These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Peanuts, peanut oil, and fat free peanut flour reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors and the development of atherosclerosis in Syrian golden hamsters.  

PubMed

Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) without reducing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The cardiovascular effects of the nonlipid portion of peanuts has not been evaluated even though that fraction contains arginine, flavonoids, folates, and other compounds that have been linked to cardiovascular health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fat free peanut flour (FFPF), peanuts, and peanut oil on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the development of atherosclerosis in male Syrian golden hamsters. Each experimental diet group was fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet with various peanut components (FFPF, peanut oil, or peanuts) substituted for similar metabolic components in the control diet. Tissues were collected at week 0, 12, 18, and 24. Total plasma cholesterol (TPC), LDL-C, and HDL-C distributions were determined by high-performance gel filtration chromatography, while aortic total cholesterol (TC) and cholesteryl ester (CE) were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Peanuts, peanut oil, and FFPF diet groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower TPC, non-HDL-C than the control group beginning at about 12 wk and continuing through the 24-wk study. HDL-C was not significantly different among the diet groups. Peanut and peanut component diets retarded an increase in TC and CE. Because CE is an indicator of the development of atherosclerosis this study demonstrated that peanuts, peanut oil, and FFPF retarded the development of atherosclerosis in animals consuming an atherosclerosis inducing diet. PMID:20546405

Stephens, Amanda M; Dean, Lisa L; Davis, Jack P; Osborne, Jason A; Sanders, Timothy H

2010-05-01

2

Characteristics and composition of peanut oil prepared by an aqueous extraction method.  

PubMed

Peanut is one of the crops being tested for NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for future long-duration human space missions. The ALS program is developing an integrated system for biomass (food, oxygen) production and resource recycling. Oil will be used mainly for cooking and its availability is important for food preparation. Peanut seeds contain 40-50% oil and hence are considered an excellent source of oil. In the ALS environment, a simple, compact, and energy-efficient system is needed. The feasibility of such a method, peanut oil preparation by water extraction, was investigated. The results indicated the important processing conditions to be: a peanut particle size of 0.02 cm or less, a pH of 4, simmering for 20 min plus churning at 65 degrees C for a few hours, and a centrifugation at 6000 x gn to separate the oil. The oil recovery yield was about 80%. The saponification value, specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity were similar to that of commercial peanut oil except the color was lighter for the water-extracted oil. Gas and thin-layer chromatographic analyses showed that fatty acid and lipid profiles were similar to the commercial peanut oil. The only difference observed was that the oil prepared by the aqueous method had lower linoleic and higher oleic acids than the commercial peanut oil. The oil prepared by this aqueous method appeared to be of high quality. PMID:11541680

Shi, L; Lu, J Y; Jones, G; Loretan, P A; Hill, W A

1998-01-01

3

Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis. A brief review with special reference to peanut oil.  

PubMed

In general, the level of unsaturation of a fat determines its effect on plasma cholesterol level-the level being lower with more unsaturated fat. However, some exceptions do exist. One such exception is cocoa butter, which is not as cholesterolemic or atherogenic for rabbits as would be expected from its level of saturation. The reason for this anomaly is believed to be the high level of stearic acid present in cocoa butter. Peanut oil is also anaomalous, being unexpectedly atherogenic for monkeys, rabbits, and rats. Randomization of peanut oil reduces its atherogenicity, suggesting that the structure of the triglyceride comprising peanut oil may affect its atherogenic potential. Another possibility is that a lectin present in peanut oil may be responsible for its atherogenic capacity. PMID:3052354

Kritchevsky, D

1988-10-01

4

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.  

PubMed

Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

2014-10-01

5

Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo systems  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-? in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-? and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-? translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-? inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-? and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion Oleic acid was found to be effective in reversing the inhibitory effect in insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. This finding is consistent with the reported therapeutic characteristics of other monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, a diet high in oleic acid, which can be easily achieved through consumption of peanuts and olive oil, can have a beneficial effect in type II diabetes and ultimately reverse the negative effects of inflammatory cytokines observed in obesity and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:19558671

Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

2009-01-01

6

Peanut oil press redesign for Developing countries  

E-print Network

One of the causes of malnutrition among the rural inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa is the high cost of dietary fats that are necessary to maintain normal body functions. Though the Food and Agriculture Organization of the ...

Lee, Daipan

2007-01-01

7

A review of the nutritional composition, organoleptic characteristics and biological effects of the high oleic peanut.  

PubMed

Abstract A growing body of literature has been published on the health benefits of peanuts, but the potential biological effects of high-oleic (HO) peanuts, along with their organoleptic characteristics have not been reviewed to date. In this paper, examination of evidence showed that HO peanuts provide a spectrum of nutrients and have improved sensory properties and technological advances, such as enhanced shelf life, beyond that of conventional peanuts. This may be attributed to their oleic to linoleic ratio (OL ratio) which is substantially (around 10 times) higher than normal peanuts. In terms of their biological effects, HO peanuts appear to be no more allergenic, and could even be less allergenic than conventional peanuts. There is also emerging evidence that HO peanuts may improve lipid profile and markers of glycemic control. Further randomized controlled human trials are now needed to build on animal and in vitro studies. PMID:25017702

Derbyshire, E J

2014-11-01

8

Solvent-free enzymatic synthesis of structured lipids from peanut oil and caprylic acid in a stirred tank batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured lipids were synthesized by transesterification of peanut oil and caprylic acid in a stirred-batch reactor. Different\\u000a substrate molar ratios (1:1 to 1:4, peanut oil\\/caprylic acid) were used. The reaction was performed for 72 h at 50°C catalyzed\\u000a by IM60 lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (10 g, 2% w\\/w substrate) in the absence of organic solvent. The highest incorporation of caprylic

Ki-Teak Lee; Casimir C. Akoh

1998-01-01

9

Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Raw, Dry-roasted, and Oil-roasted US Peanuts of Commercial Importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial\\u000a practices. Eighty percent (v\\/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were\\u000a found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A

Brian David Craft; Agnieszka Kosi?ska; Ryszard Amarowicz; Ronald Bruce Pegg

2010-01-01

10

Supplementation of bakery items with high protein peanut flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

White skin peanuts were defatted with hexane to produce flours with 55–60% protein. The peanut flour was used to replace 12.5%\\u000a of the wheat flour in bread, 100% of wheat flour in muffins, and 10, 15 or 50% of the wheat flour in cookies. At 12.5% levels\\u000a of peanut flour, total solids, protein, moisture retention of bread after baking, and

ROBERT L. ORY; Edith J. Conkerton

1983-01-01

11

Assessment of cadmium bioaccumulation and distribution in the kernels of peanut widely cultivated in China.  

