Sample records for peanut oil high

  1. High-Oleic Peanut Oils Produced by HpRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing of Oleate Desaturase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongmei Yin; Shizheng Deng; Kehui Zhan; Dangqun Cui

    2007-01-01

    The quality of peanut oil largely depends on the quantity of oleic (18:1) and linoleic acids (18:2). These two acids comprise\\u000a more than 80% of the total fatty acids in peanuts. The oleate desaturase (FAD2) gene is important for maintaining high oleic acid content. A partial conservative sequence of the FAD2 gene from peanut was selected. The sense and antisense

  2. Physical and Chemical Characterizations of Normal and High-Oleic Oils from Nine Commercial Cultivars of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density and viscosity data as a function of temperature (5 to 100°C) were collected for oils (normal and high-oleic) from 9 cultivars of peanut. Density decreased linearly (R squared, greater than or equal to 0.99) with increasing temperature for all oils, whereas viscosity (dynamic or kinematic) d...

  3. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  4. Effects of peanut oil consumption on appetite and food choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S S Iyer; L A Boateng; R L Sales; S B Coelho; P Lokko; J B R Monteiro; N M B Costa; R D Mattes

    2006-01-01

    Objective:Peanut consumption may improve lipid profiles without promoting weight gain. Both properties have been attributed to their high-unsaturated fat content. Mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids reportedly hold stronger satiety value than saturated fats and may help appetite control. This study investigated the effects of chronic peanut oil consumption on appetite and food choice.Research methods and procedures:A total of 129 healthy

  5. RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

  6. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  7. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  8. Possibilities of peanut, pecan and safflower seed oils as supplements for olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Bickford; G. E. Mann; K. S. Markley

    1943-01-01

    Summary  Samples of completely refined peanut oil, semirefined pecan oil, imported edible grade olive oil and crude safflower seed\\u000a oil have been examined for composition, spectral transmittance and other properties. Compositions were determined by means\\u000a of the modified Bertram oxidation method and application of the iodine-thiocyanogen number technique.\\u000a \\u000a None of the oils examined simulate olive oil in composition. Peanut and pecan

  9. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  10. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  11. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

  12. Use of Pollen Solid-Phase Extraction for the Determination of trans-Resveratrol in Peanut Oils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhao, Qin; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-05-20

    In this study, a simple and convenient method for the determination of trans-resveratrol (TRA) in peanut oils based on pollen grain solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Pollen grains were used as normal-phase SPE sorbent to separate TRA from peanut oils for the first time. As a naturally occurring material, pollen grains exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity for polyphenolic compounds due to their particular functional structures such as hydroxyl groups, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic chains with aromatics. Their stable compositions as well as adequate particle size (30-40 ?m) also make them suitable for SPE. Several parameters influencing extraction performance were investigated. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), a green purification method for fast determination of TRA in peanut oils using pollen grain cartridges as sorbents was established. The linearity range of the proposed method was 10-2500 ng·g(-1) with a satisfactory correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) for TRA in peanut oils was 2.7 ng·g(-1), and the recoveries in spiked oil samples were from 70.2% to 98.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4.9% (intraday) and 5.2% (interday). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of TRA in several peanut oils with different brands from local market as well as other kinds of vegetable oils. PMID:25915548

  13. Oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, and resveratrol content variability in FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical compo...

  14. Determination of protein levels in soy and peanut oils by colorimetric assay and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Fu, Tong-Jen; Jackson, Lauren S; Gendel, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical methods are needed for measuring the levels of protein from allergenic food transferred into cooking oil. A simple method for determination of total protein in cooking oils was developed. Oil was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween (PBST) and the extracts were partitioned with hexane to remove residual oil. Total protein in the PBST extracts was assayed with bicinchoninic acid (BCA), micro-BCA, reducing-agent compatible BCA and CB-XT kits. These methods were used to measure recovery of protein from peanut butter spikes of soy and peanut oil in the range of 50-1000 ppm. Recoveries were generally above 70%. However, the BCA and micro-BCA assays were subject to interference and enhanced color formation which were probably due to co-extracted antioxidants present in oil. The reducing agent-compatible BCA and CB-X protein assays reduced interference and gave lower protein values in crude, cold-pressed, and refined peanut oils. Heating oil to 180 degrees C before extraction also reduced interference-induced color enhancement. A commercial ELISA test kit was also used to measure peanut protein in oil spiked with peanut butter. Recovery of peanut residues measured by ELISA was significantly decreased when the peanut butter-spiked oil was heated to 180 degrees C compared to unheated oil. Recovery of spiked peanut butter protein measured by the buffer extraction-colorimetric method was not decreased in heated oil. The method developed here could be used to determine protein levels in crude and refined oil, and to assess the potential for allergen cross-contact from reused cooking oil. PMID:20334183

  15. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  16. Determination of In-shell Peanuts Moisture, Oil and Fatty Acids Composition Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and fatty acid content of V...

  17. Peanut oil press redesign for Developing countries

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daipan

    2007-01-01

    One of the causes of malnutrition among the rural inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa is the high cost of dietary fats that are necessary to maintain normal body functions. Though the Food and Agriculture Organization of the ...

  18. Biological observations from feeding heated corn oil and heated peanut oil to rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Alexander; V. E. Valli; B. E. Chanin

    1987-01-01

    Five groups of male weanling rats were provided purified diets containing 75% by weight of either fresh or laboratory?heated corn oil (FCO, HCO) or fresh, laboratory?heated, or commercial pressure deep?fry peanut oil (FPO, HPO, PPO). Total weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were consistently greater for the FCO, FPO, and PPO groups. Although relative heart weights were unaffected, the

  19. Allergenic Properties of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Peanut Flour Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is a high protein, low oil, powdered material prepared from roasted 21 peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the 22 active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a 23 processing strategy ...

  20. Performance of sunflower oil with high levels of oleic and palmitic acids during industrial frying of almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Marmesat; M. Mancha; M. V. Ruiz-Méndez; M. C. Dobarganes

    2005-01-01

    High-oleic, high-palmitic sunflower oil (HOHPSO) is a seed oil from a new mutant sunflower line characterized by increased\\u000a levels of both oleic acid (>50%) and palmitic acid (>25%) and a high oxidative stability. In this study, its performance at\\u000a frying temperature was compared with that of palm olein in thermoxidative assays (4 h, 180C). Also, industrial discontinuous\\u000a frying of almonds,

  1. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ?-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ?-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1mol/L NaCl lowered ?-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. PMID:25872432

  2. Effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts on the oxidative stability of peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at various concentrations were tested in natural peanut oil stored at 65 degrees C for 35 days. The concentrations (weight/volume) of extracts added into oil were 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%, and those of BHA were 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%. Antioxidant effect was determined by the measurement of peroxide value. After 7 days of storage, BHA and extracts of sumach were active in varying degrees against autoxidation of peanut oil, compared with the control test (P <.01). The sumach extracts generally inhibited the formation of hydroperoxide, as did BHA. After 28 days of storage, antioxidant effects of extracts were significantly decreased when compared with BHA. The decrease in the antioxidant activity of extracts might have resulted from the decrease of polyphenolic constituents. The results showed that high concentrations can enhance the potency of the antioxidant effect of sumach extract. PMID:12804022

  3. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 ?l/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), ?-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), ?-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

  4. Comparisons of biodiesel produced from unrefined oils of different peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesels were prepared according to standard procedures from oils of eight commercially available peanut cultivars and compared for differences in physical properties important to fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity was measured from 100 to 15 ºC, and differences (P<0.05) among cultivars occurred...

  5. Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of structured lipids from peanut oil and caprylic acid in a stirred tank batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki-Teak Lee; Casimir C. Akoh

    1998-01-01

    Structured lipids were synthesized by transesterification of peanut oil and caprylic acid in a stirred-batch reactor. Different\\u000a substrate molar ratios (1:1 to 1:4, peanut oil\\/caprylic acid) were used. The reaction was performed for 72 h at 50°C catalyzed\\u000a by IM60 lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (10 g, 2% w\\/w substrate) in the absence of organic solvent. The highest incorporation of caprylic

  6. Identification of inferior quality peanuts without shelling during peanut grading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts produced in United States are considered as high quality peanuts. To continue this quality, grading of farmers stock peanuts should be improved further. When the peanuts are picked from the farmers they are unshelled peanuts. There are some peanuts that contain kernels with damages, immature...

  7. Biological observations from feeding heated corn oil and heated peanut oil to rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J C; Valli, V E; Chanin, B E

    1987-01-01

    Five groups of male weanling rats were provided purified diets containing 15% by weight of either fresh or laboratory-heated corn oil (FCO, HCO) or fresh, laboratory-heated, or commercial pressure deep-fry peanut oil (FPO, HPO, PPO). Total weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were consistently greater for the FCO, FPO, and PPO groups. Although relative heart weights were unaffected, the HCO and HPO produced elevated liver and kidney weights. The dietary fats had no effect on the hematological status of the animals or the proportions of cells comprising the total leukocytes of the blood. Physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of the urine detected no pathologic conditions. Rats fed diets containing HCO or HPO demonstrated toxicity of thermally oxidized fats by the appearance of diarrhea, dermatitis, seborrhea, and hair loss. Histological examinations revealed injury of the thymus by all fat samples except the FCO; the liver was damaged by the HCO, HPO, and PPO, and the testes and epididymides by HPO and PPO. In the latter case there was complete cessation of spermatogenesis. PMID:3586062

  8. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Unrefined Oils of Different Peanut Cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Davis; D. Geller; W. H. Faircloth; T. H. Sanders

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesels were prepared according to standard procedures from unrefined oils of eight commercially available peanut cultivars\\u000a and compared for differences in physical properties important to fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity\\u000a and density were measured from 100 to 15 °C, and differences (p < 0.05) in these physical properties occurred more frequently at lower temperatures when comparing the different cultivars.\\u000a Unlike data for

  9. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Raw, Dry-roasted, and Oil-roasted US Peanuts of Commercial Importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian David Craft; Agnieszka Kosi?ska; Ryszard Amarowicz; Ronald Bruce Pegg

    2010-01-01

    Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial\\u000a practices. Eighty percent (v\\/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were\\u000a found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A

  11. Analyses of pecan, peanut, and other oils by gas-liquid chromatography and ultra-violet spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. French

    1962-01-01

    Comparative analyses of oils obtained from 12 varieties of pecans, 11 of peanuts, two of avocados and one each of citrus seed,\\u000a Wesson oil, corn, and of lard by GLC and UV procedures showed good agreement except for Wesson oil, corn oil, and lard. Iodine\\u000a values computed from GLC results checked Wijs values closely. Oleic acid ranged from 51 to

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIONS IN THE U.S. PEANUT MINI-CORE COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain not only a high percentage of oil (49%) with high oleate but also a high percentage of protein (25%) and nutritious phytochemicals (such as flavonoids and resveratrol). Therefore, peanut is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. The U.S. Peanut ger...

  13. Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R × NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

  14. Determination of In-Shell Peanut Oil and Fatty Acid Composition Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaya SundaramChari; Chari V. Kandala; Ronald A. Holser; Christopher L. Butts; William R. Windham

    2010-01-01

    NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the total oil and fatty acid concentration of Virginia and Valencia types\\u000a of in-shell peanuts rapidly and nondestructively. NIR absorbance spectra were collected in the wavelength range from 400 to\\u000a 2,500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average total oil concentrations of all samples were determined by a standard Soxtec extraction\\u000a method. Fatty acids were

  15. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  16. Fatty acid composition of spanish peanut oils as influenced by planting location, soil moisture conditions, variety, and season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Young; R. E. Worthington; R. O. Hammons; R. S. Matlock; G. R. Waller; R. D. Morrison

    1974-01-01

    Nine varieties or strains of Spanish type peanuts were grown in the National Variety Test in Georgia and Oklahoma with and\\u000a without irrigation for two growing seasons. The oil of sound kernels was analyzed for fatty acid composition. Although no\\u000a consistent pattern was found, in general, variation in fatty acid composition due to variety was much less in Oklahoma than

  17. Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    : Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization pine pellets and peanut hulls, generates a hydrocarbon-rich liquid product (bio-oil) consisting of oily for thousands of compounds. Pine pellet bio-oils are dominated by species containing multiple oxygen atoms

  18. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  19. Saturation of genetic maps for identification of QTLs controlling biotic resistance, morphological descriptors and oil quality in tetraploid peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low genetic diversity in cultivated peanut severely hampered construction of high density genetic maps and as a result genetic maps constructed so far could not go beyond 200 markers. The marker density of these maps is not satisfactory concerning the large genome size, allotetraploid nature and 20 ...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH YIELDING, TSWV RESISTANT ISOLINES WITH AND WITHOUT RESISTANCE TO THE PEANUT ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut cultivars are available that have high resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) or Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), however, no cultivars exist that have resistance to both pathogens. The objective of this research was to combine resistance to both pathogens in a s...

  1. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

    2010-01-01

    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences. PMID:20492171

  2. The Effect of Transglutaminase Crosslinking on the Rheological Characteristics of Heated Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour (PF) is a high-protein ingredient prepared after the partial extraction of oil from roasted peanut seed. Microbial transglutaminase (TGase) catalyzes protein crosslinking via acyl-transfer reactions, resulting in the modification of functional properties such as viscosity, gelation, so...

  3. Protein Hydrolysis of Defatted Peanut Meal to Improve Nutritional and Functional Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Defatted peanut meal is a commercially available, high protein (50-60%) material remaining after oil extraction from peanut seed. Technologies are needed to improve the economic value of this commodity. The objectives of this work were to evaluate antioxidant activity and funct...

  4. Process development and characterization of spray dried protein/peptide concentrates derived from peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil from peanut kernels. Despite being an excellent source of protein (45-55%), the high levels of aflatoxin typically associated with this material currently limit applications to feed or fertilizer markets. Previously, ou...

  5. PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

  6. Antioxidant activities of rosemary, sage, and sumac extracts and their combinations on stability of natural peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant efficacy of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia fruticosa L.), and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts and combinations at 4% concentrations (wt/vol, extract/oil) were investigated. Methanolic extracts of rosemary, sage, sumac, and their combinations were applied to peanut oil stored at 80 degrees C for 24 h. The antioxidant effect was determined by measuring the peroxide value. All extracts showed antioxidant effects compared with control. But the antioxidant effect of all extracts was low compared with that of butylated hydroxytoluene. Rosemary extract (except for 3 and 4 h) exhibited the most antioxidant effect compared with other individual extracts. Of blends, the most effective ones were sage plus sumac combinations. Sumac extract is also promising as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:14585194

  7. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed significant stretches of conserved gene clusters spread across the peanut genome. A higher level of colinearity was detected between A. duranensis and Glycine than with Medicago. Conclusions The first high-density, gene-based linkage map for A. duranensis was generated that can serve as a reference map for both wild and cultivated Arachis species. The markers developed here are valuable resources for the peanut, and more broadly, to the legume research community. The A-genome map will have utility for fine mapping in other peanut species and has already had application for mapping a nematode resistance gene that was introgressed into A. hypogaea from A. cardenasii. PMID:22967170

  8. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  9. Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt F. Wollenberg

    1990-01-01

    The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

  10. Sorption isotherm modeling of different peanut types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are becoming more important food product and in recent years its production is increasing rapidly. In North America most of the peanuts are grown in southeastern states. Peanuts from there are processed and exported to other parts of the country. Peanuts are harvested at high moisture levels...

  11. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  12. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran Kumar; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja

    2006-01-01

    Arachis hypogea (peanut, groundnut), an annual oil seed belonging to the Leguminosae family and the Papillionacea subfamily, is a legume native to South America but now grown in diverse environments in six continents between latitudes 40 degrees N and 40 degrees S. Arachis hypogea can grow in a wide range of climatic conditions. The low yields of this crop are mainly attributed to unreliable rainfall patterns with frequent droughts, lack of high-yielding adapted cultivars, damage by diseases and pests, poor agronomic practices, and limited use of inputs. Genetic engineering approaches have been shown to be comparatively fast, leading to better isolation and cloning of desired traits for combating the various biotic and abiotic stresses. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in peanut using the cotyledon system. The system described here is potentially applicable to a vast range of genotypes with a high transformation frequency of >70% based on the preliminary molecular data, indicating the production of a large number of independently transformed transgenic plants. The method reported here provides opportunities for crop improvement of this important legume crop via genetic transformation. PMID:16988358

  13. Distribution of peanut protein in the home environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to halt the rise in peanut allergy, we must determine how children become sensitized to peanut. High household peanut consumption used as an indirect marker of environmental peanut exposure is associated with the development of peanut allergy. We want to validate a method to quantify enviro...

  14. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9?gkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9?gkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0?gkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0?gkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

  15. High-oleate peanut mutants result from a MITE insertion into the FAD2 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Patel; S. Jung; K. Moore; G. Powell; C. Ainsworth; A. Abbott

    2004-01-01

    A high-oleate trait in the cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) was reported to rely on the allelic composition of the two homeologous, microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase genes ( ahFAD2A or ahFAD2B). The enzyme activity of either ahFAD2A or ahFAD2B is sufficient for a normal oleate phenotype, and a significant reduction in the levels of ahFAD2B and a mutation in ahFAD2A

  16. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

  17. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil. Despite being an excellent source of high quality protein, applications of PM are limited to feed markets as this material typically contains high concentrations of aflatoxin. Our research group has developed a nov...

  18. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  19. Seed chemical composition variability and FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds are nutritious containing high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemic...

  20. An aptamer based surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the detection of ochratoxin A in wine and peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiling; Feng, Mengxue; Zuo, Limin; Zhu, Zhentai; Wang, Fengwei; Chen, Long; Li, Jinghua; Shan, Guangzhi; Luo, Shi-Zhong

    2014-10-30

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), as a kind of chlorophenolic mycotoxin, exist widely in plant origin food and is harmful to human. Herein, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor using an anti-OTA aptamer immobilized sensor chip was developed to measure ochratoxin A (OTA) quantificationally through a straightforward direct binding assay. The streptavidin protein as a crosslinker was immobilized onto the surface of a sensor chip and the biotin-aptamer was captured through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The biosensor exhibited a detection range from 0.094 to 100ng/mL (linear range from 0.094 to 10ng/mL) of OTA with a lower detection limit of 0.005ng/mL. Detection of OTA in wine and peanut oil was further performed in the SPR biosensor using simple liquid-liquid extraction for sample pretreatments. Recoveries of ochratoxin A from spiked samples ranged from 86.9% to 116.5% and coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 0.2% to 6.9%. The developed methods in our studies showed good analytical performances with limits of detection much lower than the maximum residue limit, as well as a good reproducibility and stability. PMID:25461176

  1. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  2. Peanut-allergic subjects and their peanut-tolerant siblings have large differences in peanut-specific IgG that are independent of HLA class II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Dreskin; Mark T. Tripputi; Michael T. Aubrey; S. Shahzad Mustafa; Dan Atkins; Harvey L. Leo; Benjamin Song; Darcy Schlichting; Hanna Talwar; Qian Wang; Brian M. Freed

    We enrolled 53 peanut-allergic subjects and 64 peanut-tolerant full siblings, measured peanut-specific IgG and IgE, determined HLA class II at high resolution, and analyzed DRB1 alleles by supertypes. Peanut-specific IgG and IgE were elevated in the peanut-allergic subjects (p<0.0001) but did not stratify with HLA alleles, haplotypes, or supertypes. There were no significant differences in HLA class II between the

  3. Oral Sensitization to Peanut Is Highly Enhanced by Application of Peanut Extracts to Intact Skin, but Is Prevented when CpG and Cholera Toxin Are Added

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Adel-Patient; Sandrine Ah-Leung; Hervé Bernard; Coralie Durieux-Alexandrenne; Christophe Créminon; Jean-Michel Wal

    2007-01-01

    Background: CpG oligonucleotides might offer an alternative to conventional immunotherapy in preventing and potentially reversing Th2-biased immune deregulation which leads to allergy. However, non-invasive ways of administration, especially in peanut-allergic patients, should be explored. Methods: One hundred micrograms of whole peanut protein extract (PE) alone, or mixed with cholera toxin (CT, 50 ?g) plus CpG (100 ?g) as adjuvant, was

  4. Process Induced Changes in Resveratrol in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is thought to have a variety of beneficial health effects. Fresh peanuts have been found to contain levels up to several ppm. Processing of peanuts for human consumption involves heat from roasting. Mechanical pressure and solvents are used to extract oil to prod...

  5. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  6. Peanut Diseases Atlas. 

    E-print Network

    Horne, Wendell C.

    1974-01-01

    in color. The fungus develops at or very near the soil surface, presumably because of a high oxygen requirement. 23. Black mold of peanuts (fungus Aspergillus niger) This fungal disease-characterized by a black mold growth, may occur on planted seed... be dug instead of pulled, since galls may be dis lodged from the roots. 31. Yellow mold (fungus-Aspergillus ffavus) This fungus produces a toxin called "afla toxin," and infected peanuts are placed in Segre gation III at the buying point. Exact...

  7. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  8. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  9. REGISTRATION OF 'PHILLIPS' PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Phillips’ is a large-seeded Virginia-type peanut (Archis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) cultivar with a high yield of bright fancy pods and the cultivar processing alternate branching pattern, intermediate runner growth habit, medium green foliage, large seeds with tan testa averaging 8...

  10. STORAGE WATER ACTIVITY EFFECT ON OXIDATION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-OLEIC PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts were stored under different water activities and maintained using saturated salt solutions, for 14 wks. Peroxide values, percent moisture, and sensory attributes were determined at 2 wk intervals. Peroxide values increased over time for all treatments. The highest oxidation values were obser...

  11. Flavor development in peanut protein cheese-like products 

    E-print Network

    Bath, Sheila Clare

    1978-01-01

    isolate cheese-like product, and a peanut flour cheese-like product. 5. Proteolysis in a commercially ripened Cheddar cheese, a raw milk control, a peanut protein isolate cheese-like product, and a peanut flour cheese-like product. 14 6. Volatile... into the water. (3) The water mixture was beaten into the peanut protein/oil blend. (4) Salt was mixed into the product when the pH reached 5. 7. (5) The resulting products were covered in paraffin. Table 1--Formulation of experimental peanut protein cheese...

  12. Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

  13. Natural deuterium distribution in fatty acids isolated from peanut seed oil: a site-specific study by quantitative 2H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jia-Rong; Billault, Isabelle; Mabon, Françoise; Robins, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Quantitative (2)H NMR spectroscopy has been used to measure the distribution of deuterium at natural abundance in long-chain fatty acids extracted from the same vegetable oil. Peanut seed oil was selected, due to its suitable oleic and linoleic acid content. The methyl esters of the fatty acids were prepared by transesterification and isolated by modified argentation column chromatography on silica. In order to measure the natural isotopic fractionation of deuterium (D) at the maximum number of positions, the purified methyl oleate and methyl linoleate were chemically cleaved and the (D/H)(i) values determined by quantitative (2)H NMR spectroscopy. It was thus possible to demonstrate that fractionation in deuterium occurs during the desaturation of oleate to linoleate. Furthermore, the previously observed distribution of deuterium at the sites of desaturation is confirmed, as is the alternating pattern of (D/H)(i), which relates to the origin of the pertinent hydrogen atoms. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the kinetic isotopic effects intrinsic to the enzymes-synthetases and desaturases-involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. PMID:12203973

  14. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Liu, Andrew H.; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J.; Stephens, Alick C.; Irwin McLean, W.H.; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Methods Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ?5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. Results There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P < .01). The effect of EPE on peanut SPT sensitization was augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P < .01) and augmented even further in children with a history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P < .01); the effect of EPE on PA was also augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Conclusion Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. PMID:25457149

  15. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  16. Registration of high-oleic peanut germplasm line ARSOK-S1 (TX996784) with enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight and pod rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) germplasm line ARSOK-S1 was developed cooperatively between the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and Oklahoma State University, and was released in 2013. ARSOK-S1 (tested early as TX99678...

  17. Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.) 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

    2013-08-02

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has the potential to become a major source of biodiesel but for market viability, peanut oil yields must increase and specific quality requirements must be met. Oil yield in peanut is influenced by many components...

  18. BREEDING FOR EARLY-MATURING PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of peanut grown in West Texas is affected by a shorter growing season, longer time to maturity, and reduced oleic to linoleic ratios (O/L). We have begun development of material to combine earlier maturity, high O/L, and acceptable sucrose content. F2:6 runner and Spanish peanuts were ...

  19. Effect of Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation in Peanut Cultivars with Different Drought Resistant Levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress is a major constraint of peanut production affecting both quantity and quality of peanut. Under drought stress conditions, nitrogen fixation in peanut is reduced. Varieties that can maintain acceptable yield and high nitrogen fixing ability are required. Peanut genotypes with differen...

  20. In-field Peanut Processing for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The costs and environmental impact for using petroleum-based fuels such as diesel, has triggered considerable interest in the development of sustainable, on-farm biodiesel production systems. Field studies have demonstrated that a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can produce 1138 kg/ha of peanut oil at ...

  1. Peanut Allergens and Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolu...

  2. PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

  3. Burn a Peanut

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown throughout the world as a source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for the genetic improvement of cultivars with quality traits through breeding. In this study, a total of 111 SSR markers with high polymorphic information content (PIC...

  5. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  6. Viscosity of plant oils as a function of temperature, fatty acid chain length, and unsaturation 

    E-print Network

    Neo, Tong Heng

    1988-01-01

    model 55 B3 Residual plot for olive oil from the statistical analyses of the Arrhenius model 56 B4 Residual plot for coconut oil from the statistical analyses of the Arrhenius model 57 B5 Residual plot for almond oil from the statistical analyses... and time. Materials Seven different plant oils were chosen for this study. They were coconut oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, almond oil, olive oil, peanut oil, and high erucic rapeseed oil. Six of these oils were procurred commercially and the seventh...

  7. Graphene oxide: an adsorbent for the extraction and quantification of aflatoxins in peanuts by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiupin

    2013-11-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and specifically selected by centrifugation to extract four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) as an effective adsorbent. Then, the amount of aflatoxins was quantitatively measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency, including the GO amount, methanol concentration in the extraction solvent, spiked amount, extraction time, and elution cycle, were also investigated and optimized in this work. Under optimal conditions, good linear relationships were achieved with the correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.99217 to 0.99995. The detection limit of this method for the four aflatoxins ranged from 0.08 to 0.65ng/g. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to determine aflatoxins in peanut samples. The results show that the recoveries of the four aflatoxins range from 85.1% to 100.8% with the relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 7.9%. PMID:24161148

  8. Peanut Allergy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Peanut allergies have been increasing in prevalence in most industrialized countries. Onset is typically in early childhood, with a trend towards earlier ages of presentation. The allergy is lifelong in most affected children, although 15-22% will outgrow their peanut allergy, usually before their teenage years. Manifestations of peanut allergy range from mild to severe, and risk factors predisposing to severe reactions are discussed. However, even in the absence of risk factors, peanut allergic individuals may still experience life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Approaches to investigation and treatment, patterns of cross-reactivity and possible causes of rising prevalence are discussed. PMID:20525136

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  10. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  11. Functional Components in Peanuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Leonora D. L. Francisco; A. V. A. Resurreccion

    2008-01-01

    Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut

  12. REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

  13. Cooking with Peanut Butter

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    butter is 2 tablespoons. This amount is about the size of a Ping-Pong ball. Uses Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are a favorite with both children and adults. You can also use it to make cookies and bread. Crispy Peanut Squares (makes 2 dozen treats...

