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1

Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil.

Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

1997-01-01

2

Fuel properties of peanut oil blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic physical properties of crude peanut oil blended with ester, gasoline, butanol or diesel No. 2 were experimentally measured to help establish suitability for use in modern design diesel engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 10% increments from 1 to 100%, the following properties were found: heating value, specific gravity, and surface tension. Low temperature solubility limits

Goodrum

2009-01-01

3

Characteristics and composition of peanut oil prepared by an aqueous extraction method.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the crops being tested for NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for future long-duration human space missions. The ALS program is developing an integrated system for biomass (food, oxygen) production and resource recycling. Oil will be used mainly for cooking and its availability is important for food preparation. Peanut seeds contain 40-50% oil and hence are considered an excellent source of oil. In the ALS environment, a simple, compact, and energy-efficient system is needed. The feasibility of such a method, peanut oil preparation by water extraction, was investigated. The results indicated the important processing conditions to be: a peanut particle size of 0.02 cm or less, a pH of 4, simmering for 20 min plus churning at 65 degrees C for a few hours, and a centrifugation at 6000 x gn to separate the oil. The oil recovery yield was about 80%. The saponification value, specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity were similar to that of commercial peanut oil except the color was lighter for the water-extracted oil. Gas and thin-layer chromatographic analyses showed that fatty acid and lipid profiles were similar to the commercial peanut oil. The only difference observed was that the oil prepared by the aqueous method had lower linoleic and higher oleic acids than the commercial peanut oil. The oil prepared by this aqueous method appeared to be of high quality. PMID:11541680

Shi, L; Lu, J Y; Jones, G; Loretan, P A; Hill, W A

1998-01-01

4

Physicochemical characteristics, functional properties, and nutritional benefits of peanut oil: a review.  

PubMed

The legume Arachis hypogaea, commonly known as peanut or groundnut, is a very important food crop throughout the tropics and subtropics. Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste, and it occupies a rank of major oilseed crop in the world. It has been recognized as a functional food due to its role in a health promoting effect. Peanut oil contains a well-balanced fatty acid and antioxidant profile that provide protection against harmful substances especially free radicals. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on phytochemical and functional properties of peanut oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties, peanut oil has found, recently, its place on the highly competitive international edible oil market. PMID:24580558

Akhtar, Shamim; Khalid, Nauman; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Shahzad, Armghan; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

2014-01-01

5

Methyl ester of peanut ( Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil was extracted from the seeds of the peanut that grows in SE Anatolia of Turkey. Oil was obtained in 50wt\\/wt.%, by solvent extraction. Peanut (A. hypogea L.) seed oil was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared from peanut by transesterification of the crude oil

Canan Kaya; Candan Hamamci; Akin Baysal; Osman Akba; Sait Erdogan; Abdurrahman Saydut

2009-01-01

6

Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo systems  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-? in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-? and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-? translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-? inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-? and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion Oleic acid was found to be effective in reversing the inhibitory effect in insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. This finding is consistent with the reported therapeutic characteristics of other monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, a diet high in oleic acid, which can be easily achieved through consumption of peanuts and olive oil, can have a beneficial effect in type II diabetes and ultimately reverse the negative effects of inflammatory cytokines observed in obesity and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

2009-01-01

7

Long term testing of peanut oil in engines  

SciTech Connect

Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

Goodrum, J.W.

1985-01-01

8

Biological observations from feeding heated corn oil and heated peanut oil to rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five groups of male weanling rats were provided purified diets containing 75% by weight of either fresh or laboratory?heated corn oil (FCO, HCO) or fresh, laboratory?heated, or commercial pressure deep?fry peanut oil (FPO, HPO, PPO). Total weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were consistently greater for the FCO, FPO, and PPO groups. Although relative heart weights were unaffected, the

J. C. Alexander; V. E. Valli; B. E. Chanin

1987-01-01

9

Development of a real-time PCR genotyping assay to identify high oleic acid peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil is an important seed quality trait because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid\\u000a composition, and has a beneficial effect on human health. Hence, a concentrated effort has been put forth on developing peanut\\u000a cultivars that have high oleic acid (>74%) and a

Noelle A. Barkley; Kelly D. Chenault Chamberlin; Ming Li Wang; Roy N. Pittman

2010-01-01

10

[Peanut allergy].  

PubMed

Clinical manifestations of peanut allergy are miscellanous extending from simple itching to anaphylactic shock. They may appear early in life. The diagnosis relies upon history, prick tests, specific IgE dosage, and if necessary oral challenge test. Most often peanut allergy is longstanding requiring a complete exclusion of peanut from the food. In addition peanut oil being a frequent hidden allergen, it is recommended that any patient with recognized peanut allergy carries a first aid kit to be used in case of allergic accident. PMID:12162164

de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

2002-07-01

11

Alcoholic extraction of vegetable oils. I. Solubilities of cottonseed, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils in aqueous ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Solubilities of cottonseed, peanut, sesame, and soybean oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions at various temperatures were determined\\u000a directly. Solubility curves for the four oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions are presented.\\u000a \\u000a The critical solution temperaturesversus alcoholic concentrations data have been plotted and are in complete agreement with the previously published data of Japanese\\u000a workers in each case. It is observed that

Rama Kanth Rao; M. G. Krishna; S. H. Zaheer; L. K. Arnold

1955-01-01

12

Lipases in the storage tissues of peanut and other oil seeds during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The castor-bean endosperm-the best-studied material of reserve lipid hydrolysis in seed germination-was previously shown to have an acid lipase and an alkaline lipase having reciprocal patterns of development during germination. We studied oil seeds from 7 species, namely castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sunflower (Helianthus annus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), cotton (Gossypisum hirsutum L.), corn

Anthony H. C. Huang; Robert A. Moreau

1978-01-01

13

21 CFR 73.3110 - Chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...percent concentration with a mixture of palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut...complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut...complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated...

2009-04-01

14

21 CFR 73.3110 - Chlorophyllin-copper complex, oil soluble.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...percent concentration with a mixture of palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut...complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated peanut...complex, oil soluble (5 percent in palm oil, peanut oil, and hydrogenated...

2010-04-01

15

The influence of zinc and sulphur deficiency on oil-filling in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) kernels, the period between 15 and 35 days after podding (DAP) was identified as the active period of oil-filling. The\\u000a period of active oil-filling was associated with a decrease in the starch, soluble sugars and proteins so as to make available\\u000a the energy and carbon skeleton for the synthesis of oil. The oil

P. S. Sukhija; V. Randhawa; K. S. Dhillon; S. K. Munshi

1987-01-01

16

Biologically Active Components and Nutraceuticals in Peanuts and Related Products: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanuts are among the world's major oilseed crops. They are very nutritious with relatively high protein content and can be utilized in diverse ways. Their oil is very easily digested, and for this reason they are useful consumptives. Peanuts not only contain the so-called “good” fat (monounsaturated fat), but they are also high in a variety of helpful antioxidants, or

Joel Isanga; Guo-Nong Zhang

2007-01-01

17

High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

2000-01-01

18

  Characteristics of the peanut chain in Europe - implications for peanut allergy.  

PubMed

 Background. Peanuts are one of the main food allergens, occasionally responsible for life-threatening reactions. Thus, many studies have tried to fi nd a connection between peanut allergy prevalence and processes in the peanut chain that may contribute to the peanut allergenicity. To inform this discussion, this paper outlines experiences in peanut cultivation, trade and processing in Europe, focusing on four European countries with different peanut experiences (Poland, Bulgaria, Spain and the UK). Material and method. Results here are based on documentary analysis and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 32 experts involved in various stages of the peanut chain, including peanut farmers, processors, traders, food technologists and manufacturers. Results. A common peanut chain diagram has been drawn considering shelled and in-shell peanuts. The analysis of each stage of peanut processing has been made in accordance with this peanut chain schema. Thermal and mechanical processes are discussed alongside the resultant end peanut products available for European consumers. The paper also analyses the main trends of peanut trade in Europe. The results suggest that the majority of peanut products in Europe are roasted, implying enhanced exposure of the population to more allergenic peanuts. Conclusion. The presented schema and related discussion bring together diverse aspects of peanut production, trade and processing. The main factor associated with the increased allergenicity of peanuts appears to be high temperature roasting. Frying and boiling are also thermal processes, but fried and boiled peanuts have been associated with reduce peanut allergenicity. Neither country of origin nor cultivar type appear to be related to differential peanut allergenicity. More research is needed as regards the impact of various additives, such as chocolate (which is also considered an allergen) on the allergenicity of peanut products. The use of peanuts in non-food products also needs more investigation. PMID:24887947

Prusak, Anna; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Ma?gorzata; Boulay, Annabelle; Rowe, Gene

2014-07-01

19

Biosensors for monitoring the isothermal breakdown kinetics of peanut oil heated at 180°C. Comparison with results obtained for extra virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The present research was devoted to studying the kinetics of the artificial rancidification of peanut oil (PO) when a sample of this oil was isothermally heated at 180°C in an air stream. The formation of radical species due to heating was evaluated using a radical index whose value was determined using a biosensor method based on a superoxide dismutase (SOD), while the increasing toxicity was monitored using a suitable toxicity measuring probe based on the Clark electrode and immobilized yeast cells. An extra virgin olive oil was isothermally rancidified under the same experimental conditions and the corresponding data were used for the purpose of comparison. Both the so-called "model-fitting" and the classical kinetic methods were applied to the isothermal process biosensor data in order to obtain the kinetic constant rate value at 180°C. PMID:23692756

Tomassetti, M; Vecchio, S; Campanella, L; Dragone, R

2013-10-15

20

Determination of organophosphorus pesticides in peanut oil by dispersive solid phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The organophosphorus pesticides including phorate, diazinon, tolclofos-methyl, fenitrothin, malathion, fenthion, isocarbophos, quinalphos and phenamiphos, in peanut oils were determined by liquid-liquid extraction coupled with dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mixture of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and alumina was used as adsorbent in dispersive solid phase extraction. The effects of some experimental conditions, such as types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, amount of adsorbents and extraction time were examined. The limits of detection for the analytes were between 0.7 and 1.6 ?g kg(-1). The obtained recoveries of the analytes in the samples were between 85.9 and 114.3% and relative standard deviations were lower than 8.48%. PMID:21963478

Su, Rui; Xu, Xu; Wang, Xinghua; Li, Dan; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

2011-11-15

21

Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.  

PubMed

To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 ?L/g of boldo and 3 and 5 ?L/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, ?-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and ?-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. PMID:24211775

Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

2014-01-01

22

High-capacity disordered carbons derived from peanut shells as lithium-intercalating anode materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report for the first time initial lithium intake capacities for pyrolytic carbonaceous materials far exceeding even the theoretical value for metallic lithium. The carbonaceous materials were synthesized by pyrolysis of peanut shells under argon. Thermal conditions for the pyrolysis were optimized in order to obtain materials with desirable electrochemical properties. Peanut shells carbonized in a two-step process that occurred

G. Ting-Kuo Fey; D. C. Lee; Y. Y. Lin; T. Prem Kumar

2003-01-01

23

Oral Sensitization to Peanut Is Highly Enhanced by Application of Peanut Extracts to Intact Skin, but Is Prevented when CpG and Cholera Toxin Are Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: CpG oligonucleotides might offer an alternative to conventional immunotherapy in preventing and potentially reversing Th2-biased immune deregulation which leads to allergy. However, non-invasive ways of administration, especially in peanut-allergic patients, should be explored. Methods: One hundred micrograms of whole peanut protein extract (PE) alone, or mixed with cholera toxin (CT, 50 ?g) plus CpG (100 ?g) as adjuvant, was

Karine Adel-Patient; Sandrine Ah-Leung; Hervé Bernard; Coralie Durieux-Alexandrenne; Christophe Créminon; Jean-Michel Wal

2007-01-01

24

Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have emerged to reduce/eliminate the allergenicity of peanuts or to better treat peanut-allergic individuals. In this review, we give an overview of peanut allergy, with a focus on peanut proteins, including the impact of thermal processing on peanut protein structure and detection in food matrices. We discuss several strategies currently being investigated to mitigate peanut allergy, including genetic engineering, novel processing strategies, and immunotherapy in terms of mechanisms, recent research, and limitations. All strategies are discussed with considerations for both peanut-allergic individuals and the numerous industries/government agencies involved throughout peanut production and utilization. PMID:24387606

White, Brittany L; Shi, Xiaolei; Burk, Caitlin M; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

2014-01-01

25

Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.  

PubMed

Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. PMID:23993554

Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

2013-12-15

26

Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

27

Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.  

PubMed

Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

28

Survival of Salmonella in peanut butter and peanut butter spread.  

PubMed

In 1996, the first documented outbreak of salmonellosis associated with the consumption of peanut butter was reported. This study was undertaken to determine survival characteristics of high (5.68 log10 cfu g(-1)) and low (1.51 log10 cfu g(-1)) inocula of a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella in five commercial peanut butters and two commercial peanut butter spreads. Populations in samples inoculated with 5.68 log10 cfu g(-1) and stored for 24 weeks at 21 or 5 degrees C decreased 4.14-4.50 log10 cfu g(-1) and 2.86-4.28 log10 cfu g(-1), respectively, depending on the formulation. The order of retention of viability was: peanut butter spreads > traditional (regular) and reduced sugar, low-sodium peanut butters > natural peanut butter. Differences in rates of inactivation are attributed to variation in product composition as well as size and stability of water droplets in the colloidal matrix, which may influence nutrient availability. With the exception of natural peanut butter, products initially inoculated with 1.51 log10 cfu of Salmonella g(-1) (32 cfu g(-1)) were positive for the pathogen after storage for 24 weeks at 5 degrees C. At 21 degrees C, however, with the exception of one peanut butter spread, all products were negative for Salmonella after storage for 24 weeks. Post-process contamination of peanut butter and spreads with Salmonella may to result in survival in these products for the duration of their shelf life at 5 degrees C and possibly 21 degrees C, depending on the formulation. PMID:11021579

Burnett, S L; Gehm, E R; Weissinger, W R; Beuchat, L R

2000-09-01

29

Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: first action 2013.05.  

PubMed

A collaborative study of a method for determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and LC with fluorescence detection, previously published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1689-1700 (2012), was approved as First Action 2013.05 on March 29, 2013 by the Method-Centric Committee for Aflatoxins in Edible Oils. The method uses methanol for extraction followed by filtration. The extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column with antibodies specific for AFs, which are then eluted from the column with a methanol solution. Determination and quantification occur using RP-LC with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The average recovery of AFs in olive, peanut, and sesame oils in spiked samples (levels between 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 92%. The recoveries for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 86-93, 89-95, 85-97, and 76-85%, respectively. Within-laboratory RSD (RSDr) values for AFs ranged from 3.4 to 10.2%. RSDr values forAF B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 3.5-10.9, 3.2-9.5, 6.5-14.9, and 4.8-14.2%, respectively. Between-laboratory RSD (RSDR) values for AFs were 6.1-14.5%. RSD, values for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 7.5-15.4, 7.1-14.6, 10.8-18.1, and 7.6-23.7%, respectively. Horwitz ratio values were < or =2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:24282940

Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

2013-01-01

30

Comparison of the Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase gene between high-oleic and normal-oleic peanut genotypes.  

PubMed

Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase gene has been targeted as a logical candidate controlling the high oleate trait in peanut seeds. By RT-PCR method, the full-length cDNAs of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase gene were isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes with normal and high ratio of oleic to linoleic acid, which were designated AhFAD2B and AhFAD2B', respectively. Sequence alignment of their coding regions revealed that an extra A was inserted at the position +442 bp of AhFAD2B' sequence of high oleic acid genotypes, which resulted in the shift of open reading frame and a truncated protein AhFAD2B', with the loss of one histidine box involved in metal ion complex required for the reduction of oxygen. Analysis of transcript level showed that the expression of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase gene in high oleic acid genotype was slightly lower than that in normal genotype. The enzyme activity experiment of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell transformed with AhFAD2B or AhFAD2B' proved that only AhFAD2B gene product showed significant Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase activity, but AhFAD2B' gene product did not. These results suggested that the change of AhFAD2B' gene sequence resulted in lower activity or deactivation of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase in high oleic acid genotype. PMID:19022202

Yu, Shanlin; Pan, Lijuan; Yang, Qingli; Min, Ping; Ren, Zengkai; Zhang, Hongsheng

2008-11-01

31

Changes in the phytochemical composition and profile of raw, boiled, and roasted peanuts.  

PubMed

Peanuts are consumed mostly as processed products. Although the effect of processing on isoflavone composition of legumes has been extensively studied, there has been no such study on peanuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of processing (boiling, oil- and dry-roasting) on the phytochemical composition of peanuts. Boiling had a significant effect on the phytochemical composition of peanuts compared to oil- and dry-roasting. Boiled peanuts had the highest total flavonoid and polyphenol content. The biochanin A and genistein content of boiled peanut extracts were two- and fourfold higher, respectively. trans-Resveratrol was detected only in the boiled peanuts, with the commercial product having a significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher concentration. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometry chromatograms for the boiled peanut extracts show the presence of four additional peaks that were not observed in the raw peanut extracts. PMID:17924703

Chukwumah, Yvonne; Walker, Lloyd; Vogler, Bernhard; Verghese, Martha

2007-10-31

32

Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age.

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2014-01-01

33

Nut and Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... cashews. What Happens With a Nut or Peanut Allergy? The body's immune system normally fights infection. But, ... people. Continue Living With Peanut or Tree Nut Allergy If allergy testing shows that someone has a ...

34

National Peanut Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those with an interest in peanuts, the National Peanut Board Web site will provide a host of information on this well-known legume. The site has different themed sections dealing with the history of the peanut, and continue on to give a detailed explanation of the production process involved with turning peanuts into a host of products. Additionally, the extensive research and promotion activities of the National Peanut Board are detailed on the site. A map shows the primary peanut growing regions on the United States and a cookbook offers a multitude of ways to use peanuts in different dishes. Perhaps the most interesting part of the site is a section offering a range of facts on the peanut and its uses throughout the world.

2000-01-01

35

Burn a Peanut  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

Doherty, Paul

2000-01-01

36

Development of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) procedure for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in peanut skin extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) procedure was developed for simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids, two stilbenes and eight flavonoids in peanut skin extract. A C18 column fitted with diode array detection at 250 and 320, 280 and 370, and 306nm for phenolic acids, flavonoids and stilbenes, respectively, with mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water

Maria Leonora d L. Francisco; A. V. A. Resurreccion

2009-01-01

37

Peanut Allergy: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergies have been increasing in prevalence in most industrialized countries. Onset is typically in early childhood, with a trend towards earlier ages of presentation. The allergy is lifelong in most affected children, although 15-22% will outgrow their peanut allergy, usually before their teenage years. Manifestations of peanut allergy range from mild to severe, and risk factors predisposing to severe reactions are discussed. However, even in the absence of risk factors, peanut allergic individuals may still experience life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Approaches to investigation and treatment, patterns of cross-reactivity and possible causes of rising prevalence are discussed.

2008-01-01

38

Graphene oxide: an adsorbent for the extraction and quantification of aflatoxins in peanuts by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and specifically selected by centrifugation to extract four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) as an effective adsorbent. Then, the amount of aflatoxins was quantitatively measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency, including the GO amount, methanol concentration in the extraction solvent, spiked amount, extraction time, and elution cycle, were also investigated and optimized in this work. Under optimal conditions, good linear relationships were achieved with the correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.99217 to 0.99995. The detection limit of this method for the four aflatoxins ranged from 0.08 to 0.65ng/g. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to determine aflatoxins in peanut samples. The results show that the recoveries of the four aflatoxins range from 85.1% to 100.8% with the relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 7.9%. PMID:24161148

Yu, Li; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiupin

2013-11-29

39

IgE cross-reactivity between the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and tree nut allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergy to peanut and tree nuts is characterised by a high frequency of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and typically lifelong persistence. Although peanut is the most common cause of nut allergy, peanut allergic patients are frequently also sensitive to tree nuts. It is not known if this is due to cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nut allergens. In this study, the

M. P. de Leon; A. C. Drew; I. N. Glaspole; C. Suphioglu; R. E. O’Hehir; J. M. Rolland

2007-01-01

40

Identification and Characterization of microRNAs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Results A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut.

Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinyan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Mingna; Yang, Zhen; He, Yanan; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

2011-01-01

41

Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status.  

PubMed

Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut consumption and weight, intake of nutrients of concern, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol in Mexican American children, baseline data from 262 sixth-grade students (48% female) in a school-based weight management program were analyzed to compare differences between peanut and non-peanut eaters. It was hypothesized that Mexican American children who consume peanuts will be less overweight and have a better nutrient and lipid profile when compared to those who do not eat peanuts. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire as a baseline dietary assessment before beginning the program. Children were identified as either a peanut consumer (n = 100) or non-peanut consumer (n = 162). Body mass index measurements were taken on all participants. A smaller sample of participants submitted blood for lipid analysis. Analyses revealed that children in the peanut consumer group were less likely to be overweight or obese than children in the non-peanut consumer group (?(2) = 13.9, P = .001), had significantly higher intakes of several vitamins and micronutrients (i.e., magnesium, vitamin E), and had lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. These results illustrate that consumption of peanuts and/or peanut butter is associated with lower weight status, improved diet, and lipid levels among Mexican American children. Future research is needed to clarify the role of peanut consumption in children's overall health. PMID:23827129

Moreno, Jennette Palcic; Johnston, Craig A; El-Mubasher, Abeer A; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Gee, Molly; Foreyt, John P

2013-07-01

42

Packing Peanut Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work with various types of packing peanuts to investigate states of matter and chemical and physical changes. One of the activities involves making slime. The activities can easily be modified for students with learning disabilities.

Hall, Dori; Hall, Sue

2002-02-02

43

Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance  

PubMed Central

Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m?2 s?1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle.

Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

2013-01-01

44

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

45

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

46

[Determination of aldicarb and its metabolites in peanuts by high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap triple stage mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap triple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-IT/MS3) method was established to detect aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, and aldicarb sulfone in peanuts. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile saturated with cyclohexane, followed by clean-up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The determination was performed using HPLC-IT/MS3 for the identification and quantification of the compounds. The separation was carried on a Capcell PAK CR column with gradient elution using 5 mmol/L acetic acid/ammonium acetate/acetonitrile as mobile phase. The ionization of molecules was performed by electrospray mode. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was the acquisition mode used for the monitoring of MS3 transitions for each compound using aldicarb-d3 as internal standard for three analytes. Matrix effects were evaluated by comparing the recovery of matrix-matched and solvent-based calibration curves. The calibration graphs were linear in the ranges of 10 - 500 microg/L and the detection limits ranged from 4 to 5 microg/kg. The average recoveries ranged between 81.5% and 115% at three different spiked levels (10, 20 and 40 microg/kg). Satisfactory results were obtained in the determination of real peanut samples by this method. PMID:22715699

Yang, Xin; Li, Peng; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

2012-03-01

47

Increased Water Activity Reduces the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Butter  

PubMed Central

Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90°C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126°C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil.

He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K.; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou

2013-01-01

48

Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000?L/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000?L/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500?L/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000?L/L) and clove oils (3000?L/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000?L/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

2012-10-15

49

Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function.  

PubMed

Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols including procyanidins and is shown to have hypolipidemic properties. This study investigated the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols using a rat model. First, the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols in rat plasma was evaluated. Our results showed procyanidin A2 levels in plasma peaked within 30 min of ingestion. The results of a second study show that peanut skin extract supplemented in addition to oil gavage resulted in significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and VLDL within 5h. In the third study, rats were given a Western type diet for 5 weeks with peanut skin extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The main effects observed were lowering of total blood lipid and reduction of the plasma fatty acids profile. Our results suggest that procyanidin A may impart a key role of hypolipidemic effect seen in peanut skin polyphenols. PMID:24262521

Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Hurley, Steven; Hanner, Tracy; Baxter, Sarah A Schwatrz; Johnston, Thomas A; Su, Mingming; Holmes, Bryce M; Yu, Jianmei; Williams, Leonard L

2014-04-01

50

Novel strategy to create hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. Polyphenolic phytochemicals have high affinity to bind proteins and form soluble and insoluble complexes with unique functionality. This study investigated the allergenicity of polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices prepared by complexing various polyphenol-rich plant juices and extracts with peanut flour. Polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices reduced IgE binding to one or more peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested changes in secondary protein structure. Peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol fortified matrices triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than unmodified flour in an ex vivo assay using human blood and less mast cell degranulation when used to orally challenge peanut-allergic mice. Polyphenol fortification of peanut flour resulted in a hypoallergenic matrix with reduced IgE binding and degranulation capacity, likely due to changes in protein secondary structure or masking of epitopes, suggesting potential applications for oral immunotherapy. PMID:24758688

Plundrich, Nathalie J; Kulis, Mike; White, Brittany L; Grace, Mary H; Guo, Rishu; Burks, A Wesley; Davis, Jack P; Lila, Mary Ann

2014-07-23

51

Peanut-free guidelines reduce school lunch peanut contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Some schools implement peanut-free guidelines (PFG) requesting omission of peanut from lunches. Our study assessed parental awareness of, and adherence to, PFG by comparing the percentage of lunches containing peanut between primary school classes with and without PFG in Montreal, Québec.Methods:Parents, school principals and teachers were queried concerning the school’s PFG and children’s lunches were inspected by a dietician for

Devi K Banerjee; Rhoda S Kagan; Elizabeth Turnbull; Lawrence Joseph; Yvan St Pierre; Claire Dufresne; K Gray-Donald; Ann E Clarke

2007-01-01

52

High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ?6/?3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

53

An Apparent Anomaly in Peanut Leaf Conductance  

PubMed Central

Conductance to gaseous transfer is normally considered to be greater from the abaxial than from the adaxial side of a leaf. Measurements of the conductance to water vapor of peanut leaves (Arachis hypogaea L.) under well watered and stress conditions in a controlled environment, however, indicated a 2-fold higher conductance from the adaxial side of the leaf than from the abaxial. Studies of conductance as light level was varied showed an increase in conductance from either surface with increasing light level, but conductance was always greater from the adaxial surface at any given light level. In contrast, measurements of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf conductance showed an approximate 2-fold greater conductance from the abaxial surface than from the adaxial. Approximately the same number of stomata were present on both peanut leaf surfaces and stomatal size was similar. Electron microscopic examination of peanut leaves did not reveal any major structural differences between stomata on the two surfaces that would account for the differences in conductance. Light microscope studies of leaf sections revealed an extensive network of bundle sheaths with achloraplastic bundle sheath extensions; the lower epidermis was lined with a single layer of large achloraplastic parenchyma cells. Measurements of net photosynthesis made on upper and lower leaf surfaces collectively and individually indicated that two-thirds of the peanut leaf's total net photosynthesis can be attributed to diffusion of CO2 through the adaxial leaf surface. Possibly the high photosynthetic efficiency of peanut cultivars as compared with certain other C3 species is associated with the greater conductance of CO2 through their upper leaf surfaces. Images

Pallas, James E.

1980-01-01

54

Allergenic characteristics of a modified peanut allergen.  

PubMed

Attempts to treat peanut allergy using traditional methods of allergen desensitization are accompanied by a high risk of anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine if modifications to the IgE-binding epitopes of a major peanut allergen would result in a safer immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of peanut-allergic patients. IgE-binding epitopes on the Ara h 2 allergen were modified, and modified Ara h 2 (mAra h 2) protein was produced. Wild-type (wAra h 2) and mAra h 2 proteins were analyzed for their ability to interact with T-cells, their ability to bind IgE, and their ability to release mediators from a passively sensitized RBL-2H3 cell line. Multiple T-cell epitopes were identified on the major peanut allergen, Ara h 2. Ara h 2 amino acid regions 11-35, 86-125, and 121-155 contained the majority of peptides that interact with T-cells from most patients. The wAra h 2 and mAra h 2 proteins stimulated proliferation of T-cells from peanut-allergic patients to similar levels. In contrast, the mAra h 2 protein exhibited greatly reduced IgE-binding capacity compared to the wild-type allergen. In addition, the modified allergen released significantly lower amounts of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker for IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 degranulation, compared to the wild-type allergen. PMID:16189800

King, Nina; Helm, Ricki; Stanley, J Steven; Vieths, Stefan; Lüttkopf, Dirk; Hatahet, Lina; Sampson, Hugh; Pons, Laurent; Burks, Wesley; Bannon, Gary A

2005-10-01

55

Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity  

PubMed Central

Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; B?gh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

2014-01-01

56

Peanut Allergies, Children and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... in children in the first 2 years of life, though it can develop at any age (2, 7) . What are the symptoms of peanut allergy? Someone who is allergic to peanuts usually develops symptoms within seconds to 2 hours after eating a food that ...

57

High-value oils from plants.  

PubMed

The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years there has been increasing use of these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of using fossil oil, and the need to develop renewable domestic sources of fuel and industrial raw materials. There is also a need to develop sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids such as those that are typically derived from fish oil. Plant oils can provide renewable sources of high-value fatty acids for both the chemical and health-related industries. The value and application of an oil are determined largely by its fatty acid composition, and while most vegetable oils contain just five basic fatty acid structures, there is a rich diversity of fatty acids present in nature, many of which have potential usage in industry. In this review, we describe several areas where plant oils can have a significant impact on the emerging bioeconomy and the types of fatty acids that are required in these various applications. We also outline the current understanding of the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms of seed oil production, and the challenges and potential in translating this knowledge into the rational design and engineering of crop plants to produce high-value oils in plant seeds. PMID:18476869

Dyer, John M; Stymne, Sten; Green, Allan G; Carlsson, Anders S

2008-05-01

58

USDA: National Peanut Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The National Peanut Research Laboratory's mission is to conduct basic and applied research to develop knowledge of the factors affecting the production, harvesting, storage, quality, and safety of peanuts." And, this exceptionally well-designed and informative site is a good example of all of the lab's work. Visitors can get a good appraisal of what's going on at the lab by checking out the Research site, where links such as Crop Production Technology, Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts, Maintaining Peanut Quality During Postharvest Processing, and more, take the visitor to subpages that are full of information about the relative research program. Also available at the site are links to the lab's publications from the past several decades as well as information on how to order software to assist in management of peanut production and management. Also available at the On-line Tools link are helpful tools such as a Warehouse Ventilation Calculator, and free upgrades for previous software editions.

59

USDA: National Peanut Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The National Peanut Research Laboratory's mission is to conduct basic and applied research to develop knowledge of the factors affecting the production, harvesting, storage, quality, and safety of peanuts." And, this exceptionally well-designed and informative site is a good example of all of the lab's work. Visitors can get a good appraisal of what's going on at the lab by checking out the Research site, where links such as Crop Production Technology, Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts, Maintaining Peanut Quality During Postharvest Processing, and more, take the visitor to subpages that are full of information about the relative research program. Also available at the site are links to the lab's publications from the past several decades as well as information on how to order software to assist in management of peanut production and management. Also available at the On-line Tools link are helpful tools such as a Warehouse Ventilation Calculator, and free upgrades for previous software editions.

2006-02-01

60

Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 ?/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

1996-09-01

61

The natural history of peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has traditionally been assumed that peanut allergy is rarely outgrown. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the number of children with peanut allergy who become tolerant of peanut. Methods: Patients aged 4 to 20 years with a diagnosis of peanut allergy were evaluated by questionnaire, skin testing, and a quantitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay. Patients who

Helen S. Skolnick; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Celide Barnes Koerner; Hugh A. Sampson; Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

2001-01-01

62

The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil), storage packets for seasonings or other ingredients and encapsulation for pharmaceutical use.

Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

1998-01-01

63

Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

PubMed

An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-01-01

64

Oil Crops: Situation and Outlook Yearbook, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary; U.S. Soybean Situation; World Oilseed and Protein Meal Situation; World Vegetable Oil Situation; Situation for Other U.S. Oil Crops: Cottonseed; Peanuts; Sunflowerseed; Other Minor Oilseeds; Corn Oil; Other Fats and Oils Highlights; Imp...

D. Decker

1998-01-01

65

Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

2014-07-15

66

Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils  

SciTech Connect

This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

NONE

1996-12-31

67

Restricted Defect Dynamics in Colloidal Peanut Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that monolayers of hard peanut-shaped colloidal particles consisting of two connected spherical lobes order into a crystalline phase at high area fractions. In this ``lobe- close-packed'' (LCP) crystal, the peanut particle lobes occupy triangular lattice sites, much like close-packed spheres, while the connections between lobe pairs are randomly oriented, uniformly populating the three crystalline directions of the underlying lattice. Using optical microscopy, we directly observe defect nucleation and dynamics in sheared LCP crystals. We find that many particle configurations form obstacles blocking dislocation glide. Consequently, in stark contrast to colloidal monolayers of close-packed spheres, single dislocation pair nucleation is not the only significant energetic barrier to relieving an imposed shear strain. Dislocation propagation beyond such obstructions can proceed only through additional mechanisms such as dislocation reactions. We discuss the implications of such restricted defect mobility for the plasticity of LCP crystals.