PubMed

To determine the low Cd accumulation genotypes of peanut and the key factor contributing to high Cd accumulation in peanut kernels, cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation and distribution in the kernels of nineteen genotypes of peanut widely cultivated in China were estimated in field experiment during duration of 130 days. Results showed that only four genotypes (Yuhua9626, Jihua9606, Luhua11 and Quanhua646) were identified as low-Cd accumulation group according to hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd accumulated in the nutritional tissues of the kernels followed in the order: extracted protein>residues>peanut oil. The protein plays a key role in the abnormal accumulation of Cd in the kernels of peanut. Thus, the control of human ingestion risk can be done by the extraction of peanut oil during deep processing of peanut. Meanwhile, the protein and residues of peanut should be paid more public attention when they enter into the food chain. PMID:25038268

Wang, Shanshan; Li, Gang

2014-10-01

12

The Composition of Peanuts and Peanut By-Products.  

E-print Network

pounds per day per head to cattle, making up the balance of the roughage with other coarser fodder, :mrl using concentrates accl - to the object of the feeding. Table 1.-Percentage composition and feeding value of peanuts and other feeda Table 2... PEANUTS. Before expelling the oil from whole peanuts, they arc first cleaned, so that sticks, trash, leaves, dirt, etc., are removed. They are then passed through the expellers. The oil is expressed, and the residue consists of whole pressed peanuts...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1917-01-01

13

Electrospun porous structure fibrous film with high oil adsorption capacity.  

PubMed

A low-cost, high-oil-adsorption film consisting of polystyrene (PS) fibers is fabricated by a facile electrospinning method. Different fiber diameter and porous fiber's surface morphology play roles in oil adsorption capacity and oil/water selectivity. The results showed that oil adsorption capacity of PS oil sorbent film with small diameter and porous surface structure for diesel oil, silicon oil, peanut oil and motor oil were approximate to 7.13, 81.40, 112.30, and 131.63 g/g, respectively. It was higher than normal fibrous sorbent without any porous structure. The thinner porous PS oil sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity in the cleanup of oil from water. PMID:22620260

Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Wang, Li; Dong, Hua; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

2012-06-27

14

Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... peanut allergy do eventually outgrow their allergy. Younger siblings of children allergic to peanuts may be at ... Your doctor can provide guidance about testing for siblings. Peanuts are not the same as tree nuts ( ...

15

Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press  

E-print Network

The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

2007-01-01

16

Biologically Active Components and Nutraceuticals in Peanuts and Related Products: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanuts are among the world's major oilseed crops. They are very nutritious with relatively high protein content and can be utilized in diverse ways. Their oil is very easily digested, and for this reason they are useful consumptives. Peanuts not only contain the so-called “good” fat (monounsaturated fat), but they are also high in a variety of helpful antioxidants, or

Joel Isanga; Guo-Nong Zhang

2007-01-01

17

Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier  

E-print Network

with greater than 1% relative abundance in either phase are shown. Pyrolysis of solid biomass, in this case: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization of nitrogen-containing species identified in the peanut hull pyrolysis oil by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

Weston, Ken

18

High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

2000-01-01

19

Biosensors for monitoring the isothermal breakdown kinetics of peanut oil heated at 180°C. Comparison with results obtained for extra virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The present research was devoted to studying the kinetics of the artificial rancidification of peanut oil (PO) when a sample of this oil was isothermally heated at 180°C in an air stream. The formation of radical species due to heating was evaluated using a radical index whose value was determined using a biosensor method based on a superoxide dismutase (SOD), while the increasing toxicity was monitored using a suitable toxicity measuring probe based on the Clark electrode and immobilized yeast cells. An extra virgin olive oil was isothermally rancidified under the same experimental conditions and the corresponding data were used for the purpose of comparison. Both the so-called "model-fitting" and the classical kinetic methods were applied to the isothermal process biosensor data in order to obtain the kinetic constant rate value at 180°C. PMID:23692756

Tomassetti, M; Vecchio, S; Campanella, L; Dragone, R

2013-10-15

20

Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

Kurt F. Wollenberg

1990-01-01

21

The high oleate trait in the cultivated peanut [ Arachis hypogaea L.]. II. Molecular basis and genetics of the trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peanut variety with high oleate content has previously been described. When this high oleate variety was used in breeding\\u000a crosses, the F2 segregation ratio of high oleate to normal oleate progeny was 3:1 or 15:1 depending on the normal oleate varieties used in\\u000a the crosses. These data suggested that the high oleate trait is controlled by two recessive genes,

S. Jung; G. Powell; K. Moore; A. Abbott

2000-01-01

22

Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.  

PubMed

Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. PMID:23993554

Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

2013-12-15

23

Peanut immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy. Recent developments involve the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment. Various routes of administration are being investigated, including subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous routes. Other forms of treatment, such as the use of vaccines and anti-IgE molecules, are also under investigation. So far, results from immunotherapy studies have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitisation to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the issue of long-term tolerance has not been fully addressed yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. An assessment of cost/benefit ratio is also required prior to implementing this form of treatment. The use of immunotherapy for peanut allergy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use and should not be attempted outside specialist allergy units.

2014-01-01

24

Peanut allergens.  

PubMed

The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

2014-01-01

25

YELLOW NUTSEDGE (Cyperus esculentus L.) MANAGEMENT WITH DICLOSULAM AND METOLACHLOR COMBINATIONS IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. B.L. PORTER, P.A. DOTRAY,  

E-print Network

IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. B.L. PORTER, P.A. DOTRAY, J.W. KEELING, and T.A. BAUGHMAN; Texas Tech Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) infests numerous acres on the Texas Southern High Plains Fisher's Protected LSD at á = 0.05. Diclosulam at 0.008, 0.016, and 0.024 lbs/A PRE controlled yellow

Mukhtar, Saqib

26

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting

1993-01-01

27

Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n?=?4x?=?40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n?=?2x?=?20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the homoeologous linkage groups between A (A. duranensis) and B (A. batizocoi) genomes. Comparison of the A- and B-genome genetic linkage maps also showed a total of five inversions and one major reciprocal translocation between two pairs of chromosomes under our current mapping resolution. Conclusions Our findings will contribute to understanding tetraploid peanut genome origin and evolution and eventually promote its genetic improvement. The newly developed EST-SSR markers will enrich current molecular marker resources in peanut. PMID:23140574

2012-01-01

28

Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2014-01-01

29

Nut and Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... cashews. What Happens With a Nut or Peanut Allergy? The body's immune system normally fights infection. But, ... people. Continue Living With Peanut or Tree Nut Allergy If allergy skin testing shows that someone has ...

