum is air-blown to produce an asphalt product, and sulfur recovered from the other products is added to the asphalt to produce a sulfur-enriched asphalt product.

Boyer, L.D.

1982-06-01

275

Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas  

SciTech Connect

Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

1984-08-01

276

Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of peanut from public database  

PubMed Central

Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5%) within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5%) was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%), AAT (10.9%), and AT (10.3%).The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders.

2012-01-01

277

Peanut Program: Potential Effects of Proposed Farm Bill on Producers, Consumers, Government, and Peanut Imports and Exports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current federal peanut program, administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is designed to support producers' incomes while ensuring an ample supply of domestically produced peanuts. To accomplish these goals, the program controls the d...

2001-01-01

278

Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

2008-07-01

279

An outbreak due to peanuts in their shell caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Stanley and Newport--sharing molecular information to solve international outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

Salmonellosis is a global problem caused by the international movement of foods and high incidence in exporting countries. In September 2001, in an outbreak investigation Australia isolated Salmonella Stanley from imported peanuts, which resulted in a wider investigation in Canada, England & Wales and Scotland. Patients infected with Salmonella serotypes known to be isolated from peanuts and reported to surveillance systems were interviewed to determine exposure histories. Tagged image file format (TIFF) images of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella isolates were shared electronically amongst laboratories. Laboratories tested packets of 'Brand X' peanuts from various lots and product lines. In total, 97 cases of S. Stanley and 12 cases of S. Newport infection were found. Seventy-three per cent (71/97) of S. Stanley cases were in persons of Asian ethnicity. Twenty-eight per cent of cases recalled eating Brand X peanuts and a further 13% had peanuts in their house in the previous month or had eaten Asian-style peanuts. Laboratories isolated S. Stanley, S. Newport, S. Kottbus, S. Lexington and S. Unnamed from Brand X peanuts. Isolates of S. Stanley from peanuts and human patients were indistinguishable by PFGE. This international outbreak resulted from a product originating from one country affecting several others. Rapid sharing of electronic DNA images was a crucial factor in delineating the outbreak; multinational investigations would benefit from a harmonized approach.

Kirk, M. D.; Little, C. L.; Lem, M.; Fyfe, M.; Genobile, D.; Tan, A.; Threlfall, J.; Paccagnella, A.; Lightfoot, D.; Lyi, H.; McIntyre, L.; Ward, L.; Brown, D. J.; Surnam, S.; Fisher, I. S. T.

2004-01-01

280

An outbreak due to peanuts in their shell caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Stanley and Newport--sharing molecular information to solve international outbreaks.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis is a global problem caused by the international movement of foods and high incidence in exporting countries. In September 2001, in an outbreak investigation Australia isolated Salmonella Stanley from imported peanuts, which resulted in a wider investigation in Canada, England & Wales and Scotland. Patients infected with Salmonella serotypes known to be isolated from peanuts and reported to surveillance systems were interviewed to determine exposure histories. Tagged image file format (TIFF) images of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella isolates were shared electronically amongst laboratories. Laboratories tested packets of 'Brand X' peanuts from various lots and product lines. In total, 97 cases of S. Stanley and 12 cases of S. Newport infection were found. Seventy-three per cent (71/97) of S. Stanley cases were in persons of Asian ethnicity. Twenty-eight per cent of cases recalled eating Brand X peanuts and a further 13% had peanuts in their house in the previous month or had eaten Asian-style peanuts. Laboratories isolated S. Stanley, S. Newport, S. Kottbus, S. Lexington and S. Unnamed from Brand X peanuts. Isolates of S. Stanley from peanuts and human patients were indistinguishable by PFGE. This international outbreak resulted from a product originating from one country affecting several others. Rapid sharing of electronic DNA images was a crucial factor in delineating the outbreak; multinational investigations would benefit from a harmonized approach. PMID:15310157

Kirk, M D; Little, C L; Lem, M; Fyfe, M; Genobile, D; Tan, A; Threlfall, J; Paccagnella, A; Lightfoot, D; Lyi, H; McIntyre, L; Ward, L; Brown, D J; Surnam, S; Fisher, I S T

2004-08-01

281

Effect of Non-Thermal Processing on Peanut Allergens.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut allergy is on the rise, and the reason is still unclear. Previously, roasting by thermal method has been shown to increase the allergenic potency of peanuts. In this study, we determined if non-thermal methods, such as, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and pulsed UV lights (PUV) affect peanut all...

282

NIR reflectance method to determine the Moisture Content in Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is an important property that is measured and monitored at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. In this work an NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) reflectance method, that would rapidly determine the average mc of a peanut sample (about ...

283

DISEASE MANAGEMENT AND VARIABLE PLANTING PATTERNS IN PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at the USDA-ARS National Peanut Research Laboratory. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relations...

284

NONDESTRUCTIVE MOISTURE SENSING IN PEANUTS BY NIR REFLECTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Moisture content (MC) in peanuts is an important parameter to be measured and monitored at various stages in peanut industry. Earlier a method was developed to estimate the MC of a peanut sample held between a set of parallel-plate conductors from the measured values of capacitance and phase angle...

285

A murine model of peanut anaphylaxis: T- and B-cell responses to a major peanut allergen mimic human responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy affects 0.6% of the US population. At the present time, allergen avoidance is the only therapeutic option. Animal models of food-induced anaphylaxis would facilitate attempts to design novel immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a murine model of IgE-mediated peanut hypersensitivity that closely mimics human peanut

Xiu-Min Li; Denise Serebrisky; Soo-Young Lee; Chih-Kang Huang; Ludmilla Bardina; Brian H. Schofield; J. Steven Stanley; A. Wesley Burks; Gary A. Bannon; Hugh A. Sampson

2000-01-01

286

Frying quality and oxidative stability of high-oleic corn oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the frying stability of corn oils that are genetically modified to contain 65% oleic acid, high-oleic corn oil\\u000a was evaluated in room odor tests and by total polar compound analysis. Flavor characteristics of french-fried potatoes, prepared\\u000a in the oil, were also evaluated by trained analytical sensory panelists. In comparison to normal corn oil, hydrogenated corn\\u000a oil and high-oleic

K. Warner; S. Knowlton

1997-01-01

287

Due to Sunland Peanut Butter Recall, AdvancePierre Foods Initiates Voluntary Recall of Select Frozen Peanut Butter Products  

NASA Website

With the FDA’s announcement of an expanded recall of Sunland Inc.’s peanut butter, AdvancePierre Foods of Cincinnati, OH, is initiating a voluntary recall of select frozen products including Peanut Butter and Jelly sandwiches, Peanut Butter and Jelly ...

288

Peanut Skin Color: A Biomarker for Total Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidative Capacities of Peanut Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Attempts to establish a relationship between peanut skin color (PSC) and total flavonoid (TF) content have produced inconclusive results. This study investigated the potential of PSC as a biomarker for polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Peanut cultivars were objectively evaluated for their skin color, total phenolic (TP), flavonoid (TF), proanthocyanidin (TPC) contents and antioxidant capacities (AC). Their relationship was determined by Pearson’s correlation analyses. TP had stronger correlations with CIE a*, hue angle and AC (r2 = 0.77, 0.82 and 0.80, respectively) compared to TF. Therefore, hue angle of peanut skin may be used as a biomarker for TP content rather than TF.

Chukwumah, Yvonne; Walker, Lloyd T.; Verghese, Martha

2009-01-01

289

Pesticide runoff risk during peanut production in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts are produced on approximately 200000 ha in the Atlantic Coastal Region of Georgia. The humid subtropical climate promotes high yields; however pest pressures are high. Crops are treated frequently with a variety of active ingredients for weed, insect and disease control. In this presentation...

290

Addition of Astra-Ben 20 to Sequester Aflatoxin During Protein Extraction of Contaminated Peanut Meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut meal is an excellent source of high quality protein; however, the relatively high aflatoxin concentrations typically associated with this commodity currently limit applications within the feed market, in addition to being prohibitive for any future food ingredient markets. Accordingly, the e...

291

Screening and identification of a highly lipolytic bacterial strain from barbecue sites in Hainan and characterization of its lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cheap and rapid screening method for isolation of lipolytic bacteria was established. A total of 145 lipolytic strains were\\u000a isolated from oil-contaminated soil samples at barbeque sites in Haikou, China. Highly lipolytic strains were screened based\\u000a on the formation of clearance zones on turbid solid media supplemented with emulsified peanut oil. One strain, C737-11, had\\u000a the highest lipolytic activity

Qiongli Ma; Xuepiao Sun; Shufeng Gong; Jiaming Zhang

2010-01-01

292

High-V.I. motor oils with polymeric additives  

SciTech Connect

At the Yu. G. Mamedaliev Institute of Petrochemical Processes, in cooperation with AzNIIolefin (formerly VNIIolefin), a feasibility study has been made on the production of high-V.I. oils using polymeric additives. The recommended V.I. improver was an ethylene-propylene copolymer with a molecular weight of 4000-6000, obtained by decomposing a macromolecular ethylene-propylene copolymer. Blends of this additive at concentrations of 1.0-1.5% in lube stocks from Baku crudes raise the V.I. to 100 or higher. In the work reported here, we investigated the physicochemical properties of the high-V.I. motor oils M-8V{sub 1} and M-10V{sub 2}, obtained from medium-sulfur eastern crudes by the use of this additive.

Kuliev, R.Sh.; Seidov, N.M.; Abasov, A.I.

1995-01-01

293

Peanuts: allergic and other untoward reactions.  

PubMed

Serious sequalae to the ingestion of several foods such as egg, fish and milk--and the lack of profound reactions to chocolate--have been well documented. However, no comparable study exists in regard to peanut, which has long been known to be a patent antigen. This article explores the role of peanut with respect to its hazards as an antigen and as a foreign body in the upper respiratory tract, and documents a number of fatal and near-fatal reactions. PMID:7073024

Fries, J H

1982-04-01

294

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

295

The distribution of individual threshold doses eliciting allergic reactions in a population with peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hidden peanut in consumer products can endanger patients with peanut allergy. Individual threshold doses for eliciting allergic reactions need to be elucidated to assess the risks for development of allergic reactions after accidental ingestion of peanut in a population with peanut allergy. Objective: We sought to determine the distribution of individual threshold doses in a population with peanut allergy

Marjolein Wensing; André H. Penninks; Susan L. Hefle; Stef J. Koppelman; Carla A. F. M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen; André C. Knulst

2002-01-01

296

Peanut Allergens: An Overview Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and especially on the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always

JORGE SÁIZ; CRISTINA MONTEALEGRE; MARIA LUISA MARINA; CARMEN GARCÍA-RUIZ

2012-01-01

297

Expression, purification, cross-reactivity and homology modeling of peanut profilin.  

PubMed

Plant profilins are known pan-allergens involved in the cross-reactions between pollen and plant foods. Peanut profilin, Ara h 5, is one of the important peanut allergens. Presently, most immunological, biochemical and structural studies on peanut allergens have focused on the three major allergens (Ara h 1, 2 and 3). Here Ara h 5 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, Rosetta2(DE3) (Novagen), purified using a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography and yielded a total of 29 mg/l of culture. IgE reactivity was assayed using multiplexed microarray with other peanut allergens (Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 8) and birch (Bet v 2) and timothy (Phl p 2) profilin using sera from peanut allergic Swedish patients. Using homology modeling, Ara h 5 structure was also generated, compared against other profilins and utilized to predict surface-exposed residues potentially forming epitopes. The allergen was recognized by 3 out of 33 sera (9.1%). IgE reactivity to Ara h 5 also coincided with that of two other profilins, Phl p 12 and Bet v 2, confirming cross-reactivity. Interestingly, IgE reactivity to Ara h 5 was higher than above-mentioned profilins which may be indicating specificity of sera towards peanut profilin. Eight surface-exposed epitopes were predicted and verified against experimentally validated sequential epitopes. Three epitopes (#1, 5 and 7) mostly located at the accessible loops and neutral to relatively electropositive sites were found common among profilins, which should be involved in cross-reactivity. A specific putative epitope (#4) was also found which may explain the relative high IgE reactivity to Ara h 5 as compared to the other profilins. Due to its close relation to other allergenic profilins, Ara h 5 could be used as a model and allergen of choice for profilin allergy diagnosis. PMID:20230899

Cabanos, Cerrone; Tandang-Silvas, Mary Rose; Odijk, Van; Brostedt, Peter; Tanaka, Akira; Utsumi, Shigeru; Maruyama, Nobuyuki

2010-03-15

298

Process for the treatment of highly viscous heavy oils at the oil field to effect desalting and transportability thereof  

SciTech Connect

A treatment of highly viscous and very dense oils at the oil field to effect their desalting, and resulting in the production of an easily transportable hydrocarbon mixture of reduced viscosity, comprising the steps of: (a) diluting the crude oil with a hydrocarbon cut obtained in step (d); (b) subjecting the effluent from step (a) to a desalting-dehydration treatment; (c) subjecting the effluent from step (b) to hydrovisbreaking; and (d) distilling the effluent from step (c), and recycling a hydrocarbon cut to step (a), the remaining part forming a synthetic crude oil of reduced viscosity.