Gerbode, Sharon; Lee, Stephanie; John, Bettina; Wolfgang, Angie; Liddell, Chakesha; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai

2008-03-01

68

Restricted Defect Dynamics in Colloidal Peanut Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that monolayers of hard peanut-shaped colloidal particles consisting of two connected spherical lobes order into a crystalline phase at high area fractions. In this ``lobe-close-packed'' (LCP) crystal, the peanut particle lobes occupy triangular lattice sites, much like close-packed spheres, while the connections between lobe pairs are randomly oriented, uniformly populating the three crystalline directions of the underlying lattice. Using optical microscopy, we directly observe defect nucleation and dynamics in sheared LCP crystals. We find that many particle configurations form obstacles blocking dislocation glide. Consequently, in stark contrast to colloidal monolayers of close-packed spheres, single dislocation pair nucleation is not the only significant energetic barrier to relieving an imposed shear strain. Dislocation propagation beyond such obstructions can proceed only through additional mechanisms such as dislocation reactions. We discuss the implications of such restricted defect mobility for the plasticity of LCP crystals.

Gerbode, Sharon; Lee, Stephanie; John, Bettina; Wolfgang, Angie; Liddell, Chekesha; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai

2008-03-01

69

Abundant Microsatellite Diversity and Oil Content in Wild Arachis Species  

PubMed Central

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great potential to increase the oil content in A. hypogaea by using the wild Arachis germplasm.

Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Xinyan; Tang, Mei; Huang, Jiaquan; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Liao, Boshou

2012-01-01

70

Effect of Aspergillus parasiticus soil inoculum on invasion of peanut seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental control plots adjusted to late season drought and elevated soil temperatures where inoculated at peanut planting with low and high levels of conidia, sclerotia, and mycelium from a brown conidial mutant ofAspergillus parasiticus. Percentage infection of peanut seeds from undamaged pods was greatest for the subplot containing the high sclerotial inoculum (15\\/cm2 soil surface). Sclerotia did not germinate sporogenically

Bruce W. Horn; Joe W. Dorner; Ronald L. Greene; Paul D. Blankenship; Richard J. Cole

1994-01-01

71

Increased peanut-specific IgA in saliva correlates with food challenge outcomes following peanut sublingual immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Capsule Summary Peanut-specific IgA in saliva correlates with DBPCFC outcomes following peanut SLIT, suggesting that peanut-specific salivary IgA may be a potential biomarker for SLIT used to treat peanut allergy.

Kulis, Michael; Saba, Katie; Kim, Edwin H.; Bird, J. Andrew; Kamilaris, Nikolas; Vickery, Brian P.; Staats, Herman; Burks, A. Wesley

2013-01-01

72

Biorefining of high acid rice bran oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice bran oil with a high free fatty acid content (FFA) after degumming and dewaxing can be converted into edible quality\\u000a oil of satisfactory refining characteristics by first adopting the biorefining process to reduce the major portion of the\\u000a FFA by converting them into neutral glycerides with the aid of 1,3-specific lipase under optimum conditions and later deacidifying\\u000a the residual

S. Bhattacharyya; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1989-01-01

73

Differential gene expression in Arachis diogoi upon interaction with peanut late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata and characterization of a pathogen induced cyclophilin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild relatives of peanut are resistant to various economically important diseases including late leaf spot (LLS) caused\\u000a by Phaeoisariopsis personata, compared with the susceptible cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The interaction of the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata and the highly resistant, diploid peanut wild species, Arachis diogoi was analyzed at the molecular level by differential gene expression

Koppolu Raja Rajesh Kumar; Pulugurtha Bharadwaja Kirti

2011-01-01

74

High-Throughput Transcriptome Analysis of the Leafy Flower Transition of Catharanthus roseus Induced by Peanut Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma Infection.  

PubMed

Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique. PMID:24492256

Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

2014-05-01

75

THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temper- ature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic sub- stance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches

Raffi Paramawati; Puji Widodo

76

78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States and Adjustment...comments on adding the State of Arkansas as a primary peanut-producing State under the Peanut...Agriculture (USDA). Under the Order, primary peanut-producing States must...

2013-12-23

77

Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils  

MedlinePLUS

... those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. parent tips Percent of Saturated Fat Choose Less Often e Often Choose Mor Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil Corn Oil Olive Oil Soybean Oil Margarine (tub) Peanut Oil Margarine (stick) Cottonseed Oil ...

78

Evaluation of Multienvironment Trials of Peanut Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EEA-Manfredi, INTA, Argentina, conducts MET in a Peanut Breeding Program (PBP-INTA) in different Multienvironment yield trials (MET) for advanced peanut lines environments (locations and years). The selected loca- are conducted each year at the EEA-Manfredi Peanut Breeding Pro- gram, the main INTA program for developing new peanut (Arachis tions of MET are representative of the environmental hypogaea L.) cultivars

F. Casanoves; J. Baldessari; M. Balzarini

2005-01-01

79

Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.  

PubMed

Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

1998-12-01

80

Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European Union. PMID:23802714

Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

2013-01-01

81

[The cDNA cloning of conarachin gene and its expression in developing peanut seeds].  

PubMed

In order to clone the genes of peanut seed storage proteins, a cDNA library of mid-maturation stage cotyledons of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Shanyou 523) was constructed. After immunoscreening with polyclonal antibody against conarachin from peanut seeds, two cDNA sequences named Ahy alpha and Ahy beta of conarachin genes were obtained. BLAST these sequences in GenBank showed that they share high homology with the genes of legume 7S globulins. One of the sequences (Ahy beta) was found to be identical to part of the published complete cDNA sequence of the peanut allergen, Ara h1 p17. The other fragment (Ahy alpha) was almost identical to parts of the published complete cDNA sequence of the peanut allergen, Ara h1 p41b. Results of southern analysis show that they belong to a small gene family (the result is not shown). These sequences were expressed only in developing peanut seeds. To isolate the genes involved in seed storage protein and to understand the gene expression during peanut seed development, the sequences of 414 ESTs were determined and further analyzed by BLAST searches and categorized functionally. Five rESTs (representative ones) of arahin, two rESTs of conarachin and six rESTs of conglutin-like proteins were isolated. 17.0% of total transcripts isolated in this study are involved in peanut seed storage proteins. PMID:15692187

Wang, Lei; Yan, Yong-Sheng; Liao, Bin; Lin, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Shang-Zhi

2005-02-01

82

Analysis of High Pressure Oil Shale Hugoniots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of low and high stress level Hugoniot data for a low kerogen content, porous Anvil Points oil shale are analyzed with the P- alpha model to give a Hugoniot for kerogen free shale. The P- alpha model suggests an ''elastic'' yield stress, P/sub...

D. E. Munson

1977-01-01

83

Controlling vanadium from high metals crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processing heavier high metals crude oils continues to be an objective of many refiners. Refiners manage the vanadium and other contaminants with hydroprocessing and FCC catalysts that are more tolerant to metals. Although hydroprocessing and FCC catalyst formulations are critical and will be required for the bulk of the metals removal, many times primary distillation impacts on vanadium are ignored.

S. W. Golden; G. R. Martin

1995-01-01

84

Deep sequencing identifies novel and conserved microRNAs in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a regulatory role in the cell by negatively affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs have been shown to control numerous genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies on discovering miRNAs and analyzing their functions in model species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Increasing investigations have been performed on important agricultural crops including soybean, conifers, and Phaselous vulgaris but no studies have been reported on discovering peanut miRNAs using a cloning strategy. Results In this study, we employed the next generation high through-put Solexa sequencing technology to clone and identify both conserved and species-specific miRNAs in peanuts. Next generation high through-put Solexa sequencing showed that peanuts have a complex small RNA population and the length of small RNAs varied, 24-nt being the predominant length for a majority of the small RNAs. Combining the deep sequencing and bioinformatics, we discovered 14 novel miRNA families as well as 75 conserved miRNAs in peanuts. All 14 novel peanut miRNAs are considered to be species-specific because no homologs have been found in other plant species except ahy-miRn1, which has a homolog in soybean. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that both conserved and peanut-specific miRNAs are expressed in peanuts. Conclusions This study led to the discovery of 14 novel and 22 conserved miRNA families from peanut. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important peanuts and may play an important role in peanut growth, development, and response to environmental stress.

2010-01-01

85

Semisynthetic motor oils derived from high paraffinic petroleum base stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To prepare semi-synthetic oils satisfying the classification API SF\\/CC and SAE 10W30 from mineral base oils derived from high paraffinic petroleum, synthetic alkylbenzenes base oils, and suitable additives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The mixtures of base mineral oils of deep hydro-isomerization derived from high-paraffinic petroleum (viscosity at 100°C is 12.5 cSt) and the mixtures of the synthetic alkyl aromatics oils

F. T. Sejidov; Y. Mansoori

2007-01-01

86

Exploring soil bacterial communities in different peanut-cropping sequences using multiple molecular approaches.  

PubMed

Soil bacterial communities have significant influence on soilborne plant pathogens and, thus, crop health. The present study focuses on ribotyping soil bacterial communities in different peanut-cropping sequences in Alabama. The objective was to identify changes in microbial assemblages in response to cropping sequences that can play a role in managing soilborne plant pathogens in peanut. Four peanut-cropping sequences were sampled at the Wiregrass Research Station, Headland, AL in 2006 and 2007, including continuous peanut, 4 years of bahiagrass followed by peanut, peanut-cotton, and peanut-corn-cotton. Soil sampling was done at early and mid-season and at harvest. Bacterial community structure was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) combined with 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing. RISA results indicated >70% dissimilarities among different cropping sequences. However, 90% similarities were noticed among replicated plots of the same cropping sequences. Cropping sequences and time of soil sampling had considerable effect on soil microbial community structure. Bahiagrass rotation with peanut was found to have the highest bacterial diversity, as indicated by a high Shannon Weaver Diversity index. Overall, higher bacterial diversity was observed with bahiagrass and corn rotations compared with continuous peanut. The bacterial divisions Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinomycetes were the predominant bacterial phyla found in all peanut-cropping sequences. The Proteobacteria taxa in these soils were negatively correlated with the abundance of members of division Firmicutes but, conversely, had a significant positive correlation with Gemmatimonadetes taxa. The prevalence of the division Actinomycetes was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of members of division Verrucomicrobia. These results indicate complex interactions among soil bacteria that are important contributors to crop health. PMID:21281114

Sudini, Hari; Liles, Mark R; Arias, Covadonga R; Bowen, Kira L; Huettel, Robin N

2011-07-01

87

Nitrogen Release from Peanut Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residue management is an important aspect of crop production systems. Availability of plant residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates and therefore on rates of N release during decomposition. Much of the information available on N release rates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) residue is based on controlled-environment studies. The objective of this study was to

Michael J. Mulvaney; C. Wesley Wood; Kipling S. Balkcom; Bernard Meso

88

Peanut-specific IgE antibodies in asymptomatic Ghanaian children possibly caused by carbohydrate determinant cross-reactivity  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of peanut allergy has increased in developed countries, but little is known about developing countries with high peanut consumption and widespread parasitic infections. Objective We sought to investigate peanut allergy in Ghana. Methods In a cross-sectional survey among Ghanaian schoolchildren (n = 1604), data were collected on reported adverse reactions to peanut, peanut sensitization (serum specific IgE and skin reactivity), consumption patterns, and parasitic infections. In a subset (n = 43) IgE against Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 9 as well as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. Cross-reactivity and biological activity were investigated by means of ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release, respectively. Results Adverse reactions to peanut were reported in 1.5%, skin prick test reactivity in 2.0%, and IgE sensitization (?0.35 kU/L) in 17.5% of participants. Moreover, 92.4% of those IgE sensitized to peanut (?0.35 kU/L) had negative peanut skin prick test responses. Schistosoma haematobium infection was positively associated with IgE sensitization (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.37-3.86). In the subset IgE titers to Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 9 were low (<1.3 kU/L), except for 6 moderately strong reactions to Ara h 9. IgE against peanut was strongly correlated with IgE against CCDs (r = 0.89, P < .0001) and could be almost completely inhibited by CCDs, as well as S haematobium soluble egg antigen. Moreover, IgE to peanut showed poor biological activity. Conclusions Parasite-induced IgE against CCDs might account largely for high IgE levels to peanut in our study population of Ghanaian schoolchildren. No evidence of IgE-mediated peanut allergy was found.

Amoah, Abena S.; Obeng, Benedicta B.; Larbi, Irene A.; Versteeg, Serge A.; Aryeetey, Yvonne; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Lidholm, Jonas; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hartgers, Franca C.; Boakye, Daniel A.; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

2013-01-01

89

Type B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce Th1 responses to peanut antigens: modulation of sensitization and utility in a truncated immunotherapy regimen in mice  

PubMed Central

Scope Peanut allergy stems from a Th2-biased immune response to peanut allergens leading to IgE production and allergic reactions upon ingestion. Methods and Results A model of peanut allergy in C3H/HeJ mice was used to assess whether Type A, B, or C CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) molecules would be effective in: (1) a prophylactic approach to prevent peanut allergy when administered simultaneously with a Th2-skewing adjuvant, and (2) a therapeutic model to allow for shortened immunotherapy. Type B ODNs were extremely effective in inhibiting anaphylaxis in the sensitization protocol as evidenced by differences in symptom scores, body temperature, and MMCP-1 release compared to sham treatment. In the therapeutic model, co-administration of Type B ODN plus peanut proteins was highly effective in reducing anaphylactic reactions in mice with established peanut allergy. The therapeutic effect was accompanied by an increase in IFN-? and peanut-IgG2a, without a significant decrease in peanut-IgE or IL-4 responses. Conclusions CpG ODNs, especially Type B, were highly effective in inducing Th1-responses in mice undergoing induction of peanut allergy, as well as in mice undergoing therapy for established peanut allergy. Interestingly, the IgE response was not significantly altered, suggesting that IgG antibodies may be enough to prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis.

Kulis, Mike; Gorentla, Balachandra; Burks, A. Wesley; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

2013-01-01

90

Production of High-Grade Asphalt from Liaoshu Crude Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high viscous crude oil for Shuguang No. 1 zone of Liaohe oilfield has the characteristics of high density (?20 = 0.9977 g.cm), high viscidity (?100 = 1,223.9 mm.s), and high solidifying point (SP = 48°C), which belongs to low sulfur naphthene-base crude oil. The comprehensive evaluations indicate that this oil has no gasoline fraction and the diesel oil is

G. Yang; K. F. Huo

2006-01-01

91

Catalytic production of high-grade fuel (gasoline) from biomass compounds by shape-selective catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape-selective hydrocarbon catalysis, such as the conversion capability of zeolite catalysts of the ZSM-5 type to produce high-grade gasoline from methanol, can be extended to produce a similar gasoline or aromatics from plant extracts. Examples are rubber latex, corn oil, and peanut oil. Novel mechanisms for shape-selective reaction sequences are demonstrated. 2 figures.

P. B. Weisz; W. O. Haag; P. G. Rodeweld

1979-01-01

92

Purification and cloning of two high molecular mass isoforms of peanut seed oleosin encoded by cDNAs of equal sizes.  

PubMed

Oleosins are small plant proteins characterized by a long hydrophobic core flanked by amphipathic N- and C-terminal domains, which act as emulsifiers for the storage of lipids in seeds. They have been sequenced in a number of oilseeds important for the food industry but not in peanuts. We purified the major isoform of peanut oleosin by preparative electrophoresis with continuous elution, in sufficient amounts to raise specific antibodies, perform circular dichroism and N-sequence tryptic fragments. The structure of the purified oleosin was dominated by alpha-helix that may be assigned to the SDS-resistant central hydrophobic stretch. A two-step RT-PCR strategy was developed to determine the cDNA sequence of this oleosin. Two cDNA variants of equal sizes encoding for isoforms of 176 amino acids each were identified. The isoforms differed by seven amino acids mainly located in the N- and C-terminal domains. The corresponding mRNAs were estimated at 0.9 kb by Northern blot and were transcribed from genes without introns. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro-translated peanut oleosin labeled with [14C]leucine or [35S]methionine produced the full-length protein (17 kDa) and a 6-kDa peptide corresponding to the N/C-terminal domains. This peptide was able to form SDS-PAGE stable oligomers by interacting with the full-length protein. A similar peptide was released after [125I]iodination of the purified oleosin that generated intermediate-sized oligomers also visible by Western blot on a crude oleosin extract. Oligomers reflect the natural ability of oleosins to strongly interact with each other via not only their central domains but also their N- and C-terminal domains. PMID:16095908

Pons, Laurent; Chéry, Céline; Mrabet, Nadir; Schohn, Hervé; Lapicque, Françoise; Guéant, Jean-Louis

2005-07-01

93

Induction of Allergic Responses to Peanut Allergen in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN) extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40–50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep) showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy.

Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.

2012-01-01

94

Effect of maturity on the fatty acid composition of eight varieties of peanuts grown at perkins, Oklahoma in 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight varieties of peanuts were grown under measured field conditions. Seed obtained at five successive harvest dates and\\u000a separated into three maturity levels were analyzed for fatty acid composition of oil. Mature peanuts were mostly higher in\\u000a stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, and lower in linoleic (18:2), arachidic (20:0) and behenic (22:0) acids. Oleic-linoleic\\u000a ratios, which are correlated with

C. T. Young; M. E. Mason; R. S. Matlock; G. R. Waller

1972-01-01

95

Comparative proteomic analysis for assessment of the ecological significance of maize and peanut intercropping.  

PubMed

Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Peanut/maize intercropping is known to improve the iron (Fe) content of peanuts in calcareous soils. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to uncover the ecological significance of peanut/maize intercropping at the molecular level. We demonstrate that photosynthesis-related proteins accumulated in intercropped peanut leaves, suggesting that the intercropped peanuts had a stronger photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, stress-response proteins displayed elevated expression levels in both peanut and maize in a monocropping system. This indicated that intercropping contributes to resistance to stress conditions. Allene oxide synthase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, two key enzymes in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, increased in abundance in the maize roots of the intercropping system, consistent with the upregulation of JA-induced proteins shown by microarray analysis. These results imply that JA may act as a signaling molecule, playing an important role in intercropping through rhizosphere interaction. This study suggests that peanut/maize intercropping results in high Fe availability in the rhizosphere, leading to variation in the proteins related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The advantages of intercropping systems may improve the ecological adaptation of plants to environmental stress. PMID:23103225

Xiong, Hongchun; Shen, Hongyun; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Yanxiang; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Ji, Chunqiao; Zhong, Lina; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

2013-01-14

96

Intraocular inflammation following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The use of a mixture of silicone oil and partially fluorinated alkanes (high-density silicone oil) has recently been suggested as intraocular tamponade in complicated retinal detachment of the inferior quadrants. We describe a series of patients who developed a clinical picture resembling anterior granulomatous uveitis following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil. Methods We evaluated 19 eyes of 18 patients

Thomas Theelen; Maurits A. D. Tilanus; B. Jeroen Klevering

2004-01-01

97

Laxative effect of peanut sprout extract.  

PubMed

Certain phenolic compounds are known to exhibit laxative properties. Seed sprouts, such as those of peanut, are known to promote de novo biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to examine the potential laxative properties of 80% (v/v) ethanolic extract of peanut sprout (PSE), which contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds such as resveratrol. For this, SD rats were orally administered PSE while a control group was incubated with saline. Laxative effects were examined in both groups of rats. Constipation induced by loperamide in SD rats was improved by administration of PSE. Constipated rats showed increased intestinal movement of BaSO4 upon administration of PSE compared to the control, and the groups administered 100 or 1,000 mg PSE/kg bw were not significantly different in transit time of the indicator. However, colon length was not statistically different among the experimental groups, although it was longer in the group incubated with 1 g PSE/kg bw compared to other groups. Further, there was no significant difference in stool number among the experimental groups. Taken together, these findings show that PSE has a laxative effect in a rat model of loperamide-induced constipation. PMID:23964312

Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seong Soon; Kim, Hyo Jung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jong-Sang

2013-08-01

98

Pumping Systems for Transferring High-Viscosity Oils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the result of investigating the problems associated with the emergency off-loading of high viscosity oils from damaged or sunken tankers. The design constraints imposed by the oil properties and tanker characteristics were investiga...

D. J. Hackman J. B. Yates J. M. Tierney

1974-01-01

99

The natural history of peanut allergy in young children and its association with serum peanut-specific IgE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To observe the nature and frequency of adverse reactions caused by accidental peanut exposure in young children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity and to determine the value of serum peanut-specific IgE levels during follow-up. Study design: Eighty-three children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity diagnosed before their fourth birthdays were contacted yearly to track adverse peanut reactions. Serum peanut-specific IgE levels were

Timothy K. Vander Leek; Andrew H. Liu; Kay Stefanski; Betty Blacker; S. Allan Bock

2000-01-01

100

Peanut–Induced Anaphylactic Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergies, particularly to peanuts, are a common cause of anaphylaxis. Approximately 125 people die each year in the USA secondary to food–induced anaphylaxis. Clinical anaphylaxis is a syndrome of diverse etiology and dramatic presentation of symptoms associated with the classic features of type I, IgE–mediated hypersensitivity [1]. Typically the term anaphylaxis connotes an immunologically–mediated event that occurs after exposure

Wesley Burks; Gary A. Bannon; Scott Sicherer; Hugh A. Sampson

1999-01-01

101

Peanuts, Pecans, and Peas, Please  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EconEdLink lesson plan from the National Council on Economic Education focuses on how George Washington Carver helped save agriculture in the South by creating a national demand for peanut products. While the discussion questions that accompany the lesson focus mainly on economic concepts, the lesson as a whole provides an excellent, interdisciplinary way to learn about nitrogen fixation and crop rotation. The site provides student and teacher versions of the lesson plan, the teacher version offering more background information.

2003-01-01

102

Improving the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated vegetable oils by blending with high-oleic sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixing different proportions of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with polyunsaturated vegetable oils provides a simple method\\u000a to prepare more stable edible oils with a wide range of desired fatty acid composition. Oxidative stability of soybean, canola\\u000a and corn oils, blended with different proportions of HOSO to lower the respective levels of linolenate and linoleate, was\\u000a evaluated at 60°C. Oxidation was

E. N. Frankel; S. W. Huang

1994-01-01

103

Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.  

PubMed

Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light, a nonthermal technology, was used to treat both the peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic properties of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated using a Xenon RS-3000C under the following conditions: 3 pulses/s, 14.6 cm from the central axis of the lamp, 4 min (extract) or 3 min (liquid peanut butter). After the treatment, the peanut samples were centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed by SDS-PAGE and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA). For comparison, boiling treatments were also performed. SDS-PAGE showed that while boiling treatment had little effect on the peanut allergens, PUV-light-treated samples displayed a reduced solubility or level of peanut allergens (63 kDa). Solubility of another allergen (18 to 20 kDa) was unaffected. Insoluble aggregates formed were responsible for the reduced level of allergens in PUV-light-treated samples. ciELISA showed that untreated samples exhibited an IgE binding 7-fold higher than the PUV-treated samples. It was concluded that PUV light was effective in reducing IgE binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The current study provides an approach to the development of a possibly less allergenic peanut product. However, the reduction in actual allergenicity needs to be confirmed by clinical studies. PMID:18576985

Chung, S-Y; Yang, W; Krishnamurthy, K

2008-06-01

104

Isolation and expression analysis of LEA genes in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).  

PubMed

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family is a large protein family that includes proteins accumulated at late stages of seed development or in vegetative tissues in response to drought, salinity, cold stress and exogenous application of abscisic acid. In order to isolate peanut genes, an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project was carried out using a peanut seed cDNA library. From 6258 ESTs, 19 LEA-encoding genes were identified and could be classified into eight distinct groups. Expression of these genes in seeds at different developmental stages and in various peanut tissues was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that expression levels of LEA genes were generally high in seeds. Some LEA protein genes were expressed at a high level in non-seed tissues such as root, stem, leaf, flower and gynophore. These results provided valuable information for the functional and regulatory studies on peanut LEA genes. PMID:21654076

Su, Lei; Zhao, Chuan-Zhi; Bi, Yu-Ping; Wan, Shu-Bo; Xia, Han; Wang, Xing-Jun

2011-06-01

105

High risk groups in oil shale workforce  

SciTech Connect

The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

1984-04-01

106

Gas Evolution From Transformer Oils Under High-Voltage Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some insulating oils when subjected to high-voltage stress undergo chemical changes that result in the formation of various gases. Since there are different insulating oils available to users that are made by various finishing techniques resulting in oils of significantly varied composition, a study of a range of these materials was made to show if they produced different amounts or

T. K. Sloat; J. L. Johnson; G. M. L. Sommerman

1967-01-01

107

Development and evaluation of high performance diesel engine oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of high performance diesel engine oils were developed by using diesel engine dynamometer tests measuring oil consumption, dispersancy, oxidation stability, engine cleanliness, wear, and corrosion protection. The three multicylinder diesel tests included in the new CE oil category - Mack T-6, Mack T-7 and Cummins NTC-400 - were used in combination with seven other single-cylinder or multicylinder diesel

C. Passut; R. Aggarwal

1987-01-01

108

Genetics of peanut allergy: A twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of genetics in the etiology of peanut allergy is unknown. For complex genetic traits, twin studies can provide information on the relative contribution of genetic factors to a disease, as the relative confounding effects of environmental factors are markedly decreased. Objective: This study was performed to search for evidence that genetic factors influence peanut allergy by comparing

Scott H. Sicherer; Terence J. Furlong; Hermine H. Maes; Robert J. Desnick; Hugh A. Sampson; Bruce D. Gelb

2000-01-01

109

Advances in the Treatment of Peanut Allergy: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergies affect 1.5% of children. The majority of reactions to peanuts are mild, but peanut allergy is also the most common cause of fatal anaphylactic reactions to food. Case Report: The purpose of this case report was to describe a 1-year old boy who developed difficulty breathing after eating a peanut food product. The boy was taken immediately

Richard F. Edlich; Amy A. Cochran; Jill Amanda Greene; Dayna R. Woode; K. Dean Gubler; William B. Long

2011-01-01

110

Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils.  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group colonization of deep-plowed, decomposing rye green manure cover crops in peanut field soils was studied in four fields during 1972 and 1973; colonization of decomposing peanut fruits was studied in 1972 in two fields. A. flavus colonization of rye and peanut fruits was greater in soils of heavy texture, and an A. flavus population as high as 165 propagules per g of soil was observed in soil adjacent to rye, whereas A. flavus populations in soils not associated with rye were 18 propagules per g of soil or lower. Highest A. flavus populations in soil adjacent to decomposing peanut fruits were usually comparable to populations associated with rye. Little decomposing rye or peanut fruit colonization was generally observed by the A. flavus competitor, A. niger group. A. flavus may maintain or increase its inoculum potential by colonization of these and other moribund plant tissues.

Griffin, G J; Garren, K H

1976-01-01

111

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls...hulls containing residues of inorganic bromides will contribute considerable...

2010-07-01

112

40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls...hulls containing residues of inorganic bromides will contribute considerable...

2009-07-01

113

Screening natural antioxidants in peanut shell using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS methods.  

PubMed

Peanut shell, a byproduct in oil production, is rich in natural antioxidants. Here, a rapid and efficient method using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS was used for the first time to screen antioxidants in peanut shell. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS technique. With this method, three compounds possessing potential antioxidant activities were found abundantly in the methanolic extract of peanut shell. They were identified as 5,7-dihydroxychromone, eriodictyol, and luteolin. The contents of these compounds were 0.59, 0.92, and 2.36 mg/g, respectively, and luteolin possessed the strongest radical scavenging capacity. DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS assay facilitated rapid identification and determination of natural antioxidants in peanut shell, which may be helpful for value-added utilization of peanut processing byproducts. PMID:22980814

Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Leilei; Zhu, Qingjun; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Wenliang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Du, Fangling

2012-12-15

114

High Strength and Ultra-Efficient Oil Coalescer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coalescing assembly for coalescing entrained oil from a high temperature, high velocity gas stream comprises a coalescing element of compacted high temperature polyamide fibers, such as those available under the trademark Nomex(Trade Name) rigidly held ...

C. L. Scott T. L. Iles T. N. Tran

2004-01-01

115

Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste. PMID:21286847

Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

2011-12-01

116

Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.  

PubMed

Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants. PMID:19019105

Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

2008-10-01

117

Effects of different extraction buffers on peanut protein detectability and lateral flow device (LFD) performance.  

PubMed

The accidental uptake of peanuts can cause severe health reactions in allergic individuals. Reliable determination of traces of peanuts in food products is required to support correct labelling and therefore minimise consumers' risk. The immunoanalytical detectability of potentially allergenic peanut proteins is dependent on previous heat treatment, the extraction capacity of the applied buffer and the specificity of the antibody. In this study a lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of peanut protein was developed and the capacity of 30 different buffers to extract proteins from mildly and strongly roasted peanut samples as well as their influence on the test strip performance were investigated. Most of the tested buffers showed good extraction capacity for putative Ara h 1 from mildly roasted peanuts. Protein extraction from dark-roasted samples required denaturing additives, which were proven to be incompatible with LFD performance. High-pH buffers increased the protein yield but inhibited signal generation on the test strip. Overall, the best results were achieved using neutral phosphate buffers but equal detectability of differently altered proteins due to food processing cannot be assured yet for immunoanalytical methods. PMID:22043826

Rudolf, J; Ansari, P; Kern, C; Ludwig, T; Baumgartner, S

2012-01-01

118

Population structure and marker-trait association analysis of the US peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. To efficiently utilize the germplasm collection, a peanut mini-core containing 112 accessions was established in the United States. To determine the population structure and its impact on marker-trait association, this mini-core collection was assessed by genotyping 94 accessions with 81 SSR markers and two functional SNP markers from fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2). Seed quality traits (including oil content, fatty acid composition, flavonoids, and resveratrol) were obtained through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis identified four major subpopulations that are related to four botanical varieties. Model comparison with different levels of population structure and kinship control was conducted for each trait and association analyses with the selected models verified that the functional SNP from the FAD2A gene is significantly associated with oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio across this diverse collection. Even though the allele distribution of FAD2A was structured among the four subpopulations, the effect of FAD2A gene remained significant after controlling population structure and had a likelihood-ratio-based R ( 2 ) (R ( LR ) ( 2 ) ) value of 0.05 (oleic acid), 0.09 (linoleic acid), and 0.07 (O/L ratio) because the FAD2A alleles were not completely fixed within subpopulations. Our genetic analysis demonstrated that this peanut mini-core panel is suitable for association mapping. Phenotypic characterization for seed quality traits and association testing of the functional SNP from FAD2A gene provided information for further breeding and genetic research. PMID:21822942

Wang, Ming Li; Sukumaran, Sivakumar; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Chen, Charles Y; Guo, Baozhu; Pittman, Roy N; Stalker, H Thomas; Holbrook, C Corley; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

2011-12-01

119

High-value oils from plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years there has been increasing use of these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of using fossil

John M. Dyer; Sten Stymne; Allan G. Green; Anders S. Carlsson

2008-01-01

120

Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut.  

PubMed

Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut. PMID:19290315

Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Weaver, C F; Robertson, D G; Ivey, H

1988-10-01

121

Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut  

PubMed Central

Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut.

Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Weaver, C. F.; Robertson, D. G.; Ivey, H.

1988-01-01

122

Nutritive value of heated vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut, sesame and coconut oils were heated at 270C for 8 hr, in an open iron pan. These fats were fed to albino rats at 15%\\u000a level in otherwise adequate diets. All rats fed heated fats showed a growth depression. Livers of rats receiving heated oil\\u000a were congested and showed extensive periportal fatty infiltration. Rats on heated peanut oil showed

N. V. Raju; M. Narayana Rao; R. Rajagopalan

1965-01-01

123

Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidation and Tocopherols Decrease in In-Shell, Peeled and Blanched Peanuts  

PubMed Central

In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. ?-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops.

de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

2012-01-01

124

Testing Falling Peanut Butter Sandwich Myth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to rotational inertia (page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a bit of scientific experimenting to test if open-faced peanut butter sandwiches really do always land peanut butter side down. Learners will also test other variables, such as drop height, size of bread slice, and whatever else learners can think of, to arrive at some sound conclusions. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Microgravity.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

125

Condition monitoring of high voltage transformer oils using optical chromaticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation for the present contribution was to produce a cost effective, convenient system for the optical monitoring of degraded high voltage transformer oils using the chromaticity of polychromatic light transmitted through the oil. The technique uses readily available and portable instrumentation. Examples of results for typical oil samples have been obtained with the technique and comparisons made with the conventional technique of Colour Index. It is shown how the chromatic technique can supplement the Colour Index approach to provide additional information about changes in the transformer oil, such as the presence and extent of solid micro-particles.

Elzagzoug, E.; Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

2014-06-01

126

Development of a High Seas Oil Recovery System. Appendix II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model test development program was conducted of a double weir oil recovery system for rapid recovery of oil spilled on the high seas. In this appendix a detailed discussion of three-dimensional seakeeping tests, pump and control system tests, 1/3-scale ...

F. A. March R. L. Beach R. P. Bishop T. N. Blockwick R. K. Sahgal

1972-01-01

127

Aflatoxins in peanut butter in Khartoum State, Sudan.  

PubMed

Forty-three peanut butter samples from Khartoum State, Sudan, were analyzed for aflatoxins (AFs, AFB1?+?AFB2?+?AFG1?+?AFG2) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after extraction with methanol:water (8:1, v/v) and clean-up using chloroform. All samples were contaminated with AFs, with total AF levels ranging between 26.7 and 853 ?g/kg, and a mean total AF level of 287 ± 200.5 ?g/kg. The highest concentrations were found for AFB1, (28 positive samples, maximum 534 ?g/kg), while AFG1 was most frequently detected (43 positive samples, maximum 401 ?g/kg). AFB2 (42 positive samples, maximum 3.2 ?g/kg) and AFG2 (4 positive samples, maximum 30 ?g/kg) were also present in these samples. The mean AF contamination levels found in this study exceeded by far all international regulations concerning maximum levels for this group of toxins. From the data, it is concluded that the levels of AF contamination in peanut butter from the Kartoum area are quite alarming, and may pose serious health hazards to consumers. Therefore, an intervention strategy to manage AF in peanut butter is urgently needed. PMID:23605798

Elzupir, Amin Osman; Salih, Amar O A; Suliman, Suliman A; Adam, Ali A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M

2011-08-01

128

Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.  