30

Peanut protein concentrate: Production and functional properties as affected by processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut protein concentrate (PPC) was isolated from fermented and unfermented defatted peanut flour by isoelectric precipitation and physical separation procedures. PPC was dried by spray or vacuum drying. PPC powders from each drying technique were evaluated for proximate composition and functional properties (protein solubility, water\\/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foaming capacity and viscosity) along with defatted peanut flour and soy

Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe

2007-01-01

31

Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

E-print Network

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has the potential to become a major source of biodiesel but for market viability, peanut oil yields must increase and specific quality requirements must be met. Oil yield in peanut is influenced by many components...

Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

2013-08-02

32

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

33

Development of an epitope-specific analytical tool for the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 using a high-density multiple-antigenic peptide strategy.  

PubMed

Using the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 as an example, an analytical tool enabling the determination of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-epitopes in processed food allergens was developed. We synthesized a multiple-antigenic peptide (MAP) of the IgE-reactive linear epitope 3 (amino acid positions 27-36) of Ara h 2 and raised a monospecific antiserum against this epitope to obtain a positive control for future epitope resolved diagnostics. First, a MAP of epitope 3, having a molecular mass of 7770 Da, was synthesized, purified, and its structure confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization) (LC-MS(ESI)), matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), and Edman sequencing. The MAP was then used to raise high titer antibodies in rabbits using the adjuvant Titermax and to characterize the specificity of IgE from allergenic patients sensitized to Ara h 2. The antiserum exclusively detects Ara h 2 in crude peanut extract with a titer of 10(7) by Western blot and reacts specifically with epitope 3 shown by epitope mapping for a library of solid-phase-bound synthetic 15-mer peptides covering the entire sequence of Ara h 2. Such IgE-reactive epitopes are of high analytical relevance as they could constitute the basis for epitope-specific detection systems for use in quality control in the food industry or for forensic purposes in cases of fatal reactions to otherwise undetected peanut proteins. PMID:15508180

Gruber, Patrick; Suhr, Martin; Frey, Andreas; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Hofmann, Thomas

2004-11-01

34

Peanut Allergy: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergies have been increasing in prevalence in most industrialized countries. Onset is typically in early childhood, with a trend towards earlier ages of presentation. The allergy is lifelong in most affected children, although 15-22% will outgrow their peanut allergy, usually before their teenage years. Manifestations of peanut allergy range from mild to severe, and risk factors predisposing to severe reactions are discussed. However, even in the absence of risk factors, peanut allergic individuals may still experience life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Approaches to investigation and treatment, patterns of cross-reactivity and possible causes of rising prevalence are discussed. PMID:20525136

2008-01-01

35

Cooking with Peanut Butter  

E-print Network

butter is 2 tablespoons. This amount is about the size of a Ping-Pong ball. Uses Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are a favorite with both children and adults. You can also use it to make cookies and bread. Crispy Peanut Squares (makes 2 dozen treats... butter is 2 tablespoons. This amount is about the size of a Ping-Pong ball. Uses Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are a favorite with both children and adults. You can also use it to make cookies and bread. Crispy Peanut Squares (makes 2 dozen treats...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

36

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

37

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

38

Nut and Peanut Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... treating a nut or peanut like any old food, the body reacts as if the nut or peanut is harmful. In an attempt to protect the body, the immune system produces antibodies (special chemicals designed to fight infections) against that food. These antibodies — called immunoglobulin E (IgE) — are designed ...

39

Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from bulawayo, zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

2014-10-01

40

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2011-04-01

41

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2010-04-01

42

21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

2012-04-01

43

Natural occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 in peanut collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen to both animal and human health. Since peanut is a suitable substrate for aflatoxin production as well as an important oilseed and food in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the risk of consuming aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts is very high. This paper assessed the natural occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in raw peanuts collected in rural areas

I. Kamika; Losona L. Takoy

2011-01-01

44

Peanut Allergies, Children and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... page It's been added to your dashboard . Peanut allergies, children and pregnancy About 1 percent of children ... For reasons that are not well understood, peanut allergy has doubled in the past decade (3) . Individuals ...

45

Blockade of peanut allergy with a novel Ara h 2–Fc? fusion protein in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fc?1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fc? fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human Fc?RI? and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFc?RI? transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking Fc?RII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fc? can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607

Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng

2013-01-01

46

High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ?6/?3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

47

Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.  

PubMed

A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

2014-07-15

48

Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function.  

PubMed

Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols including procyanidins and is shown to have hypolipidemic properties. This study investigated the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols using a rat model. First, the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols in rat plasma was evaluated. Our results showed procyanidin A2 levels in plasma peaked within 30 min of ingestion. The results of a second study show that peanut skin extract supplemented in addition to oil gavage resulted in significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and VLDL within 5h. In the third study, rats were given a Western type diet for 5 weeks with peanut skin extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The main effects observed were lowering of total blood lipid and reduction of the plasma fatty acids profile. Our results suggest that procyanidin A may impart a key role of hypolipidemic effect seen in peanut skin polyphenols. PMID:24262521

Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Hurley, Steven; Hanner, Tracy; Baxter, Sarah A Schwatrz; Johnston, Thomas A; Su, Mingming; Holmes, Bryce M; Yu, Jianmei; Williams, Leonard L

2014-04-01

49

Peanuts in Texas.  

E-print Network

,644,833 bushels. The principal demand at present is for shelled pea- nuts, which are used in the production of peanut butter, con- fections, and for roasting. Approved methods of planting, cultivation, harvesting, and curing are. discussed. Experiments... ........................................... 14 ........................................ Stacking and Curing Yields .................................................... Feeding to Livestock ....................................... Marketing .............................................. 19...

McNess, George Thomas

1928-01-01

50

Peanut-free guidelines reduce school lunch peanut contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Some schools implement peanut-free guidelines (PFG) requesting omission of peanut from lunches. Our study assessed parental awareness of, and adherence to, PFG by comparing the percentage of lunches containing peanut between primary school classes with and without PFG in Montreal, Québec.Methods:Parents, school principals and teachers were queried concerning the school’s PFG and children’s lunches were inspected by a dietician for

Devi K Banerjee; Rhoda S Kagan; Elizabeth Turnbull; Lawrence Joseph; Yvan St Pierre; Claire Dufresne; K Gray-Donald; Ann E Clarke

2007-01-01

51

Novel strategy to create hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. Polyphenolic phytochemicals have high affinity to bind proteins and form soluble and insoluble complexes with unique functionality. This study investigated the allergenicity of polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices prepared by complexing various polyphenol-rich plant juices and extracts with peanut flour. Polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices reduced IgE binding to one or more peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested changes in secondary protein structure. Peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol fortified matrices triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than unmodified flour in an ex vivo assay using human blood and less mast cell degranulation when used to orally challenge peanut-allergic mice. Polyphenol fortification of peanut flour resulted in a hypoallergenic matrix with reduced IgE binding and degranulation capacity, likely due to changes in protein secondary structure or masking of epitopes, suggesting potential applications for oral immunotherapy. PMID:24758688