Billon, A.; Peries, J.-P.; Quignard, A.

1985-08-06

299

Resid hydrotreating with high temperature flash drum recycle oil  

SciTech Connect

A hydrotreating process is described, comprising the steps of: mixing recycled flash drum oil with nonhydrotreated virgin resid oil in a feed drum; while concurrently heating the nonhydrotreated virgin resid oil with the recycled flash drum oil; feeding the feed oil comprising the nonhydrotreated virgin resid oil and the recycled flash drum oil to a reactor train comprising a series of ebullated bed reactors; conveying a hydrotreating catalyst to the reactor train; injecting feed gases comprising hydrogen and methane into the ebullated bed reactors; ebullating and hydrotreating the feed oil with the feed gases in the presence of the hydrotreating catalyst at a hydrotreating temperature in the ebullated bed reactors to produce an upgraded product stream comprising hydrotreated resid oil and effluent tail gases comprising hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water, and methane; and separating the product stream in a separator into an overhead stream of gases and oil vapors and a bottom stream of separator oil.

McDaniel, N.K.; Vasti, N.C.; Woods, N.R.; Boening, R.E.

1989-02-28

300

EFFECTIVENESS OF CATEGORY AND LINE SCALES TO CHARACTERIZE CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF FRUITY FERMENTED FLAVOR IN PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. The 9-point hedonic scale is the most widely used scale to determine consumer acceptance; however, research has indicated that line scales may provide equal reliability and greater sensitivity. T...

301

EFFECTIVENESS OF CATEGORY AND LINE SCALES TO CHARACTERIZE CONSUMER PRECEPTION OF FRUITY FERMENTED FLAVOR IN PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. The 9-point hedonic scale is the most widely used scale to determine consumer acceptance; however, research has indicated that line scales may provide equal reliability and greater sensitivity. T...

302

EFFECT OF SOIL DENSITY OF ASPERGILLUS SPECIES ON INVASION OF PEANUT SEEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil is the source of primary inoculum for Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, fungi that produce the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Aflatoxigenic fungi commonly invade peanut seeds during maturation and the highest concentrations of aflatoxins are found in insect-da...

303

United States Peanut Descriptors, July 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This text revises the original descriptors used in the peanut germplasm catalogs published by the S-9 Plant Germplasm Collection and Utilization Regional Project in 1963, 1976, and 1985. It shows the descriptor system as of 1995 used by the cultivated-pea...

R. N. Pittman

1995-01-01

304

Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement.  

PubMed

Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to the tetraploid; cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination, and the narrow genetic base of the primary genepool have resulted in low genetic diversity that has remained a major bottleneck for genetic improvement of peanut. Harnessing the rich source of wild relatives has been negligible due to differences in ploidy level as well as genetic drag and undesirable alleles for low yield. Lack of appropriate genomic resources has severely hampered molecular breeding activities, and this crop remains among the less-studied crops. The last five years, however, have witnessed accelerated development of genomic resources such as development of molecular markers, genetic and physical maps, generation of expressed sequenced tags (ESTs), development of mutant resources, and functional genomics platforms that facilitate the identification of QTLs and discovery of genes associated with tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses and agronomic traits. Molecular breeding has been initiated for several traits for development of superior genotypes. The genome or at least gene space sequence is expected to be available in near future and this will further accelerate use of biotechnological approaches for peanut improvement. PMID:22094114

Pandey, Manish K; Monyo, Emmanuel; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Liang, Xuanquiang; Guimarães, Patricia; Nigam, Shyam N; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Janila, Pasupuleti; Zhang, Xinyou; Guo, Baozhu; Cook, Douglas R; Bertioli, David J; Michelmore, Richard; Varshney, Rajeev K

2011-11-09

305

The Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

306

REGISTRATION OF AT3081R PEANUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AT 3081R is a mid-maturity (135 days in South Georgia) runner peanut and was selected based on superior yield and tolerance to tomato-spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Parents GK-7 (PVP 8200141, PI 601061) and H 95 were crossed in 1995. Parent H 95 was derived from interspecific crossing, and introgressi...

307

Mycoflora of developing peanut pods in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starr and Argentine peanut cultivars were grown in soil fungicide treated irrigated and non-irrigated plots in a 2 year study designed to determine possible differences in invasion of developing seed pods byAspergillus flavus and other mycoflora. Many genera and species were isolated from whole pods and half shells throughout each season. Fungi were seldom isolated from kernels. No significant differences

George L. Barnes

1971-01-01

308

Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

2008-01-01

309

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

310

Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:18474424

Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

2008-05-12

311

Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Peanut Farms, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report compares selected farm characteristics and production costs among peanut producers. Producers are grouped according to variable cash expenses for peanut production, enterprise size, and production region. Data are from the peanut version of th...

N. L. Brooks

1994-01-01

312

75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds, and Grains...Committees (ATAC) for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS...planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds...

2010-10-07

313

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHOLIPASE D AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH DROUGHT SUSCEPTIBILITIES IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preharvest aflatoxin contamination has been identified by the peanut industry as the most serious challenge. Drought stress is the most important environmental factor exacerbating Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Development of resistant peanut cultivars would represent...

314

CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHOLIPASE D GENE (PLD) IN PEANUT AND PLD EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT STRESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Preharvest aflatoxin contamination has been identified by the peanut industry as the most serious challenge. Drought stress is the most important environmental factor exacerbating Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Development of resistant peanut cultivars would represent...

315

Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin, soybean oil, corn oil and peanut oil by the commercial lipase fromCandida rugosa (formerly known asC. cylindracea) was studied. The optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of palm oil by the lipase were established. The lipase fromC. rugosa exhibits an optimal activity at 37 C and at pH 7.5. The optimal

H. T. Khor; N. H. Tan; C. L. Chua

1986-01-01

316

Surfactant oil recovery process usable in high temperature formations containing high salinity water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many petroleum-containing formations contain high salinity and\\/or hard water and have temperatures from 150° to 300°F. Many surfactants known for oil recovery purposes may be used in either the high salinity or hard water, or in the presence of high temperature, but few surfactants or surfactant combinations are suitable for use in formations containing both high salinity water and temperatures

Shupe

1978-01-01

317

Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping.

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-01-01

318

Soil eukaryotic microorganism succession as affected by continuous cropping of peanut--pathogenic and beneficial fungi were selected.  

PubMed

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-07-10

319

Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%–89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut.

Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

320

Controlled evaluation of fat intake in the Mediterranean diet: comparative activities of olive oil and corn oil on plasma lipids and platelets in high-risk patients13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of low-fat diets with olive oil or corn oil on lipids and platelets were studied in 23 middle-aged patients with high atherosclerosis risk for 8 wk. The olive oil diet had a polyunsaturated-saturated ratio of 0.33 vs 1.28 for the corn oil diet. Plasma total cholesterol was reduced with corn oil, but high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower with

Cesare R Sirtori; Elena Tremoli; Ennio Gatti; Guido Montanan; Marina Sirtori; Susanna Coii; Gemma Gianfranceschi; Paola Maderna; Cinzia Zucchi Dentone; Giulio Testolin; Claudio Gaii

321

Correlation of crude oils with their oil source formation, using high resolution GLC C6-C7 component analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method based on high resolution gas liquid chromatography (GLC) component analyses of shale and crude oil C6-C7 hydrocarbons is reported, by means of which the composition parameters in an oil are compared with the corresponding parameters in a shale. A similarity coefficient has been devised to measure the degree of correlation between crude oil and source rock hydrocarbons and between the hydrocarbons from different groups of crude oils, having 1.00 as its theoretical maximum value and a fraction close to zero as its minimum. With values above 0.80, correlation between the given hydrocarbons is considered good, and poor below 0.73. It has been found that erroneous crude oil-source rock combinations from areas with more than one source formation have low similarity coefficients, indicating that the correlation method proposed is functioning properly.

Philippi, G. T.

1981-09-01

322

Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduces peanut allergy risk in offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut (PN) exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. Objective To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first PN exposure, and whether maternal low dose PN exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and PN sensitization in a murine model. Methods Five-week-old offspring of PNA C3H/HeJ mothers (PNA-M) were challenged intragastrically (i.g.) with PN (first exposure), and reactions were determined. In a subset of the experiment, PNA-M were fed low dose of PN (PNA-M/PN) or not fed PN (PNA-M/none) during pregnancy and lactation. Their 5-week-old offspring were challenged intragastrically with PN, and reactions were determined. In another subset of the experiment, offspring of PNA-M /PN or PNA-M/none were sensitized with PN i.g. for 6 weeks and serum PN-specific antibodies were determined. Results PNA-M offspring exhibited anaphylactic reactions at first exposure to PN which were associated with PN-specific IgG1 levels, and prevented by a platelet activation factor antagonist. In a subset experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed significantly reduced first exposure PN reactions, increased IgG2a, and reduced mitogen-stimulated splenocyte cytokine production compared to PNA-M/none offspring. In additional experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed reduction of PN-specific IgE to active PN sensitization. Conclusion We show for the first time maternal transmission of susceptibility to first exposure PN reactions and active PN sensitization. Low dose PN exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced this risk. Clinical Implications Maternal peanut allergy is a risk factor for offspring peanut anaphylaxis in a mouse model. Low dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced first PN exposure reactions, and inhibited active peanut sensitization after weaning. Capsule Summary Low dose peanut exposure of peanut allergic mice during pregnancy and lactation reduced susceptibility of offspring to peanut allergy. Strict avoidance of PN and other food allergens during pregnancy and lactation may be counterproductive.

Lopez-Exposito, Ivan; Song, Ying; Jarvinen, Kirsi M.; Srivastava, Kamal; Li, Xiu-Min

2009-01-01

323

Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the norm. Seventy-six healthy rural Cretan boys aged 7–9 years were

C. Aravanis; R. P. Mensink; N. Karalias; B. Christodoulou; A. Kafatos; M. B. Katan

1988-01-01

324

Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.  

PubMed

In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

2010-03-31

325

Persistence of peanut allergen on a table surface  

PubMed Central

Background A diagnosis of peanut allergy has a major impact on an individual’s quality of life. Exposure to even small amounts of peanut can trigger serious reactions. Common cleaning agents can easily remove peanut allergen from surfaces such as table tops. Parents of children with peanut allergy frequently ask if peanut allergen can persist on surfaces if they have not been cleaned. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the persistence of peanut allergen on a typical table surface over time. Methods Five mL of peanut butter was evenly smeared on a 12 inch by 12 inch (30.5 by 30.5 cm) square on a nonporous (laminated plastic) table surface. Five squares were prepared in the same manner. The table was kept in a regular hospital office at room temperature and ambient lighting. No cleaning occurred for 110 days. Samples were taken at regular intervals from different areas each time. A monoclonal-based ELISA for arachis hypogaea allergen 1 (Ara h 1), range of detection 1.95-2000 ng/mL, was used to assess peanut allergen on the table surface. Results At baseline, there was no detectable Ara h 1 allergen. Immediately post application and for 110 days of collecting, detectable Ara h 1 was found each time a sample was taken. There was no obvious allergen degradation over time. Active cleaning of the contaminated surface with a commercial cleaning wipe resulted in no detectable Ara h 1 allergen. Conclusions Peanut allergen is very robust. Detectable Ara h 1 was present on the table surface for 110 days. Active cleaning of peanut contaminated surfaces easily removed peanut residue and allergen. Regular cleaning of surfaces before and after eating should be reinforced as a safety measure for all individuals with peanut allergy.

2013-01-01

326

Generation means analysis for productivity in two diverse peanut crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of exotic germplasm resources for population improvement in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has increased as the need to increase genetic diversity among peanut cultivars was recognized. Progeny of crosses of two unadapted germplasm lines (GP-NC 343 and FESR-11-P11-32) with an adapted cultivar (‘NCV11’) of peanut were evaluated for the genetic factors influencing the inheritance of yield and fruit characters

T. M. Halward; J. C. Wynne

1991-01-01

327

Organization and evolution of resistance gene analogs in peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scarcity of genetic polymorphism in Arachis hypogaea (peanut), as in other monophyletic polyploid species, makes it especially vulnerable to nematode, bacterial, fungal, and\\u000a viral pathogens. Although no disease resistance genes have been cloned from peanut itself, the conserved motifs in cloned\\u000a resistance genes from other plant species provide a means to isolate and analyze similar genes from peanut. To

Bayram Yuksel; James C. Estill; Stefan R. Schulze; Andrew H. Paterson

2005-01-01

328

The Impact of High Oil Prices on Global and Regional Natural Gas and LNG Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil prices are notoriously hard to predict, but they are an important input in many energy and economic models. This paper explores the effects of different oil price assumptions on natural gas markets (production, consumption, prices in different regions) in the International Natural Gas Model (INGM). Three cases from the INGM are presented: a reference case, a high oil price

William Pepper Vineet Aggarwal Justine Barden

2009-01-01

329

High resolution NMR characterization of olive oils in terms of quality, authenticity and geographical origin.  