PubMed

Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

2014-07-01

129

Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut  

PubMed Central

The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5–0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria.

Bassey, Francisca I; Mcwatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2013-01-01

130

Vinegar and peanut products as complementary foods to reduce postprandial glycemia.  

PubMed

Mealtime glycemic load is associated with risk for chronic disease. This study examined whether complementary foods (vinegar and peanut products) could lower postprandial glycemia without altering mealtime glycemic load. Eleven healthy subjects consumed two test meals (bagel and juice, glycemic load=81; or chicken and rice, glycemic load=48) under three conditions (control, vinegar, or peanut) using a randomized, crossover design. Vinegar or peanut ingestion reduced the 60-minute glucose response to both test meals by approximately 55%, but these reductions were significant only for the high-glycemic load meal. After consumption of the high-glycemic load meal, energy consumption for the remainder of the day was weakly affected by the vinegar and peanut treatments, a reduction of approximately 200 to 275 kcal (P=.111). Regression analyses indicated that 60-minute glucose response to the test meals explained 11% to 16% of the variation in later energy consumption. In conclusion, the addition of vinegar or peanut products to a high-glycemic load meal significantly reduced postprandial glycemia. PMID:16321601

Johnston, Carol S; Buller, Amanda J

2005-12-01

131

Oil muds score high in Anadarko evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the economic and technical differences between inverted emulsion muds and water-based muds in the Springer formation of the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma shows advantages for oil muds in drilling, completion, and production operations. In particular, each fluid was examined to determine the severity of formation damage associated with its use. There were eighteen wells in a twelve

Braden

1987-01-01

132

Kentucky exploration targets oil in fractured High Bridge, Knox zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-yielding oil well, the Syndicated Options Ltd. of Austria 9372 Ferguson Bros., was completed in late 1990 in Clinton County, south-central Kentucky. Cumulative production for the first 8 weeks was reported to have been nearly 150,000 bbl of oil. The well produced from the Middle Ordovician High Bridge group, which is equivalent to the Stones River group of Tennessee.

Hamilton-Smith

1992-01-01

133

Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 ?g·kg?1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 ?g·kg?1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day?1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1.

Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Goncalves, Natalia B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

2009-01-01

134

Nutritional value and acceptability of homemade maize/sorghum-based weaning mixtures supplemented with rojo bean flour, ground sardines and peanut paste.  

PubMed

Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content and residual urease activity. The diets were also evaluated for storage stability under ambient conditions, sensory quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, calcium, iron, zinc and copper were significantly (P<0.05) increased when plain maize and sorghum gruels were enriched with rojo beans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the rojo beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (P<0.05). Residual urease activity ranged between 0.00 and 0.07 units, about 10-fold lower than the maximum level (0.8 units) allowed in weaning foods. Both maize and sorghum-based composite gruels had a short shelf-life under ambient conditions (26.4 degrees C) ranging between 4 and 6 h, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite gruels except those containing germinated rojo beans were highly liked and accepted by consumers (P<0.05), similar to the plain maize and sorghum gruels. The maize and sorghum-based composite products therefore have a potential for use as weaning and/or supplementary foods for older infants and young children. Further investigations are suggested to extend the shelf-life of the composite products and improve the organoleptic quality of the diets containing germinated rojo beans. PMID:15369984

Mosha, Theobald C E; Vicent, Mary M

2004-06-01

135

Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for efficient FA production in E. coli.

Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

2013-01-01

136

Preparation and quality evaluation of peanut chikki incorporated with flaxseeds.  

PubMed

In an attempt to achieve correct ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids for health benefits, flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum), a good source of n-3 fatty acids, were incorporated with optimized 20% replacement of peanuts in the formulation for the preparation of chikki. Tertiarybutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at 200 ppm level used as an antioxidant. Results showed that there were no differences in texture or sensory quality among the samples with and without addition of antioxidant. The peroxide value of oil in chikki increased gradually at 37 °C on storage. At the end of 60 days at 37 °C, rancidity developed in samples without antioxidant but not in that with added antioxidant. Thus, TBHQ increased the shelf-life of the product. Addition of flaxseeds to chikki increased PUFA content, especially n-3 fatty acids, up to 9%, which were not present in chikki prepared only with peanuts. Thus the ratio of 18:2 to 18:3 increased with addition of flaxseed, which has significant health benefits. PMID:23572815

R, Chetana; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

2011-12-01

137

Evaluation of electrospun polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene fibers as sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A novel, high-capacity oil sorbent consisting of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polystyrene (PS) fiber was prepared by an electrospinning process. The sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, and sorption mechanism of the PVC/PS sorbent were studied. The results showed that the sorption capacities of the PVC/PS sorbent for motor oil, peanut oil, diesel, and ethylene glycol were 146, 119, 38, and 81 g/g, respectively. It was about 5-9 times that of a commercial polypropylene (PP) sorbent. The PVC/PS sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity (about 1000 times) and high buoyancy in the cleanup of oil over water. The SEM analysis indicated that voids among fibers were the key for the high capacity. The electrospun PVC/PS sorbent is a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbent for oil spill cleanup. PMID:21513310

Zhu, Haitao; Qiu, Shanshan; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

2011-05-15

138

Peanut Program: Potential Effects of Proposed Farm Bill on Producers, Consumers, Government, and Peanut Imports and Exports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current federal peanut program, administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is designed to support producers' incomes while ensuring an ample supply of domestically produced peanuts. To accomplish these goals, the program controls the d...

2001-01-01

139

An outbreak of yellow mold of peanut seedlings in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow mold of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seedlings caused by Aspergillus flavus was first observed during May 1984 in a commercial peanut farm in south Texas. The mold caused preemergence rotting of peanut seed and seedlings. On emerged seedlings the infection was largely restricted to cotyledons. The diseased plants were chlorotic, stunted, and leaflets were reduced in size with pointed tips

P. Subrahmanyam; D. H. Smith; R. A. Raber; E. Shepherd

1987-01-01

140

ELISA kit for peanut protein determination: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study in 10 laboratories was performed to validate an ELISA method developed for the quantitative determination of peanut protein in foods. The ELISA kit used for this study is based on rabbit polyclonal antibody. This kit does not produce any false-positive results or cross-reactivity with a broad range of peanut-free food matrixes. All participants obtained the peanut ELISA kit with standard operational procedures, a list of samples, the samples, and a protocol for recording test results. The study included 15 food samples. Three food matrix samples of zero peanut content showed peanut protein content lower than the first standard (0.10 mg/kg). Three samples with peanut declared as an ingredient revealed peanut protein content outside the calibration curve (absorbance was above the highest standard) in all laboratories, and three samples had the peanut content reported either above the highest standard or within the calibration curve, depending on the laboratory. Six samples with peanut declared as an ingredient gave the peanut protein content within the calibration curve. Only these six samples, together with a positive control sample (CS2), were used for statistical evaluation. The statistical tests (Cochran, Grubbs, and Mandel) and analysis of variance were used for the evaluation of the collaborative study results. Repeatability and reproducibility limits, as well as an LOQ (LOQcollaborative 0.22 mg peanut proteins/kg) and an LOD (LODcollaborative 0.07 mg peanut proteinslkg) for the kit were calculated. PMID:24282944

Lexmaulová, Hana; Gabrovská, Dana; Rysová, Jana; Stumr, Frantisek; Netusilová, Katerina; Blazková, Martina; Bulawová, Hana; Brychta, Josef; Subrtová, Zdenka; Pavelka, Jiri; Iametti, Stefania; Del Barco, Jorge Antonio Guisantes; Quesada, Jorge Martinez; Pardo, Esther Sunen; Resa, Idoia Postigo; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Piknová, Lubica; Langerholc, Tomaz; Cencic, Avrelija; Barsová, Sona; Cuhra, Petr; Plicka, Jan

2013-01-01

141

Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE) can influence the selection process and recommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction of peanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessed in 10 field trials in the

Eder Jorge de Oliveira; Ignácio José de Godoy

142

Profiling peanut ( Arachis hypogea L.) accessions and cultivars for oleic acid and yield in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of monounsaturated oleic fatty acid to polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (O\\/L) and the associated agronomic traits\\u000a were profiled for local peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars and accessions in Botswana. The research was tested on 16 entries planted in four localities across the country.\\u000a The average total oil yield of the genotypes studied was about 42.1% and there was no

Mulualem T. Kassa; Samuel O. Yeboah; Merhatibeb Bezabih

2009-01-01

143

Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of peanut from public database  

PubMed Central

Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5%) within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5%) was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%), AAT (10.9%), and AT (10.3%).The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders.

2012-01-01

144

In silico polymorphism analysis for the development of simple sequence repeat and transposon markers and construction of linkage map in cultivated peanut  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an autogamous allotetraploid legume (2n?=?4x?=?40) that is widely cultivated as a food and oil crop. More than 6,000 DNA markers have been developed in Arachis spp., but high-density linkage maps useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding have not been constructed due to extremely low genetic diversity. Polymorphic marker loci are useful for the construction of such high-density linkage maps. The present study used in silico analysis to develop simple sequence repeat-based and transposon-based markers. Results The use of in silico analysis increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development by more than 3-fold. In total, 926 (34.2%) of 2,702 markers showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the mapping population. Linkage analysis of the 926 markers along with 253 polymorphic markers selected from 4,449 published markers generated 21 linkage groups covering 2,166.4?cM with 1,114 loci. Based on the map thus produced, 23 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 15 agronomical traits were detected. Another linkage map with 326 loci was also constructed and revealed a relationship between the genotypes of the FAD2 genes and the ratio of oleic/linoleic acid in peanut seed. Conclusions In silico analysis of polymorphisms increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development, and contributed to the construction of high-density linkage maps in cultivated peanut. The resultant maps were applicable to QTL analysis. Marker subsets and linkage maps developed in this study should be useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding in Arachis. The data are available at the Kazusa DNA Marker Database (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp).

2012-01-01

145

Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame.

2014-01-01

146

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

147

Absence of aflatoxin from refined vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is the first definitive study of the fate of the aflatoxins in vegetable oils undergoing processing.\\u000a Crude oils, obtained by solvent extraction or by hydraulic pressing of ground moldy peanuts (not suitable for human consumption),\\u000a contained only small fractions of the aflatoxin originally present in the peanuts; the meals retained the bulk of the aflatoxin.\\u000a Conventional alkali

Wilbur A. Parker; Daniel Melnick

1966-01-01

148

The effects of oils and frying temperatures on the texture and fat content of potato crisps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of oils and frying temperatures on fat content and texture of potato crisps.The material used for the study consisted of eight kinds of vegetable oils: sunflower, rapeseed, soybean, olive, peanut, palm, partially hydrogenated rapeseed oil (modified oil I) and a mixture of hydrogenated rapeseed oil with palm oil (modified oil

A. Kita; G. Lisi?ska; G. Go?ubowska

2007-01-01

149

AhDMT1, a Fe(2+) transporter, is involved in improving iron nutrition and N2 fixation in nodules of peanut intercropped with maize in calcareous soils.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important legume providing edible proteins and N2 fixation. However, iron deficiency severely reduces peanut growth in calcareous soils. The maize/peanut intercropping effectively improves iron nutrition and N2 fixation of peanut under pot and field conditions on calcareous soils. However, little was known of how intercropping regulates iron transporters in peanut. We identified AhDMT1 as a Fe(2+) transporter which was highly expressed in mature nodules with stronger N2 fixation capacity. Promoter expression analysis indicated that AhDMT1 was localized in the vascular tissues of both roots and nodules in peanut. Short-term Fe-deficiency temporarily induced an AhDmt1 expression in mature nodules in contrast to roots. However, analysis of the correlation between the complex regulation pattern of AhDmt1 expression and iron nutrition status indicated that sufficient iron supply for long term was a prerequisite for keeping AhDmt1 at a high expression level in both, peanut roots and mature nodules. The AhDmt1 expression in peanut intercropped with maize under 3 years greenhouse experiments was similar to that of peanut supplied with sufficient iron in laboratory experiments. Thus, the positive interspecific effect of intercropping may supply sufficient iron to enhance the expression of AhDmt1 in peanut roots and mature nodules to improve the iron nutrition and N2 fixation in nodules. This study may also serve as a paradigm in which functionally important genes and their ecological significance in intercropping were characterized using a candidate gene approach. PMID:24519544

Shen, Hongyun; Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

2014-05-01

150

Evaluation of Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Protein Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2–12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2–5 g/100 ml) than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

Zhang, Hui Cui; Zhang, Chu Shu; Yu, Li Na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Shao Fang; Yang, Qing Li

2012-01-01

151

Oil muds score high in Anadarko evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A study of the economic and technical differences between inverted emulsion muds and water-based muds in the Springer formation of the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma shows advantages for oil muds in drilling, completion, and production operations. In particular, each fluid was examined to determine the severity of formation damage associated with its use. There were eighteen wells in a twelve township area in Caddo and Grady Counties of Oklahoma, in the study. They were evaluated from the top of the Springer formation to total depth. The Springer is a marine deposit composed of several tight dry gas sands with permeabilities less than 0.1 md. Nine of the wells were drilled with water-based mud to the intermediate casing point, which is in the transition zone between normal and abnormal pressure in the Morrow shale directly above the Springer formation.

Braden, S.

1987-06-01

152

Moringa oleifera oil: A possible source of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the

Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe

2008-01-01

153

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

154

Transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with tobacco chitinase gene: variable response of transformants to leaf spot disease.  

PubMed

Fertile transgenic plants of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. TMV-2 expressing tobacco chitinase and neomycin phosphotransferase (npt II) genes were generated using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404/pBI121-pBTex)-mediated transformation system. A tissue culture-independent method wherein embryo in the mature seed is inoculated and reared into single plant transformant was used for transformation. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA isolated from T(0) transformants and progeny plants (T(1)) demonstrated that the transgenes are stably integrated in the genome of transgenic peanut plants and inherited by the offspring. The expression of the heterologous chitinase gene driven by CaMV 35S promoter led to a high level of activity in some of the transgenic plants. Small-scale field tests indicated increased ability of these plants to resist the fungal pathogen Cercospora arachidicola (the causal organism of the leaf spot or Tikka disease of peanut), which is an important peanut pathogen. These results suggest that a heterologous chitinase gene was functional in peanut and expressed in healthy plants. The study also shows that peanut plants containing transgenically increased activity of chitinase were resistant to attack by the fungal pathogen C. arachidicola to different degrees. The strategy employed may be useful for the control of other fungal diseases of the crop. PMID:11297785

Rohini, V K.; Sankara Rao, K

2001-04-01

155

Immunogenetic analysis of the heavy chain variable regions of IgE from patients allergic to peanuts.  

PubMed

Peanuts are one of the most allergenic of the foods, and hypersensitivity responses to peanut allergens can be fatal. Although the nature of the antigenic components of peanuts is being defined at the molecular level, there is little information on the induced IgE antibodies, which are central to the allergic reaction. Recognition sites of IgE antibody molecules arise from the variable regions of heavy and light chains (VH and VL). By using nested polymerase chain reactions with specific primers for the available repertoire of VH genes, together with primers in the constant epsilon region, we have amplified VH sequences of IgE from blood lymphocytes of two patients with peanut allergy. After cloning and sequencing the products, we found a predominance of VH1 family use in both patients, which was not found in control IgM-specific primers. The IgE VH sequences were highly somatically mutated, but in only six of 17 cases was there clear evidence for clustering of amino acids indicative of antigen selection. Previous results from patients with allergy to house dust mites have indicated predominance of VH5 use and little evidence for antigen selection. Although results from two patients allergic to peanuts must be regarded as preliminary, they do suggest that the IgE response to peanuts may have a different VH bias, with a similar mutational pattern. PMID:9525457

Janezic, A; Chapman, C J; Snow, R E; Hourihane, J O; Warner, J O; Stevenson, F K

1998-03-01

156

Comparison of commercial peanut skin test extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Skin prick testing is a major tool for diagnosing food allergy. Food allergen extracts have not been standardized; this may lead to great variability in the predictive accuracy of skin prick tests. Methods: Six commercial peanut skin test extracts were compared in vitro with RAST inhibition assays, ELISA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by immunoblotting with

Susan L. Hefle; Ricki M. Helm; A. Wesley Burks; Robert K. Bush

1995-01-01

157

33 CFR 151.47 - Category D NLSs other than oil-like Category D NLSs that may be carried under this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid (70% or less) Coconut oil fatty acid methyl ester Copper...Octadecenoamide solution Octanoic acid Oil, edible: Babassu Beechnut... Hazelnut Nutmeg butter Olive Palm Palm kernel Peanut... Tucum Vegetable Walnut Oil, misc: Animal,...

2012-07-01

158

33 CFR 151.47 - Category D NLSs other than oil-like Category D NLSs that may be carried under this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid (70% or less) Coconut oil fatty acid methyl ester Copper...Octadecenoamide solution Octanoic acid Oil, edible: Babassu Beechnut... Hazelnut Nutmeg butter Olive Palm Palm kernel Peanut... Tucum Vegetable Walnut Oil, misc: Animal,...

2011-07-01

159

Kentucky exploration targets oil in fractured High Bridge, Knox zones  

SciTech Connect

A high-yielding oil well, the Syndicated Options Ltd. of Austria 9372 Ferguson Bros., was completed in late 1990 in Clinton County, south-central Kentucky. Cumulative production for the first 8 weeks was reported to have been nearly 150,000 bbl of oil. The well produced from the Middle Ordovician High Bridge group, which is equivalent to the Stones River group of Tennessee. The producing zone was apparently a fractured carbonate reservoir at a depth of 1,008 ft. The discovery well was the result of deepening a previously abandoned well. The oil well, the Nelson Bishop 4A Ferguson Bros., was previously drilled to 980 ft in March 1987. The original well was logged and cased, and was successfully completed as an oil well in the upper part of the High Bridge group producing about 3 b/d of oil from 828-830 ft. This well was subsequently abandoned and the lease was allowed to expire. In 1990 the Nelson Bishop well was acquired by Syndicated Options Ltd. of Austria and renamed following the change of operator. An air rotary rig was used to clean out the deepen the well.

Hamilton-Smith, T. (Tec Group, Inc., Bloomfield, CT (United States))

1992-11-09

160

High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5% EPT-OILShield and an untreated control SBO were used for intermittent batch frying of tortilla chips at 180 degrees C for up to 65 h. Oil frying stability was measured by free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC). Chips were aged for up to 4 mo at 25 degrees C and evaluated for rancid flavor by a 15-member, trained, experienced analytical sensory panel and for hexanal content as an indicator of oxidation. Oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield had significantly less FFA and TPC than the control. The effect of EPT-OILShield was apparently retained in aged chips because hexanal levels were significantly lower in chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in chips fried in the control. Tortilla chips fried in the control were rancid after 2 mo at 25 degrees C at sampling times evaluated from 25 to 65 h; however, chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield and used for 65 h were described as only slightly rancid after 4 mo. Gamma tocopherol levels were significantly higher in the chips fried in the oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in the control, helping to inhibit oxidation in the tortilla chips during storage. PMID:19723188

Warner, Kathleen; Gehring, Marta Meta

2009-08-01

161

Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

2010-06-01

162

CCMR: New building Blocks for Colloid- Based Materials by Imprinting Peanut Shape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To form peanut-shaped shells of high refractive index materials, and to then control properties of the different coatings. Hematite particles were first synthesized and then coated with silica, at which point the iron oxide was etched out of the shells.

Jones, Stephanie

2005-08-17

163

Nutritional quality and storage stability of extruded weaning foods based on peanut, maize and soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of extruded high protein weaning foods were produced using blends of peanuts, maize and soybean to achieve the desired level of protein. The extruded products, based on a raw and a preroasteds mix of ingredients, were developed and characterized in terms of the hot paste viscosity characteristics, chemical and nutritional quality, amino acid composition, and storage stability. A comparative

W. A. Plahar; B. Onuma Okezie; N. T. Annan

2003-01-01

164

Detection of moulds producing aflatoxins in maize and peanuts by an immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect moulds producing aflatoxins in maize and peanuts by an antibody produced to extracellular antigen from Aspergillus parasiticus. This antibody recognized species with phenotypic similarities to A. parasiticus, A. flavus and the domesticated species A. sojae and A. oryzae. For maize samples that were naturally contaminated with aflatoxins, low and high levels

R. K Yong; M. A Cousin

2001-01-01

165

Peanut oral immunotherapy modifies IgE and IgG4 responses to major peanut allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut-allergic subjects have highly stable pathologic antibody repertoires to the immunodominant B cell epitopes of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1-3. Objective We used a peptide microarray technique to analyze the effect of treatment with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) on such repertoires. Methods Measurements of total peanut-specific IgE (psIgE) and psIgG4 were made with CAP-FEIA. We analyzed sera from 22 OIT subjects and 6 controls and measured serum specific IgE and IgG4 binding to epitopes of Ara h 1-3 using a high-throughput peptide microarray technique. Antibody affinity was measured using a competitive peptide microarray as previously described. Results At baseline, psIgE and psIgG4 diversity were similar between subjects and controls, and there was broad variation in epitope recognition. After a median 41 months of OIT, polyclonal psIgG4 increased from a median 0.3 mcg/mL (IQR 0.1-0.43) at baseline to 10.5 mcg/mL (3.95-45.48) (p<0.0001) and included de novo specificities. PsIgE was reduced from a median baseline of 85.45 kUA/L (23.05-101.0) to 7.75 kUA/L (2.58-30.55) (p<0.0001). Affinity was unaffected. Although the psIgE repertoire contracted in most OIT-treated subjects, several subjects generated new IgE specificities even as the total psIgE decreased. Global epitope-specific shifts from IgE to IgG4 binding occurred, including at an informative epitope of Ara h 2. Conclusion OIT differentially alters Ara h 1-3 binding patterns. These changes are variable between subjects, not observed in controls, and include a progressive polyclonal increase in IgG4, with concurrent reduction in IgE amount and diversity.

Vickery, Brian P.; Lin, Jing; Kulis, Michael; Fu, Zhiyan; Steele, Pamela H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Gimenez, Gustavo; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A.; Burks, A. Wesley

2012-01-01

166

OHMSETT 'HIGH SEAS' PERFORMANCE TESTING: MARCO CLASS V OIL SKIMMER  

EPA Science Inventory

A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at various collection speeds. Skim...

167

Stable highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes for oil water separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a simple method for fabricating both highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes by coating thin fluoro-containing films. The static contact angle of such meshes is greater than 150° for water, and close to 0° for kerosene, xylene and toluene. These meshes can separate water from oil effectively without resorting to any extra power or chemical agent. Moreover, they exhibited stable water resisting, anti-chemical erosion and anti-hot aging properties. It promises as a candidate for the separation of oil and water.

Wang, Qingjun; Cui, Zhe; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Qingmin

2007-09-01

168

Patient-tailored cloning of allergens by phage display: peanut (Arachis hypogaea) profilin, a food allergen derived from a rare mRNA.  

PubMed

A peanut cDNA phage surface display library was constructed and screened for the presence of IgE-binding proteins. We used a serum from a peanut-sensitized individual with a low specific IgE level to peanut extract and suffering from mild symptoms after peanut ingestion. A total of 10(11) cDNA clones were screened by affinity selection towards serum IgE immobilized to solid-phase supports. After five rounds of selective enrichment, sequence determination of 25 inserts derived from different clones revealed presence of a single cDNA species. The cDNA-encoded gene product, formally termed Ara h 5, shows up to 80% amino acid sequence identity to the well-known plant allergen profilin, a 14 kD protein present only in low amount in peanut extracts. Immunoblot analysis of fifty sera from individuals sensitized to peanut showed that 16% had mounted a detectable IgE response to the newly identified peanut profilin. High-level expression as non-fusion protein in BL21 (DE3) was carried under control of the inducible T7 promoter. Peanut profilin was purified by affinity chromatography on poly-(L-proline)-Sepharose and yielded 30 mg l(-1) culture of highly pure recombinant allergen. In spite of the high level of up to 80% amino acid identity to other plant profilins, inhibition experiments with recombinant profilins of peanut, cherry, pear, celery and birch revealed marked differences regarding their IgE-binding capacity. PMID:11419720

Kleber-Janke, T; Crameri, R; Scheurer, S; Vieths, S; Becker, W M

2001-05-25

169

Highly efficient and recyclable carbon soot sponge for oil cleanup.  

PubMed

Carbon soot (CS) has the advantages of cost-effectiveness and production scalability over other carbons (i.e., graphene, CNTs) in their synthesis. However, little research has been conducted to explore the potential applications of CS. In this study, we demonstrated that a common daily waste-CS-can be used for developing a cost-effective absorbent (CS-sponge) to remove oil contaminants from water. The CS was synthesized by an ethylene-oxygen combustion flame. The CS-sponge was prepared via a dip-coating method. Without further surface modification and pretreatments, the CS-sponge demonstrates high absorption capacities (up to 80 times its own weight) for a broad spectrum of oils and organic solvents with a recyclability of more than 10 times. These research results show evidence that the CS-sponge is promising in environmental remediation for large-scale, low-cost removal of oils from water. PMID:24670866

Gao, Yang; Zhou, Yun Shen; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Fan, Lisha; Rabiee-Golgir, Hossein; Jiang, Lijia; Hou, Wenjia; Huang, Xi; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Lu, Yong Feng

2014-04-23

170

Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%–89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut.

Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

171

Effects of ?-Tocopherol on Oxidative Stability and Phytosterol Oxidation During Heating in Some Regular and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this study evaluated oxidative stability in high-oleic rapeseed oil, palm olein, refined olive oil, low\\u000a erucic acid rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. The results showed oxidative stability in the order: palm olein > high-oleic rapeseed\\u000a oil > refined olive oil > low erucic acid rapeseed oil > sunflower oil, as determined by the Rancimat method. Addition of\\u000a ?-tocopherol at high levels of up to

Elham Tabee; Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi; Margaretha Jägerstad; Paresh C. Dutta

2008-01-01

172

Peanut gene expression profiling in developing seeds at different reproduction stages during Aspergillus parasiticus infection  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop economically and nutritionally, and is one of the most susceptible host crops to colonization of Aspergillus parasiticus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Knowledge from molecular genetic studies could help to devise strategies in alleviating this problem; however, few peanut DNA sequences are available in the public database. In order to understand the molecular basis of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination, a large-scale project was conducted to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from developing seeds to identify resistance-related genes involved in defense response against Aspergillus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Results We constructed six different cDNA libraries derived from developing peanut seeds at three reproduction stages (R5, R6 and R7) from a resistant and a susceptible cultivated peanut genotypes, 'Tifrunner' (susceptible to Aspergillus infection with higher aflatoxin contamination and resistant to TSWV) and 'GT-C20' (resistant to Aspergillus with reduced aflatoxin contamination and susceptible to TSWV). The developing peanut seed tissues were challenged by A. parasiticus and drought stress in the field. A total of 24,192 randomly selected cDNA clones from six libraries were sequenced. After removing vector sequences and quality trimming, 21,777 high-quality EST sequences were generated. Sequence clustering and assembling resulted in 8,689 unique EST sequences with 1,741 tentative consensus EST sequences (TCs) and 6,948 singleton ESTs. Functional classification was performed according to MIPS functional catalogue criteria. The unique EST sequences were divided into twenty-two categories. A similarity search against the non-redundant protein database available from NCBI indicated that 84.78% of total ESTs showed significant similarity to known proteins, of which 165 genes had been previously reported in peanuts. There were differences in overall expression patterns in different libraries and genotypes. A number of sequences were expressed throughout all of the libraries, representing constitutive expressed sequences. In order to identify resistance-related genes with significantly differential expression, a statistical analysis to estimate the relative abundance (R) was used to compare the relative abundance of each gene transcripts in each cDNA library. Thirty six and forty seven unique EST sequences with threshold of R > 4 from libraries of 'GT-C20' and 'Tifrunner', respectively, were selected for examination of temporal gene expression patterns according to EST frequencies. Nine and eight resistance-related genes with significant up-regulation were obtained in 'GT-C20' and 'Tifrunner' libraries, respectively. Among them, three genes were common in both genotypes. Furthermore, a comparison of our EST sequences with other plant sequences in the TIGR Gene Indices libraries showed that the percentage of peanut EST matched to Arabidopsis thaliana, maize (Zea mays), Medicago truncatula, rapeseed (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) ESTs ranged from 33.84% to 79.46% with the sequence identity ? 80%. These results revealed that peanut ESTs are more closely related to legume species than to cereal crops, and more homologous to dicot than to monocot plant species. Conclusion The developed ESTs can be used to discover novel sequences or genes, to identify resistance-related genes and to detect the differences among alleles or markers between these resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. Additionally, this large collection of cultivated peanut EST sequences will make it possible to construct microarrays for gene expression studies and for further characterization of host resistance mechanisms. It will be a valuable genomic resource for the peanut community. The 21,777 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database with accession numbers ES702769 to ES724546.

Guo, Baozhu; Chen, Xiaoping; Dang, Phat; Scully, Brian T; Liang, Xuanqiang; Holbrook, C Corley; Yu, Jiujiang; Culbreath, Albert K

2008-01-01

173

Dietary medium-chain triglycerides promote oral allergic sensitization and orally induced anaphylaxis to peanut protein in mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The prevalence of peanut allergies is rising. Peanuts and many other allergen sources contain significant amounts of triglycerides, which affect absorption of antigens but have unknown effects on sensitization and anaphylaxis. We recently reported that dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), which bypass mesenteric lymph and directly enter portal blood, reduce intestinal antigen absorption into blood compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate mesenteric lymph flow and are absorbed in chylomicrons via mesenteric lymph. OBJECTIVE Test how dietary MCT affect food allergy. METHODS C3H/HeJ mice were fed peanut butter protein in MCT, LCT (peanut oil), or LCT plus an inhibitor of chylomicron formation (Pluronic L81; “PL81”). Peanut-specific antibodies in plasma, responses of the mice to antigen challenges, and intestinal epithelial cytokine expression were subsequently measured. RESULTS MCT suppressed antigen absorption into blood, but stimulated absorption into Peyer's patches. A single gavage of peanut protein with MCT as well as prolonged feeding in MCT-based diets caused spontaneous allergic sensitization. MCT-sensitized mice experienced IgG-dependent anaphylaxis upon systemic challenge and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis upon oral challenge. MCT feeding stimulated jejunal-epithelial TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 expression compared to LCT, and promoted Th2 cytokine responses in splenocytes. Moreover, oral challenges of sensitized mice with antigen in MCT significantly aggravated anaphylaxis compared to challenges with LCT. Importantly, effects of MCT could be mimicked by adding PL81 to LCT, and in vitro assays indicated that chylomicrons prevent basophil activation. CONCLUSION Dietary MCT promote allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis by affecting antigen absorption and availability and by stimulating Th2 responses.

Li, Jianing; Wang, Yu; Tang, Lihua; de Villiers, Willem JS; Cohen, Donald; Woodward, Jerold; Finkelman, Fred D; Eckhardt, Erik RM

2012-01-01

174

New Aspects of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, as our understanding of peanut and tree nut allergy has increased, the potential for real therapies has expanded\\u000a greatly. Hope for a cure for peanut and other food allergies is on the horizon. At the same time, the rates of peanut and\\u000a tree nut allergy have continued to increase, and much remains to be learned about these

Corinne A. Keet; Robert A. Wood

175

Elimination of aflatoxins from peanut meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut meal containing aflatoxins was heat treated in the presence of moisture and chemicals to reduce the aflatoxin content.\\u000a Treatments with ammonia, methylamine, sodium hydroxide and ozone were effective in either destroying aflatoxins or greatly\\u000a reducing aflatoxin levels as indicated both by TLC analysis and feeding experiments with ducklings and rats. Weight gains\\u000a for animals receiving the treated meals were

F. G. Dollear; G. E. Mann; L. P. Codifer; H. K. Gardner; S. P. Koltun; H. L. E. Vix

1968-01-01

176

Relationship between platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase activity and apolipoprotein B levels in patients with peanut allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a highly potent phospholipid mediator responsible for the life-threatening manifestations of anaphylaxis. PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inactivates PAF and protects against severe anaphylaxis whereas deficiency of PAF-AH predisposes to severe or fatal anaphylaxis. Determinants of PAF-AH activity have not been studied in patients with peanut allergy. Objectives To determine whether plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with peanut allergy is related to formation of circulating complexes with apolipoprotein B (apoB) the main surface protein on low density lipoprotein particles. Methods Plasma PAF-AH activity and apoB concentrations were measured in 63 peanut allergic patients (35 boys, 28 girls, ages 2 – 19?years). ApoB concentration was measured immunoturbidimetrically using goat anti-human apoB. The correlation between PAF-AH activity and apoB concentration was determined. Results A positive correlation was found between PAF-AH activity and apoB concentration (r2?=?0.59, P?peanut allergic patients, PAF-AH activity strongly correlates with apoB concentration, suggesting the presence of circulating PAF-AH- lipoprotein complexes.