Plundrich, Nathalie J; Kulis, Mike; White, Brittany L; Grace, Mary H; Guo, Rishu; Burks, A Wesley; Davis, Jack P; Lila, Mary Ann

2014-07-23

52

Biorefining of high acid rice bran oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice bran oil with a high free fatty acid content (FFA) after degumming and dewaxing can be converted into edible quality\\u000a oil of satisfactory refining characteristics by first adopting the biorefining process to reduce the major portion of the\\u000a FFA by converting them into neutral glycerides with the aid of 1,3-specific lipase under optimum conditions and later deacidifying\\u000a the residual

S. Bhattacharyya; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1989-01-01

53

Peanut sprouts extract (Arachis hypogaea L.) has anti-obesity effects by controlling the protein expressions of PPAR? and adiponectin of adipose tissue in rats fed high-fat diet  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT element binding protein ? (C/EBP ?), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. RESULTS After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPAR? in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP ? and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPAR? which regulates the expression of adiponectin. PMID:24741399

Kang, Nam E; Ha, Ae Wha; Woo, Hye Won

2014-01-01

54

Isolation of Water-Miscible High-Oil Fractions from Starch-Oil Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(3):351-353 High-oil fractions were isolated from a series of starch-oil composites prepared by jet-cooking mixtures of starch and vegetable oil in water. They consisted of an emulsion of starch, oil, and water. These fractions were miscible in water and nearly immiscible in hexane. Emulsions from composites prepared with 10-40% oil contained 40-75% of the oil found in the

C. A. Knutson

1998-01-01

55

Isolation and characterization of the ?12-fatty acid desaturase in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and search for polymorphisms for the high oleate trait in Spanish market-type lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for increased oleic acid accumulation would open avenues\\u000a to alter peanut fatty acid composition and allow detection of polymorphic regions which can be used for marker assisted selection\\u000a (MAS). ?12-Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) was isolated and characterized from genotypes having a low or high oleic to linoleic acid O\\/L\\u000a ratio –

Y. López; H. L. Nadaf; O. D. Smith; J. P. Connell; A. S. Reddy; A. K. Fritz

2000-01-01

56

Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity  

PubMed Central

Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; B?gh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

2014-01-01

57

Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 ?/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

1996-09-01

58

The natural history of peanut allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has traditionally been assumed that peanut allergy is rarely outgrown. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the number of children with peanut allergy who become tolerant of peanut. Methods: Patients aged 4 to 20 years with a diagnosis of peanut allergy were evaluated by questionnaire, skin testing, and a quantitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay. Patients who

Helen S. Skolnick; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Celide Barnes Koerner; Hugh A. Sampson; Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

2001-01-01

59

Peanut milk and peanut milk based products production: a review.  

PubMed

Since the early 1950s, numerous reports have been published suggesting that peanut milk and peanut milk based products can be prepared in a wide variety of ways. Emphasis has shifted from preparing inexpensive milk like beverages, very nutritious but somewhat lacking consumers appeal, to using the peanut milk or peanut protein isolates as an animal milk extender without changing flavor, to develop more attractive fermented products, and to precipitate proteins from the milk in order to get a curd called "tofu," and to produce cheese analogs. Great attention has been paid to the improvement of the stability, sensory properties, and shelf-life of the milk, using physical and chemical treatments. Many efforts have been deployed for supplementing the products. Thanks to recent advances, the removal of aflatoxin from peanut milk can be achieved using Flavobacterium aurantiacum as a biodegradater. It has also found application as liquid coffee whitener. However, despite all these developments and publications, there is still a need for much more diversified studies in order to definitely overcome the stability, the nutty flavor, and sensory problems always encountered when producing peanut milk and some peanut milk based products. PMID:16130416

Diarra, Kouane; Nong, Zhang Guo; Jie, Chen

2005-01-01

60

The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil), storage packets for seasonings or other ingredients and encapsulation for pharmaceutical use.

Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

1998-01-01

61

Development of a high seas oil recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model test development study was conducted of a floating weir oil recovery system for rapid recovery of oil spilled on the high seas. The oil recovery system consists of two floating weirs connected by a flexible basin material. The operation of the system is based on the fact that oil thickens in front of a physical barrier moving relative

F. A. March; R. L. Beach; R. P. Bishop; T. N. Blockwick; R. K. Sahgal

1972-01-01

62

Key aroma compounds in roasted in-shell peanuts.  

PubMed

An investigation by using an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the aroma concentrates made from freshly roasted in-shell peanuts and stored peanuts revealed a total of 43 key aroma compounds, including 8 newly identified compounds in peanuts. Among them, 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine, exhibiting an earthy note, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, exhibiting a caramel-like note, were detected with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 4096 in the fresh peanuts, followed by 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, exhibiting a nutty note, as having the next highest FD factor of 1024. A quantitative analysis of the key aroma compounds having high FD factors in the fresh peanuts and stored peanuts revealed that 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, and 3,5-dimethyl-2-vinylpyrazine significantly decreased during storage, while methyl 2-methyl-3-furyl disulfide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol significantly increased. The sensory experiments revealed that the fresh peanuts presented strong roasty/meaty, popcorn-like, and nutty notes, as well as moderate spicy/burnt and caramel-like notes, whereas the stored peanuts presented significantly weak roasty/meaty and popcorn-like notes and a significantly strong spicy/burnt note. Based on the comparative AEDAs, the quantitative analysis, and the sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freshly roasted peanut aroma comprised the significant contributions of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol exhibiting a roasty/meaty note, and of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline exhibiting a popcorn-like note, and the lesser contribution of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol exhibiting a spicy/burnt note. In particular, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, which was only detected in the freshly roasted peanut aroma concentrate, might be an essential component describing the freshness of the roasted peanut aroma by its diffusive roasty/meaty note. PMID:23832337

Kaneko, Shu; Sakai, Ririka; Kumazawa, Kenji; Usuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Osamu

2013-01-01

63

High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.  

PubMed

Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique. PMID:24492256

Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

2014-05-01

64

High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale  

SciTech Connect

The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

2006-07-01

65

Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.  

PubMed

Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

2013-08-01

66

Increased Water Activity Reduces the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Butter  

PubMed Central

Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90°C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126°C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K.; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou

2013-01-01

67

Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.  

PubMed

The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

2014-11-01

68

Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.  

PubMed

Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

1998-12-01

69

Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European Union. PMID:23802714

Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

2013-01-01

70

Phylogenetic analyses of peanut resistance gene candidates and screening of different genotypes for polymorphic markers.  