PubMed

This review deals with the most relevant results obtained in the last 10 years of studies of olive oils by high field nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these, quality and authenticity of olive oils, as well as geographical and variety characterization of Mediterranean olive oils, are discussed. PMID:22290707

Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P

2011-12-01

330

Investigations of Oil-Cooled, High-Speed Generators for Service Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-speed generators with intensive air- or oil cooling are used for power supply in service vehicles. Heat transmission of oil cooling systems is by far superior to that of water cooling systems. Oil cooled generators with internal and jacket ventilatio...

H. Foerschner

1985-01-01

331

High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: Differential effects of dietary oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice fed a high-fat diet develop hyperglycemia and obesity. Using non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice, we investigated the effects of seven different dietary oils on glucose metabolism: palm oil, which contains mainly 45% palmitic acid (16:0) and 40% oleic acid (18:1); lard oil, 24% palmitic and 44% oleic acid; rapeseed oil, 59% oleic and 20% linoleic acid (18:2); soybean

Shinji Ikemoto; Mayumi Takahashi; Nobuyo Tsunoda; Kayo Maruyama; Hiroshige Itakura; Osamu Ezaki

1996-01-01

332

The origin of virgin argan oil's high oxidative stability unraveled.  

PubMed

To prepare either virgin edible or beauty argan oil, roasted or unroasted argan kernels are cold-pressed, respectively. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of edible and beauty argan oil immediately after preparation and after a two-year delay has led to the suggestion that phospholipids are a new and essential type of oil component participating in the excellent oxidative stability of edible argan oil, in addition to the already suggested Maillard-reaction products, phenols, and tocopherols. PMID:22799092

Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Haddad, Aziza; Charrouf, Zoubida

2012-05-01

333

Chemical flood oil recovery with highly saline reservoir water  

SciTech Connect

In an oil reservoir in which the water contains more than about 9% dissolved salt, oil is produced by injecting an oil-displacin dispersion of at least one surface active alkylaryloxy polyethoxyethane sulfonate in the reservoir water or an equally saline water followed by a mobility controlling dispersion of noncondensible gas in an equally saline water.

Reisberg, J.

1980-05-20

334

Oil shale retorting from a high porosity cavern  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is claimd of producing hydrocarbonaceous liquids and gases from subterranean kerogen-containing oil shale formations comprising (A) penetrating the oil shale deposits with at least two well bores; (B) fracturing the oil shale deposits in a lower vertical portion thereof; (C) igniting the hydrocarbonaceous deposit; (D) introducing through the first well bore a free oxygen-containing gas to the ignited

R. E. Crumb; W. L. Martin; G. C. Young

1980-01-01

335

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2011-12-30

336

Plant regeneration from immature embryos of peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration from immature embryos of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can be accomplished through somatic embryogenesis. The highest frequency of somatic embryo formation occurred on B5 medium plus 0.5–1.0 mg\\/l picloram. Shoots and plants developed from the somatic embryos only after extended culture on basal medium. Shoots were excised from thick embryonic roots and rerooted on Murashige and Skoog medium

Peggy Ozias-Akins

1989-01-01

337

Elimination of aflatoxins from peanut meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut meal containing aflatoxins was heat treated in the presence of moisture and chemicals to reduce the aflatoxin content.\\u000a Treatments with ammonia, methylamine, sodium hydroxide and ozone were effective in either destroying aflatoxins or greatly\\u000a reducing aflatoxin levels as indicated both by TLC analysis and feeding experiments with ducklings and rats. Weight gains\\u000a for animals receiving the treated meals were

F. G. Dollear; G. E. Mann; L. P. Codifer; H. K. Gardner; S. P. Koltun; H. L. E. Vix

1968-01-01

338

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaOfree and SO3 in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash

C Freidin

1998-01-01

339

Mapping quantitative trait loci for oil, starch, and protein concentrations in grain with high-oil maize by SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to map QTL controlling oil, protein, and starch concentrations in maize grain and\\u000a to evaluate their genetic effects. The mapping population included 298 F2:3 family lines containing Beijing high-oil (BHO) maize germplasm. F2 individuals were genotyped with 183 SSR markers to construct a genetic linkage map, which spanned 1,605.7 cM, with an average\\u000a interval of

J. Zhang; X. Q. Lu; X. F. Song; J. B. Yan; T. M. Song; J. R. Dai; T. Rocheford; J. S. Li

2008-01-01

340

Incorporation of dietary triacylglycerols from olive oil and high-oleic sunflower oil into VLDL triacylglycerols of hypertensive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To establish whether the ingestion of diets enriched with olive oil or high-oleic sunflower oil may produce changes in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols from hypertensive patients. It could be relevant for the uptake and metabolism of triacylglycerol-derived metabolites by extrahepatic tissues.Design: Patients were assigned to the diets in a random-order sequence.Subjects: The participants were 24 hypertensive patients recruited

V Ruiz-Gutierrez; JS Perona; YM Pacheco; FJG Muriana; J Villar

1999-01-01

341

An efficient method for the production of transgenic plants of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L .) through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledon explants from mature peanut seeds (Arachis hypogaea L.) were optimized to obtain adventitious shoot buds with high frequencies (>90%). Efficient transformation of these cotyledons by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 carrying neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and ß-glucuronidase (GUS; uidA), or coat protein gene of the Indian peanut clump virus (IPCVcp) and nptII on binary vectors (pBI121; pROKII:IPCVcp) led to

Kiran K Sharma; Vanamala Anjaiah

2000-01-01

342

Rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE) for determination of potentially allergenic peanut proteins in processed foods as a simple means for quality assurance and food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods known. The presence of hidden allergens in processed food for reasons of mislabelling\\u000a or cross-contamination expose allergic individuals to unpredictable risks, especially since highly sensitized subjects may\\u000a experience severe anaphylactic reactions. The protection of consumers requires specific and sensitive methods for the detection\\u000a of trace amounts of potentially allergenic peanut components. A

T. Holzhauser; L. I. Dehne; A. Hoffmann; D. Haustein; S. Vieths

1998-01-01

343

Low-dose fish oil consumption prevents hepatic lipid accumulation in high cholesterol diet fed mice.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of low-dose fish oil ingestion on hepatic lipid accumulation caused after high cholesterol feeding in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed purified experimental diets consisting of 20 energy % (en%) safflower oil (SO or SO/CH), 2 en% fish oil + 18 en% safflower oil (2FO or 2FO/CH), or 5 en% fish oil + 15 en% safflower oil (5FO or 5FO/CH) with or without 2 weight % (wt %) cholesterol for 8 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were significantly lower in groups that were fed diets containing fish oil and cholesterol than in those that were fed safflower oil and cholesterol. The hepatic mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) were lower in groups fed cholesterol or fish oil. Fatty acid oxidation-related hepatic gene expressions were higher in fish oil-fed groups. Fecal cholesterol excretion was higher in all cholesterol-fed groups; cholesterol excretion was high in groups fed fish oil and cholesterol. These results suggest that low-dose fish oil diets improve lipid metabolism by modifying the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and increasing fecal cholesterol excretion. PMID:22066791

Hirako, Satoshi; Kim, Hyoun-Ju; Shimizu, Saya; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

2011-11-30

344

Characterization of active miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the peanut genome.  

PubMed

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), some of which are known as active nonautonomous DNA transposons, are found in the genomes of plants and animals. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Ah-MITE1 has been identified in a gene for fatty-acid desaturase, and possessed excision activity. However, the AhMITE1 distribution and frequency of excision have not been determined for the peanut genome. In order to characterize AhMITE1s, their genomic diversity and transposition ability was investigated. Southern blot analysis indicated high AhMITE1 copy number in the genomes of A. hypogaea, A. magna and A. monticola, but not in A. duranensis. A total of 504 AhMITE1s were identified from the MITE-enriched genomic libraries of A. hypogaea. The representative AhMITE1s exhibited a mean length of 205.5 bp and a GC content of 30.1%, with AT-rich, 9 bp target site duplications and 25 bp terminal inverted repeats. PCR analyses were performed using primer pairs designed against both flanking sequences of each AhMITE1. These analyses detected polymorphisms at 169 out of 411 insertional loci in the four peanut lines. In subsequent analyses of 60 gamma-irradiated mutant lines, four Ah-MITE1 excisions showed footprint mutations at the 109 loci tested. This study characterizes AhMITE1s in peanut and discusses their use as DNA markers and mutagens for the genetics, genomics and breeding of peanut and its relatives. PMID:22294450

Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Kiyoshima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Sigeru; Sasamoto, Sigemi; Watanabe, Akiko; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Isobe, Sachiko

2012-05-01

345

Design of new genome- and gene-sourced primers and identification of QTL for seed oil content in a specially high-oil Brassica napus cultivar.  

PubMed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future. PMID:23077542

Sun, Meiyu; Hua, Wei; Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

2012-10-12

346

Design of New Genome- and Gene-Sourced Primers and Identification of QTL for Seed Oil Content in a Specially High-Oil Brassica napus Cultivar  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future.

Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

2012-01-01

347

Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies  

PubMed Central

There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (?10 ?g peanut g?1 matrix) in baked cookies.

Pedreschi, Romina; N?rgaard, J?rgen; Maquet, Alain

2012-01-01

348

Isolation and Characterization of Novel Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens Possessing High Efficiency to Degrade Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Oil, and Lubricating Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria possessing high capacity to degrade gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil, and lubricating oil were screened from several areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Among isolates, two strains, WatG and HokM, which were identified as new strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens species, respectively, showed relatively high capacity and wide spectrum to degrade the hydrocarbons in gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil.

Patcharaporn Wongsa; Makiko Tanaka; Akio Ueno; Mohammad Hasanuzzaman; Isao Yumoto; Hidetoshi Okuyama

2004-01-01

349

Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

2009-03-01

350

Genotoxicity of Fumes from Heated Cooking Oils Produced in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Taiwanese nonsmoking women have found that exposure to fumes from cooking oils may be an important risk factor. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils (lard, soybean, and peanut oils) often used in Taiwan for preparing Chinese meals were collected for genotoxicity analysis in SOS chromotest and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. The

Pei-Fen Wu; Tai-An Chiang; Ying-Chin Ko; Huei Lee

1999-01-01

351

Vegetable oils: Liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, were investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. Several thermophysical properties of four vegetable oils were investigated. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybeans, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were

H. A. Ingley

1980-01-01

352

Macromanagement of deficit-irrigated peanut with sprinkler irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision irrigation management and scheduling, as well as developing site- and cultivar-specific crop coefficient (Kc), and yield response factor to water deficit (ky) are very important parameters for efficient use of limited water resources. This study investigated the effect of deficit irrigation, applied at different growth stages of peanut with sprinkler irrigation in sandy soil, on field peanut evapotranspiration (ETc),

Abdrabbo A. Abou Kheira

2009-01-01

353

Energy savings from air recirculation in peanut curing  

SciTech Connect

A thin-layer peanut drying simulation model was adapted to incorporate air recirculation. Laboratory crop dryers were designed and constructed to conduct experiments to verify the model. Five batches of peanuts were dried using different recirculation strategies. The model successfully predicted the results.

Cook, D.F.; Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

1982-12-01

354

U.S. Peanut Production Practices and Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes production practices, costs, and returns for the 1982 peanut crop. Production costs differed greatly by region: total cash expenditures ranged from 14.5 cents per pound for peanuts in Georgia to 24.9 cents per pound for nonirrigated...

W. C. McArthur R. D. Krenz G. D. Garst

1985-01-01

355

Sources of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia blight disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) caused by Sclerotinia minor negatively impacts peanut production in the states of OK, TX, VA, and NC. Seventeen genotypes were planted at Ft. Cobb, OK, in 2003, 2004, and 2005. Sclerotial density of S. minor was 1-2 viable sclerotia/100 g ...