2014-01-01

177

Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The eliciting dose (ED) for a peanut allergic reaction in 5% of the peanut allergic population, the ED05, is 1.5 mg of peanut protein. This ED05 was derived from oral food challenges (OFC) that use graded, incremental doses administered at fixed time intervals. Individual patients’ threshold doses were used to generate population dose-distribution curves using probability distributions from which the ED05 was then determined. It is important to clinically validate that this dose is predictive of the allergenic response in a further unselected group of peanut-allergic individuals. Methods/Aims This is a multi-centre study involving three national level referral and teaching centres. (Cork University Hospital, Ireland, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.) The study is now in process and will continue to run until all centres have recruited 125 participates in each respective centre. A total of 375 participants, aged 1–18 years will be recruited during routine Allergy appointments in the centres. The aim is to assess the precision of the predicted ED05 using a single dose (6 mg peanut?=?1.5 mg of peanut protein) in the form of a cookie. Validated Food Allergy related Quality of Life Questionnaires-(FAQLQ) will be self-administered prior to OFC and 1 month after challenge to assess the impact of a single dose OFC on FAQL. Serological and cell based in vitro studies will be performed. Conclusion The validation of the ED05 threshold for allergic reactions in peanut allergic subjects has potential value for public health measures. The single dose OFC, based upon the statistical dose-distribution analysis of past challenge trials, promises an efficient approach to identify the most highly sensitive patients within any given food-allergic population.

2013-01-01

178

Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using high-viscous vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-viscous vegetable oil of non-edible type was used in diesel engine to test the performance and emissions. Viscosity was reduced by ethanol blending. A single cylinder four stroke DI diesel engine was employed for testing. The blends used were 90 % oil with 10 % ethanol (E-10), 80 % oil with 20% ethanol (E-20), 70 % oil with 30% ethanol

S. Savariraj; T. Ganapathy; C. G. Saravanan

2012-01-01

179

Identification of rapidly induced genes in the response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) to water deficit and abscisic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop, but droughts often affect peanut production. There is a lack of genomic information available for peanut; therefore, little is known about the molecular basis of its drought stress response. Results Previously, we found that peanut stomata close rapidly during water deficit and in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, and many genes show changes in their expression levels. To screen for candidate genes involved in the water deficit response, we used the Illumina HiSeq2000/MiSeq sequencing platform to conduct a global transcriptome analysis of peanut seedlings under water deficit with or without an ABA pretreatment. Three peanut tissues (leaves, roots, and stems) collected at each of three developmental stages (four-leaf, flowering, and podding stages) were used to construct sequence libraries. Then, 4.96?×?107 raw sequence reads were generated and the high quality reads were assembled into 47,842 unigenes. We analyzed these sequence libraries to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under water deficit with or without ABA pretreatment. In total, 621 genes were induced rapidly (?1.5 fold change compared with control) under water deficit, 2,665 genes were induced rapidly under water deficit?+?ABA pretreatment, and 279 genes overlapped between water deficit and water deficit?+?ABA pretreatment. Of the 279 overlapping genes, 264 showed the same expression pattern and 15 showed opposite expression patterns. Among the DEGs, 257 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit?+?ABA pretreatment, while 19 were highly induced (>5 fold) by water deficit alone. The genes induced under water deficit?+?ABA pretreatment included 100 putative transcription factor (TF) genes, while those induced under water deficit alone included only 22 putative TF genes. To validate the transcriptome results, we conducted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses to quantify the transcript levels of nine candidate genes. Conclusions The DEGs results show that many genes are rapidly induced in peanut in response to water deficit without or with ABA pretreatment. The results indicate that the main drought response mechanisms in peanut function through an ABA-dependent pathway. Our data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research on peanut stress responses.

2014-01-01

180

Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.  

PubMed

Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

2014-04-01

181

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

182

Tried and True: Peanut butter and jelly science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you feeling frustrated with the quality of your students' writing or lack there of? If so, head straight for the peanut butter and jelly. Students will respond to this fun filled activity as they learn the importance of writing clear procedures in science. This visual lesson sticks with students like peanut butter to the roof of a mouth!

Farland, Donna

2006-04-01

183

Self-reported allergic reactions to peanut on commercial airliners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Allergic reactions to food occurring on commercial airlines have not been systematically characterized. Objective: We sought to describe the clinical characteristics of allergic reactions to peanuts on airplanes. Methods: Participants in the National Registry of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy who indicated an allergic reaction while on a commercial airliner were interviewed by telephone. Results: Sixty-two of 3704 National

Scott H. Sicherer; Terence J. Furlong; Jennifer DeSimone; Hugh A. Sampson

1999-01-01

184

Pneumatic Apparatus for Blanching Heated or Roasted Peanuts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a new apparatus and concept for removing skins from peanuts. Peanuts in a batch operation are continuously forced into the air stream by the design of an internal retainer screen and a baffle formed by a second screen. The ...

P. C. Barnes C. E. Halladay

1973-01-01

185

High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

2014-05-01

186

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.  

PubMed

The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community. PMID:16416919

Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, José A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

2006-01-01

187

Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies  

PubMed Central

There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (?10 ?g peanut g?1 matrix) in baked cookies.

Pedreschi, Romina; N?rgaard, J?rgen; Maquet, Alain

2012-01-01

188

The effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because of the widespread use of peanut products, peanut allergenicity is a major health concern in the United States. The effect or effects of thermal processing (roasting) on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins have rarely been addressed. Objective: We sought to assess the biochemical effects of roasting on the allergenic properties of peanut proteins. Methods: Competitive inhibition ELISA

Soheila J. Maleki; Si-Yin Chung; Elaine T. Champagne; Jean-Pierre Raufman

2000-01-01

189

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

190

Peanut-shaped bulges in face-on disk galaxies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution absorption-line spectroscopy of 3 face-on galaxies, NGC 98, NGC 600, and NGC 1703 with the aim of searching for box/peanut (B/P)-shaped bulges. These observations test and confirm the prediction of \\citet{deb_etal_05} that face-on B/P-shaped bulges can be recognized by a double minimum in the profile of the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment h_4. In NGC 1703, which is an unbarred control galaxy, we found no evidence of a B/P bulge. In NGC 98, a clear double minimum in h_4 is present along the major axis of the bar and before the end of the bar, as predicted. In contrast, in NGC 600, which is also a barred galaxy but lacks a substantial bulge, we do not find a significant B/P shape.

Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Debattista, V. P.; De Rijcke, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Pizzella, A.

191

Effect of secondary gas injection on the peanut shell combustion and its pollutant emissions in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor.  

PubMed

Peanut shell is a common agricultural waste in Asia, and its high calorific value is suitable to be used as a fuel. In this study, a vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC) with silica sand as the bed material was used for peanut shell combustion. There was no indication of bed agglomeration during combustions for as long as 12h. The temperatures and gas concentrations were measured along the axial direction at various operating conditions, including excess oxygen ratio and secondary gas flow rate. Results show that CO emission decreases with rising excess oxygen ratio and secondary gas flow rate, while NOx emissions show a reverse trend. To meet the minimum CO and NOx emission standards of Taiwan EPA, excess oxygen ratio ranging from 40% to 55% and secondary gas flow rate ranging from 1.56 to 2 Nm(3)/min are found optimal for crushed peanut shell combustion in a VFBC. PMID:24393745

Duan, Feng; Chyang, Chien-Song; Wang, Yuan-Jie; Tso, Jim

2014-02-01

192

Effect of interesterification on the structure and physical properties of high-stearic acid soybean oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride structures of genetically modified soybean oils high in stearic acid were determined by high-pressure liquid\\u000a chromatography, and their physical properties were assessed by dilatometry and dropping point. In their natural state, these\\u000a oils lack sufficient solids at 10–33°C to qualify as margarine oils. However, after random interesterification, soybean oil\\u000a containing 17% stearic acid shows a solid fat index (SFI)

G. R. List; T. L. Mounts; F. Orthoefer; W. E. Neff

1997-01-01

193

High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900°C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear

Harry P. Leftin; David S. Newsome

1986-01-01

194

Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early leaf spot of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

Olatinwo, Rabiu O.; Prabha, Thara V.; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

2012-03-01

195

Controlled evaluation of fat intake in the Mediterranean diet: comparative activities of olive oil and corn oil on plasma lipids and platelets in high-risk patients13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of low-fat diets with olive oil or corn oil on lipids and platelets were studied in 23 middle-aged patients with high atherosclerosis risk for 8 wk. The olive oil diet had a polyunsaturated-saturated ratio of 0.33 vs 1.28 for the corn oil diet. Plasma total cholesterol was reduced with corn oil, but high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower with

Cesare R Sirtori; Elena Tremoli; Ennio Gatti; Guido Montanan; Marina Sirtori; Susanna Coii; Gemma Gianfranceschi; Paola Maderna; Cinzia Zucchi Dentone; Giulio Testolin; Claudio Gaii

196

The Composition of Root Exudates from Two Different Resistant Peanut Cultivars and Their Effects on the Growth of Soil-Borne Pathogen  

PubMed Central

The high incidence of various soil-borne diseases in the monoculture field of peanut is a major production constraint in the red soil regions of southern China. The peanut root exudates are generally thought to play an important role in regulating soil-borne pathogens. The responses of the soil-borne pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani to the peanut root exudates were studied using one susceptible cultivar Ganhua-5 (GH) and one mid-resistant cultivar Quanhua-7 (QH) as the test materials. The components and contents of the amino acids, sugars and phenolic acids in the peanut root exudates were determined. The results demonstrated that the root exudates from both susceptible and mid-resistant cultivars significantly promoted the spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of soil-borne pathogens, F. oxysporum, F. solani compared with the control. The extent of the stimulation was depended on the strains of the Fusarium tested, and gradually increased with the increased concentrations of peanut root exudates. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of sugars, alanine, total amino acids in the root exudates of GH were significantly higher than that in QH, whereas the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and total phenolic acids were significantly lower than that in QH. Results of the study suggested that the differences in the root exudates from the different peanut cultivars were considered to regulate the wilt-resistance mechanism in the rhizosphere of peanut. The results are therefore crucial important to illustrate the mechanism of peanut replanted obstacle, and to develop its control techniques in the red soil regions of southern China.

Li, Xiao-gang; Zhang, Tao-lin; Wang, Xing-xiang; Hua, Ke; Zhao, Ling; Han, Zheng-min

2013-01-01

197

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application  

PubMed Central

Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function.

Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Culbreath, Albert K.; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

2012-01-01

198

Clinical Efficacy and Immune Regulation With Peanut Oral Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been thought to induce clinical desensitization to allergenic foods, but trials coupling the clinical response and immunologic effects of peanut OIT have not been reported. Objective The study objective was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunologic changes associated with OIT. Methods Peanut-allergic children underwent an OIT protocol including initial day escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases, and then oral food challenge. Clinical response and immunologic changes were evaluated. Results Of 29 subjects who completed the protocol, 27 ingested 3.9 g peanut protein during food challenge. Most symptoms noted during OIT resolved spontaneously or with antihistamines. By 6 months, titrated skin prick tests and activation of basophils significantly declined. Peanut-specific IgE decreased by 12–18 months, while IgG4 increased significantly. Serum factors inhibited IgE–peanut complex formation in an IgE-facilitated allergen binding assay. Secretion of IL-10, IL-5, IFN-?, and TNF-? from PBMCs increased over 6–12 months. Peanut-specific FoxP3 T cells increased until 12 months and then decreased thereafter. Additionally, T cell microarrays showed downregulation of genes in apoptotic pathways. Conclusion OIT induces clinical desensitization to peanut, with significant longer term humoral and cellular changes. Microarray data suggest a novel role for apoptosis in OIT.

Jones, Stacie M.; Pons, Laurent; Roberts, Joseph L.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kulis, Mike; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Steele, Pamela; Henry, Karen A.; Adair, Margaret; Francis, James M.; Durham, Stephen; Vickery, Brian P.; Zhong, Xiaoping; Burks, A. Wesley

2009-01-01

199

Two-Dimensional Phase Behavior of Colloidal Peanuts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the phase behavior of spherical colloidal suspensions has been well studied, the ordering of non-spherical colloidal particles remains a largely unexplored yet important problem. In this talk we will describe ongoing studies of one very simple extension of the spherical particle: the colloidal peanut. These peanuts have an aspect ratio that makes them comparable to dimer particles. Confining the colloidal peanuts to two dimensions, we find that the suspension can undergo a phase transition from a liquid to an ordered phase in which each individual peanut lobe resides on a triangular lattice site. The lobe packing is very similar to the hexagonally close packed crystalline arrangement formed by spheres in 2D. Unlike their spherical counterparts, however, the colloidal peanuts are not isotropic, and in particular, each peanut has a specific orientation, or director. In this talk we will describe the correlations between defects in the underlying triangular lattice and the local director field. We will also report on our measurements of long-range director correlations, and if time permits, we will describe ongoing work relating to phases formed by peanut particles with different aspect ratios.

Gerbode, Sharon; Wolfgang, Angie; Lee, Stephanie; John, Bettina; Liddell, Chekesha; Escobedo, Fernando; Cohen, Itai

2007-03-01

200

Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil

Modhar A. Khan; Suzana Yusup; Murni M. Ahmad

2010-01-01

201

Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation. PMID:25053066

Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

2015-01-01

202

Cloning and functional analysis of the peanut iron transporter AhIRT1 during iron deficiency stress and intercropping with maize.  

PubMed

In previous research, iron-deficiency symptoms in peanut (Arachis hypgaea) were alleviated during anthesis by intercropping with maize. This benefit was associated with increased phytosiderophore secretion by maize and increased Fe(III)-chelate reductase activity by peanut. In the present study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of AhIRT1 (iron-regulated transporter 1) from peanut and characterized how iron deficiency and intercropping affected its iron-transporting ability. Functional complementation with AhIRT1 restored normal growth of the yeast mutant fet3fet4 (defective in both high- and low-affinity iron-uptake systems) under iron-deficiency conditions. Based on transient expression analysis, AhIRT1 was determined to be a membrane protein, which was consistent with a function in iron uptake. In peanut, transcript levels of AhIRT1 increased in both root and shoot under iron-deficiency conditions. In a pot experiment, AhIRT1 transcript levels in intercropped peanut were 10 times greater during anthesis than pre-anthesis, and transcript levels during anthesis were 40% greater in intercropped than in monocropped peanut. PMID:20430476

Ding, Hong; Duan, Lihong; Li, Jing; Yan, Huifeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Wen-Xue

2010-08-15

203

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

204

Effect of Anti-IgE Therapy in Patients with Peanut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Peanut-induced anaphylaxis is an IgE-mediated condition that is estimated to affect 1.5 million people and cause 50 to 100 deaths per year in the United States. TNX-901 is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against IgE that recognizes and masks an epitope in the CH3 region of IgE responsible for binding to the high-affinity Fc e recep- tor on mast

Donald Y. M. Leung; Hugh A. Sampson; John W. Yunginger; A. Wesley Burks; Lynda C. Schneider; Cornelis H. Wortel; Frances M. Davis; John D. Hyun; William R. Shanahan

2003-01-01

205

Highly restrictive diffusion under hydrotreating reactions of heavy residue oils  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ratio ({lambda}) of reactant molecular diameter to catalyst pore diameter on the restrictive diffusion under a highly restrictive regime of hydrotreating reactions of heavy residue oils over CoMo/alumina-alumina phosphate catalysts was investigated. Hydrotreating reactions of residual oils were carried out in a trickle bed reactor at 663 K and 7.6 MPa over a series of CoMo/alumina-aluminum phosphate catalysts. The values of the effective diffusivities and the relevant effectiveness factors for HDS and HDM reactions were determined by applying the Thiele relation to catalytic reactions. The effective diffusivities for the HDM reaction are always smaller than those for the HDS reaction. In addition, the effective diffusivity values decreased with increasing ratios of reactant molecular diameters to catalyst pore diameters for both HDS and HDM reactions, indicating a large restrictive diffusion effect. Two different regimes for restrictive diffusion were observed. The restrictive effect under reaction conditions is still severe for low values of {lambda}. However, this effect does not seem prominent for high values of {lambda}

Li, C. [Chinese Petroleum Corp., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China). Refining and Manufacturing Research Center; Chen, Y.W.; Tsai, M.C. [National Central Univ., Chung-Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-03-01

206

Genotoxicity of Fumes from Heated Cooking Oils Produced in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations of lung cancer among Taiwanese nonsmoking women have found that exposure to fumes from cooking oils may be an important risk factor. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils (lard, soybean, and peanut oils) often used in Taiwan for preparing Chinese meals were collected for genotoxicity analysis in SOS chromotest and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. The

Pei-Fen Wu; Tai-An Chiang; Ying-Chin Ko; Huei Lee

1999-01-01

207

Analyses of Vegetable Oil Triacylglycerols by Silver Ion High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver ion high performance liquid chromatography with a commercially available column with a simple isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile in hexane and flame ionization detection was employed to separate and quantitate triacylglycerol species of vegetable oils. Coconut, palm, cottonseed, olive, safflower, sunflower, corn, pumpkinseed, linseed, soybean, and canola oils were analyzed, as well as randomized corn and soybean oils, and

W. E. Neff; R. O. Adlof; G. R. List; M. El-Agaimy

1994-01-01

208

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities

L. E. Demick

2011-01-01

209

[Distribution characteristics of phthalic acid esters in soils and peanut kernels in main peanut producing areas of Shandong Province, China].  

PubMed

Surface soil (0-20 cm) and peanut kernel samples were collected in four main peanut producing areas of Shandong Province, and the contents of six PAEs chemicals that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants were determined by gas chromatography (GC). The results indicated that the total concentration of six PAEs (sigma PAEs) ranged from 0.34 to 2.81 mg x kg(-1), and the mean was 1.22 mg x kg(-1). In four different areas, the order of sigmaPAEs concentration in soil was hilly area of middle southern Shandong > western plain of Shandong > Jiaodong Peninsula > northern plain of Shandong. The concentration of DBP in four main peanut producing areas of Shandong Province seriously exceeded the control limit in USA. The content of PAEs ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 mg x kg(-1) in peanut kernels, with the average value 0.34 mg x kg(-1) which was less than the suggested targets in USA and Europe and of low health risk. DEHP and DBP were the main components of PAEs both in soils and peanut kernels, with higher percentage content and detection rate. The sigma PAEs contents in soils or peanut kernels under plastic mulching were significantly higher than that of open field cultivation pattern. The PAEs concentrations in peanut kernels and soils had significant correlation, with the Pearson coefficient 0. 786 (sigma PAEs), 0.747 (DBP) and 0.511 (DEHP), respectively. PMID:24697074

Cui, Ming-Ming; Wang, Kai-Rong; Wang, Lin-Lin; Shi, Yan-Xi

2013-12-01

210

Effects of feeding high-oil corn to beef steers on carcass characteristics and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of feeding high-oil corn on carcass characteristics and meat quality, 60 yearling steers were fed high concentrate diets con- taining either control corn (82% of diet), high-oil corn (82% of diet), or high-oil corn at a concentration that was isocaloric with the control diet (74% of diet). After being fed for 84 d, steers were slaughtered.

J. G. Andrae; S. K. Duckett; C. W. Hunt; G. T. Pritchard; F. N. Owens

2009-01-01

211

High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: Differential effects of dietary oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice fed a high-fat diet develop hyperglycemia and obesity. Using non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice, we investigated the effects of seven different dietary oils on glucose metabolism: palm oil, which contains mainly 45% palmitic acid (16:0) and 40% oleic acid (18:1); lard oil, 24% palmitic and 44% oleic acid; rapeseed oil, 59% oleic and 20% linoleic acid (18:2); soybean

Shinji Ikemoto; Mayumi Takahashi; Nobuyo Tsunoda; Kayo Maruyama; Hiroshige Itakura; Osamu Ezaki

1996-01-01

212

The origin of virgin argan oil's high oxidative stability unraveled.  

PubMed

To prepare either virgin edible or beauty argan oil, roasted or unroasted argan kernels are cold-pressed, respectively. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of edible and beauty argan oil immediately after preparation and after a two-year delay has led to the suggestion that phospholipids are a new and essential type of oil component participating in the excellent oxidative stability of edible argan oil, in addition to the already suggested Maillard-reaction products, phenols, and tocopherols. PMID:22799092

Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Haddad, Aziza; Charrouf, Zoubida

2012-05-01

213

Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.  

PubMed

The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

2012-02-17

214

Formulation of a drinkable peanut-based therapeutic food for malnourished children using plant sources.  

PubMed

High ingredient costs continue to hamper local production of therapeutic foods (TFs). Development of formulations without milk, the most expensive ingredient, is one way of reducing cost. This study formulated a ready-to-drink peanut-based TF that matched the nutrient composition of F100 using plant sources. Three least cost formulations namely, A, B and C were designed using computer formulation software with peanuts, beans, sesame, cowpeas and grain amaranth as ingredients. A 100 g portion of the TF provided 101-111 kcal, 5 g protein and 5.3-6.5 g fat. Consumer acceptability hedonic tests showed that the products were liked (extremely and moderately) by 62-65% of mothers. These results suggest that nutrient dense TFs formulated from only plant sources have the potential to be used in the rehabilitation phase of the management of malnourished children after clinical testing. PMID:23198736

Nabuuma, Deborah; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Phillips, Robert Dixon; Chen, Jinru

2013-06-01

215

High vertical and horizontal conformance viscous oil recovery method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is an oil recovery method especially useful for recovering viscous oil from thick formations including tar sand deposits. The method comprises several phases which accomplish efficient recovery of the viscous oil from the formation with good vertical and horizontal sweep conformance or effectiveness. The first phase may utilize as few as two spaced apart wells, one for fluid injection

J. C. Allen; R. J. Korstad

1978-01-01

216

Prototype High-Seas Disc-Drum Oil Recovery System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The delivered oil recovery unit was designed to recover up to 1,000 gpm of a wide variety of oils in up to Sea State 4 conditions, to survive Sea State 6, and to return to operating at a spill scene without major repair. The disc-drum oil recovery device ...

C. F. Scharfenstein W. T. Beran

1975-01-01

217

Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.  

PubMed

Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Niña" in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

2011-08-01

218

Mechanisms of sulphide tolerance in the peanut worm, Sipunculus nudus (Sipunculidae) and in the lugworm, Arenicola marina (Polychaeta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peanut worm Sipunculus nudus and the lugworm Arenicola marina are inhabitants of intertidal flats. Both species may be exposed to H2S within their habitat. Sulphide concentrations in the vicinity of A. marina burrows are as high as 340 µmol · 1-1, whereas the pore water in sipuncle areas contains much lower sulphide levels of 13 µmol · 1-1 at

Susanne Völkel; Manfred K. Grieshaber

1992-01-01

219

An evaluation of the sensitivity of subjects with peanut allergy to very low doses of peanut protein: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The minimum dose of food protein to which subjects with food allergy have reacted in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges is between 50 and 100 mg. However, subjects with peanut allergy often report severe reactions after minimal contact with peanuts, even through intact skin. Objective: We sought to determine whether adults previously proven by challenge to be allergic to peanut

Jonathan O'B. Hourihane; Sally A. Kilburn; Julie A. Nordlee; Susan L. Hefle; Steve L. Taylor; John O. Warner

1997-01-01

220

Survey of Vietnamese peanuts, corn and soil for the presence of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus cause perennial infection of agriculturally important crops in tropical and subtropical areas. Invasion of crops by these fungi may result in contamination of food and feed by potent carcinogenic aflatoxins. Consumption of aflatoxin contaminated foods is a recognised risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Southeast Asia. This study conducted a survey of Vietnamese crops (peanuts and corn) and soil for the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi and used microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity of Vietnamese Aspergillus strains. From a total of 85 samples comprising peanut (25), corn (45) and soil (15), 106 strains were isolated. Identification of strains by colony morphology and aflatoxin production found all Vietnamese strains to be A. flavus with no A. parasiticus isolated. A. flavus was present in 36.0% of peanut samples, 31.1% of corn samples, 27.3% of farmed soil samples and was not found in virgin soil samples. Twenty-five per cent of the strains produced aflatoxins. Microsatellite analysis revealed a high level of genetic diversity in the Vietnamese A. flavus population. Clustering, based on microsatellite genotype, was unrelated to aflatoxin production, geographic origin or substrate origin. PMID:19693687

Tran-Dinh, N; Kennedy, I; Bui, T; Carter, D

2009-11-01

221

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containers. Disposition to crushing may be to approved crushers. (1) If such peanuts are not tested and certified...Service and shall be disposed of to handlers who are crushers, or to approved crushers. Handlers who are crushers and crushers...

2009-01-01

222

7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containers. Disposition to crushing may be to approved crushers. (1) If such peanuts are not tested and certified...Service and shall be disposed of to handlers who are crushers, or to approved crushers. Handlers who are crushers and crushers...

2010-01-01

223

Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of 40K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for 226Ra activity peak from 214Bi at 1760 keV and 232Th activity, peak from 208Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

Akkurt, ?skender; Güno?lu, Kadir; Mavi, Betül; Kara, Ayhan

2012-09-01

224

Natural radioactivity concentration of peanuts in Osmaniye-Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The peanut is grown in Osmaniye where located in southern Turkey. Due to it is grown underground, the measurements of natural radioactivity of peanuts become important. For this reason some peanut samples have been collected from different places of Osmaniye and the measurements of natural activity concentrations for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in some peanuts samples have been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity of {sup 40}K was measured from its intensive line at 1460 keV, for {sup 226}Ra activity peak from {sup 214}Bi at 1760 keV and {sup 232}Th activity, peak from {sup 208}Tl at energy of 2610 keV was used.

Akkurt, Iskender; Guenoglu, Kadir; Mavi, Betuel; Kara, Ayhan [Suleyman Demirel University Isparta (Turkey); Amasya University Amasya (Turkey); Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Osmaniye (Turkey)

2012-09-06

225

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaOfree and SO3 in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash

C Freidin

1998-01-01

226

Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters  

SciTech Connect

Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

1981-05-26

227

Design of New Genome- and Gene-Sourced Primers and Identification of QTL for Seed Oil Content in a Specially High-Oil Brassica napus Cultivar  

PubMed Central

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future.

Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

2012-01-01

228

Design of new genome- and gene-sourced primers and identification of QTL for seed oil content in a specially high-oil Brassica napus cultivar.  

PubMed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future. PMID:23077542

Sun, Meiyu; Hua, Wei; Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

2012-01-01

229

A flavonoid antioxidant in Spanish peanuts (Arachia hypogoea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot methanol extracts of Spanish peanuts were found to possess antioxidant activity. Thin layer (TLC) and paper chromatography\\u000a of the methanolic peanut extracts yielded 6 fluorescent bands of which one exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Further\\u000a separation by TLC showed this band to be a complex mixture of 3 components that were tested for antioxidant activity. One\\u000a component demonstrated all of

D. E. Pratt; E. E. Miller

1984-01-01

230

Properties of Peanut Protein Film: Sorption Isotherm and Plasticizer Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of type and level of plasticizer on film properties and determine their sorption isotherms. Peanut protein films were formed by using four types of plasticizer (glycerin, sorbitol, polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol) at three levels (0.67, 1.17, 1.67 g\\/g of protein content). Sorption isotherms of peanut protein at pH 6.0,

A. Jangchud; M. S. Chinnan

1999-01-01

231

Signal molecules in the peanut–bradyrhizobia interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main nodulation signal molecules in the peanut–bradyrhizobia interaction were examined. Flavonoids exuded by Arachis hypogaea L. cultivar Tegua were genistein, daidzein and chrysin, the latest being released in lower quantities. Thin layer chromatography\\u000a analysis from genistein-induced bacterial cultures of three peanut bradyrhizobia resulted in an identical Nod factor pattern,\\u000a suggesting low variability in genes involved in the synthesis of these

Tania Taurian; Belén Morón; María E. Soria-Díaz; Jorge G. Angelini; Pilar Tejero-Mateo; Antonio Gil-Serrano; Manuel Megías; Adriana Fabra

2008-01-01

232

Mycotoxigenic fungi in peanuts from different geographic regions of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the importance of mycotoxigenic fungi in Egyptian peanuts, samples from five regions (Alexandria, El-Beheira,\\u000a El-Sharqiya, El-Daqahelaya in northern Egypt and Asyut, southern Egypt) in two seasons (2007, 2008) were collected. Aspergillus was consistently the most frequent genus in seeds and in-shell peanuts and was the dominant mycotoxigenic component of the\\u000a mycobiota. There was no direct correlation between the

Yousef Sultan; Naresh Magan

2010-01-01

233

Putative peanut allergy-induced urticaria in a dog.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old, spayed male schnauzer dog was presented with vomiting, diarrhea, generalized erythema, pruritic urticaria and conjunctival hyperemia after ingestion of peanut. The history, clinical signs, and histopathology of the lesions were compatible with a hypersensitivity reaction. The clinical signs resolved rapidly after treatment with prednisolone and antihistamine. This is the first report of urticaria caused by peanut ingestion in a dog. PMID:23633716

Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

2012-11-01

234

Peanut Butter Cracker Sandwich Manufacturing Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many engineers, their first position after obtaining a B.S. degree is in manufacturing. Job titles like process engineer, product engineer, and quality engineer are common and are directly involved in manufacturing. Most engineering curricula do not cover manufacturing concepts. A student may not even have an opportunity through electives to study manufacturing since smaller engineering colleges rarely have a department of Manufacturing Engineering.A module on peanut butter cracker manufacturing was developed for the Introduction to Engineering course taken by most engineering students in their freshman year. The objective for the students is to design, build and then run a process to manufacture peanut butter cracker sandwiches. The culminating activity is a pilot production run where the students are assigned human operators for their process. The goal for the students is to make a profit during the pilot production run. Material costs, labor costs, quality specifications and selling price all determine whether or not the process was successful. The module includes activities where the students perform calculations and use Excel graphs to determine the process time required to make a profit, the impact of the number of operators on production, the interplay between fixed and variable costs, and the effect of yield on their profit. Students are required to write operating procedures and order supplies based on predictions of the quantity of sandwiches they will produce. Students also learn about quality control and process control, the cost of automation, development costs, and challenges in training operators. After more than two weeks of preparation, the students have 10 minutes to train their operators, and then the operators run the process for 10 minutes. After production day, the students write a report that includes an analysis of their production performance and suggested process modifications. Overall, the module provides a fun and informative introduction to some fundamental manufacturing concepts.The module learning objectives, section descriptions and handouts are included.

2009-08-05

235

Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies.

He, Guohao; Meng, Ronghua; Newman, Melanie; Gao, Guoqing; Pittman, Roy N; Prakash, CS

2003-01-01

236

Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?  

PubMed

The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

2013-09-01

237

Sclerotinia blight resistance in Virginia-type peanut transformed with a barley oxalate oxidase gene.  

PubMed

Transgenic peanut lines expressing oxalate oxidase, a novel enzyme to peanut, were evaluated for resistance to Sclerotinia blight in naturally infested fields over a 5-year period. Area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) for transgenic lines in single rows planted with seed from single-plant selections averaged 78, 83, and 90% lower than nontransgenic parents in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. In addition, AUDPC in 14 transgenic lines planted with bulked seed in two-row plots averaged 81% lower compared with nontransgenic parents in 2005 and 86% lower in 16 transgenic lines in 2006. Six transgenic lines yielded 488 to 1,260 kg/ha greater than nontransgenic parents in 2005, and 10 lines yielded 537 to 2,490 kg/ha greater in 2006. Fluazinam (0.58 kg a.i./ha) fungicide sprays in 2008 and 2009 reduced AUDPC in transgenic and nontransgenic lines but AUDPC was lowest in transgenic lines. Without fluazinam, yields of transgenic lines averaged 1,133 to 1,578 kg/ha greater than nontransgenic lines in 2008 and 1,670 to 2,755 kg/ha greater in 2009. These results demonstrated that the insertion of barley oxalate oxidase in peanut conveyed a high level of resistance to Sclerotinia blight, and negated the need for costly fungicide sprays. PMID:21303213

Partridge-Telenko, D E; Hu, J; Livingstone, D M; Shew, B B; Phipps, P M; Grabau, E A

2011-07-01

238

Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

2009-03-01

239

Cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupine: The risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is common, but cross-allergy between legumes is rare. Proteins from Lupinus albus are increasingly eaten in the form of seeds or additives to wheat flour. The risk of cross-allergenicity is still insufficiently known. Objective: We sought to study the risk of cross-allergy to lupine in patients allergic to peanut and to study lupine allergenicity. Methods: Twenty-four patients

Denise-Anne Moneret-Vautrin; Laurence Guérin; Gisèle Kanny; Jenny Flabbee; Sophie Frémont; Martine Morisset

1999-01-01

240

Threshold dose for peanut: Risk characterization based upon diagnostic oral challenge of a series of 286 peanut-allergic individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical records of 286 consecutive patients reacting positively with objective symptoms to double-blind, placebo-controlled oral peanut challenges at University Hospital, Nancy, France were examined for individual No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) and Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Levels (LOAELs). After fitting to a log-normal probability distribution model, the ED10 and ED05 were 14.4 and 7.3mg (expressed as whole peanut), respectively,

Steve L. Taylor; D. A. Moneret-Vautrin; Rene W. R. Crevel; David Sheffield; Martine Morisset; P. Dumont; Benjamin C. Remington; Joseph L. Baumert

2010-01-01

241

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and application on peanut oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many materials were previously studied using far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) in transmission and reflection modes. Recently, there has been a remarkable effort in employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for investigating material properties, including environment pollutants, semiconductors, polymers, explosive materials, and gases, etc. Since the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the material studied are directly related to the

Jiusheng Li; Jianquan Yao; Jianrui Li

2008-01-01

242

Reduction of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, in roasted peanuts by ultrasound assisted enzymatic treatment.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of ultrasound, enzyme concentration and enzyme treatment time on soluble protein and major allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2) of roasted peanut kernels. A 3-factor, five-level orthogonal experimental design was implemented with various ultrasonication times, concentrations of trypsin or ?-chymotrypsin and treatment times. The total soluble proteins were determined by the Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and sandwich ELISA. The IgE-binding of peanut extracts was analysed by a competitive inhibition ELISA. Results indicate that ultrasound treatment, followed by protease digestion of peanuts, significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein and decreased the concentrations of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The sequential treatment of peanuts by ultrasonication-trypsin-alpha chymotrypsin, resulted in maximum reductions of Ara h 1/Ara h 2, and lowest IgE-binding. This study provides an approach to significantly reduce allergenic proteins in peanut product. PMID:23790845

Li, Hao; Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek

2013-11-15

243

Facile removal of oils from water surfaces through highly hydrophobic and magnetic polymer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, magnetic polymer nanocomposites were investigated as highly selective absorbent materials for removing oils from water surfaces. The nanocomposites with highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic surface were synthesized through a low-cost emulsion polymerization, and exhibited some practical properties including unsinkability, thermal stability and corrosive-resistance for real applications. These as-prepared nanoparticles could effectively absorb three kinds of oils up to above 3.63 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. It is very easy to collect the oil-absorbed nanoparticles by applying an external magnetic field. Besides, the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment, and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics after repeatedly removing oils from water surface for many cycles. The findings of this study might provide a convenient method for fast and selective removal of oils from the surface of water.