PubMed

The nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich-repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding gene family has attracted much research interest because approximately 75% of the plant disease resistance genes that have been cloned to date are from this gene family. Here, we describe a collection of peanut NBS-LRR resistance gene candidates (RGCs) isolated from peanut (Arachis) species by mining Gene Bank data base. NBS-LRR sequences assembled into TIR-NBS-LRR (75.4%) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (24.6%) subfamilies. Total of 20 distinct clades were identified and showed a high level of sequence divergence within TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS subfamilies. Thirty-four primer pairs were designed from these RGC sequences and used for screening different genotypes belonging to wild and cultivated peanuts. Therefore, peanut RGC identified in this study will provide useful tools for developing DNA markers and cloning the genes for resistance to different pathogens in peanut. PMID:23961057

Radwan, Osman E; Ahmed, Talaat A; Knapp, Steven J

2010-01-01

71

Mining Tissue-specific Contigs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for Promoter Cloning by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

2014-10-01

72

Cloning and structural analysis of a cDNA clone encoding glycinin (Gly1) seed storage protein of peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone (peanut Gly-1) encoding for glycinin protein was isolated from the immature seeds (from yellow-1 maturity pods) and characterized. The clone spanning a total of 1836 bp, predicted protein of 529 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 60,447.61 Da. Peanut Gly-1 sequence comparison shows high level of sequence homology with other two peanut glycinin (arachin) genes

Ashok K. Jain

2004-01-01

73

High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01

74

Advances in diagnosing peanut allergy.  

PubMed

Peanut allergy is often severe, potentially fatal, usually persistent, and appears to have increased in prevalence. An accurate diagnosis is essential because there is a significant burden on quality of life. The tools available for diagnosis include the medical history, skin prick test (SPT), determination of serum peanut-specific IgE antibodies (PN-IgE), and medically supervised oral food challenges. Numerous studies, almost exclusively in children, have correlated clinical outcomes against SPTs and PN-IgE with informative results. The diagnostic utility of SPT and PN-IgE is maximized by considering the degree of positive result and consideration of the medical history (a priori estimation of risk). Emerging tests that evaluate IgE binding to specific proteins in peanut (component testing) add important additional diagnostic information in specific settings. Studies are increasingly focused on how the results of tests considered in combination (or performed serially) may increase diagnostic accuracy. Here, we review the utility of currently available tests and provide suggestions on how to best use them to accurately predict peanut allergy. Still, the physician-supervised oral food challenge remains the most definitive test available. PMID:24229816

Sicherer, Scott H; Wood, Robert A

2013-01-01

75

High-value oils from plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years there has been increasing use of these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of using fossil

John M. Dyer; Sten Stymne; Allan G. Green; Anders S. Carlsson

2008-01-01

76

Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places\\u000a in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal\\u000a diversity. High Shannon-Index H? was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated\\u000a mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%)

Balaji Venkatesagowda; Ebenezer Ponugupaty; Aneli M. Barbosa; Robert F. H. Dekker

77

Type B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce Th1 responses to peanut antigens: modulation of sensitization and utility in a truncated immunotherapy regimen in mice  

PubMed Central

Scope Peanut allergy stems from a Th2-biased immune response to peanut allergens leading to IgE production and allergic reactions upon ingestion. Methods and Results A model of peanut allergy in C3H/HeJ mice was used to assess whether Type A, B, or C CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) molecules would be effective in: (1) a prophylactic approach to prevent peanut allergy when administered simultaneously with a Th2-skewing adjuvant, and (2) a therapeutic model to allow for shortened immunotherapy. Type B ODNs were extremely effective in inhibiting anaphylaxis in the sensitization protocol as evidenced by differences in symptom scores, body temperature, and MMCP-1 release compared to sham treatment. In the therapeutic model, co-administration of Type B ODN plus peanut proteins was highly effective in reducing anaphylactic reactions in mice with established peanut allergy. The therapeutic effect was accompanied by an increase in IFN-? and peanut-IgG2a, without a significant decrease in peanut-IgE or IL-4 responses. Conclusions CpG ODNs, especially Type B, were highly effective in inducing Th1-responses in mice undergoing induction of peanut allergy, as well as in mice undergoing therapy for established peanut allergy. Interestingly, the IgE response was not significantly altered, suggesting that IgG antibodies may be enough to prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:23386314

Kulis, Mike; Gorentla, Balachandra; Burks, A. Wesley; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

2013-01-01

78

Increased resistance to late leaf spot disease in transgenic peanut using a combination of PR genes.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the sixth most important oil seed crop in the world. Yield loss due to Cercospora leaf spot (early and late leaf spots) is a serious problem in cultivating this crop. Non-availability of resistant genes within crossable germplasms of peanut necessitates the use of a genetic engineering strategy to develop genetic resistance against various biotic stresses. The pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are a group of plant proteins that are toxic to invading fungal pathogens, but are present in trace amounts in plants. The PR proteins, PR-5 and defensins, are potent antifungal proteins. A double gene construct with SniOLP (Solanum nigrum osmotin-like protein) and Rs-AFP2 (Raphanus sativus antifungal protein-2) genes under separate constitutive 35S promoters was used to transform peanut plants. Transgenic peanut plants expressing the SniOLP and Rs-AFP2 genes showed enhanced disease resistance to late leaf spot based on a reduction in number and size of lesions on leaves and delay in the onset of Phaeoisariopsis personata leaf spot disease. PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern hybridization analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of these genes in peanut transgenics. The results demonstrate the potential of SniOLP and Rs-AFP2 genes in developing late leaf spot disease resistance in transgenic peanut. PMID:23053199

Vasavirama, K; Kirti, P B

2012-11-01

79

Peanut oil press for developing countries  

E-print Network

Despite the problems with obesity that the United States is facing today, malnutrition, caused in part by severely low dietary fat consumption, remains a problem among many people living in Sub-Saharan Africa. According ...

Jain, Neera, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

80

Peanut allergy: Effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations lead to an impaired skin barrier associated with peanut allergy. Household peanut consumption is associated with peanut allergy, and peanut allergen in household dust correlates with household peanut consumption. Objective We sought to determine whether environmental peanut exposure increases the odds of peanut allergy and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. Methods Exposure to peanut antigen in dust within the first year of life was measured in a population-based birth cohort. Peanut sensitization and peanut allergy (defined by using oral food challenges or component-resolved diagnostics [CRD]) were assessed at 8 and 11 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. Results After adjustment for infantile atopic dermatitis and preceding egg skin prick test (SPT) sensitization, we found a strong and significant interaction between natural log (ln [loge]) peanut dust levels and FLG mutations on peanut sensitization and peanut allergy. Among children with FLG mutations, for each ln unit increase in the house dust peanut protein level, there was a more than 6-fold increased odds of peanut SPT sensitization, CRD sensitization, or both in children at ages 8 years, 11 years, or both and a greater than 3-fold increased odds of peanut allergy compared with odds seen in children with wild-type FLG. There was no significant effect of exposure in children without FLG mutations. In children carrying an FLG mutation, the threshold level for peanut SPT sensitization was 0.92 ?g of peanut protein per gram (95% CI, 0.70-1.22 ?g/g), that for CRD sensitization was 1.03 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.90-1.82 ?g/g), and that for peanut allergy was 1.17 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.01-163.83 ?g/g). Conclusion Early-life environmental peanut exposure is associated with an increased risk of peanut sensitization and allergy in children who carry an FLG mutation. These data support the hypothesis that peanut allergy develops through transcutaneous sensitization in children with an impaired skin barrier. PMID:25282568