  14. Breeding a hypoallergenic peanut.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 700 varieties of peanut, including irradiated mutants, were previously screened to determine if variations could be found in the levels of allergenic proteins, Ara h 1, 2, and 3. Some irradiated peanuts were found to contain mutations resulting in the lack of one of the allergen isofor...

  15. Analyzing the major peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. Boiled, fried, and roasted peanut proteins wer...

  16. Industrial uses of high erucic oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Nieschlag; I. A. Wolff

    1971-01-01

    Vegetable oils rich in erucic acid have desirable properties for a variety of applications. At present, only a fraction of\\u000a the potential that exists for commercial exploitation of high erucic oils in the United States is fulfilled with 10 million\\u000a pounds of rapeseed oil imported annually. Though rape is not a crop in the United States, another member of the

  17. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  18. Redefining the major peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are “major” allergens and allergens of less importance. “Major allergens” have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor Fc?RI (IgE/Fc?RI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/Fc?RI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in loss of potency. Using these criteria, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are the major peanut allergens. PMID:22948807

  19. Exogenous calcium alleviates photoinhibition of PSII by improving the xanthophyll cycle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves during heat stress under high irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca(2+)-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca(2+)-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca(2+) could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca(2+) channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca(2+)/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

  20. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m?2 s?1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

  1. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  2. Production of Virginia Peanuts in the Rolling Plains and Southern High Plains of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Lemon, Robert G.; Lee, Thomas A.

    1995-08-01

    into the pod develop- ment zone (upper 2 to 3 inches of soil). Micronutrients Micronutrients include zinc, iron, manganese, cop- per, boron and molybdenum. Iron, zinc and copper deficiencies have been observed in west Texas. Iron Iron chlorosis problems... sulfate or similar copper-containing materi- als applied at early-bloom correct problem fields. Foliar fungicides containing copper also may correct the problem. Zinc Zinc availability is reduced when soil pH is high. Deficiency symptoms include...

  3. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  4. Effects of processing methods and extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of peanut skin phenolics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe

    2005-01-01

    Peanut skin is a by-product of the peanut industry that has low economic value despite its high content of antioxidants such as phenolics. The effects of three skin removal methods (direct peeling, blanching, and roasting) and extraction solvents (water, ethanol, and methanol) on total phenolics and total antioxidant activities (TAA) of peanut skin extracts were studied, and the composition of

  5. Development of near isogenic peanut lines with and without resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars are available that have high resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood race 1] or spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus (TSWV), however, no cultivars exist that have resistance to both pathogens. The ob...

  6. HIGH MOISTURE PEANUT GRADING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the farmer stock grade, lot weight, and value could be accurately determined at kernel moisture contents greater that 10.5% without negative impact on either the producer or purchaser. In the 1998 and 1999 crop years, 686 farmer stock lots consisting of runner, virg...

  7. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  8. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  9. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022') and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20') were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  10. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  11. High-oleic safflower oil. Stability and chemical modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fuller; M. J. Diamond; T. H. Applewhite

    1967-01-01

    High-oleic acid safflower oil has been shown to have high-temperature oxidative stability comparable with that of hydrogenated\\u000a vegetable oils. This stability, added to the ease of handling at low temperatures, should make the oil attractive as a commercial\\u000a cooking oil. Epoxidation of the new safflower oil led to a product similar to epoxidized olive oil but lighter in color.

  12. Peanut Butter Banana Nuggets Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Peanut Butter Banana Nuggets Ingredients: 1 cup whole wheat natural cereal 2 tablespoons peanut butter, chunky 2 bananas Directions 1. Place cereal in a zippered plastic bag and close zipper. 2. Use and cut bananas into 2" slices. 6. Using a toothpick to pick up bananas, cover bananas in peanut butter

  13. Peanut-Cotton-Rye Rotations and Soil Chemical Treatment for Managing Nematodes and Thrips

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Todd, J. W.; Herzog, G. A.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.; Bondari, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  14. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed: a comparison of two methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  15. A High Speed Oil Diffusion Pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiram W. Edwards

    1935-01-01

    The peculiarities of design in this pump are, the use of streamlines in regions of high pressure and the introduction of small angle conical surfaces for baffles in the regions of lower pressures. The conical baffles are particularly effective in preventing oil vapor from entering the chamber to be evacuated and at the same time in offering a minimum of

  16. MEASURING AIRFLOW DISTRIBUTION IN PEANUT DRYING TRAILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to measure airflow distribution within a filled peanut drying trailer was developed. Six 6.4-m peanut drying wagons were loaded with dry farmer stock peanuts at a local peanut processing facility. Three wagons had floors with 23% O.A. and three had floors with 40% O.A. Peanuts were level...

  17. Preparation and use of partially defatted peanut flour in breakfast cereal flakes 

    E-print Network

    Cheewapramong, Panjama

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated preparation of partially defatted peanut flours by extrusion, screw pressing, and use of the flours in breakfast cereal flakes. Release of oil by wet and dry extrusion was evaluated. Wet extrusion (using an Anderson...

  18. Preparation and use of partially defatted peanut flour in breakfast cereal flakes

    E-print Network

    Cheewapramong, Panjama

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated preparation of partially defatted peanut flours by extrusion, screw pressing, and use of the flours in breakfast cereal flakes. Release of oil by wet and dry extrusion was evaluated. Wet extrusion (using an Anderson...

  19. Registration of 'Georganic' Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Georganic' (Reg. No. , PI ) is a runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) cultivar that was released by the USDA-ARS and the Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations in 2006. It was developed at the University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton...

  20. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about your request for peanut- or nut-free food preparation, don't eat there. Make school lunches and snacks at home where you can control the preparation. Be sure your school knows about your allergy and has an action plan in place for ...

  1. SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION PROCESSING OF HIGH-OIL CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sequential Extraction Process (SEP), a process that uses ethanol to fractionate corn, was evaluated as an approach to recover oil and other co-products from high-oil corn (HOC). Oil and protein recoveries, ethanol-drying capability, and oil and protein properties were compared with those of nor...

  2. Plant Resistance to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol within Peanut Germplasm and Its Wild Relatives in the US Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  3. Nutrient Composition of the Peanut Core of the Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts from the Core Collection designated as the Core of the Core Collection were grown in Tifton, GA in 2005. Amino acids, folic acid and total oil content were determined on the whole seed. Amino acid concentrations were generally close to commonly reported values. Folic acid concentration var...

  4. Examination of chinese wood oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian Toch

    1926-01-01

    Two samples of Chinese wood oil were used (one from J+M.C and the other from M.A.F. Co.). Each of these was adulterated with 5 per cent, 10 per cent; and 15 per cent by weight of the following oils: paraffin oil, soya bean oil, linseed oil, perilla oil, corn oil, menhaden oil, stillingia oil, peanut oil, tea seed oil, tallow

  5. Cooking with Peanut Butter 

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    all-purpose flour ? cup sugar 2 teaspoons baking powder 1 teaspoon salt ? cup peanut butter 1 egg, well beaten 1 cup skim milk... spoon, press the mixture into a buttered pan. Cover and refrigerate it for 30 minutes before cutting it. How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. In a bowl, mix together the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt. 3...

  6. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  7. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 ?/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  8. Allergenic characteristics of a modified peanut allergen.

    PubMed

    King, Nina; Helm, Ricki; Stanley, J Steven; Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, Dirk; Hatahet, Lina; Sampson, Hugh; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley; Bannon, Gary A

    2005-10-01

    Attempts to treat peanut allergy using traditional methods of allergen desensitization are accompanied by a high risk of anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if modifications to the IgE-binding epitopes of a major peanut allergen would result in a safer immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of peanut-allergic patients. IgE-binding epitopes on the Ara h 2 allergen were modified, and modified Ara h 2 (mAra h 2) protein was produced. Wild-type (wAra h 2) and mAra h 2 proteins were analyzed for their ability to interact with T-cells, their ability to bind IgE, and their ability to release mediators from a passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cell line. Multiple T-cell epitopes were identified on the major peanut allergen, Ara h 2. Ara h 2 amino acid regions 11-35, 86-125, and 121-155 contained the majority of peptides that interact with T-cells from most patients. The wAra h 2 and mAra h 2 proteins stimulated proliferation of T-cells from peanut-allergic patients to similar levels. In contrast, the mAra h 2 protein exhibited greatly reduced IgE-binding capacity compared to the wild-type allergen. In addition, the modified allergen released significantly lower amounts of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker for IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 degranulation, compared to the wild-type allergen. PMID:16189800

  9. Fertilization of peanut with selenium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing Selenium (Se) in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plant could benefit human and animal health. Selenium is identified as an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic. In 2006, Se was applied to soil at two locations and four concentrations to determine Se concentration in the peanut plant. Seleni...

  10. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats and oils, choose those with lessLessOfteneOftenChooseMor Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil Corn Oil Olive Oil Soybean Oil Margarine (tub) Peanut Oil Margarine (stick) Cottonseed Oil Chicken Fat Lard Beef Tallow Bacon Grease Palm Oil Butter Coconut

  11. Minor component fatty acids of common vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Kuemmel; Miami Valley

    1964-01-01

    A combination of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and oxidative cleavage on fractions isolated by mercury derivative chromatography\\u000a has shown the presence of previously unreported minor component fatty acids in olive, soybean, cottonseed, corn, peanut, rapeseed\\u000a and safflower oil. All of the oils examined contain small amt of saturated acids above arachidic, some as high as hexacosanoic\\u000a acid.Cis-11-octadecenoic acid was found in

  12. Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

  13. Belonolaimus longicaudatus: An Emerging Pathogen of Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuwa, Kanan; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Drew, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is an economically important ectoparasitic nematode that is highly pathogenic on a wide range of agricultural crops in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Although this species is commonly found in Florida in hardwood forests and as a soilborne pathogen on turfgrasses and numerous agronomic and horticultural crops, it has not been reported infecting peanut. In the summers of 2012 and 2013, sting nematode was found infecting three different peanut cultivars being grown on two separate peanut farms in Levy County, FL. The damage consisted of large irregular patches of stunted, chlorotic plants at both farms. The root systems were severely abbreviated and there were numerous punctate-like isolated lesions observed on pegs and pods of infected plants. Sting nematodes were extracted from soil collected around the roots of diseased peanut over the course of the peanut season at both farm sites. Peanut yield from one of these nematode-infested sites was 64% less than that observed in areas free from sting nematodes. The morphological characters of the nematode populations in these fields were congruous with those of the original and other published descriptions of B. longicaudatus. Moreover, the molecular analyses based on the sequences of D2/D3 expansion fragments of 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA genes from the nematodes further collaborates the identification of the sting nematode isolates as B. longicaudatus. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF963097, KF963098 for ITS, and KF96399, KF963100 for D2-D3). The results of the phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of these isolates from peanut compared with those of other isolates from Florida suggests that the sting nematode from both peanut farms are genetically close to B. longicaudatus populations occurring in the state. Peanut plants inoculated with both nematode isolates showed punctate-like isolated lesions on pods and pegs, and an abbreviation of their root systems, whereas those symptoms were not observed on noninoculated peanut plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of large-scale field damage caused by sting nematode infecting peanut grown under field conditions in Florida.

  14. Peanuts improve blood glutathione, HDL-cholesterol level and change tissue factor activity in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru Emekli-Alturfan; Emel Kasikci; Aysen Yarat

    2007-01-01

    Background  The inverse association of peanut consumption and risk markers of CHD (lipids) has been reported however health professionals\\u000a are still concerned whether hyperlipidemic subjects advised to eat peanuts will have increased serum lipid levels. Tissue\\u000a factor (TF), the major regulator of normal haemostasis and thrombosis, plays a critical role in haemostasis in all tissues.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  To investigate the

  15. CDNA CLONING OF A PUTATIVE PEANUT TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WITH HOMOLOGY TO PEANUT ALLERGENS ARA H 3 AND ARA H 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Peanut allergens and peanut trypsin inhibitors are seed storage proteins. Peanut allergens are known to trigger allergic reactions with symptoms ranging from cutaneous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, systemic to sometimes death. Peanut trypsin inhibitors are pathogenesis-related (PR) pr...

  16. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement...AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls;...

  17. UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING PEANUTS TO DETERMINE FRUITY-FERMENTED OFF FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual peanut kernels may develop a fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor if exposed to elevated temperatures soon after digging. Typically, high moisture, immature peanuts exposed to temperatures above 35ºC either in the windrow or during artificial curing may develop the FF off-flavor. Because of t...

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  19. Meloidogyne javanica Parasitic on Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, E. K.; Khalil, M. A. M.; El-Deeb, A. A.; Powers, T. O.; Starr, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Peanut fields in four governorates of Egypt were surveyed to identify species of Meloidogyne present. Fourteen populations obtained from peanut roots were all identified as M. javanica based on perineal patterns, stylet and body lengths of second-stage juveniles, esterase phenotypes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mtDNA. Three of 14 populations, all from contiguous fields in the Behara governorate, had individuals with a unique two-isozyme esterase phenotype. All populations of M. javanica tested on peanut had levels of reproduction on the M. arenaria-susceptible peanut cultivar Florunner that were not different from M. arenaria (P = 0.05), and had lower levels of reproduction on the M. arenaria-resistant genotype TxAG-7 than on Florunner (P = 0.05). Reproduction of the five Egyptian populations of M. javanica tested was lower on root-knot nematode resistant tomato cultivars Better Boy and Celebrity than on the root-knot nematode susceptible cultivar Rutgers (P = 0.05). These data are evidence that some populations of M. javanica are parasitic on peanut and that the peanut and tomato genotypes resistant to M. arenaria are also resistant to these populations of M. javanica. PMID:19279913

  20. The management of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Clark, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies such as egg and milk. Measures aiming to reduce its prevalence via maternal avoidance during pregnancy and lactation, or delayed introduction into the diet, have failed to show any benefit. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication. Families find avoidance challenging as peanut is hidden in various food products. Despite the fact that food labelling has improved, with a legal obligation to declare certain food allergens (including nuts) in prepacked products, it still causes confusion and does not extend to cross-contamination. In an effort to address issues of safety at school, a lot of work has been undertaken to better care for peanut-allergic children in that environment. This includes training of school staff on how to recognise and treat allergic reactions promptly. Recent developments in the management of peanut allergy, such as immunotherapy, have shown some promise as an active form of treatment, but larger studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. PMID:25157179

  1. Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

  2. REDUCING THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF PEANUT EXTRACTS BY REMOVING PEANUT ALLERGENS WITH PHYTIC ACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People are allergic to peanuts because peanuts contain proteins called allergens. Removing these proteins from a peanut kernel or extract is thought to help reduce or prevent peanut allergy. Phytic acid, which functions as the chief storage form of phosphate and inositol in mature seeds, can chelate...

  3. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  4. High-Frame-Rate Oil Film Interferometry

    E-print Network

    White, Jonathan C; Chen, John

    2010-01-01

    The fluid dynamics video to which this abstract relates contains visualization of the response of a laminar boundary layer to a sudden puff from a small hole. The boundary layer develops on a flat plate in a wind tunnel; the hole is located at a streamwise Reynolds number of 100,000. The visualization of the boundary layer response is accomplished using interferometry of a transparent, thin film of oil placed on the surface immediately downstream of the hole and with its leading edge perpendicular to the direction of flow. Through lubrication theory, it is understood that the rate of change of the spacing of the interference fringes is proportional to the skin friction at any instant. For reference, a small disk-shaped protrusion of the type often used to trip the boundary layer in wind model tunnel testing is also shown. Three cases with different puff strengths are included. Using a high-speed commercial camera, frame rates in excess of 1000/sec have been recorded; the video shown here was taken at 24 frame...

  5. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. ?-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The ? tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD?=?2.65 %) for ? tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil. PMID:25892814

  6. Phenotypic evaluation of the Chinese mini-mini core collection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and assessment for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to utilize the germplasm more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions was developed previously from a collection of 6,839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Resear...

  7. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria,and Other Nematodes and Crop Yields in Rotations of Cotton, Peanut, and Wheat Under Minimum Tillage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Handoo, Z. A.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat, cotton, and peanut were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos (6.7 kg a.i./ha) and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage and irrigation for 6 years. The cropping sequences included a wheat winter cover crop each year and summer crops of cotton every year, peanut every year, or cotton rotated every other year with peanut. The population densities of Meloidogyne spp. and Helicotylenchus dihystera were determined monthly during the experiment. Numbers of M. incognita increased on cotton and decreased on peanut, whereas M. arenaria increased on peanut, and decreased on cotton; both nematode species remained in moderate to high numbers in plots of wheat. Root damage was more severe on cotton than peanut and was not affected by fenamiphos treatment. The H. dihystera population densities were highest in plots with cotton every summer, intermediate in the cotton-peanut rotation, and lowest in plots with peanut every summer. Over all years and cropping sequences, yield increases in fenamiphos treatment over untreated control were 9% for wheat, 8% for cotton, and 0% for peanut. Peanut yields following cotton were generally higher than yields following peanut. These results show that nematode problems may be manageable in cotton and peanut production under conservation tillage and irrigation in the southeastern United States. PMID:19270949

  8. A Simple Allele-Specific PCR Assay for Detecting FAD2 Alleles in Both A and B Genomes of the Cultivated Peanut for High-Oleate Trait Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenbang Chen; Ming Li Wang; Noelle A. Barkley; Roy N. Pittman

    2010-01-01

    In cultivated tetraploid peanut (2n = 4x = 40, AABB), the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid is mainly catalyzed by the ?12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD). Two homoeologous genes (FAD2A and FAD2B) encoding for the desaturase are located on the A and B genomes, respectively. Abolishing or reducing the desaturase activity\\u000a by gene mutation can significantly increase the

  9. Resistance to Ditylenchus africanus present in peanut breeding lines

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald, Alexander H.; de Waele, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Peanut is an important cash crop both for commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa. The effect of Ditylenchus africanus on peanut is mainly qualitative, leading to downgrading of consignments. This nematode is difficult to control because of its high reproductive and damage potential. The objective of this study was to identify peanut genotypes with resistance to D. africanus that would also be sustainable under field conditions. Selected peanut genotypes were evaluated against D. africanus in microplot and field trials. The inbred lines PC254K1 and CG7 were confirmed to be resistant to D. africanus. The resistance expressed by these two genotypes was sustainable under field conditions. The breeding line PC287K5 maintained low nematode numbers in some trials, but its level of resistance was not as strong or as sustainable as that of PC254K1 or CG7. However, PC287K5 could still play an important role in the peanut industry where lower D. africanus populations occur. PMID:22736852

  10. High pressure extraction of oil seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Eggers; U. Sievers; W. Stein

    1985-01-01

    For calculation of phase equilibria of the system seed oil\\/CO2, an equation of state published in the literature has been fitted to experimental data of that system. The results thus obtained\\u000a are of only limited use in designing a supercritical extraction process. The experimental investigation of the mass transfer\\u000a kinetics is much more significant. Mechanical processing of the oil seed’s

  11. Transcript profiling of developing peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate regulatory processes and mechanisms underlying the development of peanut seeds, 8 x 15k microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of a runner peanut genotype. Developing peanut pods from six development stages corresponding R2 through R8 stages were profiled. Sever...

  12. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN PEANUT PLANT PARTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 60% of peanut plant biomass remains after peanut pods are harvested. This biomass includes leaves, roots and testa. Freeze dried peanut plant leaves and roots, as well as oven blanched skins were analyzed for total phenolic compound concentation by the Folin Ciocalteu method and reported...

  13. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  14. Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

  15. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European Union. PMID:23802714

  16. Peanut peg strength and post harvest pod scavenging for full phenotypic yield over digging date and variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New peanut cultivars are available with very high yield potential and high levels of disease resistance. With rising input costs and shrinking return margins, all efforts must be made to harvest the full yield produced. Peanut crops are susceptible to high levels of pod loss during digging from a ...

  17. Oil prices are still too high

    SciTech Connect

    Tussing, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Despite logical premises than the constant-dollar price of oil will surpass and sustain all-time peaks, there is empirical evidence that the Malthus-Hotelling vision does not describe what really happens to production, consumption, and prices of natural resource commodities. Neither oil nor any important internationally traded commodity has ever shown a sustained upward price trend lasting more than a couple of decades. The payoff is just beginning on the investments, both in hardware and in sophistication, that society made over the last decade to conserve energy. The buyer's market in crude oil should continue for a number of years because these investments are reducing demand, making demand more flexible, and making supply more competitive.

  18. High seas oil containment barrier mooring system. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bitting

    1975-01-01

    The mooring system was designed, fabricated and tested to moor the Air Deployable Lightweight High Seas Oil Containment Barrier, a component of the U.S. Coast Guard's High Seas Oil Spill Response System. The key criteria to which the mooring system was built are: (1) deliverable by HH-3 helicopter, (2) holding capacity of 8,500 pounds with 1,000 pound nominal load, (3)

  19. Oxidative stability of high oleic sunflower and safflower oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Purdy; V. Paganuzzi; E. Leoni

    1985-01-01

    High oleic sunflower seed progenies derived from normal seed by chemical mutagenesis were extracted and their oils refined\\u000a by standard laboratory procedures. Oxidative stability was related directly to linoleic acid content with an AOM value of\\u000a 100 hr obtained at 1% linoleate. Data is presented comparing linoleate concentration and oxidative stability of oils obtained\\u000a from normal sunflower seed and high

  20. FIRST REPORT OF PEANUT MOTTLE VIRUS (PMV) IN RHIZOMA PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

  1. HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

  2. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  3. The effect of cooking methods on the allergenicity of peanut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Jun Cong; Fei Lou; Wen-Tong Xue; Lin-Feng Li; Jing Wang; Hui Zhang

    2007-01-01

    It has been rarely studied why the prevalence of peanut allergy is relative low in China. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the major peanut allergens in China, (ii) the effect of buffer composition on peanut allergens extraction efficiency, and (iii) the effect of cooking methods on peanut allergenicity. The allergenic property of peanut protein extracts was

  4. Considerations for marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. Thes...

  5. Effects of deficit irrigation and temperature stress on peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particularly in the Ogallala Region of Texas and New Mexico, efficient production relies upon the peanut crop’s ability to yield under decreased water availability and oftentimes critical heat stress. The dry climate (approximately 450 mm rainfall per annum) necessitates high expenditures on irriga...

  6. Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

  7. Yield and Economic Responses of Peanut to Crop Rotation Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  8. RNAi control of aflatoxins in peanut plants, a multifactorial system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut plants is a multifactorial and hyper variable system. The use of RNAi biotechnology to silence single genes in plants has inherently high-variability among transgenic events. Also the level of expression of small interfe...

  9. STRIP TILLAGE SYSTEMS FOR PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining surface residue combined with higher production costs have renewed interest in conservation tillage systems for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. Our study was designed to compare surface residue cover, yields, and sound mature kernels (SMK) following two strip tillage systems (na...

  10. High-pressure viscosity measurement of fatty acids and oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Schaschke; S. Abid; M. J. Heslop

    2007-01-01

    The viscosities of olive oil and its constituent fatty acids were measured using a falling sinker-type high-pressure viscometer. The viscometer consists of a titanium cylindrical sinker with ferrite core and descends concentrically under the influence of gravity through a close-fitting titanium tube. The movement of the sinker was detected by electrical induction through coils surrounding the tube. For the oil

  11. ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

  12. Peanut allergy: Effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Simpson, Angela; Makinson, Kerry; Hankinson, Jenny; Brown, Sara; Douiri, Abdel; Belgrave, Danielle C.M.; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Turcanu, Victor; Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Custovic, Adnan; Lack, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations lead to an impaired skin barrier associated with peanut allergy. Household peanut consumption is associated with peanut allergy, and peanut allergen in household dust correlates with household peanut consumption. Objective We sought to determine whether environmental peanut exposure increases the odds of peanut allergy and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. Methods Exposure to peanut antigen in dust within the first year of life was measured in a population-based birth cohort. Peanut sensitization and peanut allergy (defined by using oral food challenges or component-resolved diagnostics [CRD]) were assessed at 8 and 11 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. Results After adjustment for infantile atopic dermatitis and preceding egg skin prick test (SPT) sensitization, we found a strong and significant interaction between natural log (ln [loge]) peanut dust levels and FLG mutations on peanut sensitization and peanut allergy. Among children with FLG mutations, for each ln unit increase in the house dust peanut protein level, there was a more than 6-fold increased odds of peanut SPT sensitization, CRD sensitization, or both in children at ages 8 years, 11 years, or both and a greater than 3-fold increased odds of peanut allergy compared with odds seen in children with wild-type FLG. There was no significant effect of exposure in children without FLG mutations. In children carrying an FLG mutation, the threshold level for peanut SPT sensitization was 0.92 ?g of peanut protein per gram (95% CI, 0.70-1.22 ?g/g), that for CRD sensitization was 1.03 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.90-1.82 ?g/g), and that for peanut allergy was 1.17 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.01-163.83 ?g/g). Conclusion Early-life environmental peanut exposure is associated with an increased risk of peanut sensitization and allergy in children who carry an FLG mutation. These data support the hypothesis that peanut allergy develops through transcutaneous sensitization in children with an impaired skin barrier. PMID:25282568

  13. Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT

    PubMed Central

    Rahmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis for assessment of the ecological significance of maize and peanut intercropping.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongchun; Shen, Hongyun; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Yanxiang; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Ji, Chunqiao; Zhong, Lina; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2013-01-14

    Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Peanut/maize intercropping is known to improve the iron (Fe) content of peanuts in calcareous soils. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to uncover the ecological significance of peanut/maize intercropping at the molecular level. We demonstrate that photosynthesis-related proteins accumulated in intercropped peanut leaves, suggesting that the intercropped peanuts had a stronger photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, stress-response proteins displayed elevated expression levels in both peanut and maize in a monocropping system. This indicated that intercropping contributes to resistance to stress conditions. Allene oxide synthase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, two key enzymes in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, increased in abundance in the maize roots of the intercropping system, consistent with the upregulation of JA-induced proteins shown by microarray analysis. These results imply that JA may act as a signaling molecule, playing an important role in intercropping through rhizosphere interaction. This study suggests that peanut/maize intercropping results in high Fe availability in the rhizosphere, leading to variation in the proteins related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The advantages of intercropping systems may improve the ecological adaptation of plants to environmental stress. PMID:23103225

  15. Effects of Highly Consumed Dietary Oils on Several Hepatic Transaminases and Lipid Oxidation in Chick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Yöntem; Serdar Ergün; Azmi Yerlikaya; ? dris Mehmeto? lu; Recep Gökce; Süleyman Kaleli

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease is well correlated with diets high in saturated fatty acids (such as butter). On the other hand, oils, which are rich in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., sunflower oil and corn oils), reduce cholesterol synthesis and thus show protective effects against arteriosclerosis. However, sunflower oil and corn oil are also considered as risk factors for their

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery in High Salinity High Temperature Reservoir by Chemical Flooding

    E-print Network

    Bataweel, Mohammed Abdullah

    2012-02-14

    for chemical flooding operating in high temperatures tend to precipitate when exposed to high concentrations of divalent cations and will partition to the oil phase at high salinities. In this study amphoteric surfactant was used to replace the traditionally...