Gu, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Chen, Mudan; Mao, Jianyu; Xie, Tan

2014-05-01

244

Mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts sold at markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In this survey, the mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa, was assessed. Twenty peanut samples were purchased randomly at informal markets in the two cities and analysed for mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) using standard methods. The results indicated that 95% of the Kinshasa samples and 100% of the Pretoria samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi in the ranges 20-49,000 and 40-21,000 CFU/g, respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the Kinshasa samples and 35% of the Pretoria samples exceeded the maximum limits of AFB1 as set by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Residents of both cities are at a high risk of aflatoxin exposure despite their apparent cultural, socio-economic, geographic and climatic differences. Further work needs to be done to understand the supply chains of peanut trade in informal markets of the two countries so that interventions are well targeted on a regional rather than a national level. PMID:24914597

Kamika, Ilunga; Mngqawa, Pamella; Rheeder, John P; Teffo, Snow L; Katerere, David R

2014-06-01

245

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

246

Comparison of soil fungal community structure in different peanut rotation sequences using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis in relation to aflatoxin-producing fungi.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on determining soil fungal community structure in different peanut-cropping sequences by using a high-resolution DNA fingerprinting technique: ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). This study was initiated to determine fungal community profiles in four peanut-cropping sequences (continuous peanut, 4 years of continuous bahiagrass followed by peanut, peanut-corn-cotton, and peanut-cotton rotations), with a special focus to evaluate whether the profiles under investigation may have also indicated microbial differences that could affect Aspergillus flavus populations. Results indicated 75% similarities among fungal communities from the same cropping sequences as well as with similar times of sampling. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of A. flavus directly from these soils was carried out using A. flavus-specific primers (FLA1 and FLA2) and also through quantitative estimation on A. flavus and A. parasiticus agar medium. Population levels of A. flavus in soil samples ranged from zero to 1.2 × 10(3) CFU g(-1) of soil (based on culturable methods); however, the fungus was not detected with A. flavus-specific primers. The minimum threshold limit at which these aflatoxin-producing fungi could be detected from the total soil genomic DNA was determined through artificial inoculation of samples with 10-fold increases in concentrations. The results indicated that a minimum population density of 2.6 × 10(6) CFU g(-1) of soil is required for PCR detection in our conditions. These results are useful in further determining the relative population levels of these fungi in peanut soils with other soil fungi. This is a new approach to understanding soil fungal communities and how they might change over time and under different rotation systems. PMID:20822431

Sudini, H; Arias, C R; Liles, M R; Bowen, K L; Huettel, R N

2011-01-01

247

Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

Information Center

2006-02-01

248

Performance Tests of High Speed ZRV Oil Skimmer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-propelled catamaran oil skimmer developed by the USCG capable of recovering oil from a water's surface was tested at the U.S. EPA OHMSETT facility. The skimmer employed an endless composite sorbent belt processed between the catamaran hulls to reco...

M. K. Breslin

1980-01-01

249

A RIGID, PERFORATED PLATE OIL BOOM FOR HIGH CURRENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A boom capable of diverting oil spills toward shore in a 3-knot (1.5 m/s) river or tidal current has been developed. Loss of No. 2 and No. 4 Fuel Oil at this velocity is typically less than 15 percent when the angle of the boom is 45 degrees to the shoreline. In contrast, convent...

250

Detection, Characterization, and Biological Effect of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecules in Peanut-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia  

PubMed Central

Bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium are able to establish a symbiotic relationship with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) root cells and to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to nitrogenous compounds. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication mechanism employed by a variety of bacterial species to coordinate behavior at a community level through regulation of gene expression. The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. Some previous reports have shown the production of QS signaling molecules by various rhizobia, but little is known regarding mechanisms of communication among peanut-nodulating strains. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize QS signals produced by peanut-nodulating bradyrhizobial strains and to evaluate their effects on processes related to cell interaction. Detection of AHLs in 53 rhizobial strains was performed using the biosensor strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4) and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for AHLs with long and short acyl chains, respectively. None of the strains screened were found to produce AHLs with short acyl chains, but 14 strains produced AHLs with long acyl chains. These 14 AHL-producing strains were further studied by quantification of ?-galactosidase activity levels (AHL-like inducer activity) in NTL4 (pZLR4). Strains displaying moderate to high levels of AHL-like inducer activity were subjected to chemical identification of signaling molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For each AHL-producing strain, we found at least four different AHLs, corresponding to N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C6), N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC10), N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12), and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC14). Biological roles of 3OC10, 3OC12, and 3OC14 AHLs were evaluated in both AHL-producing and -non-producing peanut-nodulating strains. Bacterial processes related to survival and nodulation, including motility, biofilm formation, and cell aggregation, were affected or modified by the exogenous addition of increasing concentrations of synthetic AHLs. Our results clearly demonstrate the existence of cell communication mechanisms among bradyrhizobial strains symbiotic of peanut. AHLs with long acyl chains appear to be signaling molecules regulating important QS physiological processes in these bacteria.

Nievas, Fiorela; Bogino, Pablo; Sorroche, Fernando; Giordano, Walter

2012-01-01

251

Estimating Reserves for High-Rate Devonian Shale Oil and Gas Completions With Limited Production Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the activity in West Virginia in recent years has focused on the development of high-rate oil and gas completions in the naturally fractured Devonian shale. With a limited understanding of the reservoir production mechanisms, realistic estimates of oil and gas reserves early in the life of a high-rate well appeared unattainable. Early reserve estimates are necessary because typical

R. A. Mason

1987-01-01

252

An optimal design of fuzzy controller for high power oil transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to uncertainties and nonlinearity of high power oil transfer systems and the coupling among inlet pressure, outlet pressure and flow of the pipeline, it is difficult to realize optimal and cooperative control by traditional PID controllers. According to the features of the high power oil transfer system, a novel control strategy that is composed of two fuzzy controllers is

Jun Liu; Ding Liu; Guang-Hui Zhang; Pu-Sheng Wu

2002-01-01

253

Effects of Six Nematicides and Two Fungicides, Applied in Various Treatment Combinations, on Peanuts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In tests of six nematicides and two fungicides applied to peanuts for control of Meloidogyne arenaria and Schlerotium rolfsii, peanut yields increased significantly when nematicides were applied preplant treatments gave good nematode control, postplant ne...

N. A. Minton A. S. Csinos D. K. Bell

1984-01-01

254

75 FR 62096 - Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for Trade in Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds, and Grains, Feed and Oilseeds; Re...Tobacco, Cotton, Peanuts and Planting Seeds (TCPPS) and in Grains, Feed and Oilseeds...removing representation of the planting seeds industry from the Tobacco, Cotton,...

2010-10-07

255

Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of water-deficit-stressed midmature peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed.  

PubMed

Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. A comprehensive understanding of seed metabolism and the effects of water-deficit stress on the incorporation of the main storage reserves in seeds, such as proteins, fatty acids, starch, and secondary metabolites, will enhance our ability to improve seed quality and yield through molecular breeding programs. In the present study, we employed a label-free quantitative proteomics approach to study the functional proteins altered in the midmature (65-70 days postanthesis) peanut seed grown under water-deficit stress conditions. We created a pod-specific proteome database and identified 93 nonredundant, statistically significant, and differentially expressed proteins between well-watered and drought-stressed seeds. Mapping of these differential proteins revealed three candidate biological pathways (glycolysis, sucrose and starch metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism) that were significantly altered due to water-deficit stress. Differential accumulation of proteins from these pathways provides insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed physiological changes, which include reductions in pod yield and biomass, reduced germination, reduced vigor, decreased seed membrane integrity, increase in storage proteins, and decreased total fatty acid content. Some of the proteins encoding rate limiting enzymes of biosynthetic pathways could be utilized by breeders to improve peanut seed production during water-deficit conditions in the field. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000308. PMID:24094305

Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A; Payton, Paxton

2013-11-01

256

Evidence of pathway-specific basophil anergy induced by peanut oral immunotherapy in peanut-allergic children  

PubMed Central

Background In Westernized countries, over 1% of the population is allergic to peanuts or tree nuts, which carries a risk of severe allergic reactions. Several studies support the efficacy of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) for reducing the clinical sensitivity of affected individuals; however, the mechanisms of this effect are still being characterized. One mechanism that may contribute is the suppression of effector cells, such as basophils. Basophil anergy has been characterized in vitro as a pathway-specific hyporesponsiveness; however, this has not been demonstrated to occur in vivo. Objective To evaluate the hypothesis that basophil anergy occurs in vivo due to chronic allergen exposure in the setting of a clinical oral immunotherapy trial. Methods Samples of peripheral blood were obtained from subjects during a placebo-controlled clinical trial of peanut OIT. Basophil reactivity to in vitro stimulation with peanut allergen and controls was assessed by the upregulation of activation markers, CD63 and CD203c, measured by flow cytometry. Results The upregulation of CD63 following stimulation of the IgE receptor, either specifically with peanut allergen or non-specifically with anti-IgE antibody, was strongly suppressed by active OIT. However, OIT did not significantly suppress this response in basophils stimulated by the distinct fMLP receptor pathway. In the subset of subjects with egg sensitization, active peanut OIT also suppressed CD63 upregulation in response to stimulation with egg allergen. Allergen OIT also suppressed the upregulation of CD203c including in response to stimulation with IL-3 alone. Conclusion Peanut OIT induces a hyporesponsive state in basophils that is consistent with pathway-specific anergy previously described in vitro. This suggests the hypothesis that effector cell anergy could contribute to clinical desensitization.

Thyagarajan, Ananth; Jones, Stacie M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Pons, Laurent; Kulis, Mike; Woo, Caitlin S.; Kamalakannan, Mohanapriya; Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Shreffler, Wayne G.

2013-01-01

257

INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

2011-05-01

258

Processing can alter the properties of peanut extract preparations.  

PubMed

As peanut allergy is an increasing public health risk, affecting over 1% of the United States and United Kingdom school children, it is important that methods and reagents for accurate diagnosis of food allergy and detection of allergenic foods are reliable and consistent. Given that most current experimental, diagnostic, and detection tests rely on the presence of soluble allergens in food extracts, we investigated the effects of thermal processing on the solubility and IgE binding of the major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The soluble and insoluble fractions of peanuts that were boiled, fried, and roasted were subjected to electrophoresis and Western blot analysis using anti-Ara h 1 and anti-Ara h 2 antibodies and serum IgE from peanut allergic individuals. Overall protein solubility is reduced with processing and IgE binding increases in the insoluble fractions, due mostly to the increase in the amount of insoluble proteins, with increased time of heating in all processes tested. Therefore, it can be concluded that thermal processing of peanuts alters solubility, and the differences in protein solubility within various extract preparations may contribute to inconsistent skin prick test and immunoassay results, particularly when nonstandardized reagents are used. PMID:20028112

Schmitt, David A; Nesbit, Jacqueline B; Hurlburt, Barry K; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila J

2010-01-27

259

Epicutaneous Immunotherapy Using a New Epicutaneous Delivery System in Mice Sensitized to Peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is a life-threatening condition for which new efficient and safe treatment is expected. We evaluated epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) as a new alternative treatment for peanut allergy in sensitized mice. Methods: Sixty BALB\\/c mice were sensitized by gavages with peanut protein extract (PPE) mixed with cholera toxin. An epicutaneous delivery system, coated with 100 ?g PPE (Viaskin®, DBV

Lucie Mondoulet; Vincent Dioszeghy; Jeroen A. J. Vanoirbeek; Benoit Nemery; Christophe Dupont; Pierre-Henri Benhamou

2011-01-01

260

Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: Data from 2 sequential cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Allergy to peanut is common. However, it is not known whether the prevalence of sensitization and clinical allergy to peanut is increasing. Objective: We sought to determine any change in the prevalence of peanut sensitization and reactivity in early childhood in 2 sequential cohorts in the same geographic area 6 years apart. Methods: Of 2878 children born between September

Jane Grundy; Sharon Matthews; Belinda Bateman; Taraneh Dean; Syed Hasan Arshad

2002-01-01

261

A high performance size-exclusion chromatographic method for evaluating heated oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used to measure compounds with high-molecular weight (MW) formed\\u000a during the heating of oil. Formation of the high-MW compounds is believed to be a reliable indicator of heat abuse in oils.\\u000a The HPSEC method employs two -spherogel size-exclusion columns (500 and 1000 ) in a series to separate the high-MW compounds\\u000a which are detected

Pamela J. White; Yen-chin Wang

1986-01-01

262

Effect of high-fiber and high-oil diets on the fecal flora of swine.  

PubMed Central

Six pairs of pigs were fed a basal diet, a high-fiber diet, and a diet high in corn oil in different sequences to minimize the carry-over effect of diet. After 2 months on each diet, a fecal specimen from each pig was cultured on nonselective medium in roll tubes. Fifty colonies were randomly selected from each fecal sample, and isolates were characterized to identify a representative cross section of the fecal flora. The bacterial composition of the fecal flora differed between basal and high-fiber diets (P = 0.002) and between high-fiber and high-oil diets (P = 0.015). However, the floras were not significantly different between the basal and the high-oil diets (P = 0.135), nor were the floras of the 12 individual pigs (each on all three diets) statistically different (P = 0.103). Only 14 of the 160 observed taxa have been detected in the human fecal flora, and only 159 of 1,871 total isolates (8.5%) were members of described species. The most common isolate was a Streptococcus species similar to that reported by Robinson et al. (I. M. Robinson, S. C. Whipp, J. A. Bucklin, and M. J. Allison, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:964-969, 1984), which was found in 34 of 36 samples and which represented 27.5% of all isolates. Lactobacillus, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, and Peptostreptococcus species were the next most common bacteria. Escherichia coli represented 1.7% of all fecal isolates, which is somewhat higher than the 0.1 to 0.6% observed in human feces cultured similarly with prereduced anaerobically sterilized media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Moore, W E; Moore, L V; Cato, E P; Wilkins, T D; Kornegay, E T

1987-01-01

263

Unique enhanced oil and gas recovery project for very high pressure Wilcox sands uses cryogenic nitrogen and methane mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary recovery of oil, condensate, plant liquids, and gas from volatile oil and retrograde condensate reservoirs in the hot, high pressured, and multilayered Wilcox sands in the Fordoche field, Pt. Copee parish, Louisiana, is low. Recovery from oil reservoirs by depletion is predicted by numerous model studies to be from 26 to 36% of the original-in-place (OIP) oil. Condensate recovery

C. Prihoda; W. W. Holden; W. W. Jr. Eckles

1980-01-01

264

The Potential of Heavily And Severely Biodegraded Oils to be Partly Upgraded During High Temperature Thermal Recovery Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Upgrading of heavy oil and oil sands under simulated high temperature thermal recovery conditions was conducted to evaluate mechanisms and sources of the produced light hydrocarbon compounds that directly affect oil fluid properties. The main results suggest that the asphaltene fraction is the main source of the light hydrocarbons produced during the upgrading process. Comparing results from oils with

Norka Marcano; Barry Bennett; Thomas Oldenburg; Haiping Huang; Steve Larter

265

Solid waste management in Chicago: More than just peanuts  

SciTech Connect

For FP International (Redwood City, California), the proof is in the peanuts. The white, plastic peanuts, that is -- the end product produced at its plastic recycling facility near Chicago, one of the few facilities that create such an end product. The facility, which has been there since 1973, takes in shape-molded polystyrene (PS) foam and turns it back into plastic packing peanuts, also known as loosefill, which can be reused to pack more goods. The facility takes the white material that televisions or computers come packed in, grinds it, melts it, and forces the air out, and out comes little BB-sized pellets at the end of the line. The pellets are mixed together, then shot into long strands that are expanded with air. FP also recycles smaller amounts of polyethylene foam.

Malloy, M.G.

1998-05-01

266

Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin  

PubMed Central

Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade [14C]Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. Images

Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

1983-01-01

267

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta ...

L. E. Demick

2011-01-01

268

Aging of biodegradable oils and assessment of their suitability for high voltage applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many items of high voltage plant, a mineral or synthetic oil is used in conjunction with paper as the dielectric medium. However, increasing awareness of the environmental impact of human activity and increasing disposal costs have encouraged researchers to direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Originally used in capacitors, vegetable oils are now finding widespread use in

I. L. Hosier; A. Guushaa; E. W. Westenbrink; C. Rogers; A. S. Vaughan; S. G. Swingler

2011-01-01

269

High gradient magnetic separation I: The removal of solids from shale oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

High gradient magnetic separations are effective in the removal of solid particles from shale oil streams. Several types of shale oils were studied that included a wide range of physical properties and retorting conditions. In order to optimize separator performance, the effects of flow velocity and temperature on solids removal were determined. A measure of separator capacity was obtained. Preliminary

K. M. Jeong; L. Petrakis; M. Takayasu; F. Friedlaender

1982-01-01

270

High power ultrasound effects on lipid oxidation of refined sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high power ultrasound treatment (20 kHz) on some components of refined sunflower oil were studied in order to verify if and to what extent modifications in the lipidic fraction can occur. Traditional parameters including free acidity, total polar compounds, peroxide value, and conjugated dienes concentration were determined in refined sunflower oil samples before, immediately after the ultrasonic

F. Chemat; I. Grondin; P. Costes; L. Moutoussamy; A. Shum Cheong Sing; J. Smadja

2004-01-01

271

A high-throughput approach towards a novel formulation of fenofibrate in omega-3 oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel lipid formulation containing fenofibrate in omega-3 oil was developed using a novel high-throughput screening platform. The optimized formulation combines the cardiovascular health benefits from omega-3 oil with the potent lipid-regulating effect of fenofibrate. When tested against the current marketed product Tricor® in healthy human volunteers, the new formulation was shown to be equivalent to Tricor®.

Pasut Ratanabanangkoon; Hector Guzman; Orn Almarsson; Dina Berkovitz; Stephanie Tokarcyzk; Arthur B. Straughn; Hongming Chen

2008-01-01

272

Mycotoxigenic fungi in peanuts from different geographic regions of Egypt.  

PubMed

To understand the importance of mycotoxigenic fungi in Egyptian peanuts, samples from five regions (Alexandria, El-Beheira, El-Sharqiya, El-Daqahelaya in northern Egypt and Asyut, southern Egypt) in two seasons (2007, 2008) were collected. Aspergillus was consistently the most frequent genus in seeds and in-shell peanuts and was the dominant mycotoxigenic component of the mycobiota. There was no direct correlation between the moisture content of the samples and the fungal populations on peanut seeds tested from different regions. The most common species were from Aspergillus section Flavi (4.7-78.3%), Aspergillus section Nigri (9.4-52.6%) and Aspergillus section Circumdati (5.1-30.9%). In the in-shell peanut samples, the lowest populations were recorded in El-Beheira and Asyut (3.7-4.0 log10 CFU g(-1)) and the highest in Alexandria and Elsharqiya (4.1-6.0 log10 CFU g(-1)). Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri were the most dominant, and Aspergillus section Circumdati were only found in samples in 2008. Both qualitative (coconut cream agar) and quantitative analyses (HPLC) were used to analyse the potential mycotoxin production by strains isolated from peanuts. Of a total of 88 Aspergillus section Flavi strains examined, 95% were A. flavus based on production of aflatoxin B1 on yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium and confirmation using molecular analyses. Of 64 Aspergillus section Circumdati strains only 28% produced ochratoxin A (OTA), and were identified as A. westerdijkiae. No Aspergillus section Nigri strains produced OTA, and they were identified as A. niger (uniseriate). The presence of these toxigenic fungi indicates that there is a potential risk of mycotoxin contamination in Egyptian peanuts and suggests that problems can arise from contamination with both aflatoxins and perhaps also OTA. PMID:23605317

Sultan, Yousef; Magan, Naresh

2010-05-01

273

Effect of linseed oil and macadamia oil on metabolic changes induced by high-fat diet in mice.  

PubMed

The effects of linseed oil (LO) and macadamia oil (MO) on the metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acid were investigated. For the purpose of this study, the vegetable oil present in the HFD, i.e. soybean oil (SO) was replaced with LO (HFD-LO) or MO (HFD-MO). For comparative purposes, a group was included, which received a normal fat diet (NFD). Male Swiss mice (6-week old) were used. After 14?days under the dietary conditions, the mice were fasted for 18?h, and experiments were then performed. The HFD-SO, HFD-LO and HFD-MO groups showed higher glycaemia (p?high content of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in LO. PMID:24284975

Barrena, Helenton C; Schiavon, Fabiana P M; Cararra, Marcia A; Marques, Any de Castro R; Schamber, Christiano R; Curi, Rui; Bazotte, Roberto B

2014-06-01

274

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

275

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

276

Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.  

PubMed

Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids. PMID:23888318

Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

2013-09-01

277

Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust

M. J. Jacobus; S. M. Geyer; S. S. Lestz; T. M. Risby; W. D. Taylor

1983-01-01

278

Effect of high-oil corn or added corn oil on ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid formation in beef steers fed finishing diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Angus steers (410 kg) cannulated in the proximal duodenum were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid level and oil source on ruminal biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) outflow. Dietary treat- ments included: 1) typical corn (TC; 79.2% typical corn), 2) high-oil corn (HOC; 79.2% high-oil corn), and 3)

S. K. Duckett; J. G. Andrae; F. N. Owens

2010-01-01

279

QTL detection for grain oil and starch content and their associations in two connected F 2:3 populations in high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-oil maize (Zea mays L.) has special value in animal feed and human food. Two hundred and eight-four and 265 F2:3 families developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred and two normal dent maize inbreds were evaluated for\\u000a grain oil and starch contents under two environments. Using composite interval mapping, 1–6 QTL for each trait were detected\\u000a under

Y. Z. Wang; J. Z. Li; Y. L. Li; M. G. Wei; X. H. Li; J. F. Fu

2010-01-01

280

Resolution and identification of major peanut allergens using a combination of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is triggered by several proteins known as allergens. In this study, the complexity the peanut allergome is investigated with proteomic tools. The strength of this investigation resides in combining the high-resolving power and reproducibility of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis with specific immunological detection as well as polypeptide sequencing by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Matching of the peanut proteins in 2D gels was achieved by differential labelling whereby peanut proteins and purified allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2 or Ara h 3/4) were run on the same gel. Ten protein spots on a mass line of ca. 63-68 kDa were likely to correspond to Ara h 1. Two doublets on two different mass lines at ca. 16 and 18 kDa matched with purified allergen Ara h 2. The basic and acidic sub-units of Ara h 3/4 were observed at masses of ca. 25 kDa and 40-45 kDa, respectively. Subsequently the antibody-binding capacity of spots corresponding to peanut allergens was investigated by Western blotting of 2D gels using antibodies (IgY) raised against Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and the recombinant 40 kDa sub-unit of Ara h 3/4. Final confirmation of the identity of the protein spots matched after 2D electrophoresis and identified by Western blotting was obtained by in-gel digestion of protein spots and analysis by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. By using the method developed in our work, the location and identification of two different isoforms of the allergen Ara h 1, the allergen Ara h 2 and six isoforms of the allergen Ara h 3/4 in 2D peanut protein maps was established. PMID:19223023

Chassaigne, Hubert; Trégoat, Virginie; Nørgaard, Jørgen V; Maleki, Soheila J; van Hengel, Arjon J

2009-04-13

281

Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA. PMID:22806781

Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

2012-01-01

282

High vertical and horizontal conformance thermal oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal oil recovery processes employing the injection of steam and\\/or hot water for mobilizing viscous petroleum sweep only a small fraction of the formation between the wells because of override, underride, or channeling resulting in poor vertical conformance, as well as poor horizontal conformance of the swept portion of the formation. Both vertical and horizontal conformance are improved significantly if

C. H. Wu; A. Brown; W. L. Hall; R. D. Shupe

1979-01-01

283

Silicone oil with high specific gravity for intraocular use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicone oil with a higher specific gravity than that of intraocular fluid or polydimethylsiloxane may have special indications in vitreoretinal surgery. Trifluorsiloxane is such a substance, and therefore its biological compatibility was investigated in rabbit eyes. It was found that this substance was clinically well tolerated within the observation time of up to 6 months, even if there was some

V P Gabel; A Kampik; C Gabel; D Spiegel

1987-01-01

284

Properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of oil-fuel ashes  

SciTech Connect

The residue of oil-fuel burned at the electrical power plant of Grao de Castellon (Spain) has been incorporated in Portland cement mortar and concrete. The used oil-fuel ash (OFA) had a high percentage of magnesium compounds because of magnesium oxide addition for removing slag and ashes from boilers and pipes. Several studies had been carried out on stabilization of toxic metals also occurring in oil-fuel ashes (particularly vanadium and nickel), by mixing with coal fly ashes and cement. In this case, the presence of magnesium compounds in the composition of the studied oil-fuel ashes could alter the mechanical and chemical properties of the cement matrix in fresh and hardened mortar and concrete. The authors present here the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of oil-fuel ashes and the behavior of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of these oil-fuel ashes. The study includes workability, water demand, setting time, expansion and compressive strength developments. Preliminary results demonstrate a high absorption of water by oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash pastes setting times was observed, due to the presence of carbonates. On the other hand, no significant expansion in specimens due to the presence of magnesium compounds was detected and, consequently, mechanical properties of hardened mortars containing oil-fuel ashes did not decrease with curing time. Compressive strengths for mortars containing OFA were much lower, however, than control mortar samples.

Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Monzo, J.; Bonilla, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)] [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

1999-06-01

285

Mesua ferrea L. seed oil based highly thermostable and biodegradable polyester\\/clay nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology holds the prospective for pervasive and avant-garde changes to improve performance of materials. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil based highly thermostable and biodegradable polyester\\/clay nanocomposites have been prepared at different dose levels of nanoclay. The highly branched polyester resin was synthesized by condensation of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid with M. ferrea L. seed oil based carboxyl terminated pre-polymer. FTIR, rheometric,

Uday Konwar; Niranjan Karak; Manabendra Mandal

2009-01-01

286

Continuous slurry hydrogenation of soybean oil with copper-chromite catalyst at high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective hydrogenation of soybean oil to reduce linolenic acid is accomplished better with copper than with nickel catalysts.\\u000a However, the low activity of copper catalysts at low pressure and the high cost of batch equipment for high-pressure hydrogenation\\u000a has precluded their commercial use so far. To evaluate continuous systems as an alternative, soybean oil was hydrogenated\\u000a in a 120 ft

S. Koritala; K. J. Moulton; J. P. Friedrich; E. N. Frankel; W. F. Kwolek

1984-01-01

287

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compa...

S. I. Pinel H. R. Signer E. V. Zaretsky

2001-01-01

288

The effects of partially hydrogenated marine oils on the mitochondrial function and membrane phospholipid fatty acids in rat heart.  

PubMed

The influence of dietary partially hydrogenated marine oils containing docosenoic acid on rat heart mitochondrial membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition was studied with particular reference to cardiolipin and oxidative phosphorylation. Five groups of male weanling rats were fed diets containing 20% (w/w) peanut oil (PO), partially hydrogenated peanut oil (HPO), partially hydrogenated Norwegian capelin oil (HCO), partially hydrogenated herring oil (HHO), and rapeseed oil (RSO) for 10 weeks. All the cardiac phospholipids investigated were influenced by the experimental diets. An increased amount of arachidonic acid observed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) after feeding partially hydrogenated oils suggests a changed regulation of the arachidonic acid metabolism in comparison with PO treatment. 22:1 originating from the dietary oils was incorporated only to a small extent into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PE. A selective incorporation of 18:1 isomers into the 1- and 2-positions of PC and PE with respect to geometry and position of the double bond was observed. Large amounts of 18:1 trans were incorporated into the 1-position of PC and PE, irrespective of the amount of 18:2 supplemented to the diets, replacing a considerable proportion of stearic acid in this position. After feeding HHO and RSO, the content of 22:1 in mitochondrial cardiolipin of rat heart was found to be 3% (mainly cetoleic acid) and 10% (mainly erucic acid), respectively, indicating a high affinity for cis isomers of 22:1, but also a considerable resistance against incorporation of trans isomers was observed. The ability of rat cardiac mitochondria to oxidize palmitoylcarnitine and to synthesize ATP was depressed after feeding HHO and RSO. Dietary cis isomers of 22:1 seem to have a specific ability to interfere with cardiac ATP synthesis and also to alter the fatty acid composition of cardiolipin of rat heart. PMID:6855477

Blomstrand, R; Svensson, L

1983-03-01

289

A Novel Immunoassay Using Recombinant Allergens Simplifies Peanut Allergy Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is currently considered the gold standard for peanut allergy diagnosis. However, this procedure that requires the hospitalization of patients, mostly children, in specialized centers for oral exposure to allergens may cause severe reactions requiring emergency measures. Thus, a simpler and safer diagnosis procedure is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the

F. Codreanu; O. Collignon; O. Roitel; B. Thouvenot; C. Sauvage; A.-C. Vilain; M.-O. Cousin; A. Decoster; J.-M. Renaudin; C. Astier; J.-M. Monnez; P. Vallois; M. Morisset; D.-A. Moneret-Vautrin; M. Brulliard; V. Ogier; M.-C. Castelain; G. Kanny; B. E. Bihain; S. Jacquenet

2011-01-01

290

Contribution of phytochelatins to cadmium tolerance in peanut plants.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is a well known heavy metal considered as one of the most toxic metals on Earth, affecting all viable cells that are exposed even at low concentration. It is introduced to agricultural soils mainly by phosphate fertilizers and causes many toxic symptoms in cells. Phytochelatins (PCs) are non-protein thiols which are involved in oxidative stress protection and are strongly induced by Cd. In this work, we analyzed metal toxicity as well as PCs implication on protection of peanut plants exposed to Cd. Results showed that Cd exposure induced a reduction of peanut growth and produced changes in the histological structure with a deposit of unknown material on the epidermal and endodermal cells. When plants were exposed to 10 ?M Cd, no modification of chlorophyll, lipid peroxides, carbonyl groups, or hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) content was observed. At this concentration, peanut leaves and roots glutathione (GSH) content decreased. However, peanut roots were able to synthesize different types of PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4). In conclusion, PC synthesis could prevent metal disturbance on cellular redox balance, avoiding oxidative damage to macromolecules. PMID:22986748

Bianucci, Eliana; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón O; Del Carmen Tordable, María; Fabra, Adriana; Hernández, Luis E; Castro, Stella

2012-10-01

291

Diniconazole's effect on peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse nutrient solution studies demonstrated that diniconazole will decrease peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) shoot growth when either root or shoot applied. Root growth and development were decreased by root and, to a lesser extent, by shoot uptake of diniconazole. Diniconazole is apparently xylem translocated, but not phloem translocated. Concentrations of 200 ppb ES isomer of diniconazole in nutrient solution (root

C. S. Kvien; A. S. Csinos; L. F. Ross; E. J. Conkerton; C. Styer

1987-01-01

292

Sticky Decisions: Peanut Butter in a Time of Salmonella  

PubMed Central

We present a consumer-focused perspective on creating communications regarding potentially contaminated foods. It is illustrated with decisions that might have faced US consumers during the 2009 recalls of peanut and pistachio products. The example shows how knowledge about test results and regulatory processes might be made more useful to consumers.

Fischhoff, Baruch

2010-01-01

293

Visualization of foam/oil in a new, high resolution, sandstone replica micromodel  

SciTech Connect

A new micromodel construction procedure has been developed as a tool to better understand and model pore level events in porous media. The construction procedure allows for the almost exact two-dimensional replication of any porous medium of interest. For the case presented here a berea sandstone was chosen. Starting with a thin section of the porous medium of interest, a two-dimensional replica of the flow path is etched into a silicon wafer to a prescribed depth. Bonding the etched pattern to a flat glass plate isolates the flow path and allows the pore level flow events to be studied. The high resolution micromodels constructed with the new procedure were used to study the effects of oil on the displacement characteristics of foam in a porous medium of intermediate wettability. A crude oil was injected into the micromodel, partially filling it. The oil was then produced under two different displacement schemes. First, a slug of surfactant was used. Second, foam generated in situ, far from the oil bank, was used to displace the oil. Qualitative observations indicate significant differences at the interface between the oil and the displacing phase. When slug surfactant injection is used, the oil appears to wet the surface. The oil displacement process is efficient due to a large fractional production of oil from the large pores before the surfactant breaks through. When in-situ foam is the displacing phase, the foam is observed to break near the oil interface. The liquid phase in the foam becomes the wetting phase. It is observed to reside in the small pores and to coat most of the grain surfaces. Displacement of oil under this injection scheme is inefficient due to transfer of the surfactant along grain edges and subsequent early breakthrough of the surfactant.