356

Genetic Differences in Resistance to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis in Peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) deficiency has been a widespread problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown on calcareous soils of northern China and has resulted in significant yield losses. Field observations showed considerable variability in visual chlorosis symptoms among peanut cultivars in the same soil. The objective of this study was to confirm the genetic differences in resistance to Fe-deficiency chlorosis in

Li Gao; Yanxi Shi

2007-01-01

357

Agronomic performance and genetic shifts of genotype mixtures in peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available on the genetic shifts that may take place when seed mixtures of peanut are grown over time. Five peanut lines with distinct seed coat colors, but similar plant types, pod yields, and maturities, were grown in pure stands for four years. A mixture with equal numbers of seed from each of the five lines was grown

D. A. Knauft; D. W. Gorbet

1991-01-01

358

Microsatellite identification and characterization in peanut ( A. hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major constraint to the application of biotechnology to the improvement of the allotetraploid peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), has been the paucity of polymorphism among germplasm lines using biochemical (seed proteins, isozymes) and DNA markers (RFLPs and RAPDs). Six sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers were previously available that revealed polymorphism in cultivated peanut. Here, we identify and characterize 110

M. E. Ferguson; M. D. Burow; S. R. Schulze; P. J. Bramel; A. H. Paterson; S. Kresovich; S. Mitchell

2004-01-01

359

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND...PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50...

2013-01-01

360

Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

361

Detection of lectins in nodulated peanut and soybean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct double-antibody enzymelinked immunosorbent assay system was used in the detection and measurement of seed lectins from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) plants (PSL and SBL, respectively) that had been inoculated with their respective rhizobia. Concentrations of PSL dropped to undetectable levels in peanut roots at 9 d and stems and leaves at 27 d

B. D. Kishinevsky; I. J. Law; B. W. Strijdom

1988-01-01

362

Resveratrol and piceid levels in natural and blended peanut butters.  

PubMed

Peanut and its derivatives, especially peanut butter, are extensively consumed in many countries, mainly in the United States, which is also the major exporter of these products. trans-Resveratrol is present in peanuts, and recently this compound has been quantified in peanut butter. It is well-known that there are beneficial effects of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, the piceid, in health. The absorption of trans-resveratrol has been proven in animals, and certain studies show that the absorption of some phenols is enhanced by conjugation with glucose, so that it could be possible that trans-piceid would be more absorbed than its aglycon (trans-resveratrol). In our work, we have identified the presence of trans-piceid in peanut butter with a new method to quantify trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid (3-beta-glucose of trans-resveratrol). This fact is very interesting because the glucosilated form could be more easily absorbed by the intestinal gut; in this way trans-piceid would exercise its beneficial function more efficiently than trans-resveratrol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that trans-piceid has been quantified in peanut butter. Resveratrol and piceid contents in natural peanut butters were found to be significantly higher than those in blended peanut butters. PMID:11312807

Ibern-Gómez, M; Roig-Pérez, S; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; de la Torre-Boronat, M C

2000-12-01

363

Biology and epidemiology of peanut soilborne pathogens in Oklahoma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pressure from soil borne diseases limits yields and increases production costs to Oklahoma peanut growers. Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, and southern blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, are the most economically damaging peanut diseases in Oklahoma. The c...

364

Factors Associated with the Development of Peanut Allergy in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

background The prevalence of peanut allergy appears to have increased in recent decades. Other than a family history of peanut allergy and the presence of atopy, there are no known risk factors. methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a geographi- cally defined cohort study of 13,971 preschool children, to identify those with a

Gideon Lack; Deborah Fox; Kate Northstone; Jean Golding

2010-01-01

365

Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

366

Tried and True: Peanut butter and jelly science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you feeling frustrated with the quality of your students' writing or lack there of? If so, head straight for the peanut butter and jelly. Students will respond to this fun filled activity as they learn the importance of writing clear procedures in science. This visual lesson sticks with students like peanut butter to the roof of a mouth!

Farland, Donna

2006-04-01

367

Lessons Learned While Breeding Peanut for Improved Drought Tolerance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanuts become contaminated with aflatoxins when subjected to prolong periods of heat and drought stress. We have documented that improved drought tolerance can result in reduced aflatoxin contamination, and we are using drought-tolerance as an indirect selection technique to develop peanut cultiva...

368

Transglutaminase Effects of the Rheological Characteristics of Peanut Flour Dispersions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

INTRODUCTION: Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a stable food commodity around the world. In the last few decades, peanut flour (PF) has been used as a food ingredient. Previously, microbial transglutaminase(mTGase), an enzyme that catalyzes protein cross-linking via acyl-transfer reactions (1) was ...

369

Fat infiltration in liver of rats induced by different dietary plant oils: high oleic-, medium oleic- and high petroselinic acid-oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Beneficial effects on health parameters by ingestion of plant oils having high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (cis-9-octadecenoic) acid have been described in several studies. Recently, we have shown that feeding of coriander oil containing high proportions of a positional isomer of oleic acid, i.e. petroselinic (cis-6-octadecenoic) acid, led to significantly decreasing proportions of arachidonic (allcis-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic)

K.-D. Richter; K. D. Mukherjee; N. Weber

1996-01-01

370

The effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because of the widespread use of peanut products, peanut allergenicity is a major health concern in the United States. The effect or effects of thermal processing (roasting) on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins have rarely been addressed. Objective: We sought to assess the biochemical effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins. Methods: Competitive inhibition ELISA

Soheila J. Maleki; Si-Yin Chung; Elaine T. Champagne; Jean-Pierre Raufman

2000-01-01

371

The natural progression of peanut allergy: Resolution and the possibility of recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It was once thought that peanut allergy is a lifelong problem. We previously reported that about 20% of children outgrow their peanut allergy and that more than 60% of patients with a peanut-IgE level of 5 or less passed an oral challenge. Objective: The goal of this study was to further describe the natural progression of peanut allergy by

David M. Fleischer; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Lynn Christie; A. Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

2003-01-01

372

FRUITY FERMENTED OFF-FLAVOR DISTRIBUTION IN SAMPLES FROM LARGE PEANUT LOTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the most common off-flavors in peanuts is described as fruity fermented (FF). This off-flavor develops when peanuts are cured at excessive temperatures (>35ºC). The determination of FF intensity in large peanut lots is important to manufacturers who purchase peanuts. The distribution of FF in...

373

Molecular Characterization of the U.S. Peanut Mini Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the second- most important legume crop in the United States. A limitation to increased peanut produc- tivity is that peanut improvement is hampered by relatively low genetic variability in the germ- plasm commonly used by breeding programs. To facilitate accessibility to diverse germplasm sources for breeding applications, a core sub- set of the USDA peanut

Kameswara Rao Kottapalli; Mark D. Burow; Gloria Burow; John Burke; Naveen Puppala

2007-01-01

374

Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

375

High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice.  

PubMed

Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat diets enriched with fish oil for 6 wk, we show that increasing amounts of sucrose in the diets dose-dependently increased energy efficiency and white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. Mice receiving fructose had about 50% less WAT mass than mice fed a high fish oil diet supplemented with either glucose or sucrose, indicating that the glucose moiety of sucrose was responsible for the obesity-promoting effect of sucrose. To investigate whether the obesogenic effect of sucrose and glucose was related to stimulation of insulin secretion, we combined fish oil with high and low glycemic index (GI) starches. Mice receiving the fish oil diet containing the low-GI starch had significantly less WAT than mice fed high-GI starch. Moreover, inhibition of insulin secretion by administration of nifedipine significantly reduced WAT mass in mice fed a high-fish oil diet in combination with sucrose. Our data show that the macronutrient composition of the diet modulates the effects of fish oil. Fish oil combined with sucrose, glucose, or high-GI starch promotes obesity, and the reported anti-inflammatory actions of fish oil are abrogated. In conclusion, our data indicate that glycemic control of insulin secretion modulates metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil. PMID:22338077

Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis H; Fjaere, Even; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Midtbø, Lisa K; Jarlsby, Ragnhild H; Ma, Tao; Jia, Bingbing; Petersen, Rasmus K; Sonne, Si B; Chwalibog, André; Frøyland, Livar; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

2012-02-14

376

Determination of Mega-Environments for Peanut Breeding Using the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for locally adapted cultivars requires a subdivision of the target region into mega- environments. Crop models could assist in gen- erating the required data for mega-environment determination. The objective of this study was to determine whether subdividing the peanut (Ara- chis hypogaea L.) production areas in Thailand into mega-environments using a crop simulation model would be justifi ed. The

W. Putto; A. Patanothai; S. Jogloy; G. Hoogenboom

2008-01-01

377

First Report of Peanut Mottle Virus in Forage Peanut (Arachis glabrata) in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

378

Primed acclimation of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through the use of deficit irrigation timed to crop developmental periods.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-deficits and high temperatures are primary factors limiting peanut production across the U.S., either because of regional aridity or untimely rainfall events during the growing season. In the southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico, low natural rainfall (450 mm) necessitates...

379

THE EFFECT OF SORTING FARMERS' STOCK PEANUTS BY SIZE AND COLOR ON PARTITIONING AFLATOXIN INTO VARIOUS SHELLED PEANUT GRADE SIZES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers’ stock peanuts are processed into shelled peanuts using several basic sorting processes. After removal of foreign material and the shelling process, loose shelled kernels and shelled kernels are typically sorted by size into jumbo (J), medium, (M), number one (N1), other edibles (OE), sound ...

380

High Temperature Corrosion Tests for Kerosene and Gas Oil Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation has been carried out on the corrosive nature of some commercial kerosene and gas oil samples. Experimental tests were conducted on the rate of corrosion of iron and galvanized steel specimens immersed in the oil samples at temperatures varying from 200° to 260°C. The results confirmed that acidity is an important factor in corrosion of metals and

L. O. Oyekunle; A. J. Dosunmu

2003-01-01

381

HIGH PHYTOSTEROL OILS FROM CORN FIBER AND BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

All commercial vegetable oils contain phytosterols and the levels of phytosterols in all are less than 1%. To consume enough phytosterols to significantly reduce serum cholesterol levels (1-3 grams), one would need to consume at least 100 grams (~900 calories) of oil per day, an amount that is impr...

382

INDUSTRIAL LUBRICANTS BASED ON HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, there has been an interest in biodegradable lubricants in response to environmental concerns, particularly relating to the effect of oil leaking onto the ground and into the fresh water. Vegetable oil based lubricants are recommended for use in environmentally sensitive areas such as ...

383

Background and Impact of Recent High Crude Oil Prices (Japanese)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) temporarily fell to $10 a barrel, reflecting the Asian financial crisis that took place in 1997 and 1998, but global oil prices subsequently began to climb from around 2004, given rising demand from China, the disruption caused by hurricanes in the United States, and supply problems in Russia. In early

HASEGAWA Eiichi

2008-01-01

384

Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

The AEO2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real GDP growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

Information Center

2006-02-01

385

Adaptability of irrigated spring canola oil production to the U.S. High Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canola oil is high in oleic acid which is commonly used for food and industrial purposes. To determine adaptability of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) to the High Plains for industrial oil production, 26 irrigated trials were conducted from 2005-2008. Trials were divided into five regions: (1) 36...

386

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

387

Peanut-shaped bulges in face-on disk galaxies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution absorption-line spectroscopy of 3 face-on galaxies, NGC 98, NGC 600, and NGC 1703 with the aim of searching for box/peanut (B/P)-shaped bulges. These observations test and confirm the prediction of \\citet{deb_etal_05} that face-on B/P-shaped bulges can be recognized by a double minimum in the profile of the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment h_4. In NGC 1703, which is an unbarred control galaxy, we found no evidence of a B/P bulge. In NGC 98, a clear double minimum in h_4 is present along the major axis of the bar and before the end of the bar, as predicted. In contrast, in NGC 600, which is also a barred galaxy but lacks a substantial bulge, we do not find a significant B/P shape.

Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Debattista, V. P.; De Rijcke, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Pizzella, A.

388

Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

2012-03-01

389

Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.  

PubMed

Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications. PMID:21494900

Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

2011-04-16

390

The composition of root exudates from two different resistant peanut cultivars and their effects on the growth of soil-borne pathogen.  