  17. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  18. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  19. The Peanut Plant and Light: Spermidines from Peanut Flowers and Studies of their Photoisomerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  20. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

  1. Determination of moisture in peanut butter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Pepper; A. F. Freeman

    1953-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion  The moisture and volatile content of whole peanuts has been determined by A.O.C.S. Official Method Ab 2-49 and has been compared\\u000a with the moisture content of the sliced peanuts determined by a toluene distillation procedure described by Tryon (5). For\\u000a practical purposes the results obtained by these methods are in agreement.\\u000a \\u000a Moisture of peanut butter has been determined

  2. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed. PMID:25442612

  3. Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Recombinant Peanut Allergens in Patients with Reported Reactions to Peanut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Movérare; Staffan Ahlstedt; Ulf Bengtsson; Magnus P. Borres; Marianne van Hage; Maryam Poorafshar; Sigrid Sjölander; Johanna Åkerström; Jenny van Odijk

    2011-01-01

    Background: Peanut may cause severe reactions in allergic individuals. The objective was to evaluate IgE antibodies to various recombinant (r) peanut and birch pollen allergens in relation to IgE levels to whole peanut extract and severe allergic reactions to peanut. Methods: Seventy-four Swedish peanut-allergic patients (age: 14–61 years) reported previous peanut exposure and associated symptoms using a questionnaire. Their IgE

  4. Relationship between Meloidogyne arenaria and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Wilson, D. M.; Holbrook, C. C.; Maw, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Damaged and developing kernels of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are susceptible to colonization by fungi in the Aspergillus flavus group which, under certain conditions, produces aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our objective was to determine whether infection of peanut roots and pods by Meloidogyne arenaria increases aflatoxin contamination of the kernels when peanut is subjected to drought stress. The experiment was a completely randomized 2-x-2 factorial with 6 replicates/treatment. The treatment factors were nematodes (plus and minus M. arenaria) and fungus (plus and minus A. flavus inoculum). The experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in microplots under an automatic rain-out shelter. In treatments where A. flavus inoculum was added, aflatoxin concentrations were high (> 1,000 ppb) and not affected by nematode infection; in treatments without added fungal inoculum, aflatoxin concentrations were greater (P ? 0.05) in kernels from nematode-infected plants (1,190 ppb) than in kernels from uninfected plants (79 ppb). There was also an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.83 in 2001, r² = 0.43 in 2002; P ? 0.04). Colonization of kernels by A. flavus increased with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.18; P = 0.04) in 2001 but not in 2002. Root-knot nematodes may have a greater role in enhancing aflatoxin contamination of peanut when conditions are not optimal for growth and aflatoxin production by fungi in the A. flavus group. PMID:19262803

  5. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M S; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M V C; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H L; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the 'reference set' of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15-20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (p value > 2.1 × 10-6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81-90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  6. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K?=?3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  7. Meloidogyne javanica on Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cetintas, R.; Lima, R. D.; Mendes, M. L.; Brito, J. A.; Dickson, D. W.

    2003-01-01

    A mixed population of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and M. javanica race 3 is reported on peanut from a field in Levy County, Florida. Confirmation of M. javanica on peanut is based on esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns resolved on polyacrylamide slab gels following electrophoresis, and perineal patterns. Up to 29% of 290 individual females collected from peanut roots in the field in autumn 2002 showed a typical esterase J3 phenotype for M. javanica. This is the third report of M. javanica infecting peanut in the United States. PMID:19262776

  8. Peanut–Induced Anaphylactic Reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wesley Burks; Gary A. Bannon; Scott Sicherer; Hugh A. Sampson

    1999-01-01

    Food allergies, particularly to peanuts, are a common cause of anaphylaxis. Approximately 125 people die each year in the USA secondary to food–induced anaphylaxis. Clinical anaphylaxis is a syndrome of diverse etiology and dramatic presentation of symptoms associated with the classic features of type I, IgE–mediated hypersensitivity [1]. Typically the term anaphylaxis connotes an immunologically–mediated event that occurs after exposure

  9. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambuleac, Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  10. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and Its Lipation Product 2-Pentylpyrrole Lysine (2-PPL) in Peanuts.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Martin; Kaden, Diana; Henle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    After synthesis of a deuterated 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) standard, the formation of 4-HNE during heating of peanut oil and whole peanuts, respectively, was measured by GC-MS. Whereas a significant increase in 4-HNE levels was observed for peanut oil, the amount of 4-HNE decreased when whole peanuts were roasted due to lipation reactions with amino acid side chains of the proteins. The ?-amino group of lysine was identified as the favored reaction partner of 4-HNE. After heating N(?)-acetyl-l-lysine and 4-HNE, a Schiff base, a novel pyridinium derivative, a 2-pentylpyrrol derivative and, following reduction and hydrolysis, a reduced, cyclized Michael adduct were identified. 2-Amino-6-(2-pentyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexanoic acid (2-PPL) was synthesized and quantitated in peanut proteins, which had been incubated with various amounts of 4-HNE by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysis. At low 4-HNE concentrations the modification of lysine could be entirely explained by the formation of 2-PPL. Additionally, 2-PPL was quantified for the first time in peanut samples, and an increase depending on the roasting time was observed. 2-PPL represents a suitable marker to evaluate the extent of food protein lipation by 4-HNE. PMID:25945920

  11. Peanut sensitisation and allergy: influence of early life exposure to peanuts.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rachel L; Miles, Lisa M; Lunn, Joanne; Devereux, Graham; Dearman, Rebecca J; Strid, Jessica; Buttriss, Judith L

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the influence of early life exposure (maternal and childhood) to peanuts and the subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts during childhood. Studies were identified using electronic databases and bibliography searches. Studies that assessed the impact of non-avoidance compared with avoidance or reduced quantities of peanuts or peanut products on either sensitisation or allergy to peanuts, or both outcomes, were eligible. Six human studies were identified: two randomised controlled trials, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies. In addition, published animal and mechanistic studies, relevant to the question of whether early life exposure to peanuts affects the subsequent development of peanut sensitisation, were reviewed narratively. Overall, the evidence reviewed was heterogeneous, and was limited in quality, for example, through lack of adjustment for potentially confounding factors. The nature of the evidence has therefore hindered the development of definitive conclusions. The systematic review of human studies and narrative expert-led reviews of animal studies do not provide clear evidence to suggest that either maternal exposure, or early or delayed introduction of peanuts in the diets of children, has an impact upon subsequent development of sensitisation or allergy to peanuts. Results from some animal studies (and limited evidence from human subjects) suggest that the dose of peanuts is an important mediator of peanut sensitisation and tolerance; low doses tend to lead to sensitisation and higher doses tend to lead to tolerance. PMID:20100372

  12. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  13. The theory of high-speed oil diffusion pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Riddiford; R. F. Coe

    1954-01-01

    The importance of vapour density in the jets of high-speed oil diffusion pumps is stressed. It may be low, firstly, on account of the pressure gradient in the tower up which the vapour is fed from the base of the pump, and secondly, because of the radial spreading of the jet after it leaves the tower. By means of a

  14. Effects of ?-Tocopherol on Oxidative Stability and Phytosterol Oxidation During Heating in Some Regular and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elham Tabee; Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi; Margaretha Jägerstad; Paresh C. Dutta

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study evaluated oxidative stability in high-oleic rapeseed oil, palm olein, refined olive oil, low\\u000a erucic acid rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. The results showed oxidative stability in the order: palm olein > high-oleic rapeseed\\u000a oil > refined olive oil > low erucic acid rapeseed oil > sunflower oil, as determined by the Rancimat method. Addition of\\u000a ?-tocopherol at high levels of up to

  15. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  16. PLANTING PATTERNS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at NPRL. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relationships. A diamond-pattern seed placement usua...

  17. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  18. [Competent treatment also in "surgical peanuts"!].

    PubMed

    Heim, Dominik; Gujer, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Ankle sprains, burns, cuts and lacerated wounds, ingrowing toenail - topics, that are common in the general practitioner's office. Just peanuts? If they are correctly treated, yes, maybe. But if poorly diagnosed and badly treated they turn out to be troublesome for the patient and the doctor - a real "pain in the neck"! Therefore competent treatment is mandatory, also for these "peanuts"! PMID:25533256

  19. Control and prevention of mycotoxins in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins that contaminate peanuts are essentially restricted to the aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), produced by A. flavus. Most methods currently in use to control mycotoxins in peanuts seek to remove individually contaminated kernels fr...

  20. Population structure and marker-trait association analysis of the US peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Sukumaran, Sivakumar; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Chen, Charles Y; Guo, Baozhu; Pittman, Roy N; Stalker, H Thomas; Holbrook, C Corley; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

    2011-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. To efficiently utilize the germplasm collection, a peanut mini-core containing 112 accessions was established in the United States. To determine the population structure and its impact on marker-trait association, this mini-core collection was assessed by genotyping 94 accessions with 81 SSR markers and two functional SNP markers from fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2). Seed quality traits (including oil content, fatty acid composition, flavonoids, and resveratrol) were obtained through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis identified four major subpopulations that are related to four botanical varieties. Model comparison with different levels of population structure and kinship control was conducted for each trait and association analyses with the selected models verified that the functional SNP from the FAD2A gene is significantly associated with oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio across this diverse collection. Even though the allele distribution of FAD2A was structured among the four subpopulations, the effect of FAD2A gene remained significant after controlling population structure and had a likelihood-ratio-based R ( 2 ) (R ( LR ) ( 2 ) ) value of 0.05 (oleic acid), 0.09 (linoleic acid), and 0.07 (O/L ratio) because the FAD2A alleles were not completely fixed within subpopulations. Our genetic analysis demonstrated that this peanut mini-core panel is suitable for association mapping. Phenotypic characterization for seed quality traits and association testing of the functional SNP from FAD2A gene provided information for further breeding and genetic research. PMID:21822942

  1. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  2. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  3. Performance of Equipment for In-field Peanut Shelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs included in growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for the edible market. These processes are cost-prohibitive when producing peanuts for biodiesel. Shelling peanuts during harvest would significantly reduc...

  4. Frying quality and oxidative stability of high-oleic corn oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Warner; S. Knowlton

    1997-01-01

    To determine the frying stability of corn oils that are genetically modified to contain 65% oleic acid, high-oleic corn oil\\u000a was evaluated in room odor tests and by total polar compound analysis. Flavor characteristics of french-fried potatoes, prepared\\u000a in the oil, were also evaluated by trained analytical sensory panelists. In comparison to normal corn oil, hydrogenated corn\\u000a oil and high-oleic

  5. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  6. High cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil but not olive oil stimulates lipid peroxidation in plasma, liver, and aorta of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin Bulur; Gül Özdemirler; Büge Öz; Gülçin Toker; Muzaffer Öztürk; Müjdat Uysal

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effect of a high cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil or olive oil on plasma, liver, and aorta lipid peroxidation, rats were fed a basal diet, a high cholesterol diet (basal diet containing 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid), or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 10% (wtwt) sunflower seed oil or 10% (wtwt) olive oil

  7. Comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in thermally processed peanuts and in pure form

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...

  8. Procedure for evaluating susceptibility of motor oils to high temperature oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kozhekin; V. N. Bauman; A. N. Ershova

    1984-01-01

    This article proposes a laboratory method for the evaluation of the thickening tendencies (viscosity increase) of motor oils. The high viscosity of used oil results from the accumulation of soluble and insoluble products from oil oxidation and fuel combustion. The influence of oxidative processes on viscosity increase is indicated by the sharp increase in the motor oil's content of sludge,

  9. Efficient emulsification of viscous oils at high drop volume fraction.

    PubMed

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Lesov, Ivan; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D; Judat, Sonja; Engel, Robert; Danner, Thomas

    2011-12-20

    It is shown experimentally in this study that the increase of drop volume fraction can be used as an efficient tool for emulsification of viscous oils in turbulent flow. In a systematic series of experiments, the effects of drop volume fraction and viscosity of the dispersed phase on the mean, d(32), and maximum, d(V95), diameters of the drops, formed during emulsification, are quantified. The volume fraction, ?, of the dispersed oily phase is varied between 1% and 90%, and oils with viscosity varying between 3 and 10,000 mPa.s are studied. All experiments are performed at sufficiently high surfactant concentration, as to avoid possible drop-drop coalescence during emulsification. The analysis of the experimental data shows that there is a threshold drop volume fraction, ?(TR), at which a transition from inertial turbulent regime into viscous turbulent regime of emulsification occurs, due to the increased overall viscosity of the emulsion. At ? < ?(TR), d(32) and d(V95) depend weakly on ? and are well described by known theoretical expression for emulsification in inertial turbulent regime (Davies, Chem. Eng. Sci. 1985, 40, 839), which accounts for the effects of oil viscosity and interfacial tension. At ? > ?(TR), both d(32) and polydispersity of the formed emulsions decrease very significantly with the increase of ? (for the oils with ?(D) > 10 mPa.s). Thus, very efficient emulsification of the viscous oils is realized. Very surprisingly, a third regime of emulsification is observed in the range of concentrated emulsions with ? > 75%, where the mean drop size and emulsion polydispersity are found experimentally to be very similar for all oils and surfactants studied-an experimental fact that does not comply with any of the existing models of drop breakup during emulsification. Possible mechanistic explanations of this result are discussed. The experimental data for semiconcentrated and concentrated emulsions with ? > ?(TR) are described by a simple scaling expression, which accounts for the effects of all main factors studied. PMID:22054022

  10. Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidation and Tocopherols Decrease in In-Shell, Peeled and Blanched Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. ?-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops. PMID:22489128

  11. Gamma radiation induced oxidation and tocopherols decrease in in-shell, peeled and blanched peanuts.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. ?-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops. PMID:22489128

  12. New high temperature insulation for oil-filled transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marty Fox; Thomas Golner

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, oil-filled transformers have utilized densified cellulose paper as the primary conductor insulation. However, cellulosic insulation is a relatively low temperature material and thermal degradation due to overload conditions and\\/or long-term aging can led to transformer failures. Materials with better thermal capabilities than cellulosic paper have been evaluated with varying results. For example, calendared aramid paper exhibits excellent high temperature

  13. An economic study of the peanut industry

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, Charlie Smith

    1949-01-01

    . It was grown there long before the discovery of the Americas. The Inc a Indians, of what is now Peru, were growing the peanut as a domestic crop 2when the first explorers examined their civilization. Modern excavations at Ancon, Peru., reveal that the peanut... for home use and as a garden herb. The peanut has spread from Virginia over the United States in about the last seventy-five years. Prior to the Civil War it was not generally known in other sections. The fact that both armies, during the Civil War...

  14. Essential oils with high antimicrobial activity for therapeutic use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Williams; J. K. Stockley; W. Yan; V. N. Home

    1998-01-01

    After a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Australian tea tree oil, Australian lavender, New Zealand manuka, lemongrass oil, and eucalyptus oil it was found that the relative antimicrobial activity varied depending upon the microorganism under test.Lavender has useful antimicrobial properties and a product was formulated containing a combination of tea tree oil and lavender for

  15. Heater decomposes oil backstreaming from high-vacuum pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, H.

    1965-01-01

    Heater placed between an oil diffusion pump and a vacuum chamber prevents backstreaming of oil molecules into the work area of the chamber. It breaks the oil molecules into basic constituents that can be pumped away.

  16. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  17. The molecular basis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Maleki, Soheila J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that similar short peptide sequences among unrelated peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  18. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...peanuts which have not been shelled, crushed, cleaned or otherwise changed (except for removal of foreign material, loose shelled kernels, and excess moisture) from the form in which customarily marketed by producers. (b) Segregation...

  19. Possible mechanisms for the differential effects of high linoleate safflower oil and high ?-linolenate perilla oil diets on platelet-activating factor production by rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Oh-hashi; Tetsuya Takahashi; Shiro Watanabe; Tetsuyuki Kobayashi; Harumi Okuyama

    1997-01-01

    As compared with high dietary linoleate safflower oil, high dietary ?-linolenate perilla oil decreased platelet-activating factor (PAF) production by nearly half in calcium ionophore (CaI)-stimulated rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). In the CaI-stimulated PMN from the perilla oil group, the accumulated amount of arachidonate (AA) plus eicosapentaenoate (EPA) was 30% less and that of lyso-PAF was 50% less, indicating that the

  20. Sustained unresponsiveness to peanut in subjects who have completed peanut oral immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Kulis, Michael; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Berglund, Jelena P.; Burk, Caitlin; Hiegel, Anne; Carlisle, Suzanna; Christie, Lynn; Perry, Tamara T.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Sheikh, Saira; Virkud, Yamini; Smith, P. Brian; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Durham, Stephen R.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Background Although peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been conclusively shown to cause desensitization, it is currently unknown whether clinical protection persists after stopping therapy. Objective Our primary objective was to determine whether peanut OIT can induce sustained unresponsiveness following withdrawal of OIT. Methods We conducted a pilot clinical trial of peanut OIT at two U.S. centers. Subjects aged 1–16 were recruited and treated for up to five years with peanut OIT. The protocol was modified over time to permit dose increases to a maximum of 4000 mg peanut protein/day. Blood was collected at multiple time points. Clinical endpoints were measured with 5000 mg double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges once specific criteria were met. Results Of the 39 subjects originally enrolled, 24 completed the protocol and had evaluable outcomes. 12/24 (50%) successfully passed a challenge one month after stopping OIT and achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Peanut was added to the diet. At baseline and the time of challenge, such subjects had smaller skin tests as well as lower IgE levels specific for peanut, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2, and lower ratios of peanut-specific:total IgE, compared to subjects not passing. There were no differences in peanut IgG4 levels or functional activity at end-of-study. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of sustained unresponsiveness after peanut OIT, occurring in half of subjects treated up to five years. OIT favorably modified the peanut-specific immune response in all subjects completing the protocol. Smaller skin tests and lower allergen-specific IgE levels were predictive of successful outcome. PMID:24361082

  1. Testing Falling Peanut Butter Sandwich Myth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    In this activity related to rotational inertia (page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a bit of scientific experimenting to test if open-faced peanut butter sandwiches really do always land peanut butter side down. Learners will also test other variables, such as drop height, size of bread slice, and whatever else learners can think of, to arrive at some sound conclusions. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Microgravity.

  2. Circuits and signal conditioning for a peanut-drying monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-harvest processes at peanut buying points and other peanut grading facilities have a direct impact on the quality of the product. Peanut drying is an essential task for safe peanut storage. The rate at which peanuts are dried can also affect the flavor and milling qualities. Current peanut dryi...

  3. Controlled evaluation of fat intake in the Mediterranean diet: comparative activities of olive oil and corn oil on plasma lipids and platelets in high-risk patients13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare R Sirtori; Elena Tremoli; Ennio Gatti; Guido Montanan; Marina Sirtori; Susanna Coii; Gemma Gianfranceschi; Paola Maderna; Cinzia Zucchi Dentone; Giulio Testolin; Claudio Gaii

    Activities of low-fat diets with olive oil or corn oil on lipids and platelets were studied in 23 middle-aged patients with high atherosclerosis risk for 8 wk. The olive oil diet had a polyunsaturated-saturated ratio of 0.33 vs 1.28 for the corn oil diet. Plasma total cholesterol was reduced with corn oil, but high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower with

  4. Development of ultra-high erucic acid oil in the industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; van Loo, Eibertus N; Gruber, Jens; Fan, Jing; Guan, Rui; Frentzen, Margrit; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2012-09-01

    Erucic acid (22 : 1) is a major feedstock for the oleochemical industry. In this study, a gene stacking strategy was employed to develop transgenic Crambe abyssinica lines with increased 22 : 1 levels. Through integration of the LdLPAAT, BnFAE1 and CaFAD2-RNAi genes into the crambe genome, confirmed by Southern blot and qRT-PCR, the average levels of 18 : 1, 18 : 2 and 18 : 3 were markedly decreased and that of 22 : 1 was increased from 60% in the wild type to 73% in the best transgenic line of T4 generation. In single seeds of the same line, the 22 : 1 level could reach 76.9%, an increase of 28.0% over the wild type. The trierucin amount was positively correlated to 22 : 1 in the transgenic lines. Unlike high erucic rapeseed, the wild-type crambe contains 22 : 1 in the seed phosphatidylcholine and in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (5% and 8%, respectively). The transgenic line with high 22 : 1 had decreased 22 : 1 level in phosphatidylcholine, and this was negatively correlated with the 22 : 1 level at the sn-2 position of TAG. The significances of this study include (i) achieving an unprecedented level of 22 : 1 in an oil crop; (ii) disclosing mechanisms in the channelling of a triacylglycerol-specific unusual fatty acid in oil seeds; (iii) indicating potential limiting factors involved in the erucic acid biosynthesis and paving the way for further increase of this acid and (iv) development of an added value genetically modified oil crop having no risk of gene flow into feed and food crops. PMID:22642539

  5. SOY IMMUNOTHERAPY FOR PEANUT-ALLERGIC MICE: MODULATION OF THE PEANUT-ALLERGIC RESPONSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is an effective therapeutic modality to prevent further anaphylactic episodes in patients with insect sting hypersensitivity and is being investigated for peanut allergy. So far, peanut-specific IT has been unsuccessful because of the side effects of ...

  6. Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

  7. Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

  8. Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

    2008-01-01

    Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

  9. Study on the fatty acid composition during germination of peanuts treated with growth regulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Vyas; K. C. Patel; R. D. Patel

    1969-01-01

    The fatty acid metabolism during germination of a special variety of peanuts treated with growth regulators, viz., GA, AA,\\u000a Suc, Sul, MH and DW have been studied in sterile media for 1, 3, 6, 10, 14 and 18 days. No marked variation in the oil content\\u000a of the control and the treated seeds is found during the initial period of

  10. Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

  11. Beyond Biodiesel Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    on straight veg- etable oil." Rudolf Diesel's first engine ran on peanut oil at the World Exhibition in Paris in agriculture and for the environ- ment. But he died before his vision of vegetable-oil powered engines became20 Beyond Biodiesel ­ Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) The green tree has many branches

  12. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for efficient FA production in E. coli. PMID:23593473

  13. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    PubMed

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides. PMID:21080075

  14. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...threshed peanuts produced in the United States which have not been changed (except for removal of foreign material, loose shelled kernels and excess moisture) from the condition in which picked or threshed peanuts are customarily marketed by...

  15. Myocardial Alteration in Rats Fed Rapeseed Oils Containing High or Low Levels of Erucic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Beare-Rogers; E. A. Nera; H. A. Heggtveit

    1974-01-01

    Mature male rats fed rapeseed oil for 16 weeks had a higher incidence of cardiac lesions than did control rats fed a mixture of lard and corn oil. Both high-erucic and low-erucic rapeseed oils were associated with cardiac necrosis and fibrosis. A dose response in the incidence of such lesions was obtained after 16 weeks of feeding various levels of

  16. A Real-Time Decision Support System for High Cost Oil-Well Drilling Operations

    E-print Network

    Aamodt, Agnar

    A Real-Time Decision Support System for High Cost Oil-Well Drilling Operations Odd Erik Gundersen In this paper we present DrillEdge - a commercial and award winning software system that monitors oil that provides real-time deci- sion support when drilling oil wells. Decisions are supported through analyzing

  17. Characterization of high-boiling sludge waxes from underground crude oil storage reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Thomson; R. D. Grigsby; D. A. Doughty; P. W. Woodward; H. N. Giles

    1989-01-01

    Long term strategic storage of crude oil in underground salt domes is currently practiced in the US, Germany, and France. Crude oil stored in this manner frequently produces a bottom sludge layer, typically less than 0.5% of the volume of crude oil stored. This sludge has been reported to consist of sediment, water, and high molecular weight normal alkanes. A

  18. Analyses of Vegetable Oil Triacylglycerols by Silver Ion High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Neff; R. O. Adlof; G. R. List; M. El-Agaimy

    1994-01-01

    Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography with a commercially available column with a simple isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile in hexane and flame ionization detection was employed to separate and quantitate triacylglycerol species of vegetable oils. Coconut, palm, cottonseed, olive, safflower, sunflower, corn, pumpkinseed, linseed, soybean, and canola oils were analyzed, as well as randomized corn and soybean oils, and

  19. High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: Differential effects of dietary oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Ikemoto; Mayumi Takahashi; Nobuyo Tsunoda; Kayo Maruyama; Hiroshige Itakura; Osamu Ezaki

    1996-01-01

    Mice fed a high-fat diet develop hyperglycemia and obesity. Using non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice, we investigated the effects of seven different dietary oils on glucose metabolism: palm oil, which contains mainly 45% palmitic acid (16:0) and 40% oleic acid (18:1); lard oil, 24% palmitic and 44% oleic acid; rapeseed oil, 59% oleic and 20% linoleic acid (18:2); soybean

  20. Efficacy of entomopathogenic Steinernema and Heterorhabditis nematodes against white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in peanut fields.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Yan, X; Zhao, C; Han, R

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against the white grub Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields was evaluated. In the first experiment with a high initial white grub population (24.65 +/- 2.44 larvae per m2) in the field, Steinernema longicaudum X-7 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 at 10,000 and 5,000 infective juveniles (IJs) per plant contributed to significantly higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae, lower percentage of the injured legume, and higher peanut yield compared with chlorpyrifos and other treatments. The peanut yields harvested from the plots treated with EPNs at 5,000 IJs per plant were at least 70% higher than that from the untreated control (water) and at least 30% higher than that from chlorpyrifos-treated plots. In the second experiment with a low initial white grub population (8.07 +/- 1.29 larvae per m2) in the field, EPN treatment did not increase peanut yield compared with the other treatments. But both S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 gained higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae and lower percentage of the injured legume than Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All and the control. The cost-benefit of using EPNs for white grub control was estimated to be comparable with that of using chemicals. S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 showed promise for white grub control in peanut fields. PMID:23865174

  1. Occurrence of Sclerotinia blight on peanut in Lee County, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A peanut field, north of Giddings in Lee County, TX, planted with the peanut cv. OLin in 2009 had about 5% incidence of Sclerotinia blight on October 29. Diseased stems of peanut plants were collected, and a culture of Sclerotinia minor (SM.TX1) was generated from a single sclerotium, and maintaine...