Brough, Helen A.; Simpson, Angela; Makinson, Kerry; Hankinson, Jenny; Brown, Sara; Douiri, Abdel; Belgrave, Danielle C.M.; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Turcanu, Victor; Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Custovic, Adnan; Lack, Gideon

2014-01-01

81

Micellar fluid for low and high hardness crude oil displacement  

SciTech Connect

A micellar fluid used for displacing crude oil through high and low hardness portions of a subterranean reservoir is formulated with a crude oil displacing hydrocarbon sulfonate surfactant, a water soluble salt of a sulfated, oxyalkylated alcohol and amyl alcohol, preferably n-amyl alcohol.

Denham, D.S.; Griffith, T.D.

1982-02-23

82

Peanut protein: A versatile food ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut flour has been evaluated for use in a variety of food products as a replacement for animal source proteins. In breakfast\\u000a cereals and snack foods, peanut flour blends well with cereal flours to yield products with excellent flavor, texture, and\\u000a color. Peanut flour can be used to produce textured vegetable protein or can be used directly in ground meats

J. L. Ayres; B. L. Davenport

1977-01-01

83

Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT  

PubMed Central

We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

Rahmann, Sven

2014-01-01

84

Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT.  

PubMed

We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

Köster, Johannes; Rahmann, Sven

2014-01-01

85

Genotypic effect of ahFAD2 on fatty acid profiles in six segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) populations  

PubMed Central

Background Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait because it may affect the flavor and shelf life of resulting food products. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L ? 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait was controlled by recessive alleles of ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B, the former of which is thought to have a high frequency in US runner- and virginia-type cultivars. Functional mutations, G448A in ahFAD2A and 442insA in ahFAD2B eliminate or knock down desaturase activity and have been demonstrated to produce peanut oil with high O/L ratios. In order to employ marker assisted selection (MAS) to select a high oleic disease resistant peanut and to evaluate genotypic and phenotypic variation, crosses were made between high oleic (~80%) and normal oleic (~50%) peanuts to produce segregating populations. Results A total of 539 F2 progenies were randomly selected to empirically determine each ahFAD2 genotype and the resulting fatty acid composition. Five of the six crosses segregated for the high oleic trait in a digenic fashion. The remaining cross was consistent with monogenic segregation because both parental genotypes were fixed for the ahFAD2A mutation. Segregation distortion was significant in ahFAD2A in one cross; however, the remaining crosses showed no distortion. Quantitative analyses revealed that dominance was incomplete for the wild type allele of ahFAD2, and both loci showed significant additive effects. Oleic and linoleic acid displayed five unique phenotypes, based on the number of ahFAD2 mutant alleles. Further, the ahFAD2 loci did exhibit pleiotropic interactions with palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) acids and the O/L ratio. Fatty acid levels in these progeny were affected by the parental genotype suggesting that other genes also influence fatty acid composition in peanut. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first study in which all of the nine possible ahFAD2 genotypes were quantitatively measured. Conclusions The inheritance of the high oleic trait initially was suggested to be controlled by dominant gene action from two homoeologous genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) exhibiting complete recessivity. Analyzing the ahFAD2 genotypes and fatty acid compositions of these segregating peanut populations clearly demonstrated that the fatty acid contents are quantitative in nature although much of the variability in the predominant fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and palmitic) is controlled by only two loci. PMID:23866023

2013-01-01

86

Evaluation of IgE Antibodies to Recombinant Peanut Allergens in Patients with Reported Reactions to Peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut may cause severe reactions in allergic individuals. The objective was to evaluate IgE antibodies to various recombinant (r) peanut and birch pollen allergens in relation to IgE levels to whole peanut extract and severe allergic reactions to peanut. Methods: Seventy-four Swedish peanut-allergic patients (age: 14–61 years) reported previous peanut exposure and associated symptoms using a questionnaire. Their IgE

Robert Movérare; Staffan Ahlstedt; Ulf Bengtsson; Magnus P. Borres; Marianne van Hage; Maryam Poorafshar; Sigrid Sjölander; Johanna Åkerström; Jenny van Odijk

2011-01-01

87

Peanut Meal and Ground Whole Pressed Peanuts for Hogs.  

E-print Network

. BURNS, B.. S... Antmal Husbandman, E. E. BINFORD. B. S., super)intendent Feedlng In~~estlgntrons SUBSTATION NO. 2: Troup, Smith County J. M. J~NES, A. M., Animal Husbandman, W. S. I~OTCHKISS, Superintendent Breeding Investigations SUBSTATION NO. 3...PEANUTS FOR'!HOGS.* - L- 1 - ;* 2:. 5 , , ,. 3. BURK, B. S ., ANIMAL HUSBANDA~AXT, SWINE INVESTIGATIONS. f...

Burk, L. B. (Lloyd Byron)

1916-01-01

88

Effect of oil replenishment during deep-fat frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high-oleic acid sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frying stability of sunflower oil (SO) with 23% oleic acid and 61% linoleic acid, and of high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO)\\u000a with 74% oleic acid and 13% linoleic acid was studied during 20 discontinuous deep-fat fryings of various frozen foods, with\\u000a or without frequent replenishment of the used oil with fresh oil. Alterations of both oils were measured by column,

Antonio Romero; Carmen Cuesta; Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz

1998-01-01

89

High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

2014-03-01

90

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

91

Testing of a High Seas Oil Recovery System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for recovery of petroleum products from accidental offshore spills has been developed and tested. The testing has included both model testing and full-scale testing of a 60-ft long system capable of recovering oil at a rate of 2,000 gal per min. The test have shown the system capable of recovering spilled oil at high efficiencies (less than 10%

Frank March; Robert Beach

1973-01-01

92

The high pressure rheology of polymer-oil solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present perhaps the most comprehensive work on the high-pressure shear-thinning of polymer-blended mineral oil. Three solutions of commercial polymer VI improver in mineral oil are characterized for the effect of pressure and shear rate on viscosity. We show that the film thinning measured in concentrated contact can be explained by ordinary shear-thinning of the power-law type. We present extended

S. Bair; F. Qureshi

2003-01-01

93

Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to biological processes such as fungal diseases and water limited stress. Moreover, it will also facilitate basic and applied research on the genetics of peanut through the development of new molecular markers and the study of adaptive variation across the genus. PMID:22888963

2012-01-01

94

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

95

An improved rapid physicochemical assay method for aflatoxin in peanuts and peanut products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical, short cut, sensitive method for more rapidly determining aflatoxin in peanuts and peanut products has been developed.\\u000a This was in response to the need to reduce the time required for analyses of peanut products in process. Through reductions\\u000a in solvent volumes, utilization of pressure filtration for clarification, and substitution of liquid:liquid extraction for\\u000a a lengthy column clean up,

Arthur E. Waltking; George Bleffert; Mary Kiernan

1968-01-01

96

PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

2014-08-01

97

PEANUT SHELL FUEL FOR THE GAMBIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The project will develop a household-scale human-powered briquette maker that will convert peanut shells into an efficient cooking fuel. The briquette maker will be designed such that it can be manufactured and used in The Gambia. ...