PubMed

The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China. PMID:23412138

Li, Xiao-gang; Zhang, Tao-lin; Wang, Xing-xiang; Hua, Ke; Zhao, Ling; Han, Zheng-min

2013-02-01

391

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

392

Ultrasonication and Edible Coating Effects on Lipid Oxidation of Roasted Peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation is an important factor affecting the quality of roasted peanuts. Coatings applied to the peanuts can enhance\\u000a oxygen barriers to reduce rancidity. Ultrasonication was used to remove lipids from the peanuts prior to applying the coating\\u000a to improve attachment of the coating on the peanut surface. Peanuts were roasted at 178°C for 15 min and then sonicated in\\u000a hexane

Peter Wambura; Weihua Wade Yang

2010-01-01

393

A-type proanthocyanidins from peanut skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six A-type proanthocyanidins were isolated from the water-soluble fraction of peanut skins. On the basis of spectral data, reductive cleavage with sodium cyanoborohydride, and chiral HPLC analysis, three new compounds, epicatechin-(2??O?7, 4??6)-catechin, epicatechin-(2??O?7, 4??6)-ent-catechin and epicatechin-(2??O?7, 4??6)-ent-epicatechin were unambiguously identified, together with the three known compounds, proanthocyanidin A-1, proanthocyanidin A-2 and epicatechin-(2??O?7, 4??8)-ent-epicatechin. 13C NMR chemical shift rules to distinguish

Hongxiang Lou; Yoshimitsu Yamazaki; Tsutomu Sasaki; Masaru Uchida; Hideoki Tanaka; Syuichi Oka

1999-01-01

394

High-rate filtration of solids-stabilized, oil-in-water emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the applicability of high rate or pressure filtration to the treatment of solids-stabilized, oil-in-water emulsions. Performance was evaluated by suspended solids removal, oil removal and headloss for various filtration conditions. Separation of the oil and water phases was the overall goal of the filtration process. This might be accomplished by removing the

M. J. Humenick; E. F. Gloyna; B. J. Davis

1973-01-01

395

Simple high vacuum distillation equipment for deodorizing fish oil for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple piece of glass equipment for deodorizing fish oil (sardine oil) by high vacuum distillation was designed and constructed.\\u000a The equipment has a throughput of 450–500 ml\\/hr working at 140C and at a constant pressure of 210?2 mm Hg. It reduces the peroxide value and the cholesterol content of the oil and improves the flavor without affecting the\\u000a EPA

E. Dinamarca; F. Garrido; A. Valenzuela

1990-01-01

396

Intestinal Absorption and Lymphatic Transport of a High -Linolenic Acid Canola Oil in Lymph Fistula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new canola strain capable of producing >30% -linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3(n-6)) in the seed oil has been developed in our laboratories. This study compares the intestinal absorption and lymphatic transport of this newly developed high GLA content canola oil (HGCO) with traditional GLA-rich borage oil (BO) using a lymph fistula rat model. To assess the extent that 1 mL

Sprague-Dawley Rats; Patrick Tso; Kexi Ding; Stephen DeMichele; Yung-Sheng Huang

397

Paramagnetic oil emulsions as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.  

PubMed

The combination of a paramagnetic agent with an oil emulsion can uniformly enhance the small bowel. We discovered that the entire small bowel becomes homogeneously brighter than its surroundings when imaged with all commonly utilized pulse sequences. We have tried various combinations of ferric ammonium citrate, ferrous sulfate, gadolinium-DPTA and corn oil, olive oil and peanut oil. All paramagnetic oil emulsions tested were uniformly distributed throughout the small bowel, but the enhancement effect is much stronger with the ferric ammonium citrate and gadolinium-DPTA oil emulsions. We have also developed a mixture of Geritol, corn oil, ice cream and milk, which uniformly coats the small bowel wall, has good enhancement effect, tastes good, and is nutritious. With this dietary contrast, retroperitoneal structures including the pancreas can be well delineated. We conclude that the combination of a paramagnetic agent with an oil emulsion can work as a safe and effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) oral contrast agent with high patient acceptance. PMID:2082129

Li, K C; Ang, P G; Tart, R P; Storm, B L; Rolfes, R; Ho-Tai, P C

1990-01-01

398

Differentiation of vegetable oils by mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis.  

PubMed

The main triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of different plant oils (almond, avocado, corn germ, grape seed, linseed, mustard seed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, sesame seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut and wheat germ) were analyzed using two different mass spectrometric techniques: HPLC/APCI-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry) and MALDI-TOFMS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry).Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a multivariate mathematical statistical method was successfully used to distinguish different plant oils based on their relative TAG composition. With LDA analysis of either APCI-MS or MALDI-MS data, the classification among the almond, avocado, grape seed, linseed, mustard seed, olive, sesame seed and soybean oil samples was 100% correct. In both cases only 6 different oil samples from a total of 73 were not classified correctly. PMID:12478574

Jakab, A; Nagy, K; Héberger, K; Vékey, K; Forgács, E

2002-01-01

399

Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

2003-01-01

400

Structure and stability of 2S albumin-type peanut allergens: implications for the severity of peanut allergic reactions  

PubMed Central

Resistance to proteolytic enzymes and heat is thought to be a prerequisite property of food allergens. Allergens from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are the most frequent cause of fatal food allergic reactions. The allergenic 2S albumin Ara h 2 and the homologous minor allergen Ara h 6 were studied at the molecular level with regard to allergenic potency of native and protease-treated allergen. A high-resolution solution structure of the protease-resistant core of Ara h 6 was determined by NMR spectroscopy, and homology modelling was applied to generate an Ara h 2 structure. Ara h 2 appeared to be the more potent allergen, even though the two peanut allergens share substantial cross-reactivity. Both allergens contain cores that are highly resistant to proteolytic digestion and to temperatures of up to 100 °C. Even though IgE antibody-binding capacity was reduced by protease treatment, the mediator release from a functional equivalent of a mast cell or basophil, the humanized RBL (rat basophilic leukaemia) cell, demonstrated that this reduction in IgE antibody-binding capacity does not necessarily translate into reduced allergenic potency. Native Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 have virtually identical allergenic potency as compared with the allergens that were treated with digestive enzymes. The folds of the allergenic cores are virtually identical with each other and with the fold of the corresponding regions in the undigested proteins. The extreme immunological stability of the core structures of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 provides an explanation for the persistence of the allergenic potency even after food processing.

Lehmann, Katrin; Schweimer, Kristian; Reese, Gerald; Randow, Stefanie; Suhr, Martin; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Rosch, Paul

2005-01-01

401

Effect of Anti-IgE Therapy in Patients with Peanut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Peanut-induced anaphylaxis is an IgE-mediated condition that is estimated to affect 1.5 million people and cause 50 to 100 deaths per year in the United States. TNX-901 is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against IgE that recognizes and masks an epitope in the CH3 region of IgE responsible for binding to the high-affinity Fc e recep- tor on mast

Donald Y. M. Leung; Hugh A. Sampson; John W. Yunginger; A. Wesley Burks; Lynda C. Schneider; Cornelis H. Wortel; Frances M. Davis; John D. Hyun; William R. Shanahan

2003-01-01

402

A high performance size-exclusion chromatographic method for evaluating heated oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used to measure compounds with high-molecular weight (MW) formed\\u000a during the heating of oil. Formation of the high-MW compounds is believed to be a reliable indicator of heat abuse in oils.\\u000a The HPSEC method employs two -spherogel size-exclusion columns (500 and 1000 ) in a series to separate the high-MW compounds\\u000a which are detected

Pamela J. White; Yen-chin Wang

1986-01-01

403

Low sulfur products from high sulfur crude oil  

SciTech Connect

Four refining process schemes compared are similar except for the handling of the atmospheric resid. In this aspect, the following variations are used: (1) atmospheric resid hydrodesulfurization (HDS), vacuum distillation, delayed coking, and gas oil fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); (2) vacuum distillation, fluxcoking, FCC feed HDS, and gas oil FCC; (3) atmospheric resid HDS, and heavy oil catalytic cracking; and (4) atmospheric resid HDS, vacuum distillation, solvent deasphalting, and gas oil FCC. Comparison of product yields, product characteristics, and investment costs for the 4 refinery schemes are tabulated as are advantages and disadvantages of the scheme. No choice of schemes can be made from the data presented even though one had somewhat lower operating costs, because the products desired and the relative value placed on these products dictate the final choice of scheme. (BLM)

Skamser, R.O.

1981-12-01

404

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application.  

PubMed

Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function. PMID:22745594

Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M; Holbrook, C Corley; Culbreath, Albert K; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

2012-06-17

405

Anaerobic treatability of high oil and grease rendering wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the use of a new biosurfactant, BOD-Balance™, derived from cactus for the treatment of oil-and-grease-laden rendering wastewater anaerobically. Batch laboratory experimental results and preliminary full-scale data are presented. The biosurfactant affected a significant increase in the COD degradation rate for the raw wastewater. However, after reduction of the oil and grease (O&G) by dissolved air flotation, the

George Nakhla; Mustafa Al-Sabawi; Amerjeet Bassi; Victor Liu

2003-01-01

406

Shale oil low, tar sand high in diesel emissions  

SciTech Connect

A study is reported on the performance testing of diesel fuels derived from shale oil and from tar sands. The study compared combustion characteristics, gas-phase emissions, and particulate emissions and their mutagenic activity. Shale-oil-derived diesel fuel had lower nitrogen oxide emissions than either the tar sand fuel or the control diesel fuel and also the lowest mutagenic activity. 2 figures.

Not Available

1987-03-01

407

Emulsion oil recovery process usable in high temperature, high salinity formations  

SciTech Connect

Many petroleum formations contain water having high salinity and/or high concentrations of divalent ions such as calcium or magnesium dissolved therein, and are additionally at temperatures from about 70/sup 0/F. to about 300/sup 0/F. Most surfactants suitable for use in oil recovery operations are either ineffective in high salinity or high hardness waters, or cannot tolerate the higher temperatures encountered in many such formations. A waterexternal phase emulsion, microemulsion or micellar dispersion containing a water soluble alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate and a water-insoluble polyethoxylated aliphatic alcohol (Including alkanols) or polyethoxylated alkylphenol nonionic surfactant is an effective fluid for flooding in formations containing water whose salinity is from 70,000 to 220,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and also having temperatures as high as 300/sup 0/F. The fluid is phase stable over a wide range of formation temperatures and water salinities and hardness values.

Maddox, J. J.; Shupe, R. D.

1981-05-26

408

Emulsion oil recovery process usable in high temperature, high salinity formations  

SciTech Connect

Many petroleum formations contain water having high salinity and/or high concentrations of divalent ions such as calcium or magnesium dissolved therein, and are additionally at temperature from about 70/sup 0/F to about 300/sup 0/ F. Most surfactants and polymers suitable for use in fluids or emulsions used in oil recovery operations are either ineffective in high salinity or high hardness waters, or cannot tolerate the higher temperatures encountered in many such formations. A water-external phase, viscous emulsion containing a water soluble and/or dispersible alkylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate or alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkylene sulfonate and as a phase stabilizing additive, a water dispersable and/or soluble petroleum sulfonate, is an effective fluid for flooding oil formations containing brine whose salinity is from 70,000 to 220,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and also having temperatures as high as 300/sup 0/F. The emulsion is phase stable over a wide range of formation temperatures and water salinities and hardness values.

Cardenas, R. L.; Harnsberger, B. G.; Maddox, J. J.

1981-06-02

409

Peanut allergen (Ara h 1) detection in foods containing chocolate.  

PubMed

Inadvertent exposure to peanut in foods poses health risks for peanut-allergic individuals that can be reduced by improving detection systems for allergen contaminants in food products and manufacturing processes. Detection of peanut in chocolate has been especially difficult. We report the optimization of conditions for measuring a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in chocolate with the use of a two-site monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ara h 1 was extracted from peanut in the presence or absence of chocolate with phosphate buffer, salt, and three dried milks (goat, soy, or nonfat) (0 to 25% wt/vol) for 15 min at 60 degrees C or for 2.5 h at room temperature. The best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction in the presence of chocolate were 5% nonfat dry milk for 2.5 h at room temperature. Spiking experiments of chocolate with peanut confirmed improvement of the extraction: Ara h 1 was detected in extractions of 0.16 to 0.33% peanut in chocolate. Interestingly, the best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction were different for peanut alone than with chocolate, regarding time, temperature, and percentage of nonfat dry milk in the extraction buffer. In chocolate with peanut foods, the total Ara h 1 values were 10-fold higher than when products were extracted with phosphate buffer alone and could be up to 400-fold higher for individual foods. The dramatic improvement of Ara h 1 extraction should allow specific allergen monitoring in chocolate-containing food products and assessment of Ara h 1 exposure. PMID:15083733

Pomés, A; Vinton, R; Chapman, M D

2004-04-01

410

Nutritional value of a genetically improved high-lysine, high-oil corn for young pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to compare the nutritional adequacy of a genetically im- proved high-lysine, high-oil corn (HLHOC; .408% ly- sine, 6.21% fat, as-fed basis) and a high-oil corn (HOC; .289% lysine, 5.97% fat, as-fed basis) for young growing pigs. Experiment 1 used four non-littermate barrows (initially 20.0 kg BW) fitted with ileal T-cannulas in a crossover-designed digestion study. The

P. R. O'Quinn; J. L. Nelssen; R. D. Goodband; D. A. Knabe; J. C. Woodworth; M. D. Tokach; T. T. Lohrmann

411

Effect of two high-oleic oils on the liver lipid composition of spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Despite having similar fatty acid composition and plasma lipid composition after ingestion, olive oil, but not high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), is capable of reducing blood pressure. HOSO contains mainly triolein, whereas olive oil contains important amounts of dioleoyl-palmitoyl-glycerol. In order to see if its different triacylglycerol (TAG) composition could be related to the hypotensive effect of olive oil, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were fed with HOSO and olive oil-rich diets. Liver lipid composition was determined. Total lipid, fatty acid and TAG composition was analyzed. Rats fed olive oil (67.24 +/- 4.23) were observed to retain more dioleoyl-acyl-glycerol species in their liver than those fed HOSO (56.6 +/- 3.95), specially triolein (20.69 +/- 1.77 olive oil, vs. 12.54 +/- 1.97 HOSO), in spite of its lower content of this TAG. On the contrary, rats consuming HOSO had higher amounts of dilinoleoyl-acyl-glycerol species (9.26 +/- 1.57 HOSO, vs.4.02 +/- 0.90 olive oil). In conclusion, olive oil provided a more beneficial TAG profile in the liver of SHR rats than HOSO, probably due to the differences in the TAG composition of both oils. PMID:10794069

Perona, J S; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V

2000-01-01

412

[Differences in seed kernel quality and related enzyme activities of different quality type peanut cultivars].  