  2. NIR reflectance method to determine the Moisture Content in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is an important property that is measured and monitored at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. In this work an NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) reflectance method, that would rapidly determine the average mc of a peanut sample (about ...

  3. Heat and pressure treatments effects on peanut allergenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in IgE binding capacity of peanut proteins produced by thermal-processing methods, including autoclaving. Immunoreactivity to raw and thermally processed peanut extracts was ev...

  4. Effect of Non-Thermal Processing on Peanut Allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is on the rise, and the reason is still unclear. Previously, roasting by thermal method has been shown to increase the allergenic potency of peanuts. In this study, we determined if non-thermal methods, such as, pulsed electric fields (PEF) and pulsed UV lights (PUV) affect peanut all...

  5. Performance of Semi-Trailer Peanut Drying Units

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of forcing heated air through a deep bed of peanuts to remove moisture and preserve the quality of farmers stock peanuts has remained relatively unchanged since the 1960’s. Drying wagons or trailers were somewhat standardized to 2.4 m wide by 4.3 m long and with 1.3 m peanut depth. Thes...

  6. Chemical and flavor profiles of genetically modified peanut varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop throughout the world. It is susceptible to many types of fungal pathogens. Genetic engineering offers great potential for developing peanut cultivars resistant to a broad spectrum of pathogens that pose a recurring threat to peanut hea...

  7. Addition of Astra-Ben 20 to Sequester Aflatoxin During Protein Extraction of Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal is an excellent source of high quality protein; however, the relatively high aflatoxin concentrations typically associated with this commodity currently limit applications within the feed market, in addition to being prohibitive for any future food ingredient markets. Accordingly, the e...

  8. Oil stability prediction by high-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Gómez, Gemma; Navarro, José L; Zamora, Rosario

    2002-10-01

    (13)C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 66 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the potential use of those fractions in predicting oil stabilities and to compare those results with oil stability prediction by using chemical determinations. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north Africa; "lampante" olive, refined olive, refined olive pomace, low-erucic rapeseed, high-oleic sunflower, corn, grapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils. Oils were analyzed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, as well as for phenol and tocopherol contents. By using stepwise linear regression analysis (SLRA), the chemical determinations and the (13)C NMR data that better explained the oil stability determined by the Rancimat were selected. These selected variables were related to both the susceptibility of the oil to be oxidized and the content of minor components that most contributed to oil stability. Because (13)C NMR considered many more variables than those determined by chemical analysis, the predicted stabilities calculated by using NMR data were always better than those obtained by using chemical determinations. All these results suggest that (13)C NMR may be a powerful tool to predict oil stabilities when applied to chromatographically enriched oil fractions. PMID:12358445

  9. Complexes of green tea polyphenol, epigalocatechin-3-gallate, and 2S albumins of peanut.

    PubMed

    Vesic, Jelena; Stambolic, Ivan; Apostolovic, Danijela; Milcic, Milos; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2015-10-15

    2S albumins of peanuts are seed storage proteins, highly homologous in structure and described as major elicitors of anaphylactic reactions to peanut (allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most biologically potent polyphenol of green tea. Non-covalent interactions of EGCG with proteins contribute to its diverse biological activities. Here we used the methods of circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching titration, isothermal titration calorimetry and computational chemistry to elucidate interactions of EGCG and 2S albumins. Similarity in structure and overall fold of 2S albumins yielded similar putative binding sites and similar binding modes with EGCG. Binding affinity determined for Ara h 2 was in the range described for complexes of EGCG and other dietary proteins. Binding of EGCG to 2S albumins affects protein conformation, by causing an ?-helix to ?-structures transition in both proteins. 2S albumins of peanuts may be good carriers of physiologically active green tea catechin. PMID:25952873

  10. Frequency of a loss-of-function mutation in Oleoyl-PC Desaturase (ahFAD2A) in the minicore of the U.S. peanut germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid to linoleic acid ratios (high O/L0 in peanut extend shelf life and provide better nutrition for human consumption. The high O/L trait is controlled by the activity of oleoyl-PC desaturase which is encoded by two genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) in tetraploid peanut. In a naturally occur...

  11. Development of on-farm oil recovery and processing methods: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Kilgo, M.B.

    1987-09-02

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), peanut oil was extracted from ground peanuts at pressures of 2000 to 10,000 psi and temperatures of 25-120/degree/ C. Above 6000 psi, increasing the temperature to the maximum possible without heavily charring the peanuts (120/degree/C) significantly increased the initial extraction rate. Increasing the pressure at constant temperature increased the rate. At higher temperatures (75/degree/ C and above) roasting began to occur, however, this was not detrimental to the extraction rate or overall oil recovery. Decreasing the particle size increases the overall yield per batch of peanuts as seen in both the half factorial and particle size experiments. Increasing the moisture increases the amount of volatiles lost. The flow rate does not affect the solubility, percent oil recovered or volatiles lost for flow rates of 40 to 60 liters CO2/minute at STP. Recovery of peanut and rapeseed oil with a combined process of partial recovery in a screw press plus extraction of the remaining oil with SC-CO2 is technically a viable alternative to other oil recovery methods. Oil recoveries of 95% (peanuts) and 75% (rapeseed) have been demonstrated. The initial extraction rate for rapeseed was consistently lower than the rate for peanuts at the same extraction temperature and pressure. No differences in SC-CO2 extraction rates or yields were found between Dwarf Essex and Cascade varieties of rapeseed. 8 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Quantitative risk assessment of foods containing peanut advisory labeling.

    PubMed

    Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Marx, David B; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-12-01

    Foods with advisory labeling (i.e. "may contain") continue to be prevalent and the warning may be increasingly ignored by allergic consumers. We sought to determine the residual levels of peanut in various packaged foods bearing advisory labeling, compare similar data from 2005 and 2009, and determine any potential risk for peanut-allergic consumers. Of food products bearing advisory statements regarding peanut or products that had peanut listed as a minor ingredient, 8.6% and 37.5% contained detectable levels of peanut (>2.5 ppm whole peanut), respectively. Peanut-allergic individuals should be advised to avoid such products regardless of the wording of the advisory statement. Peanut was detected at similar rates and levels in products tested in both 2005 and 2009. Advisory labeled nutrition bars contained the highest levels of peanut and an additional market survey of 399 products was conducted. Probabilistic risk assessment showed the risk of a reaction to peanut-allergic consumers from advisory labeled nutrition bars was significant but brand-dependent. Peanut advisory labeling may be overused on some nutrition bars but prudently used on others. The probabilistic approach could provide the food industry with a quantitative method to assist with determining when advisory labeling is most appropriate. PMID:23994086

  13. Unusual high acidity oils from the Great Palogue Field, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lirong Dou; Dingsheng Cheng; Maowen Li; Kunye Xiao; Buqing Shi; Zhi Li

    2008-01-01

    Crude oils produced from the Great Palogue Field in the Melut Basin, Sudan display unusually high total acid number values (TAN, up to 10.4mg KOH\\/g oil). This field was discovered in 2002 and produces oils of highly variable (15–31°) API gravity. The main production comes from the Paleogene Samma and Yabus Formations, with the Upper Cretaceous Melut Formation being a

  14. Certain biochemical effects of garlic oil on rats maintained on high fat-high cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Sodimu; P. K. Joseph; K. T. Augusti

    1984-01-01

    Summary The feeding of a high fat-high cholesterol (HF-HC) diet to normal rats for 1 month increased the lipid components cholesterol and triglyceride in serum, liver and kidneys and decreased the serum albumin very significantly. Administration of garlic oil (100 mg\\/kg b. wt\\/day) for 1 month together with the HF-HC diet to another group almost nullified the lipid-increasing and albumin-decreasing

  15. Peanut allergy: an increasingly common life-threatening disorder.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic reactions to peanuts in children have become a significant medical and legal concern worldwide, with a rising incidence of this potentially fatal condition. Peanut allergy represents an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to peanut proteins and is responsible for the majority of cases of food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities of peanut in a sensitized individual can be fatal, with rapid onset of symptoms often including the cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or a diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. Peanut allergy is usually a lifelong condition, since only about 20% of affected individuals outgrow it. Some schools ban peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, once a common dietary option, as fear of medical and legal consequences is escalating. Children with peanut allergy and their families should be knowledgeable about management strategies, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising. PMID:21820205

  16. Bulk Modulus of Solidified Oil at High Pressure as Predominant Factor Affecting Life of Thrust Ball Bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyoshi Ohno; Noriyuku Kuwano; Fujio Hirano

    1995-01-01

    In a previous paper, it was pointed out that the solidification behavior of mineral oils at high pressures exceeding glass transition points plays an important role on bearing life. Further detailed investigations have been carried out based upon actual observations of solidification phenomena of traction oils and mineral oils.Traction oils characterized by large pressure-viscosity coefficients and high friction result in

  17. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  18. Next-generation transcriptome sequencing, SNP discovery and validation in four market classes of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Farmer, Andrew; Mudge, Joann; Simpson, Charles E; Wilkins, Thea A; Baring, Michael R; Puppala, Naveen; Chamberlin, Kelly D; Burow, Mark D

    2015-06-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which can be identified in the thousands or millions from comparisons of transcriptome or genome sequences, are ideally suited for making high-resolution genetic maps, investigating population evolutionary history, and discovering marker-trait linkages. Despite significant results from their use in human genetics, progress in identification and use in plants, and particularly polyploid plants, has lagged. As part of a long-term project to identify and use SNPs suitable for these purposes in cultivated peanut, which is tetraploid, we generated transcriptome sequences of four peanut cultivars, namely OLin, New Mexico Valencia C, Tamrun OL07 and Jupiter, which represent the four major market classes of peanut grown in the world, and which are important economically to the US southwest peanut growing region. CopyDNA libraries of each genotype were used to generate 2 × 54 paired-end reads using an Illumina GAIIx sequencer. Raw reads were mapped to a custom reference consisting of Tifrunner 454 sequences plus peanut ESTs in GenBank, compromising 43,108 contigs; 263,840 SNP and indel variants were identified among four genotypes compared to the reference. A subset of 6 variants was assayed across 24 genotypes representing four market types using KASP chemistry to assess the criteria for SNP selection. Results demonstrated that transcriptome sequencing can identify SNPs usable as selectable DNA-based markers in complex polyploid species such as peanut. Criteria for effective use of SNPs as markers are discussed in this context. PMID:25663138

  19. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne E. M. Dommels; Suzanne Heemskerk; Hans van den Berg; Gerrit M. Alink; Peter J. van Bladeren; Ben van Ommen

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of rats fed the HFFO diets compared with rats fed the HFCO diets.

  20. Stimulation of Peanut Seedling Development and Growth by Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Because of its strong pollutant degradation ability, nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) has been introduced to soils and groundwater for remediation purposes, but its impacts on plants are still not very clear. In this work, the effects of low concentration (10–320 ?mol/L) NZVI particles on seed germination and growth of peanut plants were evaluated. The exposure of peanut seeds to NZVI at all the tested concentrations altered the seed germination activity, especially the development of seedlings. In comparison with the deionized water treated controls (CK), all of the NZVI treatments had significantly larger average lengths. Further investigations with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggested that NZVI particles may penetrate the peanut seed coats to increase the water uptake to stimulate seed germination. The growth experiments showed that although NZVI at a relatively high concentration (320?mol/L) showed phytotoxicity to the peanut plants, the lower concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated the growth and root development of the plants. At certain concentrations (e.g., 40 and 80 ?mol/L), the NZVI treated samples were even better than the ethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron (EDTA-Fe) solution, a commonly used iron nutrient solution, in stimulating the plant growth. This positive effect was probably due to the uptake of NZVI by the plants, as indicated in the TEM analyses. Because low concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated both the seedling development and growth of peanut, they might be used to benefit the growth of peanuts in large-scale agricultural settings. PMID:25901959

  1. Stimulation of peanut seedling development and growth by zero-valent iron nanoparticles at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Because of its strong pollutant degradation ability, nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) has been introduced to soils and groundwater for remediation purposes, but its impacts on plants are still not very clear. In this work, the effects of low concentration (10-320 ?mol/L) NZVI particles on seed germination and growth of peanut plants were evaluated. The exposure of peanut seeds to NZVI at all the tested concentrations altered the seed germination activity, especially the development of seedlings. In comparison with the deionized water treated controls (CK), all of the NZVI treatments had significantly larger average lengths. Further investigations with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggested that NZVI particles may penetrate the peanut seed coats to increase the water uptake to stimulate seed germination. The growth experiments showed that although NZVI at a relatively high concentration (320?mol/L) showed phytotoxicity to the peanut plants, the lower concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated the growth and root development of the plants. At certain concentrations (e.g., 40 and 80 ?mol/L), the NZVI treated samples were even better than the ethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron (EDTA-Fe) solution, a commonly used iron nutrient solution, in stimulating the plant growth. This positive effect was probably due to the uptake of NZVI by the plants, as indicated in the TEM analyses. Because low concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated both the seedling development and growth of peanut, they might be used to benefit the growth of peanuts in large-scale agricultural settings. PMID:25901959

  2. The Effects of Roast Intensity on the Texture of Peanut Paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture is central to consumer acceptability of peanut butter and peanut-based food products in general. The majority of peanuts are roasted; however, the effect of this operation on peanut texture was unclear. Accordingly, runner peanut seed (Arachis hypogaea L.) were dry roasted in a forced air co...

  3. Peanut Allergens: An Overview Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JORGE SÁIZ; CRISTINA MONTEALEGRE; MARIA LUISA MARINA; CARMEN GARCÍA-RUIZ

    2012-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and especially on the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always

  4. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  5. Transcriptome and proteome response to water-deficit stress in peanut (Arachis sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genotypes from the U.S. mini-core collection were screened under water-deficit stress conditions and two lines, COC041 (Tolerant) and COC166 (Susceptible) were selected for gene expression and protein profiling studies. For transcript profiling, we have developed a high-density oligonucleoti...

  6. Effect of gypsum application on mineral composition in peanut pod walls and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alleviation of soil-Ca deficiency through gypsum amendment increases the yield potential and ensures high seed quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The effects of gypsum treatment, plant life cycle stage, and the fruit development stages on the accrual of several essential minerals (Ca, S, Mg, P...

  7. Technology for Improving Production, Economic Efficiency, Quality and Sustainability in Peanut Production and Handling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF CATEGORY AND LINE SCALES TO CHARACTERIZE CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF FRUITY FERMENTED FLAVOR IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. The 9-point hedonic scale is the most widely used scale to determine consumer acceptance; however, research has indicated that line scales may provide equal reliability and greater sensitivity. T...

  9. ECONOMIC RETURNS OF IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED PEANUT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of sustainable cropping systems must incorporate commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of the crops within the cropping system. Research was conducted at the USDA/...

  10. GENETIC AND GENOMIC APPROACHES TO IMPROVE HOST RESISTANCE TO PREHARVEST AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN CORN AND PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-host resistance is a highly desirable tactic that can be used to manage pest problems. Screening and identification of crop plant germplasm for resistant traits for crop improvement and molecular marker development will bring new genetic diversity into U.S. corn/peanut gemplasm. Using the co...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF CATEGORY AND LINE SCALES TO CHARACTERIZE CONSUMER PRECEPTION OF FRUITY FERMENTED FLAVOR IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. The 9-point hedonic scale is the most widely used scale to determine consumer acceptance; however, research has indicated that line scales may provide equal reliability and greater sensitivity. T...

  12. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  13. The Economics of Organics versus Conventional Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for organically produced peanuts and cotton represent the fastest growing sector for each of these commodities. Significant price premiums at the producer level are associated certified organic commodities. However, such incentives to convert a field or farm from conventional production...

  14. CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

  15. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological behaviors of aqueous peanut flour dispersions were characterized across a range of conditions, including controlled heating and cooling rates under both large and small-strain deformations. Fat content of the dry flours influenced rheological changes, as dispersions of higher fat fl...

  16. Peanut EST Project and Gene Discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall goal of this project is to develop functional tools and resources for the peanut research community to better understand the disease resistance and seed protein synthesis and diversity in order to advance towards improving host resistance to diseases and mitigating food safety issues suc...

  17. Yield advances in peanut - weed control effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in weed management are a contributing factor to advancements in peanut yield. Widespread use of vacuum planters and increased acceptance of narrow row patterns enhance weed control by lessening bareground caused by skips and promoting quick canopy closure. Cultivation was traditionall...

  18. Low Oxygen Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer stock peanuts are stored in bulk storage facilities for periods ranging from 30d to 12mo. Studies were conducted in 1/10 scale conventional and monolithic dome storage facilities located in Dawson, GA. Conventional storage was represented by four metal buildings with storage capacity of appro...

  19. Management and Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of peanuts with mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, is a worldwide problem that affects both food safety and agricultural economies. Most countries have adopted regulations that limit the quantity of aflatoxins in food and feed to 20 ppb or less; however, environmental conditions in m...

  20. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE PEANUT MINI CORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one genomic SSR markers with M13-tail attached were used to assess genetic diversity in the peanut mini core, which is maintained by the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (USDA, ARS, PGRCU) in Griffin, GA. The M13-tailed method was effective in discriminating individuals and...

  1. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Monyo, Emmanuel; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Liang, Xuanquiang; Guimarães, Patricia; Nigam, Shyam N; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Janila, Pasupuleti; Zhang, Xinyou; Guo, Baozhu; Cook, Douglas R; Bertioli, David J; Michelmore, Richard; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-01-01

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to the tetraploid; cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination, and the narrow genetic base of the primary genepool have resulted in low genetic diversity that has remained a major bottleneck for genetic improvement of peanut. Harnessing the rich source of wild relatives has been negligible due to differences in ploidy level as well as genetic drag and undesirable alleles for low yield. Lack of appropriate genomic resources has severely hampered molecular breeding activities, and this crop remains among the less-studied crops. The last five years, however, have witnessed accelerated development of genomic resources such as development of molecular markers, genetic and physical maps, generation of expressed sequenced tags (ESTs), development of mutant resources, and functional genomics platforms that facilitate the identification of QTLs and discovery of genes associated with tolerance/resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses and agronomic traits. Molecular breeding has been initiated for several traits for development of superior genotypes. The genome or at least gene space sequence is expected to be available in near future and this will further accelerate use of biotechnological approaches for peanut improvement. PMID:22094114

  2. CONSERVATION TILLAGE SYSTEMS FOR PEANUT PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential benefits of maintaining surface residue coupled with increased production costs have renewed interest in conservation tillage systems for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. A study was initiated to examine surface residue cover following two strip tillage systems (narrow vs wide), co...

  3. Background and Impact of Recent High Crude Oil Prices (Japanese)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HASEGAWA Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) temporarily fell to $10 a barrel, reflecting the Asian financial crisis that took place in 1997 and 1998, but global oil prices subsequently began to climb from around 2004, given rising demand from China, the disruption caused by hurricanes in the United States, and supply problems in Russia. In early

  4. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  5. A RIGID, PERFORATED PLATE OIL BOOM FOR HIGH CURRENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A boom capable of diverting oil spills toward shore in a 3-knot (1.5 m/s) river or tidal current has been developed. Loss of No. 2 and No. 4 Fuel Oil at this velocity is typically less than 15 percent when the angle of the boom is 45 degrees to the shoreline. In contrast, convent...

  6. Reverse Globalization: Does High Oil Price Volatility Discourage International Trade?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiu-Sheng Chen; Kai-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether higher oil price volatility causes a reversal in globalization. Using a large annual panel data set covering 84 countries all over the world from 1984 to 2008, we investigate the impacts of oil price fluctuations on international trade, namely exports and imports. We present strong and robust evidence that international trade flows will be lower when

  7. High-rate filtration of solids-stabilized, oil-in-water emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; E. F. Gloyna; B. J. Davis

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the applicability of high rate or pressure filtration to the treatment of solids-stabilized, oil-in-water emulsions. Performance was evaluated by suspended solids removal, oil removal and headloss for various filtration conditions. Separation of the oil and water phases was the overall goal of the filtration process. This might be accomplished by removing the

  8. Chlorophyll and ?-carotene pigments in moroccan virgin olive oils measured by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rahmani; A. Saari Csallany

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll and ?-carotene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in virgin olive\\u000a oils, which were press-extracted from green and semi-black olives. Pheophytin A was found to be the major chlorophyll isomer\\u000a in all oil samples. The occurrence of this pigment at higher concentrations in oil extracted from green olives is a possible\\u000a indication of its time-related destruction during

  9. Mutagenecity and contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in new high-viscosity naphthenic oils and used and recycled mineral oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Granella; Cinzia Ballarin; Barbara Nardini; Marscia Marchioro; Erminio Clonfero

    1995-01-01

    Mutagenic activity on the Ames test was evaluated in 15 samples of naphthenic high-viscosity minerals oils and 12 samples of used lubricants (recovered and pooled) and their recycled products. Bacterial mutagenesis was assayed using both the standard technique and Blackburn's modification. The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was also evaluated, as polynuclear aromatic fraction (PAF) and total PAH, determined

  10. The Potential of Heavily And Severely Biodegraded Oils to be Partly Upgraded During High Temperature Thermal Recovery Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norka Marcano; Barry Bennett; Thomas Oldenburg; Haiping Huang; Steve Larter

    Summary Upgrading of heavy oil and oil sands under simulated high temperature thermal recovery conditions was conducted to evaluate mechanisms and sources of the produced light hydrocarbon compounds that directly affect oil fluid properties. The main results suggest that the asphaltene fraction is the main source of the light hydrocarbons produced during the upgrading process. Comparing results from oils with

  11. 75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds, and Grains...Committees (ATAC) for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS...planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds...

  12. Response of Peanuts to Irrigation Management at Different Crop Growth Stages 

    E-print Network

    Howell, T. A.; McFarland, M. J.; Reddell, D. L.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Dahmen, P.

    1980-01-01

    Past irrigation research on peanuts has shown that when the plant is exposed to soil moisture stress at different crop growth stages, different responses seem to exist between the Spanish and the Florunner peanut varieties. The Spanish peanuts...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHOSPHOLIPASE D GENE (PLD) IN PEANUT AND PLD EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest aflatoxin contamination has been identified by the peanut industry as the most serious challenge. Drought stress is the most important environmental factor exacerbating Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Development of resistant peanut cultivars would represent...

  14. Inactivation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores by high hydrostatic pressure combined with citral or lemongrass essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando L Palhano; Thabita T. B Vilches; Reginaldo B Santos; Marcos T. D Orlando; J. Aires Ventura; Patricia M. B Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the main post-harvest disease of the papaya. Inactivation of the spores of C. gloeosporioides in saline solution by the use of high hydrostatic pressure, citral oil and lemongrass oil, alone and in combination, was studied. C. gloeosporioides spores were efficiently inhibited after a pressure treatment of 350 MPa for 30 min. When

  15. Study about oil displacement efficiency of different position in very high water cut reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yihua; Bing, Shaoxian; Tian, Yan

    2015-03-01

    The key to enhancing oil recovery of very high water cut oilfield lies in analyzing oil displacement efficiency in different position of reservoir, which mainly focus on the analysis of dimensionless cumulative flowing into water volume and oil displacement efficiency distribution. In order to get the oil displacement efficiency distribution characteristics to future analyze influence on oil displacement efficiency by changing well pattern, oil displacement efficiency in different position of homogeneous reservoir is studied by combining the analysis of core displacement experiment with oilfield practice in this paper. Firstly, streamline function and streamline distribution between injection-production well in homogeneous reservoir is researched by the potential function and potential distribution with the five-point well pattern. Secondly, the method of flow distribution on the streamline between the injection-production well is studied according to change law of seepage resistance. Thirdly, dimensionless cumulative flowing into water volume along the streamline is calculated based on the core size to analyze its distribution characteristics about homogeneous reservoir and obtain dimensionless cumulative flowing into water volume at different position of the reservoir matching the core displacement experiment. Finally, the distribution characteristics of oil displacement efficiency are got by statistical analysis for the change of oil displacement efficiency as the dimensionless cumulative flowing into water volume in real oilfield. This study may provide technical measure with oilfield enterprise to enhance the oil recovery of very high water cut oilfield.

  16. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of applying vegetable oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix' neem oil and Sun...

  17. Impact of vegetable oils on ear-feeding insect damage in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impact of applying vegetable oils onto sweet corn silks on corn earworm damage and sap beetle population at harvest was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils. Two commercial plant-based oils (Sun-spray' and...