Hornbrook, J.W.; Pettit, P.; Castanier, L.M.

1992-08-01

294

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

295

A peanut seed lipoxygenase responsive to Aspergillus colonization.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence have indicated that lipoxygenase enzymes (LOX) and their products, especially 9S- and 13S-hydroperoxy fatty acids, could play a role in the Aspergillus/seed interaction. Both hydroperoxides exhibit sporogenic effects on Aspergillus spp. (Calvo, A., Hinze, L., Gardner, H.W. and Keller, N.P. 1999. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3668-3673) and differentially modulate aflatoxin pathway gene transcription (Burow, G.B., Nesbitt, T.C., Dunlap, J. and Keller, N.P. 1997. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 10: 380-387). To examine the role of seed LOXs at the molecular level, a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed gene, PnLOX1, was cloned and characterized. Analysis of nucleotide sequence suggests that PnLOX1 encodes a predicted 98 kDa protein highly similar in sequence and biochemical properties to soybean LOX2. The full-length PnLOX1 cDNA was subcloned into an expression vector to determine the type(s) of hydroperoxide products the enzyme produces. Analysis of the oxidation products of PnLOX1 revealed that it produced a mixture of 30% 9S-HPODE (9S-hydroperoxy-10E, 12Z-octadecadienoic acid) and 70% 13S-HPODE (13S-hydroperoxy-9Z, 11E-octadecadienoic acid) at pH 7. PnLOX1 is an organ-specific gene which is constitutively expressed in immature cotyledons but is highly induced by methyl jasmonate, wounding and Aspergillus infections in mature cotyledons. Examination of HPODE production in infected cotyledons suggests PnLOX1 expression may lead to an increase in 9S-HPODE in the seed. PMID:10809442

Burow, G B; Gardner, H W; Keller, N P

2000-03-01

296

Cloning and Expression Analysis of cDNAs Encoding ABA 8'-Hydroxylase in Peanut Plants in Response to Osmotic Stress  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism is one of the determinants of endogenous ABA levels affecting numerous aspects of plant growth and abiotic-stress responses. The major ABA catabolic pathway is triggered by ABA 8'-hydroxylation catalysed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, the cytochrome P450 CYP707A family. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were cloned and characterized from peanut. Expression analyses showed that AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were expressed ubiquitously in peanut roots, stems, and leaves with different transcript accumulation levels, including the higher expression of AhCYP707A1 in roots. The expression of AhCYP707A2 was significantly up-regulated by 20% PEG6000 or 250 mmol/L NaCl in peanut roots, stems, and leaves, whereas the up-regulation of AhCYP707A1 transcript level by PEG6000 or NaCl was observed only in roots instead of leaves and stems. Due to the osmotic and ionic stresses of high concentration of NaCl to plants simultaneously, low concentration of LiCl (30 mmol/L, at which concentration osmotic status of cells is not seriously affected, the toxicity of Li+ being higher than that of Na+) was used to examine whether the effect of NaCl might be related to osmotic or ionic stress. The results revealed visually the susceptibility to osmotic stress and the resistance to salt ions in peanut seedlings. The significant up-regulation of AhCYP707A1, AhCYP707A2 and AhNCED1 transcripts and endogenous ABA levels by PEG6000 or NaCl instead of LiCl, showed that the osmotic stress instead of ionic stress affected the expression of those genes and the biosynthesis of ABA in peanut. The functional expression of AhCYP707A1 cDNA in yeast showed that the microsomal fractions prepared from yeast cell expressing recombinant AhCYP707A1 protein exhibited the catalytic activity of ABA 8'-hydroxylase. These results demonstrate that the expressions of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 play an important role in ABA catabolism in peanut, particularly in response to osmotic stress.

Wan, Xiao-Rong; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Li, Ling

2014-01-01

297

Characterization of the esterification reaction in high free fatty acid oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and vegetable oil prices have caused many biodiesel producers to turn to waste cooking oils as feedstocks. These oils contain high levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) which make them difficult or impossible to convert to biodiesel by conventional production methods. Esterification is required for ultra-high FFA feedstocks such as Brown Grease. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation has the potential to improve the kinetics of the esterification reaction. 2-level, multi-factor DOE experiments were conducted to characterize the esterification reaction in ultra-high FFA oils as well as determine whether ultrasonic irradiation gives any benefit besides energy input. The study determined that sulfuric acid content had the greatest effect followed by temperature and water content (inhibited reaction). Methanol content had no effect in the range studied. A small interaction term existed between sulfuric acid and temperature. The study also concluded that sonication did not give any additional benefit over energy input.

Altic, Lucas Eli Porter

298

High-temperature relative permeabilities for Athabasca oil sands--  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of Athabasca bitumen/water relative permeabilities which has revealed little or no temperature effect on the relative permeabilities to water and bitumen over a range of 100 to 250{degrees}C (212 to 482{degrees}F). Comparable results were obtained with both steady- and unsteady-state relative permeability measuring techniques. It was determined that the oil-phase relative permeability curve was convex. Measured curves are compared with those obtained by history matching.

Polikar, M. (Canada's Wolf Lake Operations, BP Co (CA)); Farouq Ali, S.M. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (CA)); Puttagunta, V.R. (Lakehead Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering (USA))

1990-02-01

299

Highly Stable Nonionic Fatliquors Based on Ethoxylated Overused Vegetable Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overused vegetable oils, which are considered to be a waste and available in huge quantities after frying processes, were\\u000a directly ethoxylated using a conventional cheap catalyst in order to obtain an economically valuable ethoxylated product to\\u000a replace the imported intermediate derivatives and at the same time the environment will be rid of one of its pollutants. Therefore,\\u000a this work was

EL-Shahat H. A. Nashy; Ghada A. Abo-ELwafa

300

Silicone oil with high specific gravity for intraocular use.  

PubMed Central

Silicone oil with a higher specific gravity than that of intraocular fluid or polydimethylsiloxane may have special indications in vitreoretinal surgery. Trifluorsiloxane is such a substance, and therefore its biological compatibility was investigated in rabbit eyes. It was found that this substance was clinically well tolerated within the observation time of up to 6 months, even if there was some neovascularisation from the inferior limbus. Histologically both an inflammatory response and tissue impregnation were more pronounced than with normal polydimethylsiloxane. Images

Gabel, V P; Kampik, A; Gabel, C; Spiegel, D

1987-01-01

301

Classification of vegetable oils by high-resolution 13 C NMR spectroscopy using chromatographically obtained oil fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 109 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate\\u000a the potential use of those fractions in the classification of vegetable oils and to compare the results with the NMR analysis\\u000a of complete oils. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north\\u000a Africa;

Rosario Zamora; Gemma Gómez; Francisco J. Hidalgo

2002-01-01

302

High power fiber lasers in geothermal, oil and gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of this paper is the requirements, design, fabrication, and testing of a prototype laser rock drilling system capable of penetrating even the hardest rocks found deep in the earth. The Oil and Gas industry still uses many of the technologies that were in use at the turn of the 19th century. The drilling industry started with a great innovation with the introduction of the tri-cone bit by Howard Hughes in 1908. Since then, the industry has modified and optimized drilling systems with incremental advancement in the ability to penetrate hard crystalline rock structures. Most oil producing reservoirs are located in or below relatively soft rock formations, however, with the growing need for energy, oil companies are now attempting to drill through very hard surface rock and deep ocean formations with limited success. This paper will discuss the types of laser suitable for this application, the requirements for putting lasers in the field, the technology needed to support this laser application and the test results of components developed specifically by Foro Energy for the drilling application.

Zediker, Mark S.

2014-03-01

303

QTL Associated with Maize Kernel Oil, Protein, and Starch Concentrations; Kernel Mass; and Grain Yield in Illinois High Oil × B73 Backcross-Derived Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illinois long-term selection strains of maize (Zea mays L.) have been useful for identifying genomic regions controlling kernel oil, protein, and starch concentrations. To identify kernel trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a genetic background more relevant to practical breed- ing, 150 BC1-derived S1 lines (BC1S1s) were produced from Illinois High Oil and recurrent parent B73. Oil, protein, and starch

James J. Wassom; Jeffrey C. Wong; Edwin Martinez; Joseph J. King; Jan DeBaene; Jay R. Hotchkiss; Venugopal Mikkilineni; Martin O. Bohn; Torbert R. Rocheford

2008-01-01

304

Peanut skins-fortified peanut butters: effect of processing on the phenolics content, fibre content and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Incorporation of ground peanut skins (PS) into peanut butter at 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0% (w/w) resulted in a marked concentration-dependent increase in both the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Using dry-blanched PS to illustrate, the TPC increased by 86%, 357%, 533%, and 714%, respectively, compared to the peanut butter control devoid of PS; the total proanthocyanidins content (TPACs) rose by 633%, 1933%, 3500%, and 5033%, respectively. NP-HPLC detection confirmed that the increase in the phenolics content was attributed to the endogenous proanthocyanidins of the PS, which were characterised as dimers to nonamers by NP-HPLC/ESI-MS. FRAP values increased correspondingly by 62%, 387%, 747%, and 829%, while H-ORAC(FL) values grew by 53%, 247%, 382%, and 415%, respectively. The dietary fibre content of dry-blanched PS was ~55%, with 89-93% being insoluble fibre. Data revealed that PS addition enhances the antioxidant capacity of the peanut butter, permits a "good source of fibre" claim, and offers diversification in the market's product line. PMID:24128560

Ma, Yuanyuan; Kerr, William L; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L; Pegg, Ronald B

2014-02-15

305

Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from peanut protein isolate hydrolysates using UHR-Q-TOF mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

Peanut protein isolate (PPI) was hydrolysed with alcalase to obtain antioxidant peptides. To purify these peptides, the peanut protein isolate hydrolysates (PPIH) were separated by ultrafiltration (MWCO=3kDa) and the obtained PPIH-II (Mw<3kDa) with higher antioxidant activity was further separated by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-15). After filtration, both peptides, P1 and P4, with stronger antioxidant capacity were fractionated using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC). Three antioxidant peptides were finally purified from P1 and P4 using the UHR-Q-TOF mass spectrometer, and the amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified as Thr-Pro-Ala (286kDa), Ile/Leu-Pro-Ser (315kDa) and Ser-Pro (202kDa), respectively. PMID:24837933

Ji, Na; Sun, Cuixia; Zhao, Yunxia; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

2014-10-15

306

Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich ELISA for Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 in Food  

PubMed Central

We have established a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to measure the content of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 in foods. Two mAbs were selected out of 12 murine hybridoma cells secreting Ara h 1-specific antibody. Using mAb 6 as the capture antibody and HRP-labelled mAb 4 as the detection antibody, the limit of detection (LOD) the assay was 0.34 ng/mL. Cross-reaction analysis showed that this method was strongly specific and had no cross-reactions with Ara h 2, pea protein or soy protein. Sample analysis showed that this ELISA was a useful tool to monitor peanut allergens in food products by measuring Ara h 1 content.

Peng, Juan; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

2013-01-01

307

Three-dimensionally macroporous Fe/C nanocomposites as highly selective oil-absorption materials.  

PubMed

In this study, three-dimensionally macroporous Fe/C nanocomposites were investigated as highly selective absorption materials for removing oils from water surface. The macroporous nanocomposites were synthesized by sintering a mixture of closely packed polystyrene microspheres and ferric nitrate precursor. These nanocomposites exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties without the modification of low-surface-energy chemicals. And the pore size of the nanocomposites, which is crucial for the oil-absorption capacity, was tuned by varying the diameter of polystyrene microspheres. The macroporous nanocomposites fast and selectively absorbed a wide range of oils and hydrophobic organic solvents on water surface, and the removal of the absorbed oils from the water surface was readily achieved under a magnetic field. Moreover, the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics after repeatedly removing oils from water surface for many cycles. Because of frequently occurring environmental pollution arising from oil spills and chemicals leakage, the results of this study might offer a kind of efficient and selective absorbent materials for removing oils and nonpolar organic solvents from the surface of water. PMID:22530653

Chu, Ying; Pan, Qinmin

2012-05-01

308

Summary Proceedings of the Coordinators' Meeting (2nd) on Peanut Stripe Virus. Held in Patancheru (India) on August 1-4, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the document is to share existing knowledge on Peanut Stripe Virus (PStV) and other viruses of groundnuts, to determine the problems still requiring answers, and to recommend future collaboration to overcome high-priority problems by identi...

S. R. Beckerman

1989-01-01

309

Lipid composition of selected vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives analytical data on the composition of 14 selected consumer-available liquid vegetable oils, including soybean,\\u000a soybean-cottonseed blends, corn, safflower, peanut, olive and apricot kernel oils. Label information identified six samples\\u000a as specially processed or refined and three samples as cold pressed with no preservative added; the labels of the remaining\\u000a five samples did not mention processing. Data are

Dorothy L. Carpenter; Joanna Lehmann; Blanche S. Mason; Hal T. Slover

1976-01-01

310

An In-depth Investigation of the Effect of Oil Pressure on the Complete Statistical Performance of a High-pressure Flowing Oil Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure flowing oil dielectric switch was developed for high-performance, high-voltage switching. It was evaluated by a team at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The switch was designed to produce a continuous train of nanosecond-rise electrical impulses, with a peak output power ranging up to several gigawatts, and at repetition frequencies ranging up to several kilohertz. High-pressure flowing oil was proposed

Peter Norgard; Randy D. Curry

2010-01-01

311

Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

Kana, Jean Raphael; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A.; Teguia, Alexis

2013-01-01

312

High oil rates gauged from Haynesville in Alabama  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that oil wells with among the highest flowing capacities in the onshore U.S. are being completed in Alabama as operators press development of North Frisco City field. Five wells have been completed in the Monroe County field. A sixth well will be drilled in September, and four more locations have been identified on the 2,100 acre leasehold. The area is 4 miles west of Monroeville, Ala. Nuevo Energy Co., Houston, completed the field's most recent well earlier this month.

Not Available

1992-08-24

313

High gradient magnetic separation; I: the removal of solids from shale oils  

SciTech Connect

High gradient magnetic separations are effective in the removal of solid particles from shale oil streams. Several types of shale oils were studied that included a wide range of physical properties and retorting conditions. In order to optimize separator performance, the effects of flow velocity and temperature on solids removal were determined. A measure of separator capacity was obtained. Preliminary solids characterization data are also discussed.

Jeong, K.M.; Friedlaender, F.J.; Petrakis, L.; Takayasu, M.

1982-11-01

314

Experimental Investigation of Lubrication Failure of Polyalphaolefin Oil Film at High Slide\\/Roll Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lubrication failure of polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil film at high slide\\/roll ratios of more than 1.9 has been experimentally investigated\\u000a based on a ball-on-disc configuration. The central film thickness and the oil pool shape in the contact were determined by\\u000a optical interferometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively, and the traction coefficient and surface profiles of the\\u000a tribopairs were measured using a tension-compression

Shanhua Qian; Dan Guo; Shuhai Liu; Xinchun Lu

315

Comparison of the frying stability of regular and high-oleic acid sunflower oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frying stability of a regular sunflower oil (RSFO) was compared with that of a high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSFO).\\u000a The rate of FFA formation was greater for HOSFO than RSFO during 72 h of frying. The content of tocopherols was much higher\\u000a in RSFO and their degradation was markedly slower than that observed for HOSFO. The formation of total

L. Normand; N. A. M. Eskin; R. Przybylski

2006-01-01

316

Population ecology of Heteronyx piceus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in a peanut/maize cropping system.  

PubMed

Large larval populations of the scarabaeid beetle Heteronyx piceus Blanchard that occur under peanuts, but not maize, in the South Burnett region of Australia are the result of a high rate and prolonged period of egg production by females feeding on peanut foliage. Heteronyx piceus is a relatively sedentary species and movement of females between adjacent fields is low. Populations of H. piceus varied markedly with landscape position. High larval populations are more likely (1 in 4 chance) to be encountered on the 'scrub' soils in the upper parts of the landscape than in the 'forest' soils in the lower half (1 in 20 chance), indicating that soil type/landscape position is a key risk factor in assessing the need for management intervention. The studies indicate that, because of the species' sedentary nature, the most meaningful population entity for management of H. piceus is the individual field, rather than the whole-farm or the region. The implications of this population ecology for management of the pest are discussed in relation to control strategies. PMID:16556333

Ward, A L; Rogers, D J

2006-04-01

317

Synthesis of highly hydrophobic floating magnetic polymer nanocomposites for the removal of oils from water surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of organic contaminants, particularly oil spills from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. In this article, we present a novel, economic and environment-friendly core-shell composite material based on magnetic hollow Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) that was fabricated by two-step process, which can fast and efficiently separate oils from water surface under a magnetic field. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with a polystyrene layer successfully to form water-repellent and oil-absorbing surfaces, which could float on water and selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. More importantly, the oils could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanocomposites by a simple treatment and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic characteristics, so the nanocomposites have an excellent recyclability in the oil-absorbent capacity. Several techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used in the characterization of the materials. In addition, magnetic force and oils removal capability tests were also performed. It will open up a potential and broad application in wastewater treatment.

Chen, Mudan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Shen, Ping; Ma, Peichang; Gu, Junjun; Mao, Jianyu; Li, Fengsheng

2013-12-01

318

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01

319

High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion technology of oil shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the depletion of conventional energy sources,oil shale has got much attention as a new type of energy resource,which is rich and widespread in the world.The conventional utilization of oil shale is mainly focused on resorting to produce shale oil and fuel gas with low extraction efficiency about one in a million due to many shortcomings and limitations.And the in-situ conversion of oil shale,more environmentally friendly,is still in the experimental stage.High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion of oil shale is a new type of in-situ pyrolysis technology.The main equipment includes a high voltage-power frequency generator and interior reactor. The high voltage-power frequency generator can provide a voltage between 220-8000 V which can be adjusted in real time according to the actual situation.Firstly,high voltage is used to breakdown the oil shale to form a dendritic crack between two electrodes providing a conductive channel inside the oil shale rock.And then the power frequency(220V) is used to generate the electric current for heating the internal surface of conductive channel,so that the energy can be transmitted to the surrounding oil shale.When the temperature reaches 350 degree,the oil shale begins to pyrolysis.In addition,the temperature in the conductive channel can be extremely high with high voltage,which makes the internal surface of conductive channel graphitization and improves its heat conduction performance.This technology can successfully make the oil shale pyrolysis, based on a lot of lab experiments,and also produce the combustible shale oil and fuel gas.Compared to other in-situ conversion technology,this method has the following advantages: high speed of heating oil shale,the equipment underground is simple,and easy to operate;it can proceed without the limitation of shale thickness, and can be used especially in the thin oil shale reservoir;the heating channel is parallel to the oil shale layers,which has more effective area for heating and heat transmitting;it has very good adaptability to the formation,the location and depth of the electrodes which can be adjusted according to the specific stratigraphic depth case;A positive(negative) electrode can be connected to multiple negative(positive) electrodes,and the arrangement of the positive and negative electrodes can be evaluated for improving the extraction efficiency.High voltage-power frequency electrical heating in-situ conversion technology is a very promising in-situ pyrolysis method,which could provide a new way of mining oil shale resources.

Sun, Youhong; Yang, Yang; Lopatin, Vladimir; Guo, Wei; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong

2014-05-01

320

Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim

Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Aboubakar Sako; Alhassane Fofana; Kamenan Blaise Koua; Siaka Toure

2010-01-01

321

Influence of high content of dietary soybean oil on quality of large fresh, smoked and frozen Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was grown in sea cages from 700 g to a market size of 3.2 kg on diets containing either 29% Peruvian high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) fish oil (FO) or 29% soybean oil (SO) as oil source. Chemical analyses and a triangular consumer test were performed on fresh muscle, while colour, texture and liquid holding capacity (LHC) analyses

Anna Maria Bencze Rørå; Bente Ruyter; Jon Skorve; Rolf K. Berge; Karl-Erik Slinning

2005-01-01

322

cDNA clone of a putative peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) trypsin inhibitor has homology with peanut allergens Ara h 3 and Ara h 4.  

PubMed

Trypsin inhibitors are pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, which play an important role in the plant defense mechanism against insects and pathogens. Peanut trypsin inhibitors are low molecular mass seed storage proteins. Like peanut allergens, they are stable to acid and heat, resistant to digestion, and can have a negative impact on human health. In peanut, five Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors (BBTI) have been isolated and amino acid sequences published. However, to date, no peanut BBTI sequence is available at both the cDNA and the genomic levels. The objectives of this investigation were (i) to synthesize degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved regions of published amino acid sequences of BBTI, BII, and BIII; (ii) to isolate, sequence, and analyze at least one positive peanut trypsin inhibitor cDNA clone using the synthesized (32)P-labeled oligonucleotides as probes; and (iii) to determine its trypsin inhibitory activity. Thirty-two degenerate oligonucleotides DNA primers of 24 nucleotides each were synthesized based on the published amino acid sequences of peanut BBTI, and two were selected as probes to screen a peanut Lambda gt 11 cDNA library. Three putative positive clones were isolated, purified, and subcloned, and one was sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed a partial cDNA clone of 643 bp with a start codon. This clone shares 93 and 96% nucleotide sequence homology with peanut allergens Ara h 3 and Ara h 4 cDNA clones, respectively. A trypsin inhibitor assay revealed that peanut allergen Ara h 3 has a trypsin inhibitory activity of 11 238 TIA/mg protein. We concluded that peanut allergen Ara h 3 may also function as a trypsin inhibitor. PMID:14995153

Dodo, Hortense W; Viquez, Olga M; Maleki, Soheila J; Konan, Koffi N

2004-03-10

323

Biosynthesis of 4-methyleneglutamic acid by peanut seedlings: Evidence for the involvement of a distinct source of leucine  

SciTech Connect

Germinating peanut seeds accumulate 4-methyleneglutamic acid its {gamma}-amide(MeGlx), as well as 4-methylglutamic acid(MGlu) for which leucine has been implicated as a precursor. When we incubated detached peanut cotyledons with {sup 14}C-leucine for 24-96 hr, most of the label was found in non-extractable components, while small but significant amounts were present in MeGlx, MGlu, and free leucine. The level of leucine in storage protein of ungerminated seeds is similar to the maximum level of MeGlx found in germinated seeds; further correlations were observed in various peanut tissues between rapid accumulation of MeGlx and the presence of high levels of glyoxysomal enzymes (catalase and isocitrate lyase). These results suggest that during germination, most of the leucine in the seed storage protein is converted to MeGlx, possibly by a glyoxysomal oxidase system in cotyledons, whereas most of the free leucine for protein synthesis is formed de novo.

Winter, H.C.; Dekker, E.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

1989-04-01

324

Value-added processing of peanut skins: antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and procyanidin content of spray-dried extracts.  

PubMed

To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol and filtered to remove insoluble material; the soluble extract was spray-dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of procyanidin oligomers (DP2-DP4) but low levels of monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymers. The addition of maltodextrin during spray-drying resulted in the formation of unknown polymeric compounds. Spray-drying also increased the proportion of flavan-3-ols and DP2 procyanidins in the extracts while decreasing larger procyanidins. Spray-dried powders had higher antioxidant capacity and total phenolics and increased solubility compared to milled skins. These data suggest that spray-dried peanut skin extracts may be a good source of natural antioxidants. Additionally, the insoluble material produced during the process may have increased value for use in animal feed due to enrichment of protein and removal of phenolic compounds during extraction. PMID:23050560

Constanza, Karen E; White, Brittany L; Davis, Jack P; Sanders, Timothy H; Dean, Lisa L

2012-10-31

325

Diets High in Corn Oil or Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Provided From Weaning Advance Sexual Maturation and Differentially Modify Susceptibility to Mammary Carcinogenesis in Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the importance of early-life events in breast cancer risk, we have investigated the effects of high-fat diets on maturation, mammary gland development, and its susceptibility to transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a lowfat (LF), high corn oil (HCO), or high extra-virgin olive oil (HOO) diet from weaning and gavaged with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Body weight and mass increased in

Raquel Moral; Raquel Escrich; Montserrat Solanas; Elena Vela; Irmgard Costa; M. Carme Ruíz de Villa; Eduard Escrich

2011-01-01

326

Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-? and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-? cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

2009-07-01

327

Continuous fractionation of used frying oil by supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC?CO2) might be a way to purify used frying oils, since a selective separation of the oil components based on their polarity and\\u000a M.W. can be attained. In this work, we studied the purification of peanut oil used for frying by SC?CO2 continuous fractionation in a packed column. The influence of pressure (15–35 MPa) and

L. Sesti Osséo; G. Caputo; I. Gracia; E. Reverchon

2004-01-01

328

Selective Cloning of Peanut Allergens, Including Profilin and 2S Albumins, by Phage Display Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut kernels contain many allergens able to elicit IgE–mediated type 1 allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Sera from sensitized patients recognize variable patterns of IgE–binding proteins. The identification of the IgE–binding proteins of peanut extract would faciliate improvement of diagnostic and immunotherapeutic approaches as well as development of sensitive test systems for the detection of hidden peanut allergens present

Reto Crameri; Ulrich Appenzeller; Max Schlaak

1999-01-01

329

TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived\\u000a products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic\\u000a proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic

Joseph E Knoll; M Laura Ramos; Yajuan Zeng; C Corley Holbrook; Marjorie Chow; Sixue Chen; Soheila Maleki; Anjanabha Bhattacharya; Peggy Ozias-Akins

2011-01-01

330

Clinical Allergy to Hazelnut and Peanut: Identification of T Cell Cross-Reactive Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut and tree nut allergies are life-threatening conditions for many affected individuals worldwide. Currently there is no cure. While co-allergy to peanut and tree nuts is a common clinical observation, and IgE cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nuts is reported, T cell cross-reactivity is poorly defined. Methods: Hazelnut-specific T cell lines were established using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from

Ian N. Glaspole; Maria P. de Leon; Sara R. Prickett; Robyn E. O’Hehir; Jennifer M. Rolland

2011-01-01

331

High-speed Oil Engines for Vehicles. Part II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Further progress toward the satisfactory solution of the difficult problem of the distribution and atomization of the injected fuel was made by extensive experimentation with various fuel valves, nozzles, and atomizing devices. Valuable information was also obtained through numerous experimental researches on the combustion of oils and the manner of introducing the combustion air into the cylinder, as well as on the physical processes of atomization, the determination of the size of drops, etc. These researches led to the conclusion that it is possible, even without producing great turbulence in the combustion chamber and at moderate pump pressure, if the degree of atomization and the penetrative power of the fuel jet are adapted to the shape of the combustion chamber and to the dimensions of the cylinder.

Hausfelder, Ludwig

1927-01-01

332

A high oxidised frying oil content diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance in rodents.  

PubMed

Oxidised frying oil (OFO) and fish oil have been shown to be peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activators and their ingestion results in pleotropic peroxisome proliferator responses in rats. To examine the effect of dietary OFO on adiposity, four groups of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isoenergetically with, respectively, a low fat basal diet containing 5 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (LSB) or a high fat diet containing 20 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (HSB), OFO (HO) or fish oil (HF). The tissue mass, cell size and lipid/DNA ratio in the retroperitoneal fat pad and serum leptin levels were lowest in the HO group (P < 0.05), indicating that dietary OFO has a greater anti-adipogenic action than dietary fish oil. However, a tendency to hyperglycaemia was observed in the HO group (P = 0.0528). To examine the effect of dietary OFO on glucose tolerance, three groups of rats and three groups of mice were fed, respectively, the LSB, HSB or HO diet, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After oral glucose load, the area under the curve for blood glucose (AUCglu) over 2 h was significantly higher, and that for serum insulin (AUCins) over 90 min was significantly lower, in the HO group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that, in rats and mice, a high OFO diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance. PMID:17433128

Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chun-Huei; Huang, Shiau-Ting; Huang, Ching-Jang

2007-07-01

333

Online profiling of triacylglycerols in plant oils by two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The complexity of natural triacylglycerols (TAGs) in various edible oils is high because of the hundreds of TAG compositions, which makes the profiling of TAGs quite difficult. In this investigation, a rapid and high-throughput method for online profiling of TAGs in plant oils by two-dimensional (2D) liquid chromatography using a single column coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was reported. A novel mixed-mode 2D chromatographic column packed with silver-ion-modified octyl and sulfonic co-bonded silica was employed in this online 2D separation system. This novel 2D column combined the features of C8 column and silver-ion. In comparison with the traditional C18 column and silver-ion column, which are the two main columns used for the separation of complex TAGs in natural oil samples, this novel 2D column, could provide hydrophobic interactions as well as ?-complexation interactions. It exhibited much higher selectivity for the separation of TAGs, and the separation was rapid. This online 2D separation system was successful in the separation of a large number of TAG solutes, and the TAG structures were evaluated by analyzing their APCI mass spectra information. This system was applied for the profiling of TAGs in peanut oils, corn oils, and soybean oils. 30 TAGs in peanut oils, 18 TAGs in corn oils, and 21 TAGs in soybean oils were determined and quantified. The highest relative content of TAGs was LLL, which was found in corn oil with the relative content up to 45.43 (%, w/w), and the lowest relative content of TAGs was LLS and OSS, which was found in soybean oil and corn oil respectively, with the relative content only 0.01 (%, w/w). In addition, the TAG data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Results of PCA enabled a clear identification of different plant oils. This method provided an efficient and convenient chromatographic technology for the fast characterization and quantification of complex TAGs in plant oils at high selectivity. It has great potential as a routine analytical method for analysis of edible oil quality and authenticity control. PMID:24034135

Wei, Fang; Ji, Shu-Xian; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

2013-10-18

334

Sandwich immunoassays for the determination of peanut and hazelnut traces in foods.  

PubMed

People suffering from food allergies are dependent on accurate food labeling, as an avoidance diet is the only effective countermeasure. Even a small amount of allergenic protein can trigger severe reactions in highly sensitized patients. Therefore, sensitive and reliable tests are needed to detect potential cross-contamination. In this paper two fast sandwich immunoassays are described for the determination of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) traces in complex food matrices. Mouse monoclonal antibodies were used as capture antibodies, and labeled rabbit polyclonal antibodies were used as detection antibodies in both assays. The assay time was 30 min in total, and cross-reactivities against a variety of fruits and seeds were found to be in the low 10(-4)% (ppm) level or in some cases not detectable. The recoveries in all tested food matrices ranged from 86 to 127%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.2-1.2 mg/kg (ppm) in food for both peanut and hazelnut, respectively. PMID:15853366

Kiening, Martin; Niessner, Reinhard; Drs, Elisabeth; Baumgartner, Sabine; Krska, Rudolf; Bremer, Monique; Tomkies, Victoria; Reece, Paul; Danks, Chris; Immer, Ulrike; Weller, Michael G

2005-05-01

335

Ultrasensitive nanogold probe-based immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of total aflatoxins in peanuts.  

PubMed

An ultrasensitive immunochromatographic (IC) assay for simultaneous detection of total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) was developed to meet the requirement for rapidly monitoring aflatoxins in agro-products. The assay was based on a competitive format and its sensitivity was improved by using a novel criterion to screen the optimal amount of monoclonal antibody (MAb) labeled to nanogold particles. The visual detection limits (VDLs) for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in peanut matrix were 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.25 ng mL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those of published literatures. The results of IC assay were in good agreement with those of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts, demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed assay in real samples. This qualitative test based on the visual evaluation of results did not require any equipment. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first report of qualitative detection for total aflatoxins by immunochromatographic assay. PMID:21167703

Zhang, Daohong; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

2011-02-15

336

Effects of phytic acid on peanut allergens and allergenic properties of extracts.  

PubMed

Phytic acid would form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. Our objective was to determine if phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with major peanut allergens, and if such reaction results in a peanut extract with a lower level of soluble allergens and allergenic property. Extracts from raw and roasted peanuts were treated with and without phytic acid at various pH values and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and a competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA). The ciELISA measured IgE binding using a pooled serum from peanut-allergic individuals. Results showed that phytic acid formed complexes with the major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2), which were insoluble in acidic and neutral conditions. Succinylation of the allergens inhibited complex formation, indicating that lysine residues were involved. A 6-fold reduction in IgE binding or allergenic potency of the extract was observed after treatment with phytic acid. It was concluded that phytic acid formed insoluble complexes with the major peanut allergens, and resulted in a peanut extract with reduced allergenic potency. Application of phytic acid to a peanut butter slurry presented a similar result, indicating that phytic acid may find use in the development of hypoallergenic peanut-based products. PMID:17927201

Chung, Si-Yin; Champagne, Elaine T

2007-10-31

337

Isolation, identification, and characterization of clones encoding antigens responsible for peanut hypersensitivity.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is a significant health problem because of the frequency, the potential severity, and the chronicity of the allergic sensitivity. Serum IgE from patients with documented peanut hypersensitivity reactions and a peanut cDNA expression library were used to identify clones that encode peanut allergens. One of the major peanut allergens, Ara h I, was selected from these clones using Ara h I-specific oligonucleotides and polymerase chain reaction technology. The Ara h I clone identified a 2.3-kb mRNA species on a Northern blot containing peanut poly A+RNA. DNA sequence analysis of the cloned inserts revealed that the Ara h I allergen has significant homology with the vicilin seed storage protein family found in most higher plants. The isolation of the Ara h I clones allowed the synthesis of this protein in Escherichia coli cells and subsequent recognition of this recombinant protein in immunoblot analysis using serum IgE from patients with peanut hypersensitivity. With the production of the recombinant peanut protein it will now be possible to address the pathophysiologic and immunologic mechanisms regarding peanut hypersensitivity reactions specifically and food hypersensitivity in general. PMID:7613142

Burks, A W; Cockrell, G; Stanley, J S; Helm, R M; Bannon, G A

1995-01-01

338

[Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil with ultrasonic assistant].  