PubMed

Abstract: Taking high-protein peanut cultivar KB008, high-fat peanut cultivar Hual7 (H17), and high-oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) peanut cultivar Nongda818 as test materials, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 and 2011 to study the differences in the contents of protein, fat, and their components of the seed kernels, and the differences in the activities of the carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes related to the quality synthesis in the blades. As compared with that of H17 and Nongda818, the seed kernel of KB008 had significantly higher protein content but significantly lower soluble sugar content and O/L ratio, and the contents of the amino acid components, especially glutamic acid and lysine, in the seed kernel of KB008 were significantly higher. During the whole growth period, the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) , glutamine. synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in the blades of the three cultivars were in the order of KB008>H17> Nongda818. At pod setting stage, the activities of PEPCase and RuBPCase in the blades of the three cultivars were ranked as KB008>H17> Nongda818. The higher PEPCase and RuBPCase activities of KB008 facilitated the protein synthesis and accumulation. The sucrose synthase (SS) activity in the blades was in the order of H17 > Nongda818 >KB008. The sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity of KB008' s blades was significantly lower than that of the other two cultivars, while the SPS activity of H17' s blades was still higher even in the 60 days after anthesis, suggesting that the higher activities of SS and SPS in the blades were in favor of the fat formation in peanut seed kernel. PMID:23705395

Zhang, Jia-Lei; Gao, Fang; Lin, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chuan-Ting; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Xiang-Dong

2013-02-01

413

THE EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND GENOTYPE ON CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPE COMPOSITION IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) LEAF TISSUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water scarcity is a significant problem faced by producers worldwide and is becoming an increasing problem to growers in the U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas due to years of drought and increasing urban demands on water resources. Because of this, high water-use efficiency (WUE) ha...

414

The effects of transglutaminase catalysis on the functional and immunoglobulin binding properties of peanut flour dispersions containing casein.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The functionality of light roasted peanut flour (PF) dispersions containing supplemental casein (CN), was altered after polymerization with microbial transglutaminase (TGase). The formation of high molecular weight covalent cross-links was observed with potential formation of PF-PF, PF-CN, and CN-CN...

415

Identification of the heat transfer coefficient in pipeline transport of high-viscosity readily congealing oils  

SciTech Connect

The most complicated technological problem in pipeline transport is the conveyance of high-viscosity, readily congealing oils. This is associated with their physicochemical characteristics (a) a high content of hard block paraffins, asphaltenes, and resins; (b) a high congealing temperature; (c) a strong dependence of their rheological properties on temperature. At the present time many techniques for transporting such oils have been developed. The most popular of these is {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} transfer over pipelines. In this technique, the transported oil is heated at the main heating station and then is pumped into the pipeline. As the oil moves, it cools off, and therefore at intervals of 25-100 km intermediate heating stations are located along the pipeline. The state of the transported oil in the pipeline is determined by the temperature T(x, t), velocity v(x, t) and pressure p(x, t).

Yevseyeva, A.U.

1994-06-01

416

Amino acid composition, antinutrients and allergens in the peanut protein fraction obtained by an aqueous enzymatic process.  

PubMed

Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAE) of peanut kernel was used to extract oil and protein. The aqueous fraction (AF) obtained by EAE had a better essential amino acid profile than the residues obtained by solvent extraction (Rs) and cold pressing (Rc). No major difference in the trypsin inhibitor activity among AF, Rs and Rc was observed; however, the trypsin inhibitor activity was drastically reduced in the residue obtained after EAE. AF was subjected to MALDI-TOF/MS, revealing it to be rich in peptides (107) with molecular masses from m/z 700 to 2369Da. AF had an extremely low phytate content and was rich in peptides, which could be used as a food supplement. ESI-MS/MS data were used for the identification of major peanut allergens, viz., Ara h1, h3, h6-8. Their allergenic potential needs to be established. PMID:23017415

Latif, S; Pfannstiel, J; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K

2012-08-08

417

Proneness of oils to spontaneous ignition in high-pressure air compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to ascertain the propensity of compressor oils to spontaneous ignition, taking into account the processes of oxidation of the oil and spontaneous ignition of the products of its decomposition under the gas-dynamic conditions close to those actually prevailing in the delivery systems of high-pressure piston air compressors. Into a SKVD setup (shown) built for these

Smertyak

1986-01-01

418

High power ultrasound effects on lipid oxidation of refined sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high power ultrasound treatment (20 kHz) on some components of refined sunflower oil were studied in order to verify if and to what extent modifications in the lipidic fraction can occur. Traditional parameters including free acidity, total polar compounds, peroxide value, and conjugated dienes concentration were determined in refined sunflower oil samples before, immediately after the ultrasonic

F. Chemat; I. Grondin; P. Costes; L. Moutoussamy; A. Shum Cheong Sing; J. Smadja

2004-01-01

419

Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965–2008. Our empirical results indicate that the

Chien-Chiang Lee; Yi-Bin Chiu

2011-01-01

420

Definition of High-Temperature Use Limits for MIL-L-2104 Engine Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high-temperature use limits for military and commercial diesel engine oils were found to be engine specific. With respect to oil properties such as viscosity grade and volatility, the two-cycle 6V-53T engine with trunk-type pistons was the most sensit...

E. A. Frame

1994-01-01

421

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta ...

L. E. Demick

2011-01-01

422

Effect of Constant Magnetic Field on the Rheological Properties of High-Paraffinicity Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of constant magnetic field on the rheological properties and freezing point of a number of high-paraffinicity oils is studied. It is established that the rheological behavior of oils in a magnetic field depends on the content of paraffin hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. An increase in the main rheological parameters upon the action of magnetic field is observed for

Yu. V. Loskutova; N. V. Yudina

2003-01-01

423

Concept Development of a Prototype Lightweight Oil Containment System for Use on the High Seas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a federal program to develop control measures for oil spills, a two stage procurement plan was initiated in 1969 for an oil containment system for use on the high seas. The report describes the development of a system based upon the utilization...

D. P. Hoult R. H. Cross J. H. Milgram E. G. Pollak H. J. Reynolds

1970-01-01

424

Aging of biodegradable oils and assessment of their suitability for high voltage applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many items of high voltage plant, a mineral or synthetic oil is used in conjunction with paper as the dielectric medium. However, increasing awareness of the environmental impact of human activity and increasing disposal costs have encouraged researchers to direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Originally used in capacitors, vegetable oils are now finding widespread use in

I. L. Hosier; A. Guushaa; E. W. Westenbrink; C. Rogers; A. S. Vaughan; S. G. Swingler

2011-01-01

425

Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper\\/oil cable systems

I. L. Hosier; A. Guushaa; A. S. Vaughan; S. G. Swingler

2009-01-01

426

Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper/oil cable systems with dodecylbenzene (DDB). This fluid possesses the advantages of improved gas absorption, good dielectric properties and biodegradability; nevertheless it is still derived from crude oil, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils offer the added advantage of being renewable although many types are available with very different properties. In order to select a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage applications, a standardised ageing and testing regime is required. In this paper, a wide range of vegetable oils were subjected to controlled laboratory ageing and the resulting aged oils were characterised by a number of analytical techniques. The results from these tests were then used to rank the different oils, and to select the most ageing resistant oil.

Hosier, I. L.; Guushaa, A.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

2009-08-01

427

An evaluation of the sensitivity of subjects with peanut allergy to very low doses of peanut protein: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The minimum dose of food protein to which subjects with food allergy have reacted in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges is between 50 and 100 mg. However, subjects with peanut allergy often report severe reactions after minimal contact with peanuts, even through intact skin. Objective: We sought to determine whether adults previously proven by challenge to be allergic to peanut

Jonathan O'B. Hourihane; Sally A. Kilburn; Julie A. Nordlee; Susan L. Hefle; Steve L. Taylor; John O. Warner

1997-01-01

428

[Inter-laboratory evaluation studies for establishment of notified ELISA methods for allergic substances (peanuts)].  

PubMed

Inter-laboratory evaluation studies were conducted for ELISA methods for allergic substances (peanuts). Extracts of biscuit, sauce, chocolate and butter spiked with peanut standard protein at a level of 5-20 ng/mL as sample solutions were analyzed in replicate in 10 laboratories. Coefficients of variation (CVs) of the ELISA methods using a Peanut Protein ELISA Kit (Peanut kit) and a FASTKIT Peanut ELISA kit (Peanut ELISA kit) were mostly below 10%. Mean recoveries of the peanut standard protein from the food extracts were over 40% in the two ELISA methods. Repeatability relative standard deviations of peanut standard protein in four food extracts were in the ranges of 15.2-49.7% and 3.0-28.3% for the Peanut kit and the Peanut ELISA kit, respectively. Reproducibility relative standard deviations of peanut standard protein in four food extracts were 23.5-44.4%, 9.6-28.4% for the Peanut kit and the Peanut ELISA kit, respectively. The detection limits of both ELISA methods were 2-2.5 ng/mL in sample solutions. These results suggested that the notified ELISA methods are reliable and reproducible for the inspection of peanut protein levels in extracts of biscuit, sauce, chocolate and butter. PMID:15794091

Akiyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kenjin; Harikai, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Iijima, Ken; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Mizuguchi, Yamato; Yoshikawa, Reiji; Yamamoto, Miho; Sato, Hidetaka; Watai, Masatoshi; Arakawa, Fumihiro; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Nishihara, Rikuka; Kato, Hisashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Mamegoshi, Shinichi; Muraoka, Shiroo; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Sakata, Kozue; Imamura, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Masatake; Matsuda, Rieko; Maitani, Tamio

2004-12-01

429

Peanut proteins as food supplements: A compositional study of selected Virginia and Spanish peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three peanut cultivars (Virginia, red-skinned, and white-skinned Spanish) were analyzed and compared as potential protein\\u000a supplements for food uses. The seeds were solvent-extracted in the laboratory to yield defatted flours with 9–10% nitrogen\\u000a contents. Protein isolates were prepared from the flours by subsequent extraction with dilute salt solutions buffered at pH\\u000a 7.0. Various parameters were compared, such as total protein

Edith J. Conkerton; Robert L. Ory

1976-01-01

430

40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption...peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs),...

2013-07-01

431

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

432

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivar Response to Prohexadione Calcium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut digging efficiency can be reduced if row visibility is limited by excessive vegetation. The plant growth regulator prohexadione calcium retards vegetative growth and improves row visibility by inhibiting internode elongation. In some instances, prohexadione calcium also increases pod yield....

433

Amport Foods Issues Allergy Alert on Undeclared Peanuts ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... This recall is based on a discovery that a container of Milk Chocolate Peanuts was erroneously labeled as Milk Chocolate Raisins. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

434

Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of 40K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for 226Ra activity peak from 214Bi at 1760 keV and 232Th activity, peak from 208Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

Akkurt, ?skender; Güno?lu, Kadir; Mavi, Betül; Kara, Ayhan

2012-09-01

435

Performance of two immunochemical assays in the analysis of peanuts for aflatoxin at 37 field laboratories.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to measure the precision of 2 rapid aflatoxin assay systems in use at 37 peanut buying points during the 1991 harvest season. Aflatoxin laboratories were established at the 37 buying points to analyze peanut samples from all incoming farmers' stock loads as part of a joint project sponsored by various segments of the U.S. peanut industry and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Eighteen laboratories were equipped with Neogen's veratox FSP rapid assay system, whereas 19 laboratories used Vicam's Aflatest rapid assay system. To monitor the performance of the field laboratories during the project, 3 portions of each of six 27 kg samples of ground peanuts were sent to each laboratory for analysis over a period of 6 weeks. Aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 300 ng/g when eight 200 g subsamples of each sample were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC). For the 5 samples contaminated with aflatoxin, relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) for laboratories using veratox FSP ranged from 18.66 to 53.29%, and the relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 22.79 to 59.29%. For laboratories using the Aflatest system, RSDr values ranged from 18.70 to 41.48%, and RSDR values ranged from 23.84 to 47.56%. Horwitz ratios < 2.0 were found for 4 of the 5 contaminated samples for both methods, indicating that the overall precision of the 2 methods used in the project was good. Mean aflatoxin concentrations, as determined with the rapid assay systems, were generally lower than those determined by LC, particularly for more highly contaminated samples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8318858

Dorner, J W; Blankenship, P D; Cole, R J

436

[Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea)].  