  18. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  19. New Aspects of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne A. Keet; Robert A. Wood

    In recent years, as our understanding of peanut and tree nut allergy has increased, the potential for real therapies has expanded\\u000a greatly. Hope for a cure for peanut and other food allergies is on the horizon. At the same time, the rates of peanut and\\u000a tree nut allergy have continued to increase, and much remains to be learned about these

  20. Generation means analysis for productivity in two diverse peanut crosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Halward; J. C. Wynne

    1991-01-01

    Utilization of exotic germplasm resources for population improvement in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has increased as the need to increase genetic diversity among peanut cultivars was recognized. Progeny of crosses of two unadapted germplasm lines (GP-NC 343 and FESR-11-P11-32) with an adapted cultivar (‘NCV11’) of peanut were evaluated for the genetic factors influencing the inheritance of yield and fruit characters

  1. Degumming of vegetable oils by a novel phospholipase B from Pseudomonas fluorescens BIT-18.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fangyan; Wang, Jinmei; Kaleem, Imdad; Dai, Dazhang; Zhou, Xiaohong; Li, Chun

    2011-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens BIT-18 was isolated from soil near a vegetable oil factory and shown to produce a B-type phospholipase. The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Gas chromatography demonstrated that the enzyme preparation hydrolyzed both the 1- and 2-ester bonds of phosphatidylcholine. When degumming of soybean, rapeseed, and peanut oil was performed with this enzyme preparation, oils with phosphorous contents lower than 5mg/kg were obtained after 5h of enzyme treatment at 40°C. The enzyme preparation did not show lipase activity, thus free fatty acids were only generated from the phospholipids. Therefore, this novel phospholipase B is potentially useful for the refining of high-quality oils with attractive yields. PMID:21715159

  2. High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: differential effects of dietary oils.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, S; Takahashi, M; Tsunoda, N; Maruyama, K; Itakura, H; Ezaki, O

    1996-12-01

    Mice fed a high-fat diet develop hyperglycemia and obesity. Using non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice, we investigated the effects of seven different dietary oils on glucose metabolism: palm oil, which contains mainly 45% palmitic acid (16:0) and 40% oleic acid (18:1); lard oil, 24% palmitic and 44% oleic acid; rapeseed oil, 59% oleic and 20% linoleic acid (18:2); soybean oil, 24% oleic and 54% linoleic acid; safflower oil, 76% linoleic acid; perilla oil, 58% alpha-linolenic acid; and tuna fish oil, 7% eicosapentaenoic acid and 23% docosahexaenoic acid. C57BL/6J mice received each as a high-fat diet (60% of total calories) for 19 weeks (n = 6 to 11 per group). After 19 weeks of feeding, body weight induced by the diets was in the following order: soybean > palm > or = lard > or = rapeseed > or = safflower > or = perilla > fish oil. Glucose levels 30 minutes after a glucose load were highest for safflower oil (approximately 21.5 mmol/L), modest for rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and lard (approximately 17.6 mmol/L), mild for perilla, fish, and palm oil (approximately 13.8 mmol/L), and minimal for high-carbohydrate meals (approximately 10.4 mmol/L). Only palm oil-fed mice showed fasting hyperinsulinemia (P < .001). By stepwise multiple regression analysis, body weight (or white adipose tissue [WAT] weight) and intake of linoleic acid (or n-3/n-6 ratio) were chosen as independent variables to affect glucose tolerance. By univariate analysis, the linoleic acid intake had a positive correlation with blood glucose level (r = .83, P = .02) but not with obesity (r = .46, P = .30). These data indicate that (1) fasting blood insulin levels vary among fat subtypes, and a higher fasting blood insulin level in palm oil-fed mice may explain their better glycemic control irrespective of their marked obesity; (2) a favorable glucose response induced by fish oil feeding may be mediated by a decrease of body weight; and (3) obesity and a higher intake of linoleic acid are independent risk factors for dysregulation of glucose tolerance. PMID:8969289

  3. Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2014-06-01

    The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14?days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18?h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p?high content of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO. PMID:24284975

  4. Dual high adhesion surface for water in air and for oil underwater.

    PubMed

    Heng, Liping; Su, Junxin; Zhai, Jin; Yang, Qinglin; Jiang, Lei

    2011-10-18

    A new type of dual high surface adhesion both in an oil/water/solid system and in a water/air/solid system is reported. A walnutlike cuprous iodide (CuI) microcrystal surface, which is composed of numerous CuI nanocrystals, shows an amphiphobic, highly adhesive surface for water in air and for oil underwater. The maximum adhesive force is about 120.3 ± 1.6 ?N in the air for a water droplet and about 23.8 ± 2.1 ?N underwater for an oil droplet. These findings will help us to design novel high adhesive materials in two-phase or multiphase mediums. PMID:21879713

  5. Factors Influencing Aflatoxin Accumulation in Peanut Kernels and the Associated Mycoflora1

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Robert E.; Taber, Ruth Ann

    1968-01-01

    Accumulation of aflatoxin in Spanish peanut kernel samples from different geographical areas in Texas during 1966, as detected by the thin-layer chromatographic method, was relatively low. Analysis of samples obtained from growers using artificial drying equipment (forced air and supplemental heat), when windrow conditions were unfavorable for rapid drying, suggests that this practice reduces the possibility of aflatoxin accumulation. In general, peanuts harvested from land planted to peanuts the previous year were more highly infested with fungi and contained more aflatoxin than peanuts grown on land planted with rye, oats, melons, or potatoes the previous year. Aflatoxin incidence tended to decrease from south to north Texas. These findings verify previous research observations that moist tropical climates are conducive to fungal infestation and aflatoxin accumulation. Detection of aflatoxin in sound mature kernels (kernels screened for minimal size) indicates that the practice of screening for removal of small immature kernels and removal of obviously damaged kernels does not completely eliminate aflatoxin contamination. PMID:5675511

  6. Chemical composition and physicochemical and hydrogenation characteristics of high-palmitic acid solin (low-linolenic acid flaxseed) oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Hosseinian; G. G. Rowland; P. R. Bhirud; J. H. Dyck; R. T. Tyler

    2004-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics and FA compositions were determined for refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) high-palmitic\\u000a acid solin (HPS) oil, RBD solin oil, and degummed linseed oil. The predominant FA in HPS oil were palmitic (16.6%), palmitoleic\\u000a (1.4%), stearic (2.5%), oleic (11.3%), linoleic (63.7%), and linolenic (3.4%). HPS oil was substantially higher in palmitic\\u000a acid than either solin oil or linseed oil, and similar

  7. A Complex Permittivity Based Sensor for the Electrical Characterization of High-Voltage Transformer Oils

    PubMed Central

    Dervos, Constantine T.; Paraskevas, Christos D.; Skafidas, Panayotis D.; Vassiliou, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the use of a specially designed cylindrical metal cell, in order to obtain complex permittivity and tan? data of highly insulating High Voltage (HV) transformer oil samples. The data are obtained at a wide range of frequencies and operation temperatures to demonstrate the polarization phenomena and the thermally stimulated effects. Such complex permittivity measurements may be utilized as a criterion for the service life prediction of oil field electrical equipment (OFEE). Therefore, by one set of measurements on a small oil volume, data may be provided on the impending termination, or continuation of the transformer oil service life. The oil incorporating cell, attached to the appropriate measuring units, could be described as a complex permittivity sensor. In this work, the acquired dielectric data from a great number of operating distribution network power transformers were correlated to corresponding physicochemical ones to demonstrate the future potential employment of the proposed measuring technique.

  8. Estimation of moisture and oil content of in-shell nuts with a capacitance sensor using discrete wavelet analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . Moisture and oil contents are important quality factors often measured and monitored in the processing and storage of food products such as corn and peanuts. For estimating these parameters for peanuts nondestructively a parallel-plate capacitance sensor was used in conjunction with an impedance...

  9. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE) for determination of potentially allergenic peanut proteins in processed foods as a simple means for quality assurance and food safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Holzhauser; L. I. Dehne; A. Hoffmann; D. Haustein; S. Vieths

    1998-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods known. The presence of hidden allergens in processed food for reasons of mislabelling\\u000a or cross-contamination expose allergic individuals to unpredictable risks, especially since highly sensitized subjects may\\u000a experience severe anaphylactic reactions. The protection of consumers requires specific and sensitive methods for the detection\\u000a of trace amounts of potentially allergenic peanut components. A

  10. Lube facility makes high-quality lube oil from low-quality feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Farrell; J. A. Zakarian

    1986-01-01

    A new lube-oil complex that makes premium lubes from crude oils that are deficient in high-viscosity-index (VI) components was started up at Chevron's Richmond, Calif., refinery in late 1984. The project features a large hydrocracking complex with a design production capacity of 9,000 b\\/d. Waxy hydrocracked distillates are catalytically dewaxed for the first time ever, producing high-quality lubes from feedstocks

  11. Adaptability of irrigated spring canola oil production to the US High Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Pavlista; D. K. Santra; T. A. Isbell; D. D. Baltensperger; G. W. Hergert; J. Krall; A. Mesbach; J. Johnson; M. O’Neil; R. Aiken; A. Berrada

    2011-01-01

    Canola oil is high in oleic acid which is commonly used for food and industrial purposes. To determine adaptability of spring canola (Brassica napus L.) to the High Plains for industrial oil production, 26 irrigated trials were conducted from 2005 to 2008. Trials were divided into five regions—1: 36–37°N 108°W; 2: 39–40°N 101–103°W; 3: 41–42°N 102–103°W; 4: 41–42°N 104°W; 5:

  12. Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-08-20

    Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions. PMID:25089366

  13. High OPEC oil prices ultimately beneficial to all

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attiga

    1977-01-01

    Past energy transitions involved increased exploration of fossil fuels to provide a higher standard of living, while the present transition is involved with the shift from nonrenewable to renewable energy sources. Oil and gas, needed to supply our energy needs during the transition, will last longer with adequate pricing. Higher prices can stimulate exploration as well as reduce demand. A

  14. Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

  15. Characterization of the esterification reaction in high free fatty acid oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altic, Lucas Eli Porter

    Energy and vegetable oil prices have caused many biodiesel producers to turn to waste cooking oils as feedstocks. These oils contain high levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) which make them difficult or impossible to convert to biodiesel by conventional production methods. Esterification is required for ultra-high FFA feedstocks such as Brown Grease. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation has the potential to improve the kinetics of the esterification reaction. 2-level, multi-factor DOE experiments were conducted to characterize the esterification reaction in ultra-high FFA oils as well as determine whether ultrasonic irradiation gives any benefit besides energy input. The study determined that sulfuric acid content had the greatest effect followed by temperature and water content (inhibited reaction). Methanol content had no effect in the range studied. A small interaction term existed between sulfuric acid and temperature. The study also concluded that sonication did not give any additional benefit over energy input.

  16. IgG4 inhibits peanut-induced basophil and mast cell activation in peanut-tolerant children sensitized to peanut major allergens

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; James, Louisa K.; Bahnson, Henry T.; Shamji, Mohammed H.; Couto-Francisco, Natália C.; Islam, Sabita; Houghton, Sally; Clark, Andrew T.; Stephens, Alick; Turcanu, Victor; Durham, Stephen R.; Gould, Hannah J.; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children with detectable peanut-specific IgE (P-sIgE) are not allergic to peanut. We addressed 2 non–mutually exclusive hypotheses for the discrepancy between allergy and sensitization: (1) differences in P-sIgE levels between children with peanut allergy (PA) and peanut-sensitized but tolerant (PS) children and (2) the presence of an IgE inhibitor, such as peanut-specific IgG4 (P-sIgG4), in PS patients. Methods Two hundred twenty-eight children (108 patients with PA, 77 PS patients, and 43 nonsensitized nonallergic subjects) were studied. Levels of specific IgE and IgG4 to peanut and its components were determined. IgE-stripped basophils or a mast cell line were used in passive sensitization activation and inhibition assays. Plasma of PS subjects and patients submitted to peanut oral immunotherapy (POIT) were depleted of IgG4 and retested in inhibition assays. Results Basophils and mast cells sensitized with plasma from patients with PA but not PS patients showed dose-dependent activation in response to peanut. Levels of sIgE to peanut and its components could only partially explain differences in clinical reactivity between patients with PA and PS patients. P-sIgG4 levels (P = .023) and P-sIgG4/P-sIgE (P < .001), Ara h 1–sIgG4/Ara h 1–sIgE (P = .050), Ara h 2–sIgG4/Ara h 2–sIgE (P = .004), and Ara h 3–sIgG4/Ara h 3–sIgE (P = .016) ratios were greater in PS children compared with those in children with PA. Peanut-induced activation was inhibited in the presence of plasma from PS children with detectable P-sIgG4 levels and POIT but not from nonsensitized nonallergic children. Depletion of IgG4 from plasma of children with PS (and POIT) sensitized to Ara h 1 to Ara h 3 partially restored peanut-induced mast cell activation (P = .007). Conclusions Differences in sIgE levels and allergen specificity could not justify the clinical phenotype in all children with PA and PS children. Blocking IgG4 antibodies provide an additional explanation for the absence of clinical reactivity in PS patients sensitized to major peanut allergens. PMID:25670011

  17. Environmental Conditions During Transport of Shelled Peanuts in Overseas Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts exported overseas may be in transit from the shelling plant or cold storage to the overseas manufacturer for 30 d or more. In some instances, quality assurance testing at the overseas destination indicates that peanuts no longer meet contractual quality specifications. Considerable effort a...

  18. Valencia Peanut Response to Single, Twin and Diamond Planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting arrangements. This study was conducted near Clovis, ...

  19. Crystal structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilins from numerous species are known to be allergens, including food allergens, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen Ara h 5, and pollen allergens, such as birch allergen Bet v 2. Patients with pollen allergy can also cross-react to peanut. Structural characterization of allergens will al...

  20. Transglutaminase Effects of the Rheological Characteristics of Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION: Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a stable food commodity around the world. In the last few decades, peanut flour (PF) has been used as a food ingredient. Previously, microbial transglutaminase(mTGase), an enzyme that catalyzes protein cross-linking via acyl-transfer reactions (1) was ...

  1. Stem versus leaflet inoculation of peanut with Sclerotinia minor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamspan 90, a Spanish peanut cultivar, exhibits physiological resistance to Sclerotinia minor (S.M), as indicated by the low rate of lesion expansion (RLE) on inoculated stems. The purpose of this study was to determine the RLE on stems and leaflets of two peanut cultivars (Okrun, a susceptible cul...

  2. Impact of Sprinkler Irrigation Amount on Peanut Quality Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut quality parameters were analyzed across four irrigation levels during the 2002 through 2007 crop years. The peanut quality parameters consisted of total sound mature kernels and sound splits (farmer stock grade), shelling outturn by commercial edible size, accept and reject kernels by commer...

  3. Canopy Characteristics and their Ability to Predict Peanut Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To ensure maximum economic return, a peanut producer must accurately predict harvest time when the crop has reached optimal maturity without risking losses through mechanical damage due to deteriorating peg attachments. Currently utilized methods for predicting peanut maturity are based on hull col...

  4. Tried and True: Peanut butter and jelly science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Farland

    2006-04-01

    Are you feeling frustrated with the quality of your students' writing or lack there of? If so, head straight for the peanut butter and jelly. Students will respond to this fun filled activity as they learn the importance of writing clear procedures in science. This visual lesson sticks with students like peanut butter to the roof of a mouth!

  5. Field performance of three peanut entries in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut entries (Tamrun 96, Tamrun OL02, and TX 994313) were among peanut lines included in four tests in 2006 and 2007. Plots were planted during May and harvested in late September to mid October to attain a growing season of 155 days. Plots were arranged in a complete randomized block design wit...

  6. Lessons Learned While Breeding Peanut for Improved Drought Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts become contaminated with aflatoxins when subjected to prolong periods of heat and drought stress. We have documented that improved drought tolerance can result in reduced aflatoxin contamination, and we are using drought-tolerance as an indirect selection technique to develop peanut cultiva...

  7. Peanut EST Project: Gene discovery and marker development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools to study plant-m...

  8. Tannic acid as a means to remove peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannic acid (TA) is a polyphenol (commonly found in tea and coffee) that has been used as a treatment for toxic substances and carpet allergens. The objectives were to determine the efficacy of TA’s binding and removal of peanut allergens from peanut butter extracts as insoluble precipitates, and to...

  9. Primed acclimation of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through the use of deficit irrigation timed to crop developmental periods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-deficits and high temperatures are primary factors limiting peanut production across the U.S., either because of regional aridity or untimely rainfall events during the growing season. In the southern High Plains of west Texas and eastern New Mexico, low natural rainfall (450 mm) necessitates...

  10. Effect of phenolic compounds on the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are phytochemicals and antioxidants with known health benefits. They are known to bind to proteins as soluble and insoluble complexes. As soluble complexes, with major peanut allergens formed in the presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), PCs have been shown to be able to redu...

  11. A review of water-soluble polymers used in high temperature oil recovery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi-Araghi, A. [Phillips Patroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In most oil bearing formations, hydrocarbons are trapped under pressure in the pores of rock matrix. This pressure which is the driving force in Production of hydrocarbons is gradually depleted as oil or gas is produced. Water is commonly injected into such reservoirs to maintain the pressure and produce an additional 10-20% of the original oil in place. However, water tends to pass through the higher permeability zones, fractures or channels, leaving a substantial amount of oil behind. Water-soluble polymers which increase the viscosity of water and thereby, reduce its mobility, are used to recover additional oil. The polymers can also be crosslinked to produce gels which are used to block the high permeability channels or fractures so subsequent water injection can produce additional oil. Both synthetic and natural water-soluble polymers have been used to recover more oil from shallower reservoirs. The hotter (< 90{degrees}C) reservoirs limit the type of polymers which can be used for polymer flooding and gelation. Neither polyacrylamides, nor xanthan gums commonly used for lower temperature reservoirs can tolerate the harsh conditions of the higher temperatures, salinity and hardness encountered in deeper reservoirs. This paper reviews the polymers and gels suitable for use in high temperature reservoirs.

  12. Items Containing Peanuts & Other Nuts Note: Each of us must ultimately be responsible

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Cookies Mocha Truffle Cookies* Orange Chocolate ChipCookies* Pad Thai Noodlesw/Peanuts PeanutBlondies* RaspberryTruffle Brownies* Rice KrispiesCandyTreatsw/Peanuts S'Mores* S'MoresBars* Satay Style PeanutPie PecanRolls PhillyAppleCreamPie w/Walnuts Prairie HarvestNutMuffins PumpkinCheesecakeBarsw/Pecans Pumpkin

  13. Novel Strategy to Create Hypoallergenic Peanut Protein-Polyphenol Edible Matrices for Oral Immunotherapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. P...

  14. Automation of peanut drying with a sensor network including an in-shell kernel moisture sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut drying is an essential task in the processing and handling of peanuts. Peanuts leave the fields with kernel moisture contents > 20% wet basis and need to be dried to < 10.5% w.b. for grading and storage purposes. Current peanut drying processes utilize decision support software based on model...

  15. Peanut skin procyanidins: Composition and antioxidant activities as affected by processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe; Jian Dai

    2006-01-01

    Peanut skin was removed by direct peeling, blanching, and roasting. Total phenolics (TPs), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and free radical scavenging capacity of peanut skin extracts were determined. The composition of ethanolic extracts of peanut skin obtained from each processing method was determined by LC-MS and HPLC. Peanut skin processing methods significantly affected total extractable phenolics and their composition. Roasting

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF PEANUT PODS WITH THREE OR MORE KERNELS BY MACHINE VISION AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of unshelled peanuts containing 3 or more kernels and then niche marketing them can potentially increase the value of unshelled peanuts and thus the profit of peanut producers or processors. Effective identification of peanut pods with 3 or more kernels is a critical step prior to separat...

  17. High oil- and polyphenol-producing species of the northwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Carr; M. O. Bagby; W. B. Roth

    1986-01-01

    The examination of plant species for their potential as renewable sources of industrial raw materials, conducted at the Northern\\u000a Regional Research Center, has been extended to include 110 species from North Dakota (ND), Colorado (CO), and Oregon (OR),\\u000a U.S.A. Plant samples were collected and analyzed for yields of “oil,” “polyphenol,” “hydrocarbon” and crude protein as well\\u000a as for botanical characteristics.

  18. Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

  19. High power fiber lasers in geothermal, oil and gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-03-01

    The subject of this paper is the requirements, design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype laser rock drilling system capable of penetrating even the hardest rocks found deep in the earth. The Oil and Gas industry still uses many of the technologies that were in use at the turn of the 19th century. The drilling industry started with a great innovation with the introduction of the tri-cone bit by Howard Hughes in 1908. Since then, the industry has modified and optimized drilling systems with incremental advancement in the ability to penetrate hard crystalline rock structures. Most oil producing reservoirs are located in or below relatively soft rock formations, however, with the growing need for energy, oil companies are now attempting to drill through very hard surface rock and deep ocean formations with limited success. This paper will discuss the types of laser suitable for this application, the requirements for putting lasers in the field, the technology needed to support this laser application and the test results of components developed specifically by Foro Energy for the drilling application.

  20. Laboratory measurements of high-frequency, acoustic broadband backscattering from sea ice and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Christopher; Lavery, Andone C; Maksym, Ted; Wilkinson, Jeremy P

    2015-01-01

    Recent decreases in summer sea ice cover are spurring interest in hydrocarbon extraction and shipping in Arctic waters, increasing the risk of an oil spill in ice covered waters. With advances in unmanned vehicle operation, there is an interest in identifying techniques for remote, underwater detection of oil spills from below. High-frequency (200-565 kHz), broadband acoustic scattering data demonstrate that oil can be detected and quantified under laboratory grown sea ice and may be of use in natural settings. A simple scattering model based on the reflection coefficients from the interfaces agrees well with the data. PMID:25618096

  1. Synthesis of high-coercivity cobalt ferrite particles using water-in-oil microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, V.; Shah, D. O.

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2O 4) have been synthesized using water-in-oil microemulsions consisting of water, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (surfactant), n-butanol (cosurfactant), and n-octane (oil). Precursor hydroxides were precipitated in the aqueous cores of water-in-oil microemulsions and these were then separated and calcined to give the magnetic oxide. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of phase pure cobalt ferrite. These nanoparticles were less than 50 nm in size and had a high intrinsic coercivity (1440 Oe) and saturation magnetization (65 emu/g).

  2. Fast determination of virgin olive oil phenolic metabolites in human high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ávila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fitó, M; Covas, M I; Muñoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssönen, K; Zunft, H J; López-Sabater, M C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2) ?=?0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8?ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3?ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p <0.05) compared with lowpolyphenolic content olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25425119

  3. Genetic variation in the US Peanut Mini-core collection for agronomy, seed chemistry and nutrient quality traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ongoing genome sequencing effort in peanut will result in numerous molecular markers that can be applied to the diverse collection of recently purified mini-core germplasm. This will provide an opportunity to mine valuable genes for peanut cultivar improvement. Association mapping based on linka...

  4. Studies in interesterification. II. Acidolysis of some vegetable oils with lauric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Chakrabarty; K. Talapatra

    1968-01-01

    Acidolysis reactions of cottonseed oil, peanut oil, mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia), and palm oil with lauric acid were investigated with special reference to the influence of catalysts and the relative proportions\\u000a of oil and lauric acid on the extent and type of fatty acids displaced from an oil. Catalysts such as sulfuric acid, zinc\\u000a oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum

  5. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  6. Effect of High-Oleic and High-Linoleic Safflower Oils on Mammary Tumors Induced in Rats by 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SEYMOUR DAYTON; SAM HASHIMOTO

    2010-01-01

    A mutant safflower oil, rich in oleic acid, was used for a critical test of the hypothesis that polyunsaturated fats act as co-carcinogens. Weanling female rats were each given 5 mg of 7,12-dimethylbenz( «) an thracene. They were then pair-fed diets containing 20%, by weight, of conventional high-linoleic safflower oil; a mutant high-oleic safflower oil; or coconut oil. Half of

  7. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  8. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Rodríguez; Luis Serrano; Ana Moral; Antonio Pérez; Luis Jiménez

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels.The holocellulose, ?-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are

  9. Differential effect of high dietary iron on ?-tocopherol and retinol levels in the liver and serum of mice fed olive oil– and corn oil–enriched diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Domitrovi?; Marin Tota; ?edomila Milin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary fats on cellular ?-tocopherol and retinol uptake in iron overload is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-iron diet on the retinol and ?-tocopherol levels in mice fed olive oil– and corn oil–enriched diets. Mice were fed for 3 weeks a standard mouse chow (the control group) and

  10. The Composition of Root Exudates from Two Different Resistant Peanut Cultivars and Their Effects on the Growth of Soil-Borne Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-gang; Zhang, Tao-lin; Wang, Xing-xiang; Hua, Ke; Zhao, Ling; Han, Zheng-min

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China. PMID:23412138

  11. Preparation of High-Purity Essential Linoleic Acid from Safflower Seed Oil by Argentated Silica Gel Chromatography Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxia Guo; Changlu Wang; Zhijian Wu; Mianhua Chen; Yurong Wang; Fengjuan Li

    2011-01-01

    For hundreds of years, safflower seed oil has been used in folk medicine for inflammatory skin disorders. In its natural state, the oil contains high levels of essential fatty acids (EFA), particularly linoleic acid (LA), which has several pharmaceutical properties. Safflower seed oil is a nice resource of linoleic acid with a content of 69.5% of the total fatty acids.

  12. Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Aboubakar Sako; Alhassane Fofana; Kamenan Blaise Koua; Siaka Toure

    2010-01-01

    High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim

  13. Fluorescence sorting instrument for the removal of aflatoxin from large numbers of peanuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, M. J.; Spetz, W. L.; Aultz, T. R.

    1991-08-01

    A device capable of measuring fluorescence intensities from peanut surfaces and physically rejecting peanuts having undesired fluorescence properties is described. The device operates at a feed rate of 22 000 peanut halves per hour. The entire surface of each peanut is examined as 10 to 20 discrete spatial regions. Fluorescence intensities from each spatial region of each peanut are used to make accept/reject decisions in real time and are stored on an optical disk for off-line analysis.

  14. Protein quantification, sandwich ELISA, and real-time PCR used to monitor industrial cleaning procedures for contamination with peanut and celery allergens.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Oliver; Weisz, Nancy; Vieths, Stefan; Weiser, Tanja; Rabe, Burghard; Vatterott, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, peanut is one of the main sources of food allergens. Similarly, celery is a common allergenic food in Western Europe. Severe allergic reactions to both foods are common. Unexpected allergic reactions can occur after the consumption of celery- and peanut-free foods as a result of inadvertent cross-contaminations during manufacturing. Therefore, in cooperation with a flavor manufacturer, we monitored the cleaning process of slurry preparation equipment with regard to contaminations of follow-up products with celery and peanut compounds. Washing water samples taken after different cleaning steps and follow-up products were analyzed for the presence of celery and peanut traces with a celery-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a peanut-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PCR and ELISA were compared with a nonspecific protein assay to evaluate whether the detection of protein traces can be a fast and cost-effective method for monitoring the effectiveness of wet cleaning procedures. Additionally, the allergenic potential of the celery and peanut mush, which were used as source material, were measured by a mediator release assay using a rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line. In conclusion, the quantification of total protein in washing water was suitable for monitoring the cleaning process. Our study also revealed evidence that, in cases where wet cleaning is applicable, allergenic traces can be removed with high efficiency. PMID:15675458

  15. Effects of row spacing on diseases, herbicide persistence, and qualitative characteristics of peanut

    E-print Network

    Besler, Brent Alan

    2005-08-29

    peanut cultivars, early season weed control is essential to maintain a healthy and productive plant. Weeds can also reduce 3 yields by interfering with digging and harvesting operations. Weeds such as yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L... utilize management practices that effectively control problematic weeds. In Texas, weeds such as yellow and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), Texas panicum (Panicum texanum Buckl.), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), and morning-glory species are highly...

  16. Retrofit ultra high speed centrifuge separation oil purification system for a large oil volume multiunit hydroelectric station application

    SciTech Connect

    Laukhuff, R.L. Jr. [Louisiana Hydroelectric, Vidalia, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The development of large low head hydroelectric sites in North America has required various innovative designs to reduce generating equipment and civil costs while maximizing unit efficiencies. Typical of such a development has been the use of multiple single regulated horizontal Kaplan turbines utilizing downstream unit control gates and step-up geared units which allow optimized turbine application speeds with the gear unit stepping up the turbine speed to high speed generators. This non typical multiunit application requires large quantities of hydraulic and lubricating oils which are not normally found in low head generating Stations.