98

Suggestions for Weed Control in Peanuts  

E-print Network

Complete instructions for controlling weeds in peanuts are included in this publication. Tables suggest treatments for specific weeds during preplant and postemergence stages, and list common and chemical names of herbicides. Sprayer calibration...

Baumann, Paul A.; Lemon, Robert G.

2001-05-10

99

Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil  

E-print Network

Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil price? It does not relate to Mick' short stint at the London School of Economics, the oil industry operates on the same principle, at least in the short run. The industry relies on proven

Ahmad, Sajjad

100

Items Containing Peanuts & Other Nuts Note: Each of us must ultimately be responsible  

E-print Network

Brownies* Fudge Bars* Granola w/Nuts Hot & Sour Stir Fryw/ Peanuts Ice CreamSundae Bar KungPao Chickenw/Peanuts MChicken SnickerBrownie Barsw/Peanuts SoyRoastedTofu inPeanutSauce Spumoni Ice Cream Spumoni Ice Creamw/Peanuts SweetSnackMix w/ Nuts Thai ChickenPizzaw/Peanuts #12;Thai Hot andSour Stir Fryw/ Peanuts Thai Peanut

Shyy, Wei

101

Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut.  

PubMed

The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5-0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria. PMID:24804045

Bassey, Francisca I; McWatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2013-09-01

102

Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut  

PubMed Central

The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5–0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria. PMID:24804045

Bassey, Francisca I; Mcwatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2013-01-01

103

Highly efficient and recyclable carbon soot sponge for oil cleanup.  

PubMed

Carbon soot (CS) has the advantages of cost-effectiveness and production scalability over other carbons (i.e., graphene, CNTs) in their synthesis. However, little research has been conducted to explore the potential applications of CS. In this study, we demonstrated that a common daily waste-CS-can be used for developing a cost-effective absorbent (CS-sponge) to remove oil contaminants from water. The CS was synthesized by an ethylene-oxygen combustion flame. The CS-sponge was prepared via a dip-coating method. Without further surface modification and pretreatments, the CS-sponge demonstrates high absorption capacities (up to 80 times its own weight) for a broad spectrum of oils and organic solvents with a recyclability of more than 10 times. These research results show evidence that the CS-sponge is promising in environmental remediation for large-scale, low-cost removal of oils from water. PMID:24670866

Gao, Yang; Zhou, Yun Shen; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Fan, Lisha; Rabiee-Golgir, Hossein; Jiang, Lijia; Hou, Wenjia; Huang, Xi; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Lu, Yong Feng

2014-04-23

104

Moringa oleifera oil: A possible source of biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the

Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe

2008-01-01

105

Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field  

E-print Network

water use, the increased weather variability due to global climate change, will require a more efficient. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil productivity worldwide (Boyer, 1982; Boyer and Westgate, 2004; Barnabas et al., 2008). Water availability

Blumwald, Eduardo

106

Superhydrophobic silanized melamine sponges as high efficiency oil absorbent materials.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic sponges and sponge-like materials have attracted great attention recently as potential sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup due to their excellent sorption capacity and high selectivity. A major challenge to their broad use is the fabrication of superhydrophobic sponges with superior recyclability, good mechanical strength, low cost, and manufacture scalability. In this study, we demonstrate a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method to fabricate robust, superhydrophobic sponges through the silanization of commercial melamine sponges via a solution-immersion process. The silanization was achieved through secondary amine groups on the surface of the sponge skeletons with alkylsilane compounds, forming self-assembled monolayers on the surface of sponge skeletons. This resulted in our ability to tune the surface properties of the sponges from being hydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 151.0°. The superhydrophobic silanized melamine sponge exhibited excellent sorption capacity for a wide range of organic solvents and oils, from 82 to 163 times its own weight, depending on the polarity and density of the employed organic solvents and oils, and high selectivity and outstanding recyclability with an absorption capacity retention greater than 90% after 1000 cycles. These findings offer an effective approach for oil spill containment and environmental remediation. PMID:25039789

Pham, Viet Hung; Dickerson, James H

2014-08-27

107

Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide  

PubMed Central

Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

2014-01-01

108

Testa structure and its role in maintaining integrity of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., seeds  

E-print Network

in maintenance of testa integrity and testa structure. The cultivars, 'Starr' and 'New Mexico Valencia A' (hereinafter referred to as Valencia A), matured at essentially the same rate. 'Florunner' and 'NC-FIA 14' were slower to mature. Valencia A had... which determines the unit value of pea- nuts when used as seed, for oil, or as food (40). According to the standards for testing seed established by the Association of Official Seed Analysts (3), attributes of quality considered when peanuts...

Glueck, James Andrew

2012-06-07

109

Frying quality and stability of high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil in comparison with other vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the high-oleic Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) in deep-frying was evaluated by comparing its frying stability with other conventional frying oils [canola (CLO), soybean (SBO), and palm olein (PO)]. The oils were used as a frying media to fry potato chips for 6h a day up to a maximum of 5 days. Standard methods for the determination

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2007-01-01

110

ELISA kit for peanut protein determination: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study in 10 laboratories was performed to validate an ELISA method developed for the quantitative determination of peanut protein in foods. The ELISA kit used for this study is based on rabbit polyclonal antibody. This kit does not produce any false-positive results or cross-reactivity with a broad range of peanut-free food matrixes. All participants obtained the peanut ELISA kit with standard operational procedures, a list of samples, the samples, and a protocol for recording test results. The study included 15 food samples. Three food matrix samples of zero peanut content showed peanut protein content lower than the first standard (0.10 mg/kg). Three samples with peanut declared as an ingredient revealed peanut protein content outside the calibration curve (absorbance was above the highest standard) in all laboratories, and three samples had the peanut content reported either above the highest standard or within the calibration curve, depending on the laboratory. Six samples with peanut declared as an ingredient gave the peanut protein content within the calibration curve. Only these six samples, together with a positive control sample (CS2), were used for statistical evaluation. The statistical tests (Cochran, Grubbs, and Mandel) and analysis of variance were used for the evaluation of the collaborative study results. Repeatability and reproducibility limits, as well as an LOQ (LOQcollaborative 0.22 mg peanut proteins/kg) and an LOD (LODcollaborative 0.07 mg peanut proteinslkg) for the kit were calculated. PMID:24282944