PubMed

Forty three rhizobium strains isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and 15 reference strains from other genus and species were analyzed by the method of 16S rRNA RFLP, 16S rRNA sequencing and 16S-23S IGS PCR RFLP. The results of the 16S rRNA RFLP shown that 43 strains tested were all ascribed to the genus of Bradyrhizobium phylogenetically. Strains tested were adjacent to the B. japonicum and far from B. elkanii 16S rRNA genotype. The genotypes generated by the 4 restriction endonucleases, Mbo I, Dde I, Hae III and Msp I, were same as the representatives of B. japonicum. The dendrogram generated by 16S rRNA sequence and Neighbor-joining method shown that peanut rhizobia clustered into the subcluster represented by B. japonicum and B. liaoningense, were more close to B. liaoningense genetically, and the sequence difference between them was less than 1%. High sequence similarity was also determined between B. liaoningense and B. japonicum. JZ1, representative strain of peanut rhizobia were systematically far from the B. elkanii, and the sequence divergence about 2%. The results from IGS RFLP analysis indicated that although they were phylogenetically close to B. japonicum and B. elkanii, peanut rhizobia forming an independent group at the similarity of 71% could be further divided into four subgroups, A, B, C and D. Subgroup A consisted of strains from different region, subgroup B was composed of strains from Wuchang, Qianjiang and Jingzhou, subgroup C was mainly composed of strains from Jingzhou and starins of subgroup D mainly from Neijiang. Reference strains from B. japonicum and B. elkanii were independently clustered into the subgroup E at the similarity of 71%. The geographical factor effect on genetic diversity of rhizobia was found. PMID:12693105

Yang, Jiang-Ke; Xie, Fu-Li; Zhou, Jun-Chu

2002-12-01

437

A flavonoid antioxidant in Spanish peanuts (Arachia hypogoea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot methanol extracts of Spanish peanuts were found to possess antioxidant activity. Thin layer (TLC) and paper chromatography\\u000a of the methanolic peanut extracts yielded 6 fluorescent bands of which one exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Further\\u000a separation by TLC showed this band to be a complex mixture of 3 components that were tested for antioxidant activity. One\\u000a component demonstrated all of

D. E. Pratt; E. E. Miller

1984-01-01

438

Seed-specific, developmentally regulated genes of peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cDNAs of seed-specific and developmentally regulated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genes were identified by differential screening of a peanut-seed cDNA library using cDNA probes constructed from mRNAs\\u000a isolated from immature and mature stages of the seed. Northern analysis, probed with the four cloned cDNAs, indicated that\\u000a the genes represented by two cDNAs were expressed abundantly early in seed development,

O. G. Paik-Ro; J. C. Seib; R. L. Smith

2002-01-01

439

A genetic engineering strategy to eliminate peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Despite its seriousness,\\u000a to date, there is no cure. Genetic engineering strategies can provide a solution. The post-transcriptional gene silencing\\u000a (PTGS) model can be used effectively to knock out the production of allergenic proteins in peanut by specific degradation\\u000a of the endogenous target messenger RNA (mRNA). Ara h

Hortense Dodo; Koffi Konan; Olga Viquez

2005-01-01

440

DIGESTIBILITY AND FEEDING VALUE OF PEANUT HULLS FOR SWINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

AB ST R ACT Twenty-four crossbred gilts averaging 72 -+ .7 kg were used in two balance trials to determine the digestibility of various nutrient components of peanut hulls. The peanut hulls analyzed (%): nitrogen, 1.44; neutral detergent fiber, 63.6; acid detergent fiber 56.3; cellulose, 45.5; hemi- cellulose, 7.5 and lignin, 7.7. They contained .24% Ca, .09% P, .09% Mg,

M. D. Lindemann; E. T. Kornegay; R. J. Moore

441

Inactivation of aflatoxins in peanut and cottonseed meals by ammoniation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins in peanut and cottonseed meal can be inactivated by treatment with gaseous ammonia. In pilot plant runs, contaminated\\u000a peanut meal was ammoniated at two levels each of moisture content, reaction time, temperature and ammonia pressure. Thin layer\\u000a chromatography indicated that ammoniation inactivated the aflatoxins (121 ppb) in the meal to a nondetectable level. With\\u000a a similar treatment, total aflatoxins

S. P. Koltun; F. G. Dollear; E. T. Rayner

1971-01-01

442

Mycotoxigenic fungi in peanuts from different geographic regions of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the importance of mycotoxigenic fungi in Egyptian peanuts, samples from five regions (Alexandria, El-Beheira,\\u000a El-Sharqiya, El-Daqahelaya in northern Egypt and Asyut, southern Egypt) in two seasons (2007, 2008) were collected. Aspergillus was consistently the most frequent genus in seeds and in-shell peanuts and was the dominant mycotoxigenic component of the\\u000a mycobiota. There was no direct correlation between the

Yousef Sultan; Naresh Magan

2010-01-01

443

Mitigation of Major Peanut Allergens by Pulsed Ultraviolet Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut allergy represents one of the most severe IgE-mediated reactions with food, but to date, the only effective way to\\u000a prevent peanut allergy is total avoidance. If allergens could be mitigated during food processing before a product reaches\\u000a the consumer, this would substantially lessen the food allergy problem. The efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a\\u000a novel food processing technology,

Wade W. Yang; Nasson R. Mwakatage; Renee Goodrich-Schneider; Kathiravan Krishnamurthy; Taha M. Rababah

444

Radiation-thermal processing of high-viscous oil from Karazhanbas field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regularities of radiation-induced chemical conversion in high-viscous oil from Karazhanbas field (peninsula Buzachi, Kazakhstan) are discussed. Changes in hydrocarbon and fractional contents of liquid cracking products are analyzed.

Zaykina, R. F.; Zaykin, Y. A.; Mamonova, T. B.; Nadirov, N. K.

2001-02-01

445

Evaluation of potential biocontrol agent for aflatoxin in Argentinean peanuts.  

PubMed

Biocontrol by competitive exclusion has been developed as the most promising means of controlling aflatoxins in peanuts. A 2-year study was carried out to determine the efficacy of an Aspergillus flavus strain as biocontrol agent to reduce aflatoxin production in peanuts under field conditions in Argentina. The competitive strain used was a nontoxigenic A. flavus (AFCHG2) naturally occurring in peanut from Córdoba, Argentina. The inoculum was produced through solid-state fermentation on long grain rice and applied at rate of 50kg inoculum/ha. The incidence of the released strain within the A. flavus communities in soil and peanuts was determined using the shift in the ratio toxigenic:nontoxigenic and VCG analysis. During the 2009/2010 growing season, treatments produced significant reductions in the incidence of toxigenic isolates of A. flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus in soil and peanuts. However, no preharvest aflatoxin contamination was observed. In the 2010/2011 growing season, plants were exposed to late season drought conditions that were optimal for aflatoxin contamination. Significant reductions in aflatoxin levels averaging 71% were detected in treated plots with different inoculation treatments. The results suggest that using the strategy of competitive exclusion A. flavus AFCHG2 can be applied to reduce aflatoxin contamination in Argentinean peanuts. PMID:23454811

Alaniz Zanon, M S; Chiotta, M L; Giaj-Merlera, G; Barros, G; Chulze, S

2013-01-31

446

Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies.

He, Guohao; Meng, Ronghua; Newman, Melanie; Gao, Guoqing; Pittman, Roy N; Prakash, CS

2003-01-01

447

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

Adams, D.C.

1993-09-29

448

Peanut Butter Cracker Sandwich Manufacturing Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many engineers, their first position after obtaining a B.S. degree is in manufacturing. Job titles like process engineer, product engineer, and quality engineer are common and are directly involved in manufacturing. Most engineering curricula do not cover manufacturing concepts. A student may not even have an opportunity through electives to study manufacturing since smaller engineering colleges rarely have a department of Manufacturing Engineering.A module on peanut butter cracker manufacturing was developed for the Introduction to Engineering course taken by most engineering students in their freshman year. The objective for the students is to design, build and then run a process to manufacture peanut butter cracker sandwiches. The culminating activity is a pilot production run where the students are assigned human operators for their process. The goal for the students is to make a profit during the pilot production run. Material costs, labor costs, quality specifications and selling price all determine whether or not the process was successful. The module includes activities where the students perform calculations and use Excel graphs to determine the process time required to make a profit, the impact of the number of operators on production, the interplay between fixed and variable costs, and the effect of yield on their profit. Students are required to write operating procedures and order supplies based on predictions of the quantity of sandwiches they will produce. Students also learn about quality control and process control, the cost of automation, development costs, and challenges in training operators. After more than two weeks of preparation, the students have 10 minutes to train their operators, and then the operators run the process for 10 minutes. After production day, the students write a report that includes an analysis of their production performance and suggested process modifications. Overall, the module provides a fun and informative introduction to some fundamental manufacturing concepts.The module learning objectives, section descriptions and handouts are included.

2009-08-05

449

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

450

Cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupine: The risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is common, but cross-allergy between legumes is rare. Proteins from Lupinus albus are increasingly eaten in the form of seeds or additives to wheat flour. The risk of cross-allergenicity is still insufficiently known. Objective: We sought to study the risk of cross-allergy to lupine in patients allergic to peanut and to study lupine allergenicity. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Denise-Anne Moneret-Vautrin; Laurence Guérin; Gisèle Kanny; Jenny Flabbee; Sophie Frémont; Martine Morisset

1999-01-01

451

Studies in interesterification. II. Acidolysis of some vegetable oils with lauric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidolysis reactions of cottonseed oil, peanut oil, mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia), and palm oil with lauric acid were investigated with special reference to the influence of catalysts and the relative proportions\\u000a of oil and lauric acid on the extent and type of fatty acids displaced from an oil. Catalysts such as sulfuric acid, zinc\\u000a oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum

M. M. Chakrabarty; K. Talapatra

1968-01-01

452

Visualization of foam/oil in a new, high resolution, sandstone replica micromodel  

SciTech Connect

A new micromodel construction procedure has been developed as a tool to better understand and model pore level events in porous media. The construction procedure allows for the almost exact two-dimensional replication of any porous medium of interest. For the case presented here a berea sandstone was chosen. Starting with a thin section of the porous medium of interest, a two-dimensional replica of the flow path is etched into a silicon wafer to a prescribed depth. Bonding the etched pattern to a flat glass plate isolates the flow path and allows the pore level flow events to be studied. The high resolution micromodels constructed with the new procedure were used to study the effects of oil on the displacement characteristics of foam in a porous medium of intermediate wettability. A crude oil was injected into the micromodel, partially filling it. The oil was then produced under two different displacement schemes. First, a slug of surfactant was used. Second, foam generated in situ, far from the oil bank, was used to displace the oil. Qualitative observations indicate significant differences at the interface between the oil and the displacing phase. When slug surfactant injection is used, the oil appears to wet the surface. The oil displacement process is efficient due to a large fractional production of oil from the large pores before the surfactant breaks through. When in-situ foam is the displacing phase, the foam is observed to break near the oil interface. The liquid phase in the foam becomes the wetting phase. It is observed to reside in the small pores and to coat most of the grain surfaces. Displacement of oil under this injection scheme is inefficient due to transfer of the surfactant along grain edges and subsequent early breakthrough of the surfactant.

Hornbrook, J.W.; Pettit, P.; Castanier, L.M.

1992-08-01

453

Highly Stable Nonionic Fatliquors Based on Ethoxylated Overused Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overused vegetable oils, which are considered to be a waste and available in huge quantities after frying processes, were\\u000a directly ethoxylated using a conventional cheap catalyst in order to obtain an economically valuable ethoxylated product to\\u000a replace the imported intermediate derivatives and at the same time the environment will be rid of one of its pollutants. Therefore,\\u000a this work was

EL-Shahat H. A. Nashy; Ghada A. Abo-ELwafa

454

High-yield enzymatic glycerolysis of fats and oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several triglyceride fats and oils were reacted with glycerol using lipase as catalyst. A batch system with magnetic stirring\\u000a was used without the addition of any solvents or emulsifiers. In all cases a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides was obtained.\\u000a However, the yield of monglyceride (MG) depended strongly on the reaction temperature: at higher temperatures approximately\\u000a 30% MG was

Gerald P. McNeill; Shoichi Shimizu; Tsuneo Yamane

1991-01-01

455

Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

Goodrum, J.W.

1986-01-01

456

Shotgun Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Water-Deficit-Stressed Midmature Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed.  