  17. Enzyme immunoassay for determination of peanut proteins in food products.

    PubMed

    Yeung, J M; Collins, P G

    1996-01-01

    Food allergy presents a problem for many parts of society, including sensitive subjects, schools, health authorities, and the food industry. Once food allergy is diagnosed, dietary avoidance is the principle method of management. Because trace levels of peanuts can elicit an adverse to fatal reaction, unintentional exposure to the offending allergens may have devastating consequences to sensitive individuals. However, determination of trace amounts of unintentional peanut contamination in our food supply is very difficult. Recently, we developed polyclonal antibodies specific to peanut proteins that do not cross-react with 22 legumes, tree nuts, or other common snack ingredients. An antiserum containing the polyclonal antibodies was used to develop a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of peanut proteins in snack foods. This study reports the first successful ELISA test to detect trace amounts of peanut allergens in a variety of foods. The concentration of peanut protein that inhibited 50% of antibody-antigen binding (IC50) was 12 ng/mL, the linear range was 1-63 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 400 ng/g (ppb) for the various foods tested. Recoveries ranged from 68 to 90%, with coefficients of variation of 2-22%, depending on the commodity. Using this new procedure, allergy-related complaint samples from various food groups were analyzed, and undeclared peanut proteins were identified in some products. PMID:8946719

  18. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Culbreath, Albert K.; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-01-01

    Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function. PMID:22745594

  19. Hydrophobic high surface area zeolites derived from fly ash for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Tamilselvan; Reid, David L; Goldstein, Ian; Hench, Larry; Seal, Sudipta

    2013-06-01

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct with a predominantly aluminosilicate composition, is modified to develop an inexpensive sorbent for oil spill remediation. The as-produced fly ash is a hydrophilic material with poor sorption capacity. A simple two-step chemical modification process is designed to improve the oil sorption capacity. First, the fly ash was transformed to a zeolitic material via an alkali treatment, which increased the specific surface area up to 404 m(2) g(-1). Then, the material was surface functionalized to form a hydrophobic material with high contact angle up to 147° that floats on the surface of an oil-water mixture. The reported oil sorption capacities of X-type zeolite sorbent with different surface functionalization (propyl-, octyl-, octadecyl-trimethoxysilane and esterification) were estimated to 1.10, 1.02, 0.86, and 1.15 g g(-1), respectively. Oil sorption was about five times higher than the as-received fly ash (0.19 g g(-1)) and also had high buoyancy critical for economic cleanup of oil over water. PMID:23634731

  20. A high oxidised frying oil content diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance in rodents.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chun-Huei; Huang, Shiau-Ting; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2007-07-01

    Oxidised frying oil (OFO) and fish oil have been shown to be peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activators and their ingestion results in pleotropic peroxisome proliferator responses in rats. To examine the effect of dietary OFO on adiposity, four groups of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isoenergetically with, respectively, a low fat basal diet containing 5 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (LSB) or a high fat diet containing 20 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (HSB), OFO (HO) or fish oil (HF). The tissue mass, cell size and lipid/DNA ratio in the retroperitoneal fat pad and serum leptin levels were lowest in the HO group (P < 0.05), indicating that dietary OFO has a greater anti-adipogenic action than dietary fish oil. However, a tendency to hyperglycaemia was observed in the HO group (P = 0.0528). To examine the effect of dietary OFO on glucose tolerance, three groups of rats and three groups of mice were fed, respectively, the LSB, HSB or HO diet, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After oral glucose load, the area under the curve for blood glucose (AUCglu) over 2 h was significantly higher, and that for serum insulin (AUCins) over 90 min was significantly lower, in the HO group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that, in rats and mice, a high OFO diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance. PMID:17433128

  1. Short Communication: Diurnal Profiles of Conjugated Linoleic Acids and Trans Fatty Acids in Ruminal Fluid from Cows Fed a High Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil, Linseed Oil, or Sunflower Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Loor; K. Ueda; A. Ferlay; Y. Chilliard; M. Doreau

    2004-01-01

    Trans-18:1 and 18:2 isomer composition in ruminal fluid during the daily feeding cycle was examined in 3 cows fed a high concentrate diet (35:65) with 5% (DM basis) sunflower oil (SO), 5% linseed oil (LO), or 2.5% fish oil (FO) in a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 4-wk periods. Grass hay and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0900,

  2. Peanut allergen (Ara h 1) detection in foods containing chocolate.

    PubMed

    Pomés, A; Vinton, R; Chapman, M D

    2004-04-01

    Inadvertent exposure to peanut in foods poses health risks for peanut-allergic individuals that can be reduced by improving detection systems for allergen contaminants in food products and manufacturing processes. Detection of peanut in chocolate has been especially difficult. We report the optimization of conditions for measuring a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in chocolate with the use of a two-site monoclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ara h 1 was extracted from peanut in the presence or absence of chocolate with phosphate buffer, salt, and three dried milks (goat, soy, or nonfat) (0 to 25% wt/vol) for 15 min at 60 degrees C or for 2.5 h at room temperature. The best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction in the presence of chocolate were 5% nonfat dry milk for 2.5 h at room temperature. Spiking experiments of chocolate with peanut confirmed improvement of the extraction: Ara h 1 was detected in extractions of 0.16 to 0.33% peanut in chocolate. Interestingly, the best conditions for Ara h 1 extraction were different for peanut alone than with chocolate, regarding time, temperature, and percentage of nonfat dry milk in the extraction buffer. In chocolate with peanut foods, the total Ara h 1 values were 10-fold higher than when products were extracted with phosphate buffer alone and could be up to 400-fold higher for individual foods. The dramatic improvement of Ara h 1 extraction should allow specific allergen monitoring in chocolate-containing food products and assessment of Ara h 1 exposure. PMID:15083733

  3. THE EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND GENOTYPE ON CARBON AND NITROGEN ISOTOPE COMPOSITION IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) LEAF TISSUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water scarcity is a significant problem faced by producers worldwide and is becoming an increasing problem to growers in the U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas due to years of drought and increasing urban demands on water resources. Because of this, high water-use efficiency (WUE) ha...

  4. [Differences in seed kernel quality and related enzyme activities of different quality type peanut cultivars].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Lei; Gao, Fang; Lin, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chuan-Ting; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2013-02-01

    Taking high-protein peanut cultivar KB008, high-fat peanut cultivar Hual7 (H17), and high-oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) peanut cultivar Nongda818 as test materials, a field experiment was conducted in 2010 and 2011 to study the differences in the contents of protein, fat, and their components of the seed kernels, and the differences in the activities of the carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes related to the quality synthesis in the blades. As compared with that of H17 and Nongda818, the seed kernel of KB008 had significantly higher protein content but significantly lower soluble sugar content and O/L ratio, and the contents of the amino acid components, especially glutamic acid and lysine, in the seed kernel of KB008 were significantly higher. During the whole growth period, the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) , glutamine. synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in the blades of the three cultivars were in the order of KB008>H17> Nongda818. At pod setting stage, the activities of PEPCase and RuBPCase in the blades of the three cultivars were ranked as KB008>H17> Nongda818. The higher PEPCase and RuBPCase activities of KB008 facilitated the protein synthesis and accumulation. The sucrose synthase (SS) activity in the blades was in the order of H17 > Nongda818 >KB008. The sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity of KB008' s blades was significantly lower than that of the other two cultivars, while the SPS activity of H17' s blades was still higher even in the 60 days after anthesis, suggesting that the higher activities of SS and SPS in the blades were in favor of the fat formation in peanut seed kernel. PMID:23705395

  5. Antioxidant effect of natural plant extracts on the microencapsulated high oleic sunflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Hyuk Ahn; Young-Pil Kim; Eun-Mi Seo; Young-Ki Choi; Hak-Sung Kim

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates that natural plants extract (NPE) such as rosemary, broccoli sprout and citrus can effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of microencapsulated high oleic sunflower oil (MEHS). By employing a dextrin-coating method with supplements such as milk protein isolates (MPI), soy lecithin and sodium triphosphate emulsifier in the presence of NPE, MEHS with high microencapsulation efficiency was obtained. Similar

  6. A high throughput inductive pulse sensor for online oil debris monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Du; Jiang Zhe

    2011-01-01

    A high throughput inductive pulse sensor based on inductive Coulter counting principle for detecting metallic wear debris in lubrication oil is presented. The device detects the passage of metallic debris by monitoring the inductance change of a two-layer planar coil with a meso-scale fluidic pipe crossing its center, which is designed to attain high throughput without sacrificing the sensitivity. The

  7. Antioxidants and total peroxyl radical-trapping ability of olive and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, L; Barzanti, V; Cipollone, M; Fiorentini, D; Grossi, G; Tolomelli, B; Zambonin, L; Landi, L

    2001-12-01

    The presence of the oxidized and reduced forms of ubiquinones Q(9) and Q(10) was determined in commercial extra virgin olive and seed oils, where the amounts of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols and beta-carotene were also quantitated. Very high concentrations of ubiquinones were found in soybean and corn oils. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capability of each oil was evaluated by measuring total radical-trapping antioxidant parameters (TRAP) in tert-butyl alcohol and using egg lecithin as the oxidizable substrate. These values decreased in the order sunflower > corn > peanut > olive; the highest TRAP, which was found in sunflower oil, was related to the very high amount of alpha-tocopherol. Olive oil, because of the low content of alpha-tocopherol, exhibited a TRAP value approximately one-third that of sunflower oil. TRAP values of corn and soybean oils, in which low amounts of alpha-tocopherol but very high contents of gamma-tocopherol and reduced ubiquinones were present, were intermediate. gamma-Tocopherol exhibited a poor ability of trapping peroxyl radicals in tert-butyl alcohol. This behavior was probably due to the effects of the solvent on the rate of hydrogen abstraction from this phenol. PMID:11743803

  8. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with aflatoxin contamination of peanuts from Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutegi, C K; Ngugi, H K; Hendriks, S L; Jones, R B

    2009-03-15

    Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts poses a risk to human health and has been identified as a major constraint to trade in eastern Africa. A survey was carried out to obtain baseline data on levels of aflatoxin in peanuts from major production regions in western Kenya. A total of 384 and 385 samples from Busia and Homabay districts, respectively, were obtained and analyzed for aflatoxin content with an indirect competitive ELISA protocol. Levels of aflatoxin ranged from 0 to 2688 and 7525 microg/kg in samples from Busia and Homa Bay, respectively. Of 769 samples, 87.01% contained <4 microg/kg of aflatoxin, 5.45% were in the range > or =4 and 20 microg/kg, while 7.54% exceeded the Kenya's regulatory limit of 20 microg/kg. There was a highly significant (chi(2)=14.17; P<0.0002) association between district of origin and sample aflatoxin levels. This observation was supported by a significant (chi(2)=11.98; P=0.0005) association between levels of aflatoxin and agro ecological zones. Only 3.26% of the samples from the dryer LM3 zone had >20 microg/kg compared with 10.28% of the samples from the wetter and humid LM1 zone. There was also a highly significant (chi(2)=9.73; P=0.0018) association between cultivar improvement status and aflatoxin levels. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds for peanuts from Busia being contaminated were 2.6 times greater than those for peanuts from Homabay. Planting improved cultivars would lower the odds of contamination to a half (odds ratio=0.552) those for local landraces. These results are discussed in relation to the risk of human exposure to aflatoxins and the need for proper sampling procedures for regulatory purposes. PMID:19193467

  10. Influence of Light Conditions on Biology and Chemistry in the Peanut Plant: Flavonoids and Spermidines from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flowers and Studies of the Photoisomerization of Spermidine Conjugates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  11. Upgrading of high-boiling fraction of bio-oil in supercritical methanol.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Pan, Chunyan; Sheng, Li; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Ping; Lou, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the upgrading reactions of high-boiling fraction (HBF) of bio-oil were carried out over a series of supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts under the supercritical methanol condition. During these reactions, esterification and cracking (alcoholysis and hydrocracking) were the two dominant processes. PtNi/MgO exhibited good performance, and gave a high yield (72.4 wt.%) of refined oil. The acid-base properties of the supports have an important effect on the coke deposition on the catalyst surface. The acidic catalysts gave the somewhat lower product yields, but tended to inhibit coking reaction. This would improve the life of the catalysts in the practical applications. The refined oil is believed to be a potential substitute or partial substitute for the fossil transportation fuel. PMID:21835611

  12. Comparison of Tamspan 90 peanut component lines for aflatoxin production

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Yolanda

    1994-01-01

    The 38 lines that comprise 'Tamspan 90' peanut were studied for differential Aspet*llu,s flavus Links and A. parasiticus Spear growth and aflatoxin production under field and laboratory conditions. Required environmental conditions of temperature...

  13. Characterization of peanut-soybean films for food packaging applications 

    E-print Network

    Tellez Garay, Angela Maria

    1999-01-01

    Edible films made from peanut and soybean were developed using casting and single-screw extrusion methods. The effect of time, formulation and processing method on the rheological, barrier and physical properties of the experimental films were...

  14. Some problems involved in the water wash of neutralized vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Braae; Ulla Brimberg; Marianne Nyman

    1957-01-01

    Summary  An investigation of the removal of soap from neutralized vegetable oils by washing with water has shown that some oils are\\u000a obtained practically soap-free after only one water wash whereas the soap in other oils cannot be removed even by repeated\\u000a washing. Coconut, palm, and olive oils are easily washed whereas linseed and rapeseed oils are not. Peanut, sunflowerseed,\\u000a soybean,

  15. Mitigation of Major Peanut Allergens by Pulsed Ultraviolet Light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade W. Yang; Nasson R. Mwakatage; Renee Goodrich-Schneider; Kathiravan Krishnamurthy; Taha M. Rababah

    Peanut allergy represents one of the most severe IgE-mediated reactions with food, but to date, the only effective way to\\u000a prevent peanut allergy is total avoidance. If allergens could be mitigated during food processing before a product reaches\\u000a the consumer, this would substantially lessen the food allergy problem. The efficacy of pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a\\u000a novel food processing technology,

  16. Comparative and evolutionary analysis of major peanut allergen gene families.

    PubMed

    Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-09-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

  17. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  18. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  19. The effects of original and randomized rapeseed oils containing high or very low levels of erucic acid on cardiac lipids and myocardial lesions in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hung; T. Umemura; S. Yamashiro; S. J. Slinger; B. J. Holub

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional status of the very lowerucate rapeseed oil,Brassica napus var. ‘Tower,’ was compared with that of the high-erucate oil,Brassica napus var. ‘Target’, as well as with corn oil. The effect of randomization on the nutritional qualities of rapeseed oil was investigated\\u000a as well. The feeding of diets containing the original and randomized ‘Tower” oil or the original ‘Target’ oil,

  20. SAGD PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH SOLUTION GAS-OIL RATIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Ibatullin

    2009-01-01

    Paper addresses the issue of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) performance in the reservoirs with various solution gas-oil ratios (GOR). Results of extensive reservoir simula- tion study show that during the steam injection gas comes out of solution and accumulates at the edge of the steam chamber. In cases of high methane content in the bitumen the effect of gas

  1. Dielectric spectroscopy and gas chromatography methods applied on high-voltage transformer oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Dervos; C. D. Paraskevas; P. D. Skafidas; N. Stefanou

    2006-01-01

    This paper points out the advantages offered by the temperature dependent dielectric spectroscopy in frequency domain, as an additional diagnostic technique for insulation testing of power transformers for life-time prediction. Complex permittivity measurements have been carried out as a function of operating frequency and oil temperature for a wide selection of high voltage transformers and the gaseous byproduct concentrations were

  2. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF a-TOCOPHEROL ACETATE IN OLIVE OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of '-acetate tocopherol in olive oil. After extracts in n-hexane, acetate '- tocopherol were quantitatively analyzed by HPLC with fluorimetric detector. The presence of acetate '- tocopherol in...

  3. High resolution GC of unsaponifiable matter and sterol fraction in vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Frega; F. Bocci; G. Giovannoni; G. Lercker

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of both the total unsaponifiable matter and the sterol fractions in vegetable oils has been performed with a new polar column (TAP, Chrompack). The use of a polar column, which is characterized by high thermal stability, has led to the identification of a greater number of constituents than the use of a nonpolar column (i.e. SE 52, SE

  4. Effect of replacing a high linoleate oil with a low linoleate, high alpha-linolenate oil, as compared with supplementing EPA or DHA, on reducing lipid mediator production in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ohhashi, K; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Okuyama, H; Hata, N; Misawa, Y

    1998-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was modified by diets supplemented with a high linoleate (LA) safflower oil (76% LA), mixtures of eicosapentaenoate (EPA) and safflower oil (EPA(20) containing 20% EPA and 61% LA, EPA(40) containing 40% EPA and 46% LA), mixtures of docosahexaenoate (DHA) and safflower oil (DHA(20) containing 20% DHA and 61% LA, DHA(40) containing 40% DHA and 46% LA) or a high alpha-linolenate (alpha-LNA) perilla oil (57% alpha-LNA and 13% LA), and then lipid mediator production in casein-induced peritoneal PMN were compared. EPA and DHA were relatively ineffective in reducing platelet-activating factor (PAF) production; a statistically significant reduction was observed only in the DHA(40) group. In contrast, perilla oil reduced PAF production by 50% as compared with safflower oil. Arachidonate (AA) in the PAF precursor, 1-alkyl-2-acyl-glycerophosphocholine, was roughly correlated with PAF production, but EPA and DHA in the precursor lipid were relatively unrelated. On the other hand, both PGE2 and LTB4 production correlated positively with AA and negatively with EPA and DHA in PMN phospholipids; EPA tended to be somewhat more effective than DHA in reducing PGE2 and LTB4 formation; the activity of perilla oil was no less than EPA(20). Thus, replacing safflower oil with perilla oil was no less effective than supplementing safflower oil with EPA or DHA (at 40% of total fatty acids) in reducing lipid mediator production in rat PMN. PMID:9657037

  5. Biodegradability study of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed-oil-based lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, E.; Crawford, R.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Shanahan, A.; Mammel, W. Jr. [International Lubricants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A variety of high-erucic-acid-rapeseed (HEAR)-oil-based lubricants, lubricant additives, and greases were examined for biodegradability at the University of Idaho Center for Hazardous Waste Remediation Research. Two standard biodegradability tests were employed, a currently accepted US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol and the Sturm Test. As is normal for tests that employ variable inocula such as sewage as a source of microorganisms, these procedures yielded variable results from one repetition to another. However, a general trend of rapid and complete biodegradability of the HEAR-oil-based materials was observed.

  6. Large-strain, high-stress tubular dielectric elastomer actuator with high pre-stretch and oil encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; Tan, Desmond D.; La, Thanh-Giang

    2015-04-01

    Rolled dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA), which are prepared by rolling up a flat dielectric elastomer , are subjected to non-homogenous deformation and thus does not perform as well as the flat ones. Typically, the rolled ones reported actuation of not more than 37.3% axial strain; whereas the flat one undergoing pure-shear deformation reported much greater actuation . This study shows that oil encapsulation helps the rolled DEA suppress pre-mature breakdown. Under isotonic test, oil-encapsulated tubular DEAs sustain very high electric field of up to 712.0 MV/m, which is 50% higher than that of the dry DEAs. Hence, it can produce up to 50% axial strain while deforming the passive oil capsules. In addition, it produces an isometric stress up to nearly 0.6 MPa, 114% higher than that of the dry one.

  7. Development of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins: the influence of preparation method on the immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Juliana De Souza; Irache, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Ana I; Esparza, Irene; Del Pozo, Victoria; Sanz, María L; Ferrer, Marta; Gamazo, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is based on the administration of allergens with the main disadvantage of inducing an allergic reaction. Within this context, we report the generation of an adjuvant and allergen-delivery system for peanut allergen immunotherapy with reduced IgE induction. Therefore, we prepared and characterized poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins using the solvent displacement method, with some modifications in the manufacturing process. The precipitation of polymer was performed with either a mixture of ethanol and water or water. The resultant nanoparticles were dried by either freeze-drying or spray-drying, respectively. Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins were successfully developed, achieving both high encapsulation efficiency (70-80%) and manufacturing yield (60-80%). After intradermal immunization of mice (C57Bl/6) with peanut proteins incorporated into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles, a strong mixed T(H)1/T(H)2-type immune response was observed. Furthermore, we also provide, to our knowledge for the first time, clear evidence of the influence of formulation design on the immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles. Taken together, our findings indicate that poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are efficient stimulators of immune responses and promising adjuvants and allergen-delivery systems applied for immunotherapy. PMID:22782031

  8. Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

  9. Basophil activation test discriminates between allergy and tolerance in peanut-sensitized children

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Alexandra F.; Douiri, Abdel; Bécares, Natalia; Wu, Shih-Ying; Stephens, Alick; Radulovic, Suzana; Chan, Susan M.H.; Fox, Adam T.; Du Toit, George; Turcanu, Victor; Lack, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Most of the peanut-sensitized children do not have clinical peanut allergy. In equivocal cases, oral food challenges (OFCs) are required. However, OFCs are laborious and not without risk; thus, a test that could accurately diagnose peanut allergy and reduce the need for OFCs is desirable. Objective To assess the performance of basophil activation test (BAT) as a diagnostic marker for peanut allergy. Methods Peanut-allergic (n = 43), peanut-sensitized but tolerant (n = 36) and non–peanut-sensitized nonallergic (n = 25) children underwent skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut and its components. BAT was performed using flow cytometry, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated in relation to allergy versus tolerance to peanut and validated in an independent population (n = 65). Results BAT in peanut-allergic children showed a peanut dose-dependent upregulation of CD63 and CD203c while there was no significant response to peanut in peanut-sensitized but tolerant (P < .001) and non–peanut-sensitized nonallergic children (P < .001). BAT optimal diagnostic cutoffs showed 97% accuracy, 95% positive predictive value, and 98% negative predictive value. BAT allowed reducing the number of required OFCs by two-thirds. BAT proved particularly useful in cases in which specialists could not accurately diagnose peanut allergy with SPT and sIgE to peanut and to Arah2. Using a 2-step diagnostic approach in which BAT was performed only after equivocal SPT or Arah2-sIgE, BAT had a major effect (97% reduction) on the number of OFCs required. Conclusions BAT proved to be superior to other diagnostic tests in discriminating between peanut allergy and tolerance, particularly in difficult cases, and reduced the need for OFCs. PMID:25065721

  10. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  11. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R

    2013-01-01

    To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes. PMID:23593468

  12. Estimation of moisture and oil content of in-shell nuts with a capacitance sensor using discrete wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya; Govindarajan, K. N.; Butts, Chris L.; Subbiah, Jeyam

    2009-03-01

    Moisture and oil contents are important quality factors often measured and monitored in the processing and storage of food products such as corn and peanuts. For estimating these parameters for peanuts nondestructively a parallel-plate capacitance sensor was used in conjunction with an impedance analyzer. Impedance, phase angle and dissipation factor were measured for the parallel-plate system, holding the in-shell peanut samples between its plates, at frequencies ranging between 1MHz and 30 MHz in intervals of 0.5 MHz. The acquired signals were analyzed with discrete wavelet analysis. The signals were decomposed to 6 levels using Daubechies mother wavelet. The decomposition coefficients of the sixth level were passed onto a stepwise variable selection routine to select significant variables. A linear regression was developed using only the significant variables to predict the moisture and oil content of peanut pods (inshell peanuts) from the impedance measurements. The wavelet analysis yielded similar R2 values with fewer variables as compared to multiple linear and partial least squares regressions. The estimated values were found to be in good agreement with the standard values for the samples tested. Ability to estimate the moisture and oil contents in peanuts without shelling them will be of considerable help to the peanut industry.

  13. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward ensuring global food security for high-oleic vegetable oils. PMID:22790166

  14. Skin prick testing predicts peanut challenge outcome in previously allergic or sensitized children with low serum peanut-specific IgE antibody concentration.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Richard C; Richmond, Peter; Prescott, Susan L; Mallon, Dominic F; Gong, Grace; Franzmann, Annkathrin M; Naidoo, Rama; Loh, Richard K S

    2007-05-01

    Peanut allergy is transient in some children but it is not clear whether quantitating peanut-specific IgE by Skin Prick Test (SPT) adds additional information to fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) in discriminating between allergic and tolerant children. To investigate whether SPT with a commercial extract or fresh foods adds additional predictive information for peanut challenge in children with a low FEIA (<10 k UA/L) who were previously sensitized, or allergic to peanuts. Children from a hospital-based allergy service who were previously sensitized or allergic to peanuts were invited to undergo a peanut challenge unless they had a serum peanut-specific IgE>10 k UA/L, a previous severe reaction, or a recent reaction to peanuts (within two years). SPT with a commercial extract, raw and roasted saline soaked peanuts was performed immediately prior to open challenge in hospital with increasing quantity of peanuts until total of 26.7 g of peanut was consumed. A positive challenge consisted of an objective IgE mediated reaction occurring during the observation period. 54 children (median age of 6.3 years) were admitted for a challenge. Nineteen challenges were positive, 27 negative, five were indeterminate and three did not proceed after SPT. Commercial and fresh food extracts provided similar diagnostic information. A wheal diameter of >or=7 mm of the commercial extract predicted an allergic outcome with specificity 97%, positive predictive value 93% and sensitivity 83%. There was a tendency for an increase in SPT wheal since initial diagnosis in children who remained allergic to peanuts while it decreased in those with a negative challenge. The outcome of a peanut challenge in peanut sensitized or previously allergic children with a low FEIA can be predicted by SPT. In this cohort, not challenging children with a SPT wheal of >or=7 mm would have avoided 15 of 18 positive challenges and denied a challenge to one out of 27 tolerant children. PMID:17433000

  15. Effects of high-pressure homogenization on physicochemical properties and storage stability of switchgrass bio-oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronghai He; X. Philip Ye; Federico Harte; Burton English

    2009-01-01

    A high-pressure homogenization (HPH) technique was used to improve the physicochemical properties and storage stability of switchgrass bio-oil. The viscosity, ethanol-insoluble fraction, and mass average molecular weight (Mw) of the bio-oil decreased significantly, and particle size became smaller after HPH processing; however, no significant changes were detected in heating value, water content, density, pH value, or ash content. The bio-oil's

  16. The persistence of imazapic in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop rotations

    E-print Network

    Matocha, Mark Andrew

    2000-01-01

    for use in peanut since 1996, Imazapic has shown excellent control of several troublesome weeds in Texas peanut including sicklepod (Senna obrusifoiia L. ), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus csculentus L. ), and eclipta (Eclipta prostrata L. ). Other...

  17. Selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil over high-silica zeolites.

    PubMed

    Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Guan, Guoqing; Rizkiana, Jenny; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhang, Zhonglin; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-03-01

    Four high silica zeolites, i.e., HSZ-385, 890, 960, and 990 were utilized for the selective catalytic conversion of bio-oil from Fallopia japonica to certain chemicals in a fixed-bed reactor. The Beta-type HSZ-960 zeolite showed the highest selectivity to hydrocarbons, especially to aromatics as well as PAH compounds with the lowest unwanted chemicals while HSZ-890 showed high selectivity to aromatics. NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) analysis indicated that different amounts of acid sites in different zeolites determined the catalytic activity for the oxygen removal from bio-oil, in which the acid sites at low temperature (LT) region gave more contribution within the utilized temperature region. The reusability test of HSZ-960 showed the stability of hydrocarbons yield at higher temperature due to the significant contribution of coke gasification which assisted further deoxygenation of bio-oil. These results provide a guidance to select suitable zeolite catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oil in a practical process. PMID:25576987

  18. Changes in ?(13)C of dark respired CO2 and organic matter of different organs during early ontogeny in peanut plants.