PubMed

Biodiesel fuel produced with the enzyme-catalyzed esterification and transesterification of high acid value waste oil through ultrasonic assistant was explored. Propyl oleate, biodiesel, converted from high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal catalyzed with immobilized lipases from Candida antarctica and Aspergillus oryzae in conditions of ultrasonic assistant. Commercial immobilized lipase Novozym 435 from C. antarctica was used as biocatalyst catalyzing high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal esterification and transesterification to propyl oleate under the ultrasonic assistant conditions and different conditions such as lipases amounts, initiatory molar ratio of propanol to oil, frequency of ultrasonic and power of ultrasonic were investigated and optimized. It is revealed that the enzymatic activity of Novozym435 is enhanced and, in particular, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification activity is enhanced obviously under the ultrasonic assistant conditions. Low frequency and mild energy ultrasonic is a key factor for enhancing enzymatic activity, emulsifying oil-propanol system and accelerating the speed of produce diffusing in the system. Under the optimal ultrasonic assistant reaction conditions, such as Novozym435 amounts 8% by oil quantity, initiatory molar ratio of propanol to oil 3:1, frequency of ultrasonic 28 KHz, power of ultrasonic 100 W and temperature of water batch 40-45 degrees C, the conversion ratio to propyl oleate reached to 94.86% in 50 mins in comparison with the highest conversion ratio to propyl oleate 84.43% under the conventional mechanical agitation conditions. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that various short chain linear and branched alcohols (C1-C5) show high conversion ratio to fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) under the optimal ultrasonic assistant reaction conditions. On the other hand, ultrasonic energy is propitious to reduce the adsorption of product propyl oleate, by-product glycerol and other emplastics in system on the surface of immobilized lipase Novzym435 and recyclable Novozym435 possess clean appearances, well decentralizations, no agglomeration and easy washing and well operational stability. PMID:18257248

Wang, Jian-Xun; Huang, Qing-De; Huang, Feng-Hong; Wang, Jiang-Wei; Huang, Qin-Jie

2007-11-01

339

High pressure extraction of vitamin E-rich oil from Silybum marianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of high pressure extraction in the production of oil with a high concentration of vitamin E, from seeds of Silybum marianum, was investigated. The solvents used in extraction were liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid propane. Operating parameters were 100, 200, 300 bar and 25, 40, 60 and 80°C for CO2 and 60, 150, 200 bar and

Majda Hadolin; Davorin Bauman

2001-01-01

340

Peanut Oral Immunotherapy (OIT) is Not Ready for Clinical Use  

PubMed Central

Summary Peanut OIT has shown promise as a potential treatment for food allergy. However, there remain numerous unanswered questions surrounding this investigational treatment, including the risks of OIT compared to avoidance, dosing regimen issues, patient selection, post-desensitization strategy, allocation of clinical resources, and reimbursement. Further studies are needed to address these outstanding issues in order to determine if this type of therapy is appropriate for clinical use.

Thyagarajan, Ananth; Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert; Vickery, Brian P.; Sampson, Hugh; Burks, A. Wesley

2010-01-01

341

Development of an RFLP linkage map in diploid peanut species  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RFLP linkage map of peanut has been developed for use in genetic studies and breeding programs aimed at improving the cultivated species (Arachis hypogaea L.). An F2 population derived from the interspecific hybridization of two related diploid species in the sectionArachis (A. stenosperma ×A. cardenasii) was used to construct the map. Both random genomic and cDNA clones were used

T. Halward; H. T. Stalker; G. Kochert

1993-01-01

342

Repetitive somatic embryogenesis from peanut cultures in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A regeneration system based on repetitive somatic embryogenesis was developed for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Embryogenic suspension cultures were initiated using individual somatic embryos induced from immature cotyledons cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 mg\\/l 2,4-D for 30 days. After transfer to a modified MS liquid medium, the somatic embryos produced masses of secondary and tertiary

Richard E. Durham; Wayne A. Parrott

1992-01-01

343

Penile and oral angioedema associated with peanut ingestion.  

PubMed Central

Angioedema is characterized by transient, episodic, nonpruritic, nonpitting and well-defined edema that involves the subcutaneous or submucosal tissue, and most commonly develops in the head and neck region. Angioedema is caused by extravasation of plasma into the interstitial space of the affected tissue. We describe a six-year-old boy who developed oral and penile angioedema subsequent to the ingestion of peanuts. Images Figure 1

Leung, Alexander K. C.; Robson, William Lane M.

2006-01-01

344

High-pressure ignition of oil sands samples in oxygen atmospheres containing various concentrations of diluents  

SciTech Connect

In-situ recovery of oil from oil sands deposits by combustion requires the injection of vast quantities of oxygen into the bed of deposits. Accordingly, there is a need to establish the ignition characteristics of high-grade Athabasca oil sands in environments containing pure oxygen at high-pressure and including the role of the presence of various diluents with the oxygen. A high-pressure constant volume bomb with a water calorimeter was employed as the test apparatus over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa to 4.0 MPa at ambient temperature. The paper presents the results of an experimental program that examined the effects of changes in the pressure, amounts of diluents and ignition energy on the ignition limits and subsequent combustion processes at ambient initial temperature. Moreover, the morphological changes to the samples at various stages of the process were also examined and discussed.

Mehta, S.A.; Karim, G.A. (Dept. of Mehanical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1990-12-01

345

Food allergy update: more than a peanut of a problem.  

PubMed

Food allergies have become a significant medical and legal concern for children worldwide, as there is a rising incidence of potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions. The most common foods implicated include cow milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut, tree nuts such as walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, and pistachios, fish and shellfish. The majority of food allergies represent an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to specific proteins found in foods. Peanut allergy, in particular, is a significant food allergy responsible for the majority of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities to food proteins in the sensitized individual can lead to fatal reactions. There is often a rapid onset of symptoms after exposure, with prominent cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. The majority of children outgrow allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat. However, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are usually lifelong conditions, as few outgrow it. Children with food allergies and their families should be knowledgeable of management strategies for the condition, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising. PMID:23414152

Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

2013-03-01

346

Isolation and identification of two novel umami and umami-enhancing peptides from peanut hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS.  

PubMed

Peanut hydrolysate produced by crude protease extract from Aspergillus oryzae HN 3.042 was found to elicit intense umami and umami-enhancing effect. Taste profiles, amino acid and organic acid composition of peanut hydrolysate and its separation fractions by ultrafiltration were evaluated. The results revealed that peanut hydrolysate was mainly low molecular weight compounds. Fractions of 1-3 kDa and below 1 kDa prominently contributed to the umami taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peanut hydrolysate. The two fractions were further purified, using gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), in combination with sensory evaluation, to obtain a umami peptide and umami-enhancing peptide. The active peptides were identified as Ser-Ser-Arg-Asn-Glu-Gln-Ser-Arg (SSRNEQSR, 963.9 Da) and Glu-Gly-Ser-Glu-Ala-Pro-Asp-Gly-Ser-Ser-Arg (EGSEAPDGSSR, 1091.1 Da), by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, respectively. PMID:22868117

Su, Guowan; Cui, Chun; Zheng, Lin; Yang, Bao; Ren, Jiaoyan; Zhao, Mouming

2012-11-15

347

Impact of high-temperature food processing on fats and oils.  

PubMed

Fats and oils are heated at high temperatures during baking, grilling and pan frying; however, deep fat frying is the most common method of high temperature treatment. Deep fat frying is a popular food preparation method because it produces desirable fried food flavor, golden brown color and crisp texture. For example, in the U.S. in 1994, approximately 12 billion pounds of fats and oils were used with 5.5 billion pounds used for frying and baking (USDA, 1995). Fried snack foods accounted for 2.9 billion pounds of oil, whereas 2 billion pounds were used for frying in restaurants (USDA, 1995). Because of such large consumption of frying oils and fats, the effects of high temperatures on these oils and fats is of major concern both for product quality and nutrition. This chapter will discuss the process of frying and the chemical and physical reactions that occur. The products formed from these reactions will be reviewed as well as information on the effects of the products and the control of these deteriorative reactions. PMID:10335369

Warner, K

1999-01-01

348

Overexpression of a pea DNA helicase (PDH45) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) confers improvement of cellular level tolerance and productivity under drought stress.  

PubMed

Peanut, a major edible oil seed crop globally is predominantly grown under rainfed conditions and suffers yield losses due to drought. Development of drought-tolerant varieties through transgenic technology is a valid approach. Besides superior water relation traits like water mining, intrinsic cellular level tolerance mechanisms are important to sustain the growth under stress. To achieve this objective, the focus of this study was to pyramid drought adaptive traits by overexpressing a stress responsive helicase, PDH45 in the background of a genotype with superior water relations. PCR, Southern, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in peanut transgenics. At the end of T? generation, eight transgenic events were identified as promising based on stress tolerance and improvement in productivity. Several transgenic lines showed stay-green phenotype and increased chlorophyll stability under stress and reduced chlorophyll retardation under etherel-induced simulated stress conditions. Stress-induced root growth was also substantially higher in the case of transformants. This was reflected in increased WUE (low ?¹³C) and improved growth rates and productivity. The transgenics showed 17.2 and 26.75 % increase in yield under non-stress and stress conditions over wild type ascertaining the feasibility of trait pyramiding strategy for the development of drought-tolerant peanut. PMID:23881361

Manjulatha, M; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, A Manoj; Sudhakar, Chinta; Prasad, T G; Tuteja, Narendra; Udayakumar, M

2014-02-01

349

Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

1998-01-01

350

Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system.  

PubMed

'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment. PMID:11795324

Mortley, D G; Loretan, P A; Hill, W A; Bonsi, C K; Morris, C E; Hall, R; Sullen, D

1998-12-01

351

Peanut/maize intercropping induced changes in rhizosphere and nutrient concentrations in shoots.  

PubMed

A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the rhizosphere effects on iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) nutrition in peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L.) by intercropping them with maize (Zea mays L.). In addition, we studied the release of phytosiderophores and the ferric reductase activity of roots, pH and acid phosphatases in the rhizosphere and bulk soil, and the secretion of acid phosphatases in roots. Our results revealed that shoot yields of peanut and maize plants were decreased by intercropping the plants, as compared to monocultured plants. Growing peanut plants in a mixture with maize, enhanced the shoot concentrations of Fe and Zn nearly 2.5-fold in peanut, while the Mn concentrations of peanut were little affected by intercropping. In the case of maize, the shoot concentrations of Fe, Zn and Mn were not significantly affected by intercropping with peanut. Intercropping also improved the shoot K concentration of peanut and maize, while it negatively affected the Ca concentration. In the intercropping of peanut/maize, the acid phosphatase activity of the rhizosphere and bulk soil and root secreted acid phosphatases were significantly higher than that of monocultured peanut and maize. In accordance, the shoot P concentrations of peanut and maize plants were much higher when they were intercropped with peanut or maize, respectively. The rhizosphere and bulk soil pH values were not clearly affected by different cropping systems. When compared to their monoculture treatments, the secretion of phytosiderophore from roots and the root ferric reducing capacity of the roots were either not affected or increased by 2-fold by the intercropping, respectively. The results indicate the importance of intercropping systems as a promising management practice to alleviate Fe deficiency stress. Intercropping also contributes to better nutrition of plants with Zn, P and K, most probably by affecting biological and chemical process in the rhizosphere. PMID:17467283

Inal, A; Gunes, A; Zhang, F; Cakmak, I

2007-05-01

352

Cotton as a Rotation Crop for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria and Sclerotium rolfsii in Peanut  

PubMed Central

The value of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Deltapine 90) in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) was studied for 6 years in a field at the Wiregrass Substation in southeast Alabama. Peanut yields following either 1 or 2 years of cotton (C-P and C-C-P, respectively) were higher than those of peanut monoculture without nematicide [P(-)]. At-plant application of aldicarb to continuous peanut [P(+)] averaged 22.1% higher yields than those for P(-) over the 6 years of the study. The use of aldicarb in cotton and peanut in the C-C-P rotations increased yields of both crops over the same rotations without the nematicide. When the nematicide was applied to both crops in the C-P rotation, peanut yields were increased in only two of the possible three years when peanut was planted. Application of aldicarb to cotton only in the C-P rotation did not improve peanut yields over those obtained with the rotation without nematicide. Juvenile populations of M. arenaria determined at peanut-harvest time were lowest in plots with cotton. Plots with C-P or C-C-P had lower populations of the nematode than those with either P(-) or P(+). The incidence of southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) in peanut was lower in plots with the rotations than in those with peanut monoculture. Aldicarb application had no effect on the occurrence of southern blight.

Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Robertson, D. G.; Wells, L.; Weaver, C. F.; King, P. S.

1991-01-01

353

Cotton as a Rotation Crop for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria and Sclerotium rolfsii in Peanut.  

PubMed

The value of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Deltapine 90) in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) was studied for 6 years in a field at the Wiregrass Substation in southeast Alabama. Peanut yields following either 1 or 2 years of cotton (C-P and C-C-P, respectively) were higher than those of peanut monoculture without nematicide [P(-)]. At-plant application of aldicarb to continuous peanut [P(+)] averaged 22.1% higher yields than those for P(-) over the 6 years of the study. The use of aldicarb in cotton and peanut in the C-C-P rotations increased yields of both crops over the same rotations without the nematicide. When the nematicide was applied to both crops in the C-P rotation, peanut yields were increased in only two of the possible three years when peanut was planted. Application of aldicarb to cotton only in the C-P rotation did not improve peanut yields over those obtained with the rotation without nematicide. Juvenile populations of M. arenaria determined at peanut-harvest time were lowest in plots with cotton. Plots with C-P or C-C-P had lower populations of the nematode than those with either P(-) or P(+). The incidence of southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) in peanut was lower in plots with the rotations than in those with peanut monoculture. Aldicarb application had no effect on the occurrence of southern blight. PMID:19283179

Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Robertson, D G; Wells, L; Weaver, C F; King, P S

1991-10-01

354

Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.  

PubMed

The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only ?-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of ?-, ?-, and ?-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of ?-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of ?-tocopherol. PMID:23870970

Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

2013-12-01

355

The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut  

PubMed Central

Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

2012-01-01

356

Influence of viscosity on wax settling and refining loss in rice bran oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of viscosity on was settling and refining loss in rice bran oil (RBO) has been studied with model systems of refined\\u000a peanut oil and RBO of different free fatty acids contents. Wax was the only constituent of RBO that significantly increased\\u000a the viscosity (81.5%) of oil. Monoglycerides synergistically raised the viscosity of the oil (by 114.2%) and lowered

A. G. Gopala Krishna

1993-01-01

357

Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Leaf Tissues of Cultivated Peanuts and Development of EST-SSR Markers and Gene Discovery  

PubMed Central

Peanut is vulnerable to a range of foliar diseases such as spotted wilt caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early (Cercospora arachidicola) and late (Cercosporidium personatum) leaf spots, southern stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii), and sclerotinia blight (Sclerotinia minor). In this study, we report the generation of 17,376 peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from leaf tissues of a peanut cultivar (Tifrunner, resistant to TSWV and leaf spots) and a breeding line (GT-C20, susceptible to TSWV and leaf spots). After trimming vector and discarding low quality sequences, a total of 14,432 high-quality ESTs were selected for further analysis and deposition to GenBank. Sequence clustering resulted in 6,888 unique ESTs composed of 1,703 tentative consensus (TCs) sequences and 5185 singletons. A large number of ESTs (5717) representing genes of unknown functions were also identified. Among the unique sequences, there were 856 EST-SSRs identified. A total of 290 new EST-based SSR markers were developed and examined for amplification and polymorphism in cultivated peanut and wild species. Resequencing information of selected amplified alleles revealed that allelic diversity could be attributed mainly to differences in repeat type and length in the SSR regions. In addition, a few additional INDEL mutations and substitutions were observed in the regions flanking the microsatellite regions. In addition, some defense-related transcripts were also identified, such as putative oxalate oxidase (EU024476) and NBS-LRR domains. EST data in this study have provided a new source of information for gene discovery and development of SSR markers in cultivated peanut. A total of 16931 ESTs have been deposited to the NCBI GenBank database with accession numbers ES751523 to ES768453.

Guo, Baozhu; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Liang, Xuanqiang; Dang, Phat; Brenneman, Tim; Holbrook, Corley; Culbreath, Albert

2009-01-01

358

Effect of application of nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on subsequent aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the potential for biological control of aflatoxin contamination of peanuts during storage. Florunner peanuts were treated in field plots by applying competitive, nontoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, at 76 and 67 days after planting in 1998 and 1999, respectively. After harvest, half the peanuts from both treated and control plots were sprayed

Joe W Dorner; Richard J Cole

2002-01-01

359

Sesamin and sesamolin as unexpected contaminants in various cold-pressed plant oils: NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.  

PubMed

Thirteen cold-pressed oils (Japanese quince seed, black caraway, flaxseed, rapeseed, hemp, peanut, sunflower, pumpkin, hazelnut, poppy, walnut, almond and sesame oil) manufactured by the same company over a 2-year period (2011-12) were assessed for lipophilic compounds. The presence of sesamin and sesamolin, two characteristic lignans of sesame oil, were detected in all tested plant oils. Both lignans were identified by NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and confirmed by a RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) method. The lowest amount of sesamin and sesamolin was found for Japanese quince seed oil (0.10 and 0.27 mg/100 g), and the highest, excluding sesame oil, for almond oil (36.21 and 105.42 mg/100 g, respectively). The highly significant correlation between sesamolin and sesamin concentrations was found in all samples tested (r = 0.9999; p < 0.00001). These results indicate contamination of cold-pressed oils from the same source. This investigation highlights the fact that increasing the range of products manufactured by the same company can contribute to a lesser regard for the quality of the final product. Moreover, less attention paid to the quality of final product can be related to the health risks of consumers especially sensitive to allergens. Therefore, proper cleaning of processing equipment is needed to prevent cross-contact of cold-pressed oils. PMID:24428708

Górna?, Pawe?; Siger, Aleksander; Pugajeva, Iveta; Segli?a, Dalija

2014-04-01

360

Low NOx, High Efficiency Multistaged Burner: Fuel Oil Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency is being evaluated for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low NOx precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in size by approximately a factor of two (from 600 to 250 ms first-stage residence time) and coupled with

James A. Mulholland; Ravi K. Srivastava

1988-01-01

361

Failure Modes and Condition Assessment of High Voltage Oil Filled XLPE Terminations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil filled terminations for high voltage XLPE cables (> 36 kV) have been used for more than four decades in Norway. The service experience is generally very good. However, some severe faults have occurred. The causes of several of these faults have been surveyed and the main results will be presented in this paper. One of the most common observed

K. B. Liland; A. Kornberg Bjørke; S. Hvidsten; H. Faremo; E. Bjerkan

2009-01-01

362

The effect of oil industry “high density brines” on duckweed Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duckweed Lemna minor L. is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many substances due to its small size, rapid growth and ease of culture. Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride and calcium bromide and their 1:1 mixture are commonly used as “high density brines” for pressure control in oil wells. These solutions were added in Hoagland's nutrient medium

Mirta Tkalec; Željka Vidakovi?-Cifrek; Ivan Regula

1998-01-01

363

High Abrasion Oil Resistant Rubber Compound for Direct Molded Sole Combat Footwear.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several high abrasion and oil resistant rubber soling compounds have been developed and evaluated to improve the durability of the heel and sole components of the all leather Direct Molded Sole (DMS) combat boot. One of the compounds evaluated is based on...

V. S. Javier

1976-01-01

364

High yield bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis by metabolic controlling of Chlorella protothecoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary to mitigate global warming. Recently much research has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuels. This paper reports an approach for increasing the yield of bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis after manipulating the metabolic pathway in microalgae through heterotrophic growth.

Xiaoling Miao; Qingyu Wu

2004-01-01

365

NONAQUEOUS POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-BOILING DISTILLATES OF SAUDI ARABIAN CRUDE OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis were used to study basic and nonbasic functionalities present in high-boiling distillates of four Saudi Arabian crude oils. Model nitrogen compounds were titrated under similar titration conditions to differentiate them into strong, weak and nonbasic species. The strong bases titrated were due to the presence of pyridine and its benzologs like acridines, phe-nanthridines and

Mohammad Farhat Ali; Mohammed Ashraf Ali

1988-01-01

366

SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN HIGH-BOILING FRACTIONS OF SAUDI ARABIAN CRUDE OIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the isolation and characterization of sulfur compound types in high boiling distillate of Arab crude oil. Thu distillates were prepared by physical and chemical methods like adsorption chromatography and complexation with mercurous nitrate and iodine. Spectrophotometry methods were used for detection and identification. The sulfur compound types, thus obtained, were classified into aliphatic sulfides, aromatic sulfides, and

Mohammad Farhat Ali II Pcrzanowski; Shcrif A. Korcish

1991-01-01

367

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to ...

D. C. Adams

1992-01-01

368

Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of an instant peanut beverage mix.  

PubMed

Powder for an instant shake-style beverage was created using partially defatted peanut flour (12% fat), granulated sugar, and nonfat dry milk (NFDM). The 3 main components, along with constant amounts of stabilizing gums and anti-caking silica, were mixed together and finely milled in a Super Wing Mill to further reduce the particle sizes. Drinks from each formula variation were prepared and analyzed for viscosity (digital viscometer), color (colorimeter), and separation rate. Each beverage was also analyzed by consumers to determine acceptability of flavor, mouth-feel, and color. Physical test results show that viscosity increased with increasing proportion of peanut flour in the formula, and viscosity decreased with increasing levels of sugar and NFDM. For each formula, the samples at refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C) were less viscous than those at ambient temperatures (23 to 25 degrees C). Color values show that the beverage powder color was mostly influenced by peanut flour percentage, becoming darker with increasing levels of peanut flour. Prepared beverage color was influenced by both NFDM and peanut flour percentage; lightness increased with increasing NFDM percentage and decreased with increasing peanut flour percentage. Separation rates were most affected by the proportion of NFDM in the formula; higher levels decreased the rate of separation. Refrigeration slowed the rate of separation in all samples. Response surface analysis of consumer test data showed that the most acceptable formulation for the peanut beverage included approximately equal amounts of peanut flour, sugar, and NFDM. PMID:20492206

Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, S Kay

2010-01-01

369

Peanut and tree nut allergic reactions in restaurants and other food establishments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The clinical features of food-allergic reactions in restaurants and other food establishments have not been studied. Of the registrants in the United States Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy Registry (PAR), 13.7% have reported reactions associated with such establishments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the features of allergic reactions to peanut and tree nut in restaurant

Terence J. Furlong; Jennifer DeSimone; Scott H. Sicherer

2001-01-01

370

Parsing the peanut panic: the social life of a contested food allergy epidemic.  

PubMed

As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising "epidemic," and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. PMID:23746608

Waggoner, Miranda R

2013-08-01

371

The effects of original and randomized rapeseed oils containing high or very low levels of erucic acid on cardiac lipids and myocardial lesions in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional status of the very lowerucate rapeseed oil,Brassica napus var. ‘Tower,’ was compared with that of the high-erucate oil,Brassica napus var. ‘Target’, as well as with corn oil. The effect of randomization on the nutritional qualities of rapeseed oil was investigated\\u000a as well. The feeding of diets containing the original and randomized ‘Tower” oil or the original ‘Target’ oil,

S. Hung; T. Umemura; S. Yamashiro; S. J. Slinger; B. J. Holub

1977-01-01

372

Characterization of oil exhibiting high ?-linolenic acid from a genetically transformed canola strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seed oil from a genetically transformed canola (Brassica napus) containing 43% (w\\/w) of ?-linolenic acid (G, 18?3n?6), 22% linoleic acid (L, 18?2n?6), and 16% oleic acid (O, 18?1n?9) was\\u000a evaluated. In this high ?-linolenic acid canola oil (HGCO), the predominant 18?3n?6-containing triacylglycerol (TG) molecular\\u000a species were GGL (23%), GLO (20%), and GGG (11%). In the total TG, approximately 75%

Jim-Wen Liu; Stephen DeMichele; Marti Bergana; Emil Bobik; Christine Hastilow; Lu-Te Chuang; Pradip Mukerji; Yung-Sheng Huang

2001-01-01

373

Production of Recombinant Peanut Allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Background Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/or unacceptable levels of side effects. The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production can alleviate some of these issues. Several allergens have been tested in high-level expression systems and in most cases show immunereactivity comparable to their natural counterparts. The gram positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid containing the P170 promoter and the SP310mut2 signal sequence. Flask cultures grown overnight showed secretion of the 17 kDa Ara h 2 protein. A batch fermentation resulted in 40 mg/L recombinant Ara h 2. Purification of Ara h 2 from the culture supernatant was done by hydrophobic exclusion and size separation. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal analysis showed a recombinant Ara h 2 of full length and correctly processed by the signal peptidase. The immunological activity of recombinant Ara h 2 was analysed by ELISA using antibodies specific for native Ara h 2. The recombinant Ara h 2 showed comparable immunereactivity to that of native Ara h 2. Conclusion Recombinant production of Ara h 2 using L. lactis can offer high yields of secreted, full length and immunologically active allergen. The L. lactis expression system can support recombinant allergen material for immunotherapy and component resolved allergen diagnostics.

Glenting, Jacob; Poulsen, Lars K; Kato, Kentaro; Madsen, S?ren M; Fr?kiaer, Hanne; Wendt, Camilla; S?rensen, Helle W

2007-01-01

374

Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis of high-boiling distillates of Saudi Arabian crude oils  

SciTech Connect

Nonaqueous potentiometric titration and elemental analysis were used to study basic and nonbasic functionalities present in high-boiling distillates of four Saudi Arabian crude oils. Model nitrogen compounds were titrated under similar titration conditions to differentiate them into strong, weak and nonbasic species. The strong bses titrated were due to the presence of of pyridine and its benzologs like acridines, phenanthridines and quionolines. The weak bases titrated were due to phenazxines and amides whereas the pyrroles, indoles and carbazoles were found to be nonbasic in nature. The total nitrogen and the total basic nitrogen compounds were generally found to be in very low concentration in the four crude oil distillates. A gradual decrease in the basicity of the distillates was found from Arab Heavy to Arab Extra Light through Arab Medium and Arab Light crude oils.

Ali, M.F.; Ali, M.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (SA))

1988-12-01

375

Differential Metabolite Profiles during Fruit Development in High-Yielding Oil Palm Mesocarp  

PubMed Central

To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd.; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R.

2013-01-01

376

AhNRAMP1 iron transporter is involved in iron acquisition in peanut.  

PubMed

Peanut/maize intercropping is a sustainable and effective agroecosystem to alleviate iron-deficiency chlorosis. Using suppression subtractive hybridization from the roots of intercropped and monocropped peanut which show different iron nutrition levels, a peanut gene, AhNRAMP1, which belongs to divalent metal transporters of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) gene family was isolated. Yeast complementation assays suggested that AhNRAMP1 encodes a functional iron transporter. Moreover, the mRNA level of AhNRAMP1 was obviously induced by iron deficiency in both roots and leaves. Transient expression, laser microdissection, and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that AhNRAMP1 was mainly localized on the plasma membrane of the epidermis of peanut roots. Induced expression of AhNRAMP1 in tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to iron deprivation. These results suggest that the AhNRAMP1 is possibly involved in iron acquisition in peanut plants. PMID:22611231

Xiong, Hongchun; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Senoura, Takeshi; Nakazono, Mikio; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Shen, Hongyun; Duan, Penggen; Guo, Xiaotong; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

2012-07-01

377

Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. Aflatoxins may be found in a wide range of agri-products, especially in grains, oilseeds, corns, and peanuts. In this study, the conditions for detoxifying peanuts by ozonation were optimised. Aflatoxins in peanuts at moisture content of 5% (w/w) were sensitive to ozone and easily degraded when reacted with 6.0mg/l of ozone for 30min at room temperature. The detoxification rates of the total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 65.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The quality of peanut samples was also evaluated in this research. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the polyphenols, resveratrol, acid value (AV), and peroxide value (PV) between treated and untreated samples. The results suggested that ozonation was a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification in peanuts. PMID:24176344

Chen, Ran; Ma, Fei; Li, Pei-Wu; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Wang, Yan-Ru; Xu, Bao-Cheng

2014-03-01

378

[Effects of maize-peanut intercropping on economic yield and light response of photosynthesis].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of maize-peanut intercropping on the economic yield of the two crops and the light response of their functional leaves' photosynthesis. The results showed that maize-peanut intercropping had an obvious yield advantage, with the total economic yield being 2,896 kg hm(-2) in 2004 and 2,894 kg hm(-2) in 2005, and enhanced the land utilization rate by 14%-17%. For maize's functional leaves, the intercropping enhanced their light saturation point, compensation point, and photosynthetic rate under strong light; while for peanut's functional leaves, it reduced their light saturation point and compensation point but enhanced the apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis and photosynthetic rate under weak light, indicating that maize-peanut intercropping enhanced the utilization efficiency of strong light by maize and that of weak light by peanut, making this intercropping system present an obvious yield advantage. PMID:18655581

Jiao, Nian-Yuan; Zhao, Chun; Ning, Tang-Yuan; Hou, Lian-Tao; Fu, Guo-Zhan; Li, Zeng-Jia; Chen, Ming-Can

2008-05-01

379

AhNRAMP1 iron transporter is involved in iron acquisition in peanut  

PubMed Central

Peanut/maize intercropping is a sustainable and effective agroecosystem to alleviate iron-deficiency chlorosis. Using suppression subtractive hybridization from the roots of intercropped and monocropped peanut which show different iron nutrition levels, a peanut gene, AhNRAMP1, which belongs to divalent metal transporters of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) gene family was isolated. Yeast complementation assays suggested that AhNRAMP1 encodes a functional iron transporter. Moreover, the mRNA level of AhNRAMP1 was obviously induced by iron deficiency in both roots and leaves. Transient expression, laser microdissection, and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that AhNRAMP1 was mainly localized on the plasma membrane of the epidermis of peanut roots. Induced expression of AhNRAMP1 in tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to iron deprivation. These results suggest that the AhNRAMP1 is possibly involved in iron acquisition in peanut plants.

Xiong, Hongchun; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Senoura, Takeshi; Nakazono, Mikio; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Shen, Hongyun; Duan, Penggen; Guo, Xiaotong; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Zuo, Yuanmei

2012-01-01

380

Production of phytoalexins in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed elicited by selected microorganisms.  

PubMed

Under favorable conditions, the peanut plant demonstrates appreciable resistance to fungal invasion by producing and accumulating phytoalexins, antimicrobial stilbenoids. This mechanism for resistance is little understood, yet it is crucial for breeding and genetically modifying peanut plants to develop new cultivars with fungal resistance. The dynamics of phytoalexin production in peanut seeds and embryos challenged by selected important fungi and bacteria was investigated. Different biotic agents selectively elicited production of major peanut stilbenoids, resveratrol, arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and SB-1. Aspergillis species, compared to other biotic agents, were more potent elicitors of stilbenoids. Embryos demonstrated significantly higher production of stilbenoids compared to cotyledons and may serve as a convenient source of genetic material in isolating genes for peanut plant defense enhancement. PMID:23387286

Sobolev, Victor S

2013-02-27

381

Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil comparison of batch and continuous reactor for production of zero trans shortening fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil (HO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different weight ratios (55:45, 60:40, 65:35 and 70:30, HO:FHSBO) was carried out in both a batch-type reactor (BA) and a packed-bed reactor (PBR) to produce zero trans shortening. Interesterified products in both PBR and BA consisted of 34–46g\\/100g saturated fatty acids (SFA) (mainly stearic acid)

D. Li; P. Adhikari; J.-A. Shin; J.-H. Lee; Y.-J. Kim; X.-M. Zhu; J.-N. Hu; J. Jin; C. C. Akoh; K.-T. Lee

2010-01-01

382

Effect of feeding prepubertal heifers with a high oil diet on mammary development and milk production.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding prepubertal heifers a diet containing a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on mammary development and milk production. A total of 116 Holstein heifers were either fed a conventionally formulated concentrate or a high oil (HO) concentrate, using the same formulation but including 20% soybean oil, from birth to 6 mo of age. After 6 mo of age, all heifers were managed identically. Mammary gland development was evaluated on heifers slaughtered at 4 mo (n = 10) and 12 mo (n = 30) of age. Other heifers were bred when they reached 15 mo of age and milk production and feed intake were recorded every day from wk 4 to 18 of lactation. Feeding the high oil concentrate increased the concentration of linoleic acid in blood plasma (176%) and mammary fat pad (78%) at 4 mo of age and mammary fat pad (93%) at 12 mo of age. At 4 mo of age, mammary development was similar in both treatments. At 12 mo of age, total, parenchyma, and stroma weights of the mammary gland were not affected by treatments. However, lipid content was lower and concentration of DNA was higher in the parenchyma of heifers fed the high oil diet. Nevertheless, total parenchymal DNA and dry fat free tissue content did not reach statistical significance despite the fact that they were, respectively, 15 and 21% higher in HO heifers. Milk production and composition was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, feeding prepubertal heifers with a high oil concentrate slightly improved the mammary development but effects were too small to be translated into better lactating performances. PMID:12906048

Thibault, C; Petitclerc, D; Spratt, R; Léonard, M; Sejrsen, K; Lacasse, P

2003-07-01

383

A randomized controlled study of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT): clinical desensitization and modulation of the allergic response  

PubMed Central

Background Open-label oral immunotherapy (OIT) protocols have been used to treat small numbers of patients with peanut allergy. Peanut OIT has not been evaluated in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of OIT for peanut allergy in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods In this multicenter study, peanut-allergic children ages 1-16 years received OIT with peanut flour or placebo. Initial escalation, build-up, and maintenance phases were followed by an oral food challenge at approximately one year. Titrated skin prick tests (SPT) and laboratory studies were performed at regular intervals. Results Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. Three peanut OIT subjects withdrew early in the study due to allergic side effects. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, all remaining peanut OIT subjects (N=16) ingested the maximum cumulative dose of 5000 mg (approximately 20 peanuts), while placebo subjects (N=9) ingested a median cumulative dose of 280 mg (range, 0-1900 mg) [p<0.001]. In contrast to the placebo group, the peanut OIT group showed reductions in SPT size (p<0.001), IL-5 (p=0.01), and IL-13 (p=0.02) and increases in peanut-specific IgG4 (p<0.001). Peanut OIT subjects had initial increases in peanut-specific IgE (p<0.01) but did not show significant change from baseline by the time of OFC. The ratio of FoxP3 hi: FoxP3 intermediate CD4+CD25+ T cells increased at the time of OFC (p=0.04) in peanut OIT subjects. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate that peanut OIT induces desensitization and concurrent immune modulation. The present study continues and is evaluating the hypothesis that peanut OIT causes long-term immune tolerance.