Lexmaulová, Hana; Gabrovská, Dana; Rysová, Jana; Stumr, Frantisek; Netusilová, Katerina; Blazková, Martina; Bulawová, Hana; Brychta, Josef; Subrtová, Zdenka; Pavelka, Jiri; Iametti, Stefania; Del Barco, Jorge Antonio Guisantes; Quesada, Jorge Martinez; Pardo, Esther Sunen; Resa, Idoia Postigo; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Piknová, Lubica; Langerholc, Tomaz; Cencic, Avrelija; Barsová, Sona; Cuhra, Petr; Plicka, Jan

2013-01-01

111

An outbreak of yellow mold of peanut seedlings in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow mold of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seedlings caused by Aspergillus flavus was first observed during May 1984 in a commercial peanut farm in south Texas. The mold caused preemergence rotting of peanut seed and seedlings. On emerged seedlings the infection was largely restricted to cotyledons. The diseased plants were chlorotic, stunted, and leaflets were reduced in size with pointed tips

P. Subrahmanyam; D. H. Smith; R. A. Raber; E. Shepherd

1987-01-01

112

High-performance size-exclusion chromatographic studies on a high-oleic acid sunflower oil during potato frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of a high-oleic acid sunflower oil used for 75 repeated deep-fat fryings of potatoes, with a fast turnover of\\u000a fresh oil during frying, was evaluated by measuring the total polar content isolated by column chromatography. The total polar\\u000a content increased in the oil from 3.6 0.1 (mean SD) mg\\/100 mg unused oil to 7.6 0.4 mg\\/100 mg oil

A. Romero; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz; C. Tulasne; C. Cuesta

1995-01-01

113

High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

2014-05-01

114

A new challenge for high performance two-cycle engine oils  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a study of the effects of oil composition on visible smoke, engine cleanliness, and piston anti-seizure performance. Two laboratory tests, termed the DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) method, and the HTT (Hot Tube Test) are investigated as screening tests for two-cycle engine oils. Two types of oil were developed to comply with stringent Japanese oil requirements. Firstly, smokeless type oils formulated with high concentrations of polybutenes were introduced to greatly reduce visible smoke from two-cycle engines of high specific output. Secondly, low-friction oils containing ester type synthetic base stocks were developed to achieve higher engine output in racing applications.

Kagaya, M.; Ishimaru, M

1988-01-01

115

Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

2007-01-01

116

Evaluation of Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Peanut Protein Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2–12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2–5 g/100 ml) than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive. PMID:22693580

Zhang, Hui Cui; Zhang, Chu Shu; Yu, Li Na; Bi, Jie; Zhu, Feng; Liu, Shao Fang; Yang, Qing Li

2012-01-01

117

Genetic diversity analysis in valencia peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) is an important source of oil and protein. Considerable variation has been recorded for morphological, physiological and agronomic traits, whereas few molecular variations have been recorded for this crop. The identification and understanding of molecular genetic diversity in cultivated peanut types will help in effective genetic conservation along with efficient breeding programs in this crop. The New Mexico breeding program has embarked upon a program of improvement of Valencia peanut (belonging to the sub species fastigiata), because efforts to improve the yield potential are lacking due to lack of identified divergent exotic types. For the first time, this study has shown molecular diversity using microsatellite markers in the cultivated Valencia peanut (sub spp. fastigiata) from around the globe. In this investigation, 48 cultivated Valencia peanut genotypes have been selected and analyzed using 18 fluorescently labeled SSR (f-SSR) primer pairs. These primer pairs amplified 120 polymorphic loci among the genotypes screened and amplified from 3 to 19 alleles with an average of 6.9 allele per primer pair. The f-SSR marker data was further analyzed using cluster algorithms and principal component analysis. The results indicated that (1) considerable genetic variations were discovered among the analyzed genotypes; (2) The f-SSR based clustering could identify the putative pedigree types of the present Valencia types of diverse origins, and (3) The f-SSR in general is sufficient to obtain estimates of genetic divergence for the material in study. The results are being utilized in our breeding program for parental selection and linkage map construction. PMID:15647791

Krishna, Girish Kumar; Zhang, Jinfa; Burow, Mark; Pittman, Roy N; Delikostadinov, Stanko G; Lu, Yingzhi; Puppala, Naveen

2004-01-01

118

Effect of interesterification on the structure and physical properties of high-stearic acid soybean oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triglyceride structures of genetically modified soybean oils high in stearic acid were determined by high-pressure liquid\\u000a chromatography, and their physical properties were assessed by dilatometry and dropping point. In their natural state, these\\u000a oils lack sufficient solids at 10–33°C to qualify as margarine oils. However, after random interesterification, soybean oil\\u000a containing 17% stearic acid shows a solid fat index (SFI)

G. R. List; T. L. Mounts; F. Orthoefer; W. E. Neff

1997-01-01

119

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist  

E-print Network

CROP & SOIL SCIENCES Extension Peanut Agronomist Committee Membership Dr. J. Michael Moore - committee chair Dr. Clint Waltz Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences Sciences Department of Crop & Soil Sciences University of Georgia University of Georgia 2360 Rainwater Rd

Arnold, Jonathan

120

Peanut Allergens: An Overview Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and especially on the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always

JORGE SÁIZ; CRISTINA MONTEALEGRE; MARIA LUISA MARINA; CARMEN GARCÍA-RUIZ

2012-01-01

121

DEGREE OF COMPETITION IN THE U.S. PEANUT BUTTER INDUSTRY: A DYNAMIC ERROR CORRECTION APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reforms in the U.S. peanut program entail a reduction in support price of peanuts. The degree to which price reduction is passed on to final consumers of peanut butter is directly related to the degree of competition in the peanut butter market. To assess the impact of changes in the peanut program on final consumers, it is necessary to know

Satish Y. Deodhar; Stanley M. Fletcher

1998-01-01

122

The persistence of imazapic in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop rotations  

E-print Network

was performed on three Texas peanut-growing soils at two moisture contents. Soils were incubated for 0, 30, 60, 150, and 300 d at 30 C and then imazapic was chemically extracted and quantified using solid-phase extraction (SPE) high performance liquid...

Matocha, Mark Andrew

2012-06-07

123

Peanut-Like 1 (Septin 5) Gene Expression in Normal and Neoplastic Human Endocrine Pancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut-like 1 (PNUTL1) is a septin gene which is expressed at high levels in human brain. There it plays a role in the process of membrane fusion during exocytosis by interacting with syntaxin and synaptophysin. As