    PubMed

    Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Badeck, Franz W; Girardin, Cyril; Sketriené, Diana; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Werner, Roland A

    2015-01-01

    Carbon isotope composition in respired CO2 and organic matter of individual organs were measured on peanut seedlings during early ontogeny in order to compare fractionation during heterotrophic growth and transition to autotrophy in a species with lipid seed reserves with earlier results obtained on beans. Despite a high lipid content in peanut seeds (48%) compared with bean seeds (1.5%), the isotope composition of leaf- and root-respired CO2 as well as its changes during ontogeny were similar to already published data on bean seedlings: leaf-respired CO2 became (13)C-enriched reaching -21.5‰, while root-respired CO2 became (13)C-depleted reaching around -31‰ at the four-leaf stage. The opposite respiratory fractionation in leaves vs. roots already reported for C3 herbs was thus confirmed for peanuts. However, contrarily to beans, the peanut cotyledon-respired CO2 was markedly (13)C-enriched, and its (13)C-depletion was noted from the two-leaf stage onwards only. Carbohydrate amounts being very low in peanut seeds, this cannot be attributed solely to their use as respiratory substrate. The potential role of isotope fractionation during glyoxylate cycle and/or gluconeogenesis on the (13)C-enriched cotyledon-respired CO2 is discussed. PMID:25704798

  19. Hydrogeological conditions of heavy high-viscous oil distribution in northeast Ural-Povolzhye (Udmurtia, Perm, and Kirov Region)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouznetsova, T.A. [All-Russia Petroleum Scientific-Research Geological-Exploration Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major question while investigating the origin of subsurface oilfield waters is the development of regional and local hydrogeological oil exploration indices. For determination of the influence of subsurface water on oil pools it is necessary to study paleohydrogeological interrelations and regularities, and the interaction of sub-surface waters and oils. While considering these problems, paleohydrogeological cycles, which include crustal elevation and sea level regression are identified. Nine or ten paleohydrogeological cycles are marked in the Udmurtia, Permian, and Kirov territories, depending on regional paleotectonical history. Mesozoic-Cainozoic tectonic movements are the important cause of generation of heavy high-viscous oil pools.

  20. Making peanut allergens indigestible: a model system for reducing or preventing an allergic reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens are not totally resistant to digestion as previously known. Creating peanut allergen conjugates that are more resistant to digestion may prevent absorption of the allergens into the bloodstream, and thereby, an allergic reaction. Peanut allergen conjugates were prepared by covalen...

  1. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic...

  2. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL DIGESTION OF PEANUT PROTEINS IN THE SWINE MODEL OF FOOD ALLERGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: The physiological digestion of peanut protein/allergens has not been critically evaluated. To compare the physiological digestion of peanut proteins/allergens to in vitro pepsin digestion, piglets were administered a peanut meal followed by periodic sampling and analysis of digesta. Me...

  4. Uniform Peanut Performance Test (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  5. NONDESTRUCTIVE MOISTURE SENSING IN PEANUT KERNELS FROM MICROWAVE PERMITTIVITY MEASUREMENTS ON UNSHELLED PODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for moisture determination in peanut kernels from permittivity measurement at microwave frequencies on unshelled peanut pods is presented. The method is nondestructive and instantaneous. This method is particularly suitable for in-line routine measurement on large quantities of peanuts....

  6. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) for 2006: Shelling and physical properties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced peanut breeding lines not formally released ...

  7. Antifungal activity in transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) conferred by a nonheme chloroperoxidase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nonheme chloroperoxidase gene (cpo-p) from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, a growth inhibitor of mycotoxin-producing fungi, was introduced into peanut via particle bombardment. The expression of the cpo-p gene is predicted to increase pathogen defense in peanut. Embryogenic peanut tissues were bombarded...

  8. Differences between heat-treated raw and commercial peanut extracts by skin testing and immunoblotting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is generally consumed in a heat-treated form, yet the commonly available extracts for diagnostic purposes are derived from raw peanuts. Raw and heat-treated samples were prepared and compared with commercially available peanut extracts regarding SPT reactivity and serum IgE reactivity. Protei...

  9. Aerobic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid catalysed by anionic and cationic peanut peroxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina G Gazaryan; Tatyana A Chubar; Elena A Mareeva; L. Mark Lagrimini; Robert B Van Huystee; Roger N. F Thorneley

    1999-01-01

    The catalytic properties of anionic and cationic peanut peroxidases with regards to the oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by molecular oxygen at low pH have been studied. Transient kinetic studies demonstrate that only cationic peroxidases (peanut and horseradish) but not anionic peroxidases (such as anionic tobacco and anionic peanut peroxidases) form a stable compound III in the course of IAA

  10. Capacitance sensors for the nondestructive measurement of moisture content in in-shell peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. An instrument was developed earlier that would measure the capacitance and phase angle of a small sample of peanuts held between two circular parallel-plates at two frequencies 1 a...

  11. Pod Yield and Mineral Concentration of Four Peanut Cultivars Following Gypsum Application With Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year study (2004 and 2005) was conducted where gypsum was applied to four peanut cultivars and irrigated with subsurface drip to determine pod yield, quality, and mineral concentration of peanut. Gypsum was applied at 0, 560 and 1120 kg/ha to peanut cultivars C99R, Georgia Green (GG), GAO2C (O2C...

  12. Microarray Gene Expression Analysis of Peanut Responding to Drought Stress and Aspergillus Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest A. parasiticus infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions; however, drought tolerant peanut lines have less afl...

  13. Stability and immunogenicity of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    PubMed

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Foegeding, E Allen; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    Allergenic peanut proteins are relatively resistant to digestion, and if digested, metabolized peptides tend to remain large and immunoreactive, triggering allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. In this study, the stability of hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol complexes was evaluated during simulated in vitro gastric digestion. When digested with pepsin, the basic subunit of the peanut allergen Ara h 3 was more rapidly hydrolyzed in peanut protein-cranberry or green tea polyphenol complexes compared to uncomplexed peanut flour. Ara h 2 was also hydrolyzed more quickly in the peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complex than in uncomplexed peanut flour. Peptides from peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol complexes and peanut protein-green tea polyphenol complexes were substantially less immunoreactive (based on their capacity to bind to peanut-specific IgE from patient plasma) compared to peptides from uncomplexed peanut flour. These results suggest that peanut protein-polyphenol complexes may be less immunoreactive passing through the digestive tract in vivo, contributing to their attenuated allergenicity. PMID:26007692

  14. Utility of EST-derived SSR in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Arachis wild species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of sufficient molecular markers hinders current genetic research in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in peanut genetic research. With the development of peanut EST projects, a vast amount of available EST sequence data has been g...

  15. Effect of oleic acid on the allergenic properties of peanut and cashew allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is the major fatty acid in peanuts and cashews. There is limited information about its effect on peanut and cashew allergens during heating. The objective was to determine if heat treatment with oleic acid changes the allergenic properties of these nut proteins. Peanut and cashew protein...

  16. Food Allergy Herbal Formula1 (FAHF-1) blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Min Li; Teng-Fei Zhang; Chih-Kang Huang; Kamal Srivastava; Ariel A. Teper; Libang Zhang; Brian H. Schofield; Hugh A. Sampson

    2001-01-01

    Background: Peanut allergy is a major cause of fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to foods. There is no curative therapy for this condition. Traditional Chinese medicines have been reported to have antiallergic properties, which might be useful for treating peanut allergy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula, FAHF-1, on peanut

  17. Interaction of flumioxazin with dimethenamid or metolachlor in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in various peanut growing regions of Texas and Georgia to study peanut response to flumioxazin alone or in combination with dimethenamid or metolachlor. In southern Texas during 1997, flumioxazin plus metolachlor resulted in greater than 45% peanut stunt, while flumioxaz...

  18. Localized Production of Phytoalexins by Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Kernels in Response to Fungal Invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts respond to fungal infection by synthesizing phytoalexins, most of which are antibiotic stilbenes. The mechanism and dynamics of phytoalexin formation in the peanut has not been studied. One of the most popular peanut cultivars in the southeastern U.S., Georgia Green, was investigated for its...

  19. Peanut allergy: emerging concepts and approaches for an apparent epidemic.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2007-09-01

    Peanut allergy is typically lifelong, often severe, and potentially fatal. Because reactions can occur from small amounts, the allergy presents patients with significant obstacles to avoid allergic reactions. In North America and the United Kingdom, prevalence rates among schoolchildren are now in excess of 1%, framing an increasing public health concern and raising research questions about environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors that may influence outcomes of peanut allergy. This review focuses on recent observations that continue to question the influences of maternal and infant diet on outcomes of peanut allergy, and explore how peanut may be uniquely suited to induce an allergic response. We highlight studies that affect current diagnosis, management, and the nature of advice that can be provided to patients, including the utility of diagnostic tests, doses that elicit reactions, characteristics of reactions from exposure, issues of cross-reactivity, concerns about peanut contamination of manufactured goods, and the natural course of the allergy. Clinical, molecular, and immunologic advances are reviewed, highlighting research discoveries that influence strategies for improved diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Among the therapeutic strategies reviewed are sublingual and oral immunotherapy, anti-IgE, Chinese herbal medicine, and vaccine strategies. PMID:17689596

  20. Select metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kermit; Yang, Hong; Seo, Chung W; Marshall, Wayne E

    2006-12-01

    Agricultural by-products, such as peanut shells, contribute large quantities of lignocellulosic waste to the environment each growing season; but few, if any, value-added uses exist for their disposal. The objective of this study was to convert peanut shells to activated carbons for use in adsorption of select metal ions, namely, cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+). Milled peanut shells were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen gas, and then activated with steam at different activation times. Following pyrolysis and activation, the carbons underwent air oxidation. The prepared carbons were evaluated either for adsorption efficiency or adsorption capacity; and these parameters were compared to the same parameters obtained from three commercial carbons, namely, DARCO 12x20, NORIT C GRAN and MINOTAUR. One of the peanut shell-based carbons had metal ion adsorption efficiencies greater than two of the three commercial carbons but somewhat less than but close to Minotaur. This study demonstrates that peanut shells can serve as a source for activated carbons with metal ion-removing potential and may serve as a replacement for coal-based commercial carbons in applications that warrant their use. PMID:16364633

  1. A study of the gross compositions of oil-bearing fluid inclusions using high performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis S. K. Pang; Simon C. George; Robinson A. Quezada

    1998-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing the compositions of crude oils and fluid inclusion oils is described. The necessary increase in instrumentation sensitivity was accomplished using a narrow bore Waters Spherisorb column with 5?m particle diameter. This HPLC method has advantage over the Iatroscan TLC–FID technique previously described as the

  2. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining: the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Dyer; Robert T. Mullen

    2007-01-01

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of industrially important fatty acids, expression of these genes in transgenic plants has routinely resulted in a

  3. Dynamics in the rhizosphere and iron-uptake gene expression in peanut induced by intercropping with maize: role in improving iron nutrition in peanut.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaotong; Xiong, Hongchun; Shen, Hongyun; Qiu, Wei; Ji, Chunqiao; Zhang, Zhenjiao; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-03-01

    The intercropping of maize with peanuts is an effective cropping practice. Indeed, peanut/maize intercropping reportedly improves the iron nutrition of peanuts in calcareous soils. The limited evidence available suggests that the improved Fe nutrition in intercropping is largely attributable to a rhizosphere effect of maize. In this study, the effects of peanut/maize intercropping on the Fe nutritional status of peanut associated with the dynamics of the rhizosphere processes and Fe uptake gene expression induced by the interaction of the two species at various growth days were investigated. The results suggest that an interspecific rhizosphere effect improves Fe nutrition in peanut, as shown by changes in the rhizosphere available Fe concentration, pH, and Olsen-P concentration, based on time-course changes in peanut-maize interaction. The increase in available Fe in the rhizosphere of peanut ranged from 0.2 to 2.64 mg kg(-1). The transition from the vegetative to reproductive stage was a key turning point in the time-course of changes in the rhizosphere processes in intercropping. There was more consistently positive effect of intercropping on peanut Fe nutrition after 53 days. Moreover, the expression of AhFRO1 and AhYSL1 was expressed at significantly higher level in intercropped peanuts compared to monocropped peanut at the vegetative stage, indicating a role for these genes in Fe improvement in intercropped peanuts. We conclude that the enhanced time-course changes in the rhizosphere processes and iron uptake gene expression with a consistent positive interspecific effect appear to be one of the mechanisms underlying the improved Fe nutrition in intercropped peanut plants. PMID:24462997

  4. Nutritional benefit of edible oil processing to decrease cardiac risk factors: In vivo studies with Mustard, Rape Seed Oils Low & High in Erucic Acid & Corn Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Watkins; P. Lenz; R. Siderits; M. Struck; M. Bierenbaum

    1995-01-01

    The contemporary consumer has become wary of extensive food processing. Yet aside from certain organoleptic properties of food products, such as taste, color, clarity, odor and mouth feel, the consumer may not be able to appreciate benefits of oil processing, which in general are physical modifications. In this study biochemical indices of cardiovascular risk were evaluated and compared for oils

  5. Sesamin and sesamolin as unexpected contaminants in various cold-pressed plant oils: NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.

    PubMed

    Górna?, Pawe?; Siger, Aleksander; Pugajeva, Iveta; Segli?a, Dalija

    2014-04-01

    Thirteen cold-pressed oils (Japanese quince seed, black caraway, flaxseed, rapeseed, hemp, peanut, sunflower, pumpkin, hazelnut, poppy, walnut, almond and sesame oil) manufactured by the same company over a 2-year period (2011-12) were assessed for lipophilic compounds. The presence of sesamin and sesamolin, two characteristic lignans of sesame oil, were detected in all tested plant oils. Both lignans were identified by NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and confirmed by a RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) method. The lowest amount of sesamin and sesamolin was found for Japanese quince seed oil (0.10 and 0.27 mg/100 g), and the highest, excluding sesame oil, for almond oil (36.21 and 105.42 mg/100 g, respectively). The highly significant correlation between sesamolin and sesamin concentrations was found in all samples tested (r = 0.9999; p < 0.00001). These results indicate contamination of cold-pressed oils from the same source. This investigation highlights the fact that increasing the range of products manufactured by the same company can contribute to a lesser regard for the quality of the final product. Moreover, less attention paid to the quality of final product can be related to the health risks of consumers especially sensitive to allergens. Therefore, proper cleaning of processing equipment is needed to prevent cross-contact of cold-pressed oils. PMID:24428708

  6. Thermal conductivity of methanol-ethanol mixture and silicone oil at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin

    2015-06-01

    4:1 methanol-ethanol (ME) mixture and silicone oil are common, important pressure transmitting media used in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) experiments. Their thermal conductivities and elastic properties are critical for modeling heat conduction in the DAC experiments and for determining thermal conductivity of measurement samples under extreme conditions. We used time-domain thermoreflectance and picosecond interferometry combined with the DAC to study the thermal conductivities and elastic constants C11 of the ME mixture and silicone oil at room temperature and to pressures as high as ?23 GPa. We found that pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of ME and silicone oil are both well described by the prediction of the minimum thermal conductivity model, confirming the diffusion of thermal energy between nonpropagating molecular vibrational modes is the dominant heat transport mechanism in a liquid and amorphous polymer. Our results not only provide new insights into the physics of thermal transport in these common pressure media for high pressure thermal measurements, but will also significantly extend the feasibility of using silicone fluid medium to much higher pressure and moderately high temperature conditions with higher measurement accuracy than other pressure media.

  7. In Situ EXAFS Studies on Ni2P Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts in the Presence of High Pressure and High Temperature Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Toshihide; Asakura, Kiyotaka [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Bando, Kyoko K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1, Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8569 (Japan); Lee, Yong-Kul; Oyama, S. Ted. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Chun, Wang-Jae [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)

    2007-02-02

    A Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst that is highly active for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction was studied by in situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) under the real reaction conditions. The measurements were conducted at realistic conditions of high pressure (3 MPa) and high temperature (613 K) in the presence of model oil. We used a low-volume cell with cubic boron nitride windows. The obtained spectra revealed that the bulk Ni2P structure was stable at reaction conditions and that the active surface had Ni-S bonds under reaction conditions, which played an important role for HDS reactions.

  8. Deoxy-liquefaction of three different species of macroalgae to high-quality liquid oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guoming; Chen, Ming; Li, Jiedong; Yang, Yaoyao; Zhu, Qiuyan; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Haichao

    2014-10-01

    Three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica and Gelidium amansii) were converted into liquid oils via deoxy-liquefaction. The elemental analysis, FTIR and GC-MS results showed that the three liquid oils were all mainly composed of aromatics, phenols, alkanes and alkenes, other oxygen-containing compounds, and some nitrogen-containing compounds though there were some differences in terms of their types or contents due to the different constituents in the macroalgae feedstocks. The oxygen content was only 5.15-7.30% and the H/C molar ratio was up to 1.57-1.73. Accordingly, the HHV of the three oils were 42.50, 41.76 and 40.00 MJ/kg, respectively. The results suggested that U. lactuca, L. japonica and G. amansii have potential as biomass feedstock for fuel and chemicals and that deoxy-liquefaction technique may be an effective way to convert macroalgae into high-quality liquid oil. PMID:25038506

  9. A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

  10. Cytogenetic Damage in Shallot ( Allium cepa ) Root Meristems Induced by Oil Industry “High-Density Brines”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pavlica; I. Regula; D. Pape

    2002-01-01

    Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg dm?3 and 1.61 kg dm?3, respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry “high-density brines.” In our experiment they\\u000a were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol dm?3 to study their cytotoxic effect on the

  11. Canola and high erucic rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel: Preliminary tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Strayer; J. A. Blake; W. K. Craig

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative project using the facilities of the POS Pilot Plant Corporation, the Saskatchewan Research Council and the Agricultural\\u000a Engineering Department, University of Saskatchewan, and funded by Agriculture Canada, was initiated in 1980 to investigate\\u000a the feasibility of using canola and high erucic rapeseed oil as a replacement\\/extender to diesel fuel in direct-injection\\u000a diesel engines. Work carried out included the

  12. Characterization of 2T engine oil degrading indigenous bacteria, isolated from high altitude (Mussoorie), India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Kumar Jain; Vijai K. Gupta; Hardik Pathak; Madan Lowry; D. P. Jaroli

    2010-01-01

    The biodegradability of petroleum hydrocarbons such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-branched alkanes etc. of 2T engine oil were studied in aqueous media using bacterial strain isolated from petroleum contaminated\\u000a soil of high altitude. Out of five petroleum degrading bacterial strain one of the most growing bacteria was identified as\\u000a Enterobacter strain by morphological, physiological, biochemical and partial sequencing

  13. Threaded joint with high gas-leak-tightness for oil and gas well pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Akase; Y. Inoue; F. Kohyama

    1983-01-01

    A threaded joint with high gas-leak-tightness for oil and gas well pipe comprises a box having an internal female thread and a pin having an external male thread, the box and pin being screwed together in use. On a non-threaded tip portion of the pin, a front shoulder formed stepwisely and a tip shoulder are provided, and between these shoulders,

  14. Design and Performance of an Impedance Analyzer for Nondestructive Moisture Content Determination of In-Shell Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (MC) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. A method was developed earlier that would estimate the MC of a small sample of in-shell peanuts (peanut pods) held between two circular parallel-plates, from the values of capacita...

  15. Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

  16. Identification of an antioxidant, ethyl protocatechuate, in peanut seed testa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiow Chyn; Yen, Gow-Chin; Chang, Lee-Wen; Yen, Wen-Jye; Duh, Pin-Der

    2003-04-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of the antioxidant component of peanut seed testa were investigated. The antioxidant activity of peanut seed testa was studied in the linoleic acid model system by using the ferric thiocyanate method. Among the five organic solvent extracts, the ethanolic extracts of peanut seed testa (EEPST) produced higher yields and stronger antioxidant activity than other organic solvent extracts. EEPST was separated into 17 fractions on silica gel column chromatography. Fraction 17, which showed the largest yield and significant antioxidant activity, was separated by thin-layer chromatography. Four major antioxidative subfractions were present. Subfraction 17-2 was found to be effective in preventing oxidation of linoleic acid. This subfraction was further fractionated and isolated and characterized by UV, MS, IR, and (1)H NMR techniques. The active compound was identified as ethyl protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester). PMID:12670184

  17. Fate of oxidized triglycerides during refining of seed oils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tommaso; Caponio, Francesco; Delcuratolo, Debora

    2003-07-30

    The evolution of oxidized triglycerides (ox-TG) during industrial refining was studied in soybean, sunflower, peanut, and corn oils. The analytical techniques used were silica gel column chromatography and high-performance size exclusion chromatography. The decrease in ox-TG during refining (42.3% on average) was accompanied by an increase in triglyceride oligopolymers (TGP). The inverse correlation between the two lipid groups suggests that the decrease in ox-TG during refining was due in part to the occurrence of polymerization reactions. An inverse correlation was also found between the percentage sum of ox-TG + TGP and percent TGP, indicating that a part of the ox-TG also underwent degradation or transformation reactions. On average, almost 58% of the ox-TG remained unchanged during refining and, of the rest, about half was involved in polymerization reactions and half in degradation or transformation reactions. PMID:14705891

  18. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Mechanism of the discrepancy in the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency between defatted peanut flour and peanut protein isolate by Flavorzyme.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Yijun; Xiao, Chuqiao; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan

    2015-02-01

    Both defatted peanut flour (DPF) and peanut protein isolate (PPI) are widely used to prepare peanut protein hydrolysates. To compare their enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies, DPF and PPI were hydrolysed by Alcalase, Neutrase, Papain, Protamex and Flavorzyme. Alcalase and Flavorzyme were found to be the most efficient proteases to hydrolyse both DPF and PPI. The efficiency was comparable to each other when using Alcalase, while PPI was hydrolysed less efficiently than DPF when using Flavorzyme. Analysis of changes in the protein solubility, subunit and conformation, and amino acid composition of DPF, PPI and their Flavorzyme hydrolysis residues indicated that the PPI preparation process had minimal effect on it, but peptide aggregation via non-covalent bonding (including hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds) during hydrolysis and/or thermal treatment after hydrolysis were likely responsible for the reduced hydrolysis efficiency of PPI by Flavorzyme. PMID:25172688

  20. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by Ralstonia eutropha in high cell density palm oil fermentations

    E-print Network

    Yusof, Zainal Abidin Mohd

    Improved production costs will accelerate commercialization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer and PHA-based products. Plant oils are considered favorable feedstocks, due to their high carbon content and relatively low ...

  1. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the HR-ToF-AMS. The measurements are interpreted in the context of the measurements over tropical rain forest at Danum and aircraft measurements across Sabah.

  2. Rheological properties of oil-based drilling fluids at high temperature and high pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-ying Zhao; Jie-nian Yan; Yong Shu; Hong-xia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The rheological properties of two kinds of oil-based drilling fluids with typically composition were studied at pressures\\u000a up to 138 MPa and temperatures up to 204 °C using the RheoChan 7400 Rheometer. The experimental results show that the apparent\\u000a viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point decrease with the increase of temperature, and increase with the increase of\\u000a pressure. The effect

  3. Interlaboratory validation study of five commercial ELISA test kits for the determination of peanut proteins in biscuits and dark chocolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Poms; M. E. Agazzi; A. Bau; M. Brohee; C. Capelletti; J. V. Nørgaard; E. Anklam

    2005-01-01

    The results of an inter-laboratory study with five commercially available peanut ELISA test kits to detect and quantify peanut residues in two food matrices (biscuit and dark chocolate) at four different concentrations (0–10?mg peanut?kg matrix corresponding to about 0–2.5?mg peanut protein?kg matrix) are reported. In general the five ELISA test kits evaluated could detect peanut protein in the two food

  4. An improved method for extraction of high-quality total RNA from oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Rayani, Azadeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Seeds of oilseed plants that contain large amounts of oil, polysaccharides, proteins and polyphenols are not amenable to conventional RNA isolation protocols. The presence of these substances affects the quality and quantity of isolated nucleic acids. Here, a rapid and efficient RNA isolation protocol that, in contrast to other methods tested, allows high purify, integrity and yield of total RNA from seeds of sesame, corn, sunflower, flax and rapeseed was developed. The average yields of total RNA from 70 mg oil seeds ranged from 84 to 310 µg with A260/A280 between 1.9 and 2.08. The RNA isolated with this protocol was verified to be suitable for PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis and expression analysis. PMID:25534638

  5. Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

  6. Low temperature analogs of high-temperature water/oil relative permeabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Inouye, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Dynamic-displacement experiments were conducted to develop and evaluate a simpler low-temperature analog of the high-temperature relative permeability data. Results show that a low-temperature analog of the high-temperature relative permeabilities can be obtained if the water/oil viscosity ratio at the two temperatures and wettabilities are similar. Furthermore, measured endpoint saturations were found to be independent of temperature and predominantly a function of viscosity ratio. Using the authors` data and numerical/analytical calculations the authors show that the observed temperature dependency of endpoint saturations are primarily measurement artifacts caused by viscosity ratio effects.

  7. Bioactive components in rice bran oil improve lipid profiles in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Youl Ha; Songyi Han; Sung-Ran Kim; In-Hwan Kim; Hyun-Yu Lee; Hye-Kyeong Kim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bioactive substances in rice bran oil on lipid levels and lipid peroxidation in serum and liver. For 4 weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following experimental diets: normal diet, high-cholesterol diet, or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the concentrated bioactive components from rice bran oil (BRBO). The liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol contents

  8. A real-time PCR genotyping assay to detect FAD2A SNPs in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic (C18:1) phenotype in peanuts has been previously demonstrated to result from a homozygous recessive genotype (ol1ol1ol2ol2) in two homeologous fatty acid desaturase genes (FAD2A and FAD2B) with two key SNPs. These mutant SNPs, specifically G448A in FAD2A and 442insA in FAD2B, signifi...