Varshney, Pooja; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Perry, Tamara T.; Kemper, Alex; Steele, Pamela; Hiegel, Anne; Kamilaris, Janet; Carlisle, Suzanne; Yue, Xiaohong; Kulis, Mike; Pons, Laurent; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

2011-01-01

384

IgE but not IgG4 Antibodies to Ara h 2 Distinguish Peanut Allergy from Asymptomatic Peanut Sensitization  

PubMed Central

Background There are no available clinical tests that can accurately predict peanut allergy (PA) and/or anaphylaxis. This study is aimed at evaluating whether the component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) IgE and IgG4 tests can 1) distinguish PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization; and 2) differentiate anaphylactic vs. non-anaphylactic PA. Methods This study included 20 non-atopic controls, 58 asymptomatically peanut-sensitized children, 55 non-anaphylactic and 53 anaphylactic PA cases from the Chicago Food Allergy Study. IgE and IgG4 to 103 allergens were measured using the ImmunoCAP ISAC technology, and were compared among each group of children. The random forest test was applied to estimate each allergen’s ability to predict PA and/or peanut anaphylaxis. Results PA cases (with or without anaphylaxis) had significantly higher IgE reactivity to Ara h 1–3 (peanut allergens) and Gly m 5–6 (soy allergens) than asymptomatically-sensitized children (p<0.00001). Similar but more modest relationships were found for IgG4 to Ara h 2 (p<0.01). IgE to Ara h 2 was the major contributor to accurate discrimination between PA and asymptomatic sensitization. With an optimal cutoff point of 0.65 ISU-E, it conferred 99.1% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and a 1.2% misclassification rate in the prediction of PA, which represented a higher discriminative accuracy than IgE to whole peanut extract (p=0.008). However, none of the IgE and/or IgG4 tests could significantly differentiate peanut anaphylaxis from non-anaphylactic PA. Conclusions IgE to Ara h 2 can efficiently differentiate clinical PA from asymptomatic peanut sensitization, which may represent a major step forward in the diagnosis of PA.

Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Kumar, Rajesh; Liu, Rong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Guoying; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

2012-01-01

385

Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: clinical and immunologic evidence of desensitization  

PubMed Central

Background There are no treatments currently available for peanut allergy. Sublingual immunotherapy is a novel approach to the treatment of peanut allergy. Objective To investigate the safety, clinical effectiveness and immunologic changes with sublingual immunotherapy in peanut-allergic children. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects underwent 6 months of dose escalation and 6 months of maintenance dosing followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Results Eighteen children ages 1 to 11 years completed 12 months of dosing and the food challenge. Dosing side effects were primarily oropharyngeal and uncommonly required treatment. During the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, the treatment group safely ingested 20 times more peanut protein than the placebo group (median 1710 mg vs. 85 mg, p=0.011). Mechanistic studies demonstrated a decrease in prick skin test wheal size (p=0.020) and decreased basophil responsiveness after stimulation with 10?2 mcg/ml (p=0.009) and 10?3 mcg/ml (p=0.009) of peanut. Peanut-specific IgE increased over the initial 4 months (p=0.002) then steadily decreased over the remaining 8 months (p=0.003) while peanut-specific IgG4 increased during the 12 months (p=0.014). Lastly, IL-5 levels decreased after 12 months (p=0.015). No statistically significant changes were found in IL-13 levels, the percent of T regulatory cells, or IL-10 and IFN-gamma production. Conclusion Peanut sublingual immunotherapy is able to safely induce clinical desensitization in peanut allergic children with evidence of immunologic changes suggesting a significant change in the allergic response. Further study is required to determine if continued peanut sublingual immunotherapy is able to induce long-term immune tolerance.

Kim, Edwin H.; Bird, J. Andrew; Kulis, Michael; Laubach, Susan; Pons, Laurent; Shreffler, Wayne; Steele, Pamela; Kamilaris, Janet; Vickery, Brian; Burks, A. Wesley

2011-01-01

386

Effect of ketotifen premedication on adverse reactions during peanut oral immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has shown promise in inducing desensitization for food allergy. However, there are safety concerns regarding the frequency and severity of adverse events during food OIT. Objective To evaluate the effect of Ketotifen premedication on adverse reactions during peanut OIT. Methods A randomized single blind placebo controlled pilot study was performed. Peanut OIT was performed using a previously published protocol. Ketotifen was up-titrated to 2 mg twice daily over two weeks (week -2 to 0), followed by a peanut OIT initial escalation day (day 1). Ketotifen was administered from week 0–4 of peanut OIT; reactions to peanut OIT doses were recorded by clinic staff and subject diary. Results Six subjects (median age 10 years, peanut IgE >100kUA/L) were enrolled, 4 randomized to Ketotifen, 2 to placebo. The most common side effect of Ketotifen was fatigue (9% during up-titration). The rate of reaction per peanut OIT dose was lower for subjects on ketotifen (K) compared to placebo (P) during initial escalation on day 1 (K: 22% (8/36) vs. P: 67% (12/18)); week 0–4 build-up doses (K: 75% (3/4) vs. P: 100% (2/2)); and week 0–4 home doses (K: 50% (54/108) vs. P: 82% (27/33)). The rate of gastrointestinal symptoms per peanut OIT dose was also lower for subjects on ketotifen during initial escalation on day 1 (K: 17% (6/36) vs. P: 61% (11/18)); week 0–4 build-up doses (K: 75% (3/4) vs P: 100% (2/2)); and week 0–4 home doses (K: 46% (50/108) vs. P: 82% (27/33)). Conclusions Ketotifen premedication is well tolerated and reduces the rate of gastrointestinal symptoms during peanut OIT. These findings require confirmation in a larger study of Ketotifen premedication used throughout peanut OIT. Trial registration Clinical Trials number: NCT0162515

2014-01-01

387

Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial  

PubMed Central

Background There are presently no available therapeutic options for peanut-allergic patients. Objective To investigate the safety, efficacy, and immunologic effects of peanut sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Methods After a baseline oral food challenge (OFC) of up to 2g of peanut powder (~50% protein) (median successfully consumed dose [SCD] 46mg), 40 subjects, aged 12–37 (median 15) years, were randomized 1:1 across 5 sites to daily peanut or placebo SLIT. A 5g OFC was performed after 44 weeks followed by unblinding; placebo subjects then crossed over to higher dose peanut SLIT, followed by a subsequent crossover Week 44 5g OFC. Week 44 OFCs from both groups were compared to baseline OFCs; subjects successfully consuming 5g or at least 10-fold more peanut powder than the baseline OFC threshold were considered responders. Results After 44 weeks of SLIT, 14/20 (70%) subjects receiving peanut SLIT were responders compared to 3/20 (15%) subjects receiving placebo (p<0.001). In peanut-SLIT responders, median SCD increased from 3.5mg to 496mg. After 68 weeks of SLIT, median SCD significantly increased to 996mg (compared to week 44, p=0.05). The median SCD at the Week 44 crossover OFC was significantly higher than baseline (603mg vs 71mg; p=0.02). 7/16 (44%) crossover subjects were responders; median SCD increased from 21mg to 496mg among responders. Of 10,855 peanut doses through Week 44 OFCs, 63.1% were symptom-free; excluding oral/pharyngeal symptoms, 95.2% were symptom-free. Conclusions Peanut SLIT safely induced a modest level of desensitization in a majority of subjects compared to placebo. Longer duration of therapy showed statistically significant increases in the SCD.

Fleischer, David M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stablein, Donald; Henning, Alice K.; Mayer, Lloyd; Lindblad, Robert; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.

2012-01-01

388

INCREASING DIETARY HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL AFFECTS DUODENAL FLOW OF ESTERIFIED LINOLEATE IN WETHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that lambs fed a high- concentrate diet with high-linoleate safflower oil will have increased duodenal flow of 18:2c9,c12 (18:2, linoleic acid) due primarily to flow of esterified 18:2. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 ± 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to determine duodenal fatty acid

R. L. Atkinson; E. J. Scholljegerdes; S. L. Lake; V. Nayigihugu; B. W. Hess

2003-01-01

389

Deacidification of high-acid rice bran oil by reesterification with monoglyceride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autocatalytic esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in rice bran oil (RBO) containing high FFA (9.5 to 35.0% w\\/w) was examined\\u000a at a high temperature (210°C) and under low pressure (10 mm Hg). The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of\\u000a monoglyceride in esterifying the FFA of RBO. The study showed that monoglycerides can reduce the FFA level of

B. K. De; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1999-01-01

390

High-pressure carbon dioxide and co-solvent extractions of crude oils from plant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated high-pressure carbon dioxide extractions of crude oil from Anoectochilus Formosanus Hayata (AF), a Chinese herb, and Oolong tea, the most popular healthy materials in Taiwan, individually. Two absorption stages were used to dissolve the solutes, which precipitated from high-pressure CO2 solution. CO2 flow rate, particle size, and co-solvent additions were tested to increase the extraction efficiency by

Chiehming J. Chang; Shyi-ming Wu; Po-Wen Yang

2000-01-01

391

Oil cracking: An important way for highly efficient generation of gas from marine source rock kitchen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potentials of gas generation by kerogen in the late period and by crude oil cracking are closely related to the origin\\u000a of natural gas in the high-to over mature marine area and their exploration perspectives. The carbon structure of kerogens,\\u000a with different types and at different evolution stages, have been experimentally studied using the high magnetic field solid13C nuclear

Wenzhi Zhao; Zhaoyun Wang; Shuichang Zhang; Hongjun Wang; Yunpeng Wang

2005-01-01

392

Low NOx, high-efficiency multistaged burner: fuel-oil results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the fuel-oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen-content fuel and waste-incineration application in a 0.6-MW package boiler simulator. A low-NOx precombustion chamber burner was reduced in size by about a factor of two (from 600 to 250 ms first-stage residence time) and

J. A. Mulholland; R. K. Srivastava

1987-01-01

393

Fast biodegradation of long chain n-alkanes and crude oil at high concentrations with Rhodococcus sp. Moj-3449  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of long chain n-alkanes and crude oil with fast rate and high concentration are desirable for bioremediation, especially in heavily oil-polluted areas, and enhanced oil recovery. We discovered Rhodococcus sp. Moj-3449 with such unique abilities by screening microorganisms for the growth on n-hexadecane at 30mg\\/mL. The new strain grew very fast on 120mg\\/mL of n-hexadecane giving a cell density

Mojtaba Binazadeh; Iftekhar A. Karimi; Zhi Li

2009-01-01

394

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31

395

Growth of Photoheterotrophic Cells of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Still Nutrient Medium 1  

PubMed Central

Cell suspension cultures were established from the callus proliferation of leaf explants of 10- to 12-day-old seedlings of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. var. TMV-3). The cells could be cultivated in both agitated and still media, the latter promoting more of chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis. High Chl content (210-240 micrograms Chl per gram fresh weight), yield of free and pipetable cells, presence of all the pigments in the same ratio as that of the leaf tissue, and high rates of O2 evolution (140-170 micromoles O2 per milligram Chl per hour) were some of the desirable features of the still-grown cell cultures. However, considerable variations with regard to the above characters were observed between the cell cultures of different varieties of the peanut. O2 evolution by the cultured cells was dependent on exogenous supply of HCO3?. A well-developed photosynthetic apparatus as evidenced from photosystem I and photosystem II activities of the isolated chloroplasts and variable fluorescence measurements with the cell cultures was further documented by electron microscopic evidence of distinct granal stackings in chloroplasts and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel separation of thylakoid membranes into P700 Chl a protein complex and light-harvesting Chl a/b complex. Evidence is presented for the relative increase in the Chl associated with P700 Chl a protein complex in contrast to the light-harvesting Chl a/b complex in the cultured cells as compared to intact leaf. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Seeni, S.; Gnanam, A.

1982-01-01

396

High-performance size-exclusion chromatographic studies on polar components formed in sunflower oil used for frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoxidative and hydrolytic alterations of a sunflower oil used in sixty repeated and discontinuous deep-fat fryings of\\u000a potatoes were evaluated by column and high-performance size-exclusion (HPSE) chromatography. Successive fryings of potatoes\\u000a in sunflower oil, without turnover of fresh oil during the performance of fryings, increased the level of total polar components\\u000a in the oil from 3.75% to 27.28% (w\\/w). Triglyceride

R. Arroyo; C. Cuesta; C. Garrido-Polonio; S. López-Varela; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

1992-01-01

397

High performance thin layer chromatography determination of cellobiosan and levoglucosan in bio-oil obtained by fast pyrolysis of sawdust.  

PubMed

In this work, high performance thin layer liquid chromatography (HTPLC) is applied to the determination of sugars in fast pyrolysis liquids (bio-oil) and fractions thereof. The proposed procedure allows the separation of anhydrosugar levoglucosan and cellobiosan, as well as glucose, arabinose, xylose and cellobiose. Pre-treatment and derivatization of samples are not necessary and volatile compounds present in bio-oil do not interfere with sugar analysis. The detrimental effect of the complex bio-oil matrix on columns and detector lifetime is avoided by using disposable HTPLC plates. Prior screening of glucose, present especially in aged and aqueous bio-oil fractions, is required to quantify cellobiosan without interference. Concentrations of levoglucosan and cellobiosan in bio-oil samples obtained from Pinus radiata sawdust were ranged between 1.27-2.26% and 0.98-1.96% respectively, while a bio-oil sample obtained from native wood contained a higher levoglucosan concentration. PMID:21570078

Tessini, Catherine; Vega, Mario; Müller, Niels; Bustamante, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich; Berg, Alex; Mardones, Claudia

2011-06-17

398

Is Online Trading Gambling with Peanuts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

If individuals derive a small utility from gambling, we should observe high turnover in stock portfolios that are of only marginal importance to them. By the use of detailed individual financial data, as weIl as trades from a Swedish online broker, we measure the frequency and cost of online trading in the cross-section and reject this hypothesis. Investors who have

Anders Anderson

2008-01-01

399

Triterpene alcohols and sterols of vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triterpene alcohols and sterols were separated by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography from the unsaponifiable\\u000a fractions of the following 18 vegetable oils: linseed, peanut, olive, rice bran, palm kernel, corn, sesame, oiticica, palm,\\u000a coconut, rapeseed, grape seed, sunflower, poppy seed, castor, tea seed, cocoa butter and soybean. Two triterpene alcohols,\\u000a cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol, were found in all of the

E. Fedeli; A. Lanzani; P. Capella; G. Jacini

1966-01-01

400

Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

2014-06-15

401

[Effects or maize/peanut intercropping on rhizosphere soil microbes and nutrient contents].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of maize/peanut intercropping on the rhizosphere soil microbial community and nutrient contents. Three treatments were installed, i. e., maize/peanut intercropping, maize monoculture, and peanut monoculture. Comparing with monoculture, intercropping could significantly increase the quantity of soil bacteria in both maize and peanut root areas. The numbers of soil actinomyces and fungi had no significant differences in the root areas of intercropped and mono-cultured peanut, but were much higher in intercropped than in mono-cultured maize root area. The functional diversity and metabolic activity of soil microbial community also improved under intercropping. Maize/peanut intercropping increased the soil alkali-hydrolysable N, available P and organic matter contents and EC to some extent, especially in the root area of maize. All the results suggested that maize/peanut intercropping could obviously improve the status of soil microbes and nutrients in root areas, which in turn, would promote the growth of intercropped crops. PMID:19899457

Zhang, Jia-En; Gao, Ai-Xia; Xu, Hu-Qin; Luo, Ming-Zhu

2009-07-01

402

Isolation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Phosphatase from Developing Peanut Cotyledons1  

PubMed Central

The soluble fraction of immature peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was capable of dephosphorylating [3H]lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to generate monoacylglycerol (MAG). The enzyme responsible for the generation of MAG, LPA phosphatase, has been identified in plants and purified by successive chromatography separations on octyl-Sepharose, Blue Sepharose, Superdex-75, and heparin-agarose to apparent homogeneity from developing peanuts. This enzyme was purified 5,048-fold to a final specific activity of 858 nmol min?1 mg?1. The enzyme has a native molecular mass of approximately 39 kD determined by gel filtration and migrates as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular mass of 39 ± 1.5 kD. The Km values for oleoyl-, stearoyl-, and palmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate were determined to be 28.6, 39.3, and 47.9 ?m, respectively. The LPA phosphatase was specific to LPA and did not utilize any other substrate such as glycerol-3-phosphate, phosphatidic acid, or p-nitrophenylphosphate. The enzyme activity was stimulated by the low concentrations of detergents such as Triton X-100 and octylglucoside. Cations had no effect on the enzyme activity. Fatty acids, sphingosine, and sphingomyelin at low concentrations stimulated the enzyme activity. The identification of LPA phosphatase in plants demonstrates the existence of MAG biosynthetic machinery in plants.

Shekar, Sunil; Tumaney, Ajay W.; Rao, T.J.V. Sreenivasa; Rajasekharan, Ram

2002-01-01

403

Interaction of propiconazole in the peanut leafspot disease complex  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 14/C)-Propiconazole exhibited characteristics of an apoplastic xenobiotic being acropetally translocated via the transpiration stream to the foliage following root exposure in peanut (Arachis hypogeaea). When applied to leaves, radioactivity was detected distal to the point of application and accumulated along the margins of treated leaves. Redistribution to untreated plant parts was not observed. (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole rapidly penetrated the cuticle of leaves. However, leaves treated with a mixture of (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole and Penetrator 3 exhibited significantly greater foliar uptake of radioactivity than leaves treated with (/sup 14/C)-propiconazole alone. In replicated experiments, leafspot infection (caused by Cercospora arachidicola or Cercosporidium personatum) decreased quadratically with increasing application rate of Tilt 3.6EC (propiconazole) or Vangard 1.0EC (etaconazole). Combinations of fungicide and penetrator 3 gave slightly greater reductions of infection relative to fungicide alone but had no effect on yield. Propiconazole had no effect on the uptake or incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-acetate into the total lipid (TL) of peanut leaf tissue. (/sup 14/C) in the total fatty acids and non-saponifiable lipids was 10 to 20% greater, respectively, in treated tissue relative to the untreated control. Radioactivity of 4-demethyl sterols was up to 57% lower in treated leaves but no differences in radioactivity were detected in 4-methyl and 4,14-dimethyl sterols.

Hancock, H.G.

1985-01-01

404

Assessment of transpiration efficiency in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under drought using a lysimetric system.  

PubMed

Transpiration efficiency (TE) is an important trait for drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The variation in TE was assessed gravimetrically using a long time interval in nine peanut genotypes (Chico, ICGS 44, ICGV 00350, ICGV 86015, ICGV 86031, ICGV 91114, JL 24, TAG 24 and TMV 2) grown in lysimeters under well-watered or drought conditions. Transpiration was measured by regularly weighing the lysimeters, in which the soil surface was mulched with a 2-cm layer of polythene beads. TE in the nine genotypes used varied from 1.4 to 2.9 g kg(-1) under well-watered and 1.7 to 2.9 g kg(-1) under drought conditions, showing consistent variation in TE among genotypes. A higher TE was found in ICGV 86031 in both well-watered and drought conditions and lower TE was found in TAG-24 under both water regimes. Although total water extraction differed little across genotypes, the pattern of water extraction from the soil profile varied among genotypes. High water extraction within 24 days following stress imposition was negatively related to pod yield (r(2) = 0.36), and negatively related to water extraction during a subsequent period of 32 days (r(2) = 0.73). By contrast, the latter, i.e. water extraction during a period corresponding to grain filling (24 to 56 days after flowering) was positively related to pod yield (r(2) = 0.36). TE was positively correlated with pod weight (r(2) = 0.30) under drought condition. Our data show that under an intermittent drought regime, TE and water extraction from the soil profile during a period corresponding to pod filling were the most important components. PMID:19778376

Ratnakumar, P; Vadez, V; Nigam, S N; Krishnamurthy, L

2009-11-01

405

The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad  

PubMed Central

Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented.

2012-01-01

406

Characterization of volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring fruity fermented flavor in peanuts.  

PubMed

Published research has indicated that ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methybutanaote, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, hexanoic acid, butanoic acid, and 3-methylbutanoic acid are responsible for fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor; however, these compounds were identified in samples that were artificially created by curing immature peanuts at a constant high temperature. The objective of this study was to characterize the volatile compounds contributing to naturally occurring FF off-flavor. Volatile compounds of naturally occurring FF and no-FF samples were characterized using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), solid phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) identified 12 potent aroma active compounds, none of which were the previously identified esters, with no consistent differences among the aroma active compounds in no-FF and FF samples. Hexanoic acid alone was identified in the naturally occurring FF sample using the SAFE GC-MS methodology, whereas two of the three previously identified esters were identified in natural and artificially created samples. The same two esters were confirmed by SPME GC-MS in natural and artificially created samples. This study demonstrated the need for caution in the direct application of data from artificially created samples until those compounds are verified in natural samples. However, these results suggest that a laboratory method using SPME-GC techniques could be developed and correlated on an ester concentration versus FF intensity basis to provide an alternative to sensory analysis for detection of FF off-flavor in peanut lots. PMID:18686969

Greene, Jeffrey L; Sanders, Timothy H; Drake, Mary Anne

2008-09-10

407

Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

408

In Situ EXAFS Studies on Ni2P Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts in the Presence of High Pressure and High Temperature Oil  

SciTech Connect

A Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst that is highly active for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction was studied by in situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) under the real reaction conditions. The measurements were conducted at realistic conditions of high pressure (3 MPa) and high temperature (613 K) in the presence of model oil. We used a low-volume cell with cubic boron nitride windows. The obtained spectra revealed that the bulk Ni2P structure was stable at reaction conditions and that the active surface had Ni-S bonds under reaction conditions, which played an important role for HDS reactions.

Kawai, Toshihide; Asakura, Kiyotaka [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Bando, Kyoko K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1, Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8569 (Japan); Lee, Yong-Kul; Oyama, S. Ted. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Chun, Wang-Jae [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan)

2007-02-02

409

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

410

A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

411

Effects of cooking oil fumes on the genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung carcinoma (A-549) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of oil fumes, formed when peanut oil is heated, on human lung carcinoma pulmonary type II-like epithelium cells. The major mutagenic compound (trans-trans-2,4-decadienal, t-t-2,4-DDE) contained in oil fumes and its effect on the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also discussed. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of oil fumes can

She-Ching Wu; Gow-Chin Yen

2004-01-01

412

Demulsification of Gas Oil\\/Water Emulsion via High Intensity Ultrasonic Standing Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity ultrasonic standing wave field was established in a horizontal direction and its effect on “gas oil” in “water” emulsion separation rate was studied. Also, effects of four parameters on emulsion instability behavior were investigated: ultrasound irradiation time(5-30 min), emulsion position in ultrasound field(17-37 cm), ultrasound input intensity(20,45 and 75%) and dispersed phase concentration(0.5,2 and 10%). Emulsion light absorbance, droplet diameter

H. Ghafourian Nasiri; M. T. Hamed Mosavian; R. Kadkhodaee

2012-01-01

413

Dual-scaled porous nitrocellulose membranes with underwater superoleophobicity for highly efficient oil/water separation.  

PubMed

Large-area dual-scaled porous nitrocellulose (p-NC) membranes are fabricated by a facile, inexpensive and scalable perforating approach. These p-NC membranes show stable superhydrophilicity in air and underwater superoleophobicity. The p-NC membranes with intrinsic nanopores and array of microscale perforated pores could selectively and efficiently separate water from various oil/water mixtures with high efficiency (>99%) rapidly. PMID:24347397

Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Li-Ping; Xue, Zhongxin; Feng, Lin; Peng, Jitao; Wen, Yongqiang; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xueji

2014-03-19

414

Fast physical drying, high water and salt resistant coatings from non-drying vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports fast physical drying, high water and salt resistances of coating materials from non-drying palm oleic acid. Short oil-length alkyd was synthesized and copolymerized with methyl methacrylate. Three copolymers of the alkyd and methyl methacrylate with different alkyd\\/MMA ratios were prepared via free radical polymerization. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and H NMR spectroscopy, and glass transition

Shahla Ataei; Rosiyah Yahya; Seng Neon Gan

2011-01-01

415

Threaded joint with high gas-leak-tightness for oil and gas well pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A threaded joint with high gas-leak-tightness for oil and gas well pipe comprises a box having an internal female thread and a pin having an external male thread, the box and pin being screwed together in use. On a non-threaded tip portion of the pin, a front shoulder formed stepwisely and a tip shoulder are provided, and between these shoulders,

S. Akase; Y. Inoue; F. Kohyama

1983-01-01

416

The Effects of High Energy Ionizing Radiation on Turbine Oil Performance Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative turbine oils and turbine oil components were exposed to electron radiation and evaluated for radiation-induced changes in functional characteristics. The irradiated oils were examined by numerous laboratory techniques including those established by the ASTM Committee C on Turbine Oils. As a result of exposure to radiation, changes were noted in turbine oil viscosity, oxidation stability, rust resistance, foaming susceptibility,

C. F. Kottcamp; R. P. Nejak; R. T. Kern

1959-01-01

417

Succession of Deferribacteres and Epsilonproteobacteria through a nitrate-treated high-temperature oil production facility.  

PubMed

Members of Epsilonproteobacteria and Deferribacteres have been implied in nitrate-induced souring control in high-temperature oil production facilities. Here we report on their diversity and abundance in the injection and production part of a nitrate-treated, off-shore oil facility (Halfdan, Denmark) and aimed to assess their potential in souring control. Nitrate addition to deoxygenated seawater shifted the low-biomass seawater community dominated by Gammaproteobacteria closely affiliated with the genus Colwellia to a high-biomass community with significantly higher species richness. Epsilonproteobacteria accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial community in the nitrate-amended injection water and were most likely outcompeted by putative nitrate-reducing, methylotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Methylophaga. Reservoir passage and recovery of the oil resulted in a significant change in the bacterial community. Members of the thermophilic Deferribacteres were the second major fraction of the bacterial community in the production water (~30% of the total bacterial community). They were not found in the injection water and were therefore assumed to be indigenous to the reservoir. Additional diversity analysis and targeted quantification of periplasmic nitrate reductase (napA) genes indicated that most resident Deferribacteres possessed the functional potential to contribute to nitrate reduction in the system. In sum, the dominance of nitrate-reducing Deferribacteres and the low relative abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria throughout the production facility suggested that the Deferribacteres play a major role in nitrate-induced souring control at high temperatures. PMID:22381470

Gittel, Antje; Kofoed, Michael V W; Sørensen, Ketil B; Ingvorsen, Kjeld; Schramm, Andreas

2012-05-01

418

Petit-exposure at neutrino beamline (PEANUT)  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using nuclear emulsion as a particle detector are well known. The high resolution of emulsion has made it a medium of choice for a number of applications where the required spatial and angular resolution are paramount and its limitations due to the lack of timing information are less important. Emulsions are commonly used as cosmic ray detectors and have found applications in high energy experiments for detecting short lived particles such as charm, beauty and tau. The addition of electronic detectors to emulsion experiments solved the problem of the lack of timing information in the emulsion, but it was the development of automatic scanning machines that revolutionized the use of these hybrid detectors, making them capable of performing even in high rate environments. Most recently, The DONuT experiment (FNAL-E872), used a hybrid emulsion spectrometer to make the first direct observation of tau neutrino interactions [1]. The CNGS facility is being constructed to deliver a {nu}{sub {mu}} beam from the CERN SPS to the Gran Sasso Laboratory. Since it is believed that {nu}{sub {mu}} {leftrightarrow} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations explain the observed atmospheric {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit, the CNGS beam, coupled with a detector capable of observing {tau} appearance is an important experiment in the context of the world wide effort to determine the neutrino mass mixing matrix. The OPERA detector has been optimized to detect a significant sample of {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions by the subsequent observation of {tau} production and decay [2]. The OPERA target is a massive emulsion detector made in a sandwich structure of lead plates and layers of nuclear emulsion. For historical reasons this arrangement has been called an Emulsion Cloud Chamber or ECC. The ECC concept, which has many advantages over the use of bulk emulsion, has been used in the DONuT experiment. The ECC detector is capable of measuring all of the tracks, not due to nuclear fragments, coming from the primary neutrino interaction vertex, with their three dimensional slopes and momenta. It is also capable of electron identification with good e/{gamma} separation, due to its very fine segmentation. The OPERA ECC target modules are constructed as bricks of dimensions 12.5 x 10.0 x 7.5 cm{sup 3} in horizontal, vertical and along the beam axis. Each brick consists of series of 56 (1 mm thick) plates of passive material (lead or iron) alternated with emulsion films (43 {micro}m emulsion layer on both sides of a transparent 200 {micro}m thick plastic film). In preparation for OPERA we would like to expose the OPERA target modules to a beam of neutrinos. This will allow us to test many of our analysis procedures and techniques as well as to validate the simulation of neutrino interactions, both for the production of forward and backward particles. Although the HE (high energy) beam of NuMI would be a better match to the CNGS energy, data acquired with NuMI LE (low energy) beam would serve the same purpose, albeit more challenging. Given the high interaction rate from the NuMI beam, the test detector target mass can be kept low and additional detectors can easily be built around a small target. These measurements are not possible in the CNGS beam, since it has no short baseline hall.

Niwa, K.; /Nagoya U.

2005-08-01

419

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Major Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars Grown in China by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei’s genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars.

Ren, Xiaoping; Jiang, Huifang; Yan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Lei, Yong; Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Qi, Yue; Wei, Wenhui; Liao, Boshou

2014-01-01

420

Unexpectedly high mortality in Pacific herring embryos exposed to the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay.  

PubMed

In November 2007, the container ship Cosco Busan released 54,000 gallons of bunker fuel oil into San Francisco Bay. The accident oiled shoreline near spawning habitats for the largest population of Pacific herring on the west coast of the continental United States. We assessed the health and viability of herring embryos from oiled and unoiled locations that were either deposited by natural spawning or incubated in subtidal cages. Three months after the spill, caged embryos at oiled sites showed sublethal cardiac toxicity, as expected from exposure to oil-derived polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). By contrast, embryos from the adjacent and shallower intertidal zone showed unexpectedly high rates of tissue necrosis and lethality unrelated to cardiotoxicity. No toxicity was observed in embryos from unoiled sites. Patterns of PACs at oiled sites were consistent with oil exposure against a background of urban sources, although tissue concentrations were lower than expected to cause lethality. Embryos sampled 2 y later from oiled sites showed modest sublethal cardiotoxicity but no elevated necrosis or mortality. Bunker oil contains the chemically uncharacterized remains of crude oil refinement, and one or more of these unidentified chemicals likely interacted with natural sunlight in the intertidal zone to kill herring embryos. This reveals an important discrepancy between the resolving power of current forensic analytical chemistry and biological responses of keystone ecological species in oiled habitats. Nevertheless, we successfully delineated the biological impacts of an oil spill in an urbanized coastal estuary with an overlapping backdrop of atmospheric, vessel, and land-based sources of PAC pollution. PMID:22203989

Incardona, John P; Vines, Carol A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Baldwin, David H; Day, Heather L; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Linbo, Tiffany L; Myers, Mark S; Olson, O Paul; Sloan, Catherine A; Sol, Sean; Griffin, Frederick J; Menard, Karl; Morgan, Steven G; West, James E; Collier, Tracy K; Ylitalo, Gina M; Cherr, Gary N; Scholz, Nathaniel L

2012-01-10