PubMed

Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. A comprehensive understanding of seed metabolism and the effects of water-deficit stress on the incorporation of the main storage reserves in seeds, such as proteins, fatty acids, starch, and secondary metabolites, will enhance our ability to improve seed quality and yield through molecular breeding programs. In the present study, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to study the functional proteins altered in the midmature (65-70 days postanthesis) peanut seed grown under water-deficit stress conditions. We created a pod-specific proteome database and identified 93 nonredundant, statistically significant, and differentially expressed proteins between well-watered and drought-stressed seeds. Mapping of these differential proteins revealed three candidate biological pathways (glycolysis, sucrose and starch metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism) that were significantly altered due to water-deficit stress. Differential accumulation of proteins from these pathways provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed physiological changes, which include reductions in pod yield and biomass, reduced germination, reduced vigor, decreased seed membrane integrity, increase in storage proteins, and decreased total fatty acid content. Some of the proteins encoding rate limiting enzymes of biosynthetic pathways could be utilized by breeders to improve peanut seed production during water-deficit conditions in the field. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000308. PMID:24094305

Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A; Payton, Paxton

2013-10-14

457

Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

1997-01-01

458

The Cardioprotective Effects of Fish Oil During Pressure Overload Are Blocked by High Fat Intake  

PubMed Central

Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil may prevent development of heart failure through alterations in cardiac phospholipids that favorably impact inflammation and energy metabolism. A high-fat diet may block these effects in chronically stressed myocardium. Pathological left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy was generated by subjecting rats to pressure overload by constriction of the abdominal aorta. Animals were fed: (1) standard diet (10% of energy from fat), (2) standard diet with EPA+DHA (2.3% of energy intake as EPA+DHA), (3) high fat (60% fat); or (4) high fat with EPA+DHA. Pressure overload increased LV mass by ?40% in both standard and high-fat diets without fish oil. Supplementation with fish oil increased their incorporation into cardiac phospholipids, and decreased the proinflammatory fatty acid arachidonic acid and urine thromboxane B2 with both the standard and high-fat diet. Linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin (an essential mitochondrial phospholipid) were decreased with pressure overload on standard diet, which was prevented by fish oil. Animals fed high-fat diet had decreased linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin regardless of fish oil supplemention. Fish oil limited LV hypertrophy on the standard diet, and prevented upregulation of fetal genes associated with heart failure (myosin heavy chain-? and atrial natriuetic factor). These beneficial effects of fish oil were absent in animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, whereas treatment with EPA+DHA prevented tetralinoloyl cardiolipin depletion, LV hypertrophy, and abnormal genes expression with pressure overload, these effects were absent with a high-fat diet.

Shah, Keyur B.; Duda, Monika K.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Chess, David J.; Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Xu, Wenhong; Murphy, Robert C.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

2011-01-01

459

Transesterification of triglycerides in high and low quality oil feeds over an HT2 hydrotalcite catalyst.  

PubMed

The use of a heterogeneous catalyst, in the transesterification reaction of refined and acidic cottonseed oil for the production of methyl-esters (biodiesel) has been studied. The basic Mg-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite catalyst used showed a high activity for methanolysis and esterification reactions in a refined and an acidic cottonseed oil as well as in a representative high water content animal fat feed. The experiments were performed in a temperature range between 180 and 210 degrees C, in a batch reactor. The methanol to vegetable oil molar ratio was 6 to 1, while the catalyst concentration was fixed at 1 wt.% of the oil mass. Non-calcined and calcined forms of the catalyst were tested. The activity of the calcined catalyst was lower than the initial activity of the non-calcined catalytic system but it appeared the same with the reused non-calcined system. PMID:17951052

Barakos, N; Pasias, S; Papayannakos, N

2007-10-24

460

Laboratory study with a light crude oil to determine the effect of high-pressure nitrogen injection on enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory research was conducted to study displacements of crude oil by high-pressure nitrogen injection. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of temperature and gas-oil ratio in solution on crude oil recovery and miscibility process in high-pressure nitrogen injection; to study nitrogen effectiveness in crude oil recovery after waterflooding and to investigater the effect on oil recovery of nitrogen-driven propane slugs. Nine experimental tests were performed using crude oil of 42.3/sup 0/ API recombined with natural gas. The experimental tests were made using two temperatures (70/sup 0/F and 120/sup 0/F) and three gas-oil ratios in solution (575 SCF/STB, 400 SCF/STB and 200 SCF/STB). The reservoir model was a stainless steel tube 125 feet long and .435 inches in diameter packed with sand consolidated to give an average permeability of 910 md. The model was provided with five sampling valves to collect vapor samples. The vapor samples were analyzed by using a chromatograph. A temperature control system was built based on the results obtained from a heat transfer mathematical model specifically prepared for this research. The results obtained in this study suggested very strongly that crude oil and miscibility depend on temperature and gas-oil ratio in solution. Recommendations are made for future research projects continuing the studies on secondary recovery by nitrogen-driven propane slugs and on tertiary recovery by high-pressure nitrogen injection after waterflooding.

Alcocer Alarcon, C.F.

1982-01-01

461

Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is an important health problem in the United States, affecting approximately 0.6% of children. Inadvertent exposure to peanut is a risk factor for life-threatening food-induced anaphylaxis. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an immunoassay for a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, to detect peanut allergen in foods so that the risk of inadvertent

Anna Pomés; Ricki M. Helm; Gary A. Bannon; A. Wesley Burks; Amy Tsay; Martin D. Chapman

2003-01-01

462

Mechanical Effects on the Physical Properties of Highly Viscous Crude Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities of decreasing the viscosity of highly viscous crude oil in preparation for transport in pipelines were investigated. On heating in the 25-28.6°C range, the viscosity of crude oil decreases from 70 to 26.5 mPa·sec with expended energy of 513 kJ\\/m3. The energy expenditures decrease by two orders of magnitude with a similar decrease in the viscosity by mechanical

Z. S. Salimov; A. S. Sultanov; S. A. Abdurakhimov; N. V. Belikova; B. Kh. Ubaidullaev

2001-01-01

463

High-dose Iodized Oil Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolizatio n For Patients with Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To conduct a randomized trial to evaluate the role of using high-dose iodized oil transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) in the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: From January 1993 to June 1998, 473 patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma were divided into two groups: 216 patients in group A received more than 20mL iodized oil during the first TACE treatment;

Min-Shan Chen; Jin-Qing Li; Ya-Qi Zhang; Li-Xia Lu; Wei-Zhang Zhang; Yun-Fei Yuan; Yong-Ping Guo; Xiao-Jun Lin; Guo-Hui Li

464

Microsatellite-based high density linkage map in oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microsatellite-based high-density linkage map for oil palm ( Elaeis guinensis Jacq.) was constructed from a cross between two heterozygous parents, a tenera palm from the La Mé population (LM2T) and a dura palm from the Deli population (DA10D). A set of 390 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed in oil palm from microsatellite-enriched libraries and evaluated for polymorphism along

N. Billotte; N. Marseillac; A.-M. Risterucci; B. Adon; P. Brottier; F.-C. Baurens; R. Singh; A. Herrán; H. Asmady; C. Billot; P. Amblard; T. Durand-Gasselin; B. Courtois; D. Asmono; S. C. Cheah; W. Rohde; E. Ritter; A. Charrier

2005-01-01

465

Sophorolipid Production with High Yields on Whey Concentrate and Rapeseed Oil without Consumption of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophorolipids were produced by single-step batch cultivation of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 on deproteinized whey concentrate and repeated feed of rapeseed oil. A mild sterilization method for whey was developed. High yields of 280 g dry sophorolipids l-1 were obtained from deproteinized whey concentrate containing 100 g lactose l-1 and 300 g rapeseed oil l-1. Surprisingly, the whey lactose was

Hans-J. Daniel; Ralf T. Otto; Matthias Reuss; Christoph Syldatk

1998-01-01

466

Modeling of kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sunflower oil in a high-pressure reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a mathematical model for characterizing the Michaelis-Menten type of sunflower oil hydrolysis, catalyzed\\u000a by the lipase preparation Lipolase 100T (Novozymes Ays, Bagsvaerd, Denmark). Supercritical carbon dioxide was used as a solvent\\u000a for this reaction. Computer modeling of the kinetics was done for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sunflower oil in a high-pressure\\u000a reactor using the MicroMath Scientist program

Mateja Primoži?; Maja Habulin; Željko Knez

2005-01-01

467

Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels.The holocellulose, ?-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are

Alejandro Rodríguez; Luis Serrano; Ana Moral; Antonio Pérez; Luis Jiménez

2008-01-01

468

Oil-in-alcohol highly concentrated emulsions as templates for the preparation of macroporous materials.  

PubMed

New oil-in-alcohol highly concentrated emulsions were formulated and were used as a templates to obtain macroporous poly(furfuryl alcohol) monoliths by a one-step method. The oil-in-alcohol highly concentrated emulsions were prepared by stepwise addition of the oil phase to the surfactant-alcohol solution and were characterized by optical microscopy and by laser diffraction. The typical structure of highly concentrated emulsions, with close-packed polyhedral droplets, has been observed. Poly(furfuryl alcohol) monoliths were obtained by polymerizing in the external phase of these emulsions. These materials are mainly macroporous and retain the size distribution and morphology from the highly concentrated emulsions. The internal structure of the monoliths was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The images showed an interconnected network with pore size similar to the droplet size of the highly concentrated emulsions used as templates. PMID:22489569

Vílchez, Susana; Pérez-Carrillo, Lourdes A; Miras, Jonathan; Solans, Conxita; Esquena, Jordi

2012-05-11

469

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01

470

UNIFORM PEANUT PERFORMANCE TESTS (UPPT) 2001: CHEMICAL, SENSORY AND SHELF-LIFE PROPERTIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released....

471

AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE PEANUT MARKETING QUOTAS AND SUPPORT PRICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first significant changes in the peanut THE PEANUT PROGRAM program in more than 20 years are contained in the Food and Agricultural Act of 1977. The The peanut program establishes acreage new program retains the use of acreage allot- allotments, marketing quotas, and price sup- ments, marketing quotas, and support prices ports. Before the 1977 Food and Agriculture but

James N. Trapp

1978-01-01

472

Reaction of peanut genotypes to Southern blight in small field plots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southern blight of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a serious disease caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. The disease negatively impacts peanut production in all growing areas of the United States. Eleven peanut genotypes (PI 501983, 501996, 502046, 502071, 502093, 502154, Grif 13826, Okrun, S...

473

Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

Forrest, G.T.

1992-02-11

474

Pod Yield and Mineral Concentration of Four Peanut Cultivars Following Gypsum Application With Subsurface Drip Irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 2-year study (2004 and 2005) was conducted where gypsum was applied to four peanut cultivars and irrigated with subsurface drip to determine pod yield, quality, and mineral concentration of peanut. Gypsum was applied at 0, 560 and 1120 kg/ha to peanut cultivars C99R, Georgia Green (GG), GAO2C (O2C...

475

EFFECTS OF WEED, DISEASE, AND INSECT CONTROL MEASURES ON SENSORY QUALITY OF PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sensory quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) products is the main reason that consumers buy them. We previously documented a decline in the intensity of roasted peanut sensory attribute in Florunner and NC 7 peanuts over a 15-year period. Because the same two genotypes were evaluated throughout...

476

TRENDS IN SENSORY QUALITY OF ROASTED PEANUTS ACROSS 15 YEARS (1986-2000)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enhancement of flavor of roasted peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been a long-standing objective of the peanut industry. Studies relative to roasted peanut flavor variation have separated the effects of genotype, environment, and genotype-by-environment interaction on the sensory attributes roasted ...

477

Use of genetic variation of Iranian peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) to develop mapping populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind that of other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. Identification of molecular genetic diversity in cultivated peanut will help with effective genetic conservation along with establishing efficient breeding programmes in this crop.

Ali Aalami; Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani; Masoud Esfahani; Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran; Payam Potki; Javad Mozaffari

2010-01-01

478

Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachis wild species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lack of sufficient molecular markers hinders current genetic research in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research. With the development of peanut EST projects, a vast amount of available EST sequence data has been generated. These data offered an opportunity to identify SSR in ESTs by data

Xuanqiang Liang; Xiaoping Chen; Yanbin Hong; Haiyan Liu; Guiyuan Zhou; Shaoxiong Li; Baozhu Guo

2009-01-01

479

Differences between heat-treated raw and commercial peanut extracts by skin testing and immunoblotting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut is generally consumed in a heat-treated form, yet the commonly available extracts for diagnostic purposes are derived from raw peanuts. Raw and heat-treated samples were prepared and compared with commercially available peanut extracts regarding SPT reactivity and serum IgE reactivity. Protei...

480

NARROW-SENSE HERITABILITY OF SELECTED SENSORY DESCRIPTORS IN VIRGINIA-TYPE PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sweet, bitter and roasted peanut attributes of roasted peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) flavor have been shown to be heritable traits. Previous research has estimated broad-sense heritability (H) and breeding values of numerous peanut cultivars and breeding lines for these attributes, but no study h...

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