  9. Production and secretion of resveratrol in hairy root cultures of peanut.

    PubMed

    Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Condori, Jose; Rimando, Agnes M; Hubstenberger, John; Shelton, Kristen; O'Keefe, Sean F; Bennett, Selester; Dolan, Maureen C

    2007-07-01

    Resveratrol and its derivatives are natural stilbenes associated with many health benefits that include those conferred by their antioxidant and anticancer properties. While stilbenes can be recovered as an extract from a selected number of plants, these products are not suitable for many applications in the food/pharmaceutical sectors due to high levels of impurities as well as the overall low concentration of resveratrol and its derivatives in the extract. To deliver a highly defined and enriched resveratrol product, hairy root cultures of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) were established and tested as a bioproduction system for resveratrol and associated derivatives. Analyses by HPTLC and GC-MS of ethyl acetate extracts showed that a single 24 h sodium acetate elicitation resulted in a 60-fold induction and secretion of trans-resveratrol into the medium of peanut hairy root cultures. trans-Resveratrol accumulated to levels of 98 microg/mg of the dried extract from the medium representing 99% of the total resveratrol produced. Other stilbenes, including trans-pterostilbene, were also detected in the medium. Our results demonstrate the capacity of hairy root cultures as an effective bioprocessing system for valued nutraceuticals like resveratrol and resveratrol derivatives. In being able to effectively induce and recover high levels of resveratrol and associated derivatives from the media fraction, hairy roots may offer a scalable and continuous product recovery platform for naturally-derived, high quality, enriched nutraceuticals. PMID:17574636

  10. A solid state high voltage pulse modulator which is compact and without oil or a pulse transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Cassel

    2004-01-01

    The conventional high voltage pulsed modulator utilizes a pulse transformer, PFN (Pulse forming network), and thyratron to develop high voltage power pulses for klystron, magnetrons, lasers, etc. The pulse transformer, PFN, and thyratron normally operate in oil at high voltage and are large and expensive. The use of thyratron, high voltages and no redundancy reduces the reliability of the present

  11. False positive detection of peanut residue in liquid caramel coloring using commercial ELISA kits.

    PubMed

    Stelk, T; Niemann, L; Lambrecht, D M; Baumert, J L; Taylor, S L

    2013-07-01

    Initial food industry testing in our laboratory using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods indicated that the darkest caramel color (class IV) unexpectedly contained traces of peanut protein, a potential undeclared allergen issue. Caramel production centers on the heating of sugars, often glucose, under controlled heat and chemical processing conditions with other ingredients including ammonia, sulfite, and/or alkali salts. These ingredients should not contain any traces of peanut residue. We sought to determine the reliability of commercially available peanut allergen ELISA methods for detection of apparent peanut residue in caramel coloring. Caramel color samples of classes I, II, III, and IV were obtained from 2 commercial suppliers and tested using 6 commercially available quantitative and qualitative peanut ELISA kits. Five lots of class IV caramel color were spiked with a known concentration of peanut protein from light roasted peanut flour to assess recovery of peanut residue using a spike and recovery protocol with either 15 ppm or 100 ppm peanut protein on a kit-specific basis. A false positive detection of peanut protein was found in class IV caramel colors with a range of 1.2 to 17.6 parts per million recovered in both spiked and unspiked liquid caramel color samples. ELISA kit spike/recovery results indicate that false negative results might also be obtained if peanut contamination were ever to actually exist in class IV caramel color. Manufacturers of peanut-free products often test all ingredients for peanut allergen residues using commercial ELISA kits. ELISA methods are not reliable for the detection of peanut in class IV caramel ingredients and their use is not recommended with this matrix. PMID:23647653

  12. The supplementation effects of peanut sprout on reduction of abdominal fat and health indices in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of peanut sprout extracts (PSE) on health indices in overweight and obese women (BMI ? 23 kg/m2). SUBJECTS/METHODS Subjects were divided into three groups by double-blind randomized trial; the Placebo group (n = 15) and the Low PSE group (2.6 g PSE/day, n = 15), and the High PSE group (5.8 g PSE/day, n = 15). Subjects consumed 12 capsules per day, three times a day, 30 min before meals, for 4 weeks. Anthropometric data, blood biochemical variables, and dietary intake were evaluated before and after the experiments. RESULTS In the Low and High PSE group, the waist circumference showed a significant decrease between pre- and post-test. In the Low PSE group, the reduction of systolic blood pressure between pre- and post-test was statistically significant. Serum LDL or triglyceride levels in both Low and High PSE groups were significantly decreased, and serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were significantly decreased only in the Low PSE group. The parameters regarding erythrocyte and leucocyte counts showed no significant differences between pre- and post-test among groups, which suggested the safety of intake of peanut sprouts as a dietary supplement. CONCLUSIONS This study indicates that PSE supplementation improves abdominal obesity and overall health indices. Therefore, an appropriate amount of peanut sprouts may be a plausible effective agent for obesity and obesity related health problems in obese women.

  13. Effect of dietary high-oleic sunflower oil in a swine diet on properties of raw and cooked pork and pork products 

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Todd Lee

    1988-01-01

    that those animals fed corn oil had soft and oily carcasses that were susceptible to oxidative rancidity, whereas those fed cottonseed oil had hard or firm carcasses. Because pigs tend to produce relatively hard fat flom carbohydrate feeds, use of high... be accomplished without significantly affecting flavor, through lipid oxidation, and other quality aspects of pork. A vegetable oil that could aid in accomplishment of the change, is the high-oleic (&80%) sunflower oil. Steaks developed from cuts traditionally...

  14. Response of new field-resistant peanut cultivars to twin-row pattern or in-furrow applications of phorate for management of spotted wilt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted at Marianna, FL in 2006 and Tifton, GA in 2006 and 2007 to compare new peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars to the moderately resistant cv. Georgia Green and the highly resistant cv. AP03 for field resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), genus Tospovirus, and ...

  15. The field site was Nansemond fine sandy loam that was planted to wheat in 2003, corn in 2002, and peanuts in 2001.

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    The field site was Nansemond fine sandy loam that was planted to wheat in 2003, corn in 2002 of disease resistance. NC 12C and Wilson were highly susceptible to TSWV, according to counts on 28 July, Value and Susceptibility to TSWV in Virginia- and Runner-type Varieties of Peanut in 2004 P.M. Phipps

  16. Compression of dispersions to high stress under electric fields: effects of concentration and dispersing oil.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Rachel; Meng, Y; Filisko, F E

    2006-05-01

    Dispersions of various concentrations (15-35%) were prepared in silicone oils of vastly different viscosities (40, 1000, 10,000, and 30,000 mPa s) and compressed to high values of stress while under an electric field of 2 kV/mm. A purpose of this study was to observe the effect of compression and E field simultaneously on these dispersions and assess predictions of most common and relevant theories. As shown, static stresses of over 1000 kPa could readily be obtained although the data presented here were held below 300 kPa to protect the load cell and equipment. The results are compared to and discussed in terms of a power law fit for stress vs gap since most theories predict such a dependence. The PL exponents fall around 3 ranges: (-2), (-3), and much less than (-3). The PL coefficients however reflect in systematic way the viscosities of the dispersing oils. The compressive stress vs strain behavior is studied with regard to particle concentration and dispersing oil viscosity. PMID:16309696

  17. Troll oil pipeline: High precision seabed preparation down to 540 m water depth

    SciTech Connect

    Schuit, P. [A/S Jebsens ACZ, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Baldascino, G.; Canu, M. [Snamprogetti Spa, Fano (Italy); Oeverby, S.H. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    1996-12-01

    Oil and Gas Developments are finding their way to increasingly deep waters and complicated seabed topography, for which until recently the feasibility was doubted. Statoil`s Troll Oil pipeline Development Project is a typical example of such a project which is characterized by strong undulating seabed geometries, poor bearing capacities of the subsoil and water depths up to 540 m. By means of gravel supports and stabilization berms, removing soft soils at water depths up to 350 m and installation of concrete lateral supports, the seabed has been prepared to enable the Troll Oil pipeline to be laid without being overstressed and avoiding geotechnical instabilities of the subsoil. These seabed preparatory works were executed by means of the three Fallpipe Vessels operated by A/S Jebsens ACZ. The paper addresses the most recent developments in the execution of high precision seabed preparatory works, called Pre-lay Intervention Works, which are performed prior to laying of the pipeline. Special attention will be given to the required accuracy during construction/execution and possible improvements for future seabed preparatory works.

  18. Souring in low-temperature surface facilities of two high-temperature Argentinian oil fields.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; An, Dongshan; Cavallaro, Adriana; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2014-09-01

    Produced waters from the Barrancas and Chihuido de la Salina (CHLS) fields in Argentina had higher concentrations of sulfate than were found in the injection waters, suggesting that the formation waters in these reservoirs had a high sulfate concentration and that sulfate-reducing bacteria were inactive downhole. Incubation of produced waters with produced oil gave rapid reduction of sulfate to sulfide (souring) at 37 °C, some at 60 °C, but none at 80 °C. Alkylbenzenes and alkanes served as electron donor, especially in incubations with CHLS oil. Dilution with water to decrease the ionic strength or addition of inorganic phosphate did not increase souring at 37 or 60 °C. These results indicate that souring in these reservoirs is limited by the reservoir temperature (80 °C for the Barrancas and 65-70 °C for the CHLS field) and that souring may accelerate in surface facilities where the oil-water mixture cools. As a result, significant sulfide concentrations are present in these surface facilities. The activity and presence of chemolithotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira, which represented 85% of the microbial community in a water plant in the Barrancas field, indicated reoxidation of sulfide and sulfur to sulfate. The presence of these bacteria offers potential for souring control by microbial oxidation in aboveground facilities, provided that formation of corrosive sulfur can be avoided. PMID:24903813

  19. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PEANUT FOR REDUCTION OF AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through genetic engineering of peanut, we have focused mainly on two levels of protection against aflatoxin contamination: the entry of spores through insect-damaged tissues and the growth of the fungus after entry, although interfering with the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway also is of interest. T...

  20. NITROGEN CONTRIBUTION OF PEANUT RESIDUES IN A COTTON CONSERVATION SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research illustrates the benefits of including legumes in rotation with non-leguminous crops. Nitrogen (N) supplied by a summer legume cash crop could contribute to N requirements for succeeding crops. This study examined the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a rye ...

  1. Selection of a multiple disease resistant runner-type peanut 

    E-print Network

    Baring, Michael Robert

    2007-09-17

    Four F2:4 populations of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) resulting from the complex cross Tamrun 96 X Tx901639-3 X Sun Oleic 95R were grown in three disease nurseries over a 2 year period. Three separate selection techniques ...

  2. A Handbook of Peanut Growing in the Southwest.

    E-print Network

    1950-01-01

    Bulletin 727 Texas Agricul turd Experiment Station November, 1950 Bulletin B-361 Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station A Handbook of In the Southwest PEANUT GROW TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION The Texas Agricultural... and Mechanical College System College Station, Texas NG and OKLAHOMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION -. p, - Oklahoma A. & M. Collega .,/ ... - ,-* .., Stillwater, Okla. -- / LIBRARY - -- - --- rr- --.,.A Preparation and pub Eication of this handbook...

  3. Selection of a multiple disease resistant runner-type peanut

    E-print Network

    Baring, Michael Robert

    2007-09-17

    Four F2:4 populations of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) resulting from the complex cross Tamrun 96 X Tx901639-3 X Sun Oleic 95R were grown in three disease nurseries over a 2 year period. Three separate selection techniques were applied to determine...

  4. Mastication of heterogeneous foods: Peanuts inside two different food matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott C. Hutchings; Kylie D. Foster; John E. Bronlund; Roger G. Lentle; Jim R. Jones; Marco P. Morgenstern

    2011-01-01

    We investigated chewing behaviour and particle size outcome in the oral processing of heterogeneous foods using peanuts embedded within two types of food matrices. Eight subjects, selected according to strict dental and mastication criteria, were served four different model foods. Each model food comprised one of two matrices of different physical properties (chocolate and gelatine gel) which were embedded with

  5. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  6. A Handbook of Peanut Growing in the Southwest. 

    E-print Network

    1950-01-01

    Bulletin 727 Texas Agricul turd Experiment Station November, 1950 Bulletin B-361 Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station A Handbook of In the Southwest PEANUT GROW TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION The Texas Agricultural... and Mechanical College System College Station, Texas NG and OKLAHOMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION -. p, - Oklahoma A. & M. Collega .,/ ... - ,-* .., Stillwater, Okla. -- / LIBRARY - -- - --- rr- --.,.A Preparation and pub Eication of this handbook...

  7. IMPACT OF MICROWAVE BLANCHING ON THE FLAVOR OF ROASTED PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave blanching of peanuts has been proposed as an attractive alternative to traditional techniques of blanching, due to energy and time savings. However, the periodic occurrence of a processing-related off-flavor has been reported. This study examined the effect of processing factors during m...

  8. Genetic Response to Seed Colonizatin by Aspergillus flavus in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies to evaluate peanut genotypes for in vitro resistance to seed colonization by Aspergillus flavus have not resulted in the development of cultivars with resistance to aflatoxin contamination in the field. New breeding lines showing pre-harvest field resistance to aflatoxin contaminat...

  9. ORAChromatography and total phenolics content of peanut root extracts.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kevin W; Balota, Maria; Eigel, William N; Mallikarjunan, Parameswarakumar; Tanko, James M; Zhou, Kequan; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2011-04-01

    A large number of compounds have been reported in peanut plants. Many of these compounds are phytoalexins, which are produced by plants experiencing environmental stress and often exhibit antioxidant activity. It is difficult to determine which of the many compounds has the greatest impact on total antioxidant capacity in a mixture. The objectives of this research were to examine the oxygen-radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) value and total phenolic contents of peanut root extracts and peanut root extract fractions collected via HPLC. Peanut roots were extracted from four different cultivars (Brantley, NC-12, Phillips, and Wilson) with 70% aqueous ethanol with ultrasonic assistance. Each cultivar was sampled in duplicate. The extracts were fractionated into 18 3-min fractions by HPLC using a C-18 column. Fractions and crude extracts were freeze dried. ORAC values and total phenolic content were then determined for all fractions and crude extracts. Fractions had a significant effect on the ?M TE/mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE). ORAC values ranged from -46.89 ?M TE to 185 ?M TE in HPLC fractions. ORAChromatography can be used to focus on antioxidants in complex samples. PMID:21535803

  10. Recent advances in molecular genetic linkage maps of cultivated peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. Narrow genetic diversity and deficiency of polymorphic DNA markers had severely hi...

  11. Water Conservation and Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut and Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water remains a major limiting resource in consistent crop production in the Southeast US. Avoiding drought stress is the main factor for preventing preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanut and corn. Furrow diking is a tillage operation that creates a series of basins and dams in the furrow to...

  12. Transcriptomics and proteomics of drought tolerance in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two peanut mini-core accessions exhibiting divergent responses to water-deficit stress were identified from a suite of physiological screening assays. In the present study we employed a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach to study both the primary transcriptional networks and functional...

  13. BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF RYE FOLLOWING PEANUT RESIDUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leguminous crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan...

  14. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults, such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut cons...

  15. Quantification of Niacin and Folate Contents in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are known to be sources of several important B-vitamins, including niacin and folate. Recent research has shown that therapeutic doses of niacin are beneficial for vascular health; therefore, determination of the concentrations found in current varieties in production ...

  16. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  17. Mechanism of Iron Uptake by Peanut Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Römheld, Volker; Marschner, Horst

    1983-01-01

    Iron deficiency in peanuts (Arachis hypogeae L.) caused an increase in release of caffeic acid, a higher rate of FeIII reduction, and increased rates of both FeIII chelate splitting and iron uptake. Experiments on FeIII reduction by phenolics (in vitro experiments) and by roots of Fe-deficient peanuts exclude the direct involvement of released phenolics in FeIII reduction by roots: FeIII reduction by phenolics had a pH optimum higher than 8.0 and was strongly dependent on the concentration and the stability of the supplied FeIII chelates. In contrast, FeIII reduction by roots of Fe-deficient peanuts had a pH optimum of about 5.0 and was less dependent on the stability of the supplied FeIII chelates. Furthermore, the observed release of phenolics into nutrient solution would have to be at least 200 times higher to attain the reduction rates of roots of Fe-deficient peanuts. The results of these experiments support the idea of an enzymic reduction of FeIII on the plasmalemma of cortical cells of roots. PMID:16662934

  18. Processing can alter the properties of peanut extract preparations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As peanut allergy is an increasing public health risk, affecting over 1% of the United States and United Kingdom school children; it is important that methods and reagents for accurate diagnosis of food allergy, and detection of allergenic foods are reliable and consistent. Given that most current e...

  19. Spermidine and Flavonoid conjugates from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new triamide has been isolated from peanut flowers and identified as di-p-(EE)-coumaroylacetylspermidine on the basis of detailed analysis of NMR, MS, and UV data. Two other spermidine conjugates, N1, N5, N10-tri-p-(EEE)-coumaroylspermidine and di-p-(EE)-coumaroylspermidine, as well as four flavon...

  20. Linking physiology and gene expression: peanut response to abiotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future of crop production in the U.S., as well as in other areas of the world, will rely upon the crop’s ability to yield under decreased water availability and oftentimes critical heat stress. Our group has initiated research in the west Texas peanut production region investigating the effects ...

  1. Effect of phenolic compounds on immunoassays of peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are antioxidants. Because of their health benefit, PCs may be added to some food products. Occasionally, these products may be subjected to screening for food allergens (i.e. peanuts). In this case, the screening (an immunoassay technique) may or may not be affected by the P...

  2. EFFECT OF CHELATED CALCIUM ON VALENCIA PEANUT YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium nutrition is often a yield limiting factor for peanuts and is necessary for pod growth and increased peg strength. Calcium (Ca) applied to the fruiting zone increases the number of pods per plant. Application of Ca 30 to 45 days after penetration of gynophores into the soil increased the p...

  3. Multi-allergen screening immunoassay for the detection of protein markers of peanut and four tree nuts in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, S; Abbott, M; Davies, D; Cléroux, C; Delahaut, P

    2005-08-01

    A multiresidue enzyme immunoassay was developed to check for the presence of markers of peanut, hazelnut, almond, cashew and Brazil nuts in a single run. The assay was designed under the competitive indirect format and adapted for screening purposes applied to chocolate samples. The limit of detection for this assay was below 1 microg g-1 protein for each allergenic food. In most cases, the high specificity of the antibodies used allowed the identification of each particular allergenic food with no possible confusion. This assay was proven to be useful as part of an analytical procedure involving the identification of the unknown allergenic food among peanut and other tree nuts in recalled samples before the application of a quantitative technique to determine the level of cross-contamination. PMID:16147426

  4. A phosphatidylinositol-linked peanut agglutinin-binding glycoprotein in central nervous system myelin and on oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Here we report the isolation and initial biochemical characterization of a 120-kD peanut agglutinin-binding glycoprotein from the adult human central nervous system (CNS), which is anchored to membranes through a phosphatidylinositol linkage. Myelin incubated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C released the protein as a soluble polypeptide of 105 kD, which was isolated with peanut agglutinin-agarose affinity chromatography. The protein was found to be highly glycosylated. The protein appears to be confined to the CNS, where its developmental expression is region specific and parallels myelination. It is in greater quantity in white matter than in gray matter and it is in isolated human CNS myelin. Furthermore, ovine oligodendrocytes in culture contain the protein on their surfaces and release it into the supernatant as a soluble 105-kD form. We call this protein the oligodendrocyte-myelin protein. PMID:3283151

  5. Verification of QTL for Grain Starch Content and Its Genetic Correlation with Oil Content Using Two Connected RIL Populations in High-Oil Maize

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guohu; Dong, Yongbin; Li, Yuling; Wang, Qilei; Shi, Qingling; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Grain oil content is negatively correlated with starch content in maize in general. In this study, 282 and 263 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred and two normal dent maize inbreds were evaluated for grain starch content and its correlation with oil content under four environments. Single-trait QTL for starch content in single-population and joint-population analysis, and multiple-trait QTL for both starch and oil content were detected, and compared with the result obtained in the two related F2?3 populations. Totally, 20 single-population QTL for grain starch content were detected. No QTL was simultaneously detected across all ten cases. QTL at bins 5.03 and 9.03 were all detected in both populations and in 4 and 5 cases, respectively. Only 2 of the 16 joint-population QTL had significant effects in both populations. Three single-population QTL and 8 joint-population QTL at bins 1.03, 1.04–1.05, 3.05, 8.04–8.05, 9.03, and 9.05 could be considered as fine-mapped. Common QTL across F2?3 and RIL generations were observed at bins 5.04, 8.04 and 8.05 in population 1 (Pop.1), and at bin 5.03 in population 2 (Pop.2). QTL at bins 3.02–3.03, 3.05, 8.04–8.05 and 9.03 should be focused in high-starch maize breeding. In multiple-trait QTL analysis, 17 starch-oil QTL were detected, 10 in Pop.1 and 7 in Pop.2. And 22 single-trait QTL failed to show significance in multiple-trait analysis, 13 QTL for starch content and 9 QTL for oil content. However, QTL at bins 1.03, 6.03–6.04 and 8.03–8.04 might increase grain starch content and/or grain oil content without reduction in another trait. Further research should be conducted to validate the effect of these QTL in the simultaneous improvement of grain starch and oil content in maize. PMID:23320103

  6. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A.; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon. PMID:23628785

  7. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens

    PubMed Central

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

  8. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

  9. The effects of Boxy/Peanut bulges on galaxy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkoudi, F.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Iannuzzi, F.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the effects that the modelling of a Boxy/Peanut (B/P) bulge will have on the estimates of the stellar gravitational potential, forces, orbital structure and bar strength of barred galaxies. We present a method for obtaining the potential of disc galaxies from surface density images, assuming a vertical density distribution (height function), which is let to vary with position, thus enabling it to represent the geometry of a B/P. We construct a B/P height function after the results from a high-resolution, N-body+SPH simulation of an isolated galaxy and compare the resulting dynamical model to those obtained with the commonly used, position-independent `flat' height functions. We show that methods that do not allow for a B/P can induce errors in the forces in the bar region of up to 40 per cent and demonstrate that this has a significant impact on the orbital structure of the model, which in turn determines its kinematics and morphology. Furthermore, we show that the bar strength is reduced in the presence of a B/P. We conclude that neglecting the vertical extent of a B/P can introduce considerable errors in the dynamical modelling. We also examine the errors introduced in the model due to uncertainties in the parameters of the B/P and show that even for generous but realistic values of the uncertainties, the error will be noticeably less than that of not modelling a B/P bulge at all.

  10. Applying the Aramid Joined v-belt high torque, low speed oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, D.; Watson, J.

    1982-11-01

    This paper discusses the successful application of Aramid fiber-reinforced Torque Team Plus Joined Vbelts to low speed; (8-20 rpm) high torque, up to (320,000 in-lb); 100% belt driven oil field pumping units. Also discussed is a comparison in operating efficiency over gear or chain units, reduced initial expense, and lower overall maintenance effort. The Aramid reinforced Joined V-belts were applied to a double reduction drive (68-142:1 ratio) eliminating gear or chain reducers. Pumping units range in size from 57,000 in-lb to 320,000 in-lb.

  11. Application of high-temperature simulated distillation to the residuum oil supercritical extraction process in petroleum refining

    PubMed

    Raia; Villalanti; Subramanian; Williams

    2000-01-01

    The gas chromatographic method of high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD) is described, and the results are presented for the application of HTSD to the characterization of petroleum refinery feed and products from solvent deasphalting operations. Results are presented for refinery residual feed, deasphalted oil, and asphaltene fractions from the residual oil supercritical extraction process. Asphaltene removal from petroleum residuum using solvent deasphalting results in the improved quality and high recovery of deasphalted oil product for use as lube oil, fluid catalytic cracking, or hydrocracker feedstocks. The HTSD procedure presented here proves valuable for characterizing the fractions from the deasphalting process to obtain the percentage yield with boiling point data over the range from approximately 36 degrees C (97 degrees F) to 733 degrees C (1352 degrees F), which covers the boiling range of n-paraffins of carbon number C5 to C108. PMID:10654784

  12. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Yujie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Yang, Timothy M [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Peizhi, Liu [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Biao, Huang [University of Tennessee and Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University; Siqun, Wang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149 static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 oC (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Carbon aerogel s ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  13. Thermal decomposition of commercial silicone oil to produce high yield high surface area SiC nanorods.

    PubMed

    Pol, V G; Pol, S V; Gedanken, A; Lim, S H; Zhong, Z; Lin, J

    2006-06-15

    This article reports on the synthesis of high surface area (563m2/g) beta-SiC nanorods by thermal decomposition of commercial silicone oil at a relatively low reaction temperature (800 degrees C) in a closed Swagelok cell. High yield (75%) of SiC nanorods are obtained in this one-stage, solvent-, catalyst-, and template-free synthesis technique that runs at a relative low temperature and employs cheap single-precursor. The morphological (TEM, HR-SEM), compositional (CHNS, EDX, SAEDX]), structural (XRD, HR-TEM, and ED), thermal (TGA) characterizations and surface area analysis are carried out for the obtained SiC nanorods. The possibility of hydrogen storage in this high surface area nano-SiC rods are also tested and reported for the first time. PMID:16771390

  14. Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

    1966-01-01

    Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

  15. Antioxidant effect of Majorana syriaca extract in bulk corn oil and o\\/w emulsion after applying high hydrostatic pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghada Al-Bandak; Efimia K. Dermesonlouglou; Petros S. Taoukis; Vassiliki Oreopoulou

    Bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (200, 650MPa) treatment so as to estimate the effect of applied pressures on lipid oxidation. HHP-treated and non-treated samples were left to autoxidise under accelerated conditions (2weeks, 70°C) and their oxidative status was periodically estimated by measurement of conjugated dienes and peroxide value. Total changes of thiobarbituric acid-reactive

  16. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  17. High-stearic and High-oleic cottonseed oils produced by hairpin RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2002-08-01

    We have genetically modified the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil using the recently developed technique of hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the seed expression of two key fatty acid desaturase genes, ghSAD-1-encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein Delta 9-desaturase and ghFAD2-1-encoding oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine omega 6-desaturase. Hairpin RNA-encoding gene constructs (HP) targeted against either ghSAD-1 or ghFAD2-1 were transformed into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Coker 315). The resulting down-regulation of the ghSAD-1 gene substantially increased stearic acid from the normal levels of 2% to 3% up to as high as 40%, and silencing of the ghFAD2-1 gene resulted in greatly elevated oleic acid content, up to 77% compared with about 15% in seeds of untransformed plants. In addition, palmitic acid was significantly lowered in both high-stearic and high-oleic lines. Similar fatty acid composition phenotypes were also achieved by transformation with conventional antisense constructs targeted against the same genes, but at much lower frequencies than were achieved with the HP constructs. By intercrossing the high-stearic and high-oleic genotypes, it was possible to simultaneously down-regulate both ghSAD-1 and ghFAD2-1 to the same degree as observed in the individually silenced parental lines, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that duplex RNA-induced posttranslational gene silencing in independent genes can be stacked without any diminution in the degree of silencing. The silencing of ghSAD-1 and/or ghFAD2-1 to various degrees enables the development of cottonseed oils having novel combinations of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic contents that can be used in margarines and deep frying without hydrogenation and also potentially in high-value confectionery applications. PMID:12177486

  18. Growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed different oils in the presence and absence of phospholipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayra L. González-Félix; Addison L. Lawrence; Delbert M. Gatlin; Martin Perez-Velazquez

    2002-01-01

    A 2×6 factorial study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipids (PL) and different neutral lipids, as well as their potential interaction, on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The lipid sources were coconut, soybean, linseed, peanut, and menhaden oils. Five diets contained 5% of each test oil and

  19. Comparative study of the combustion of alternate liquid fuels. [Middle and high boiling SRC-II distillates coal-oil mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Ekmann; M. P. Mathur; C. R. McCann; D. Bienstock

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center on various alternate liquid fuels and then compared to an existing data base on No. 6 oil. The alternate fuels tested included 20% and 30% coal-oil mixture, two types of shale oil, and a blend of middle and high boiling SRC II distillates. The tests were conducted as parts of several

  20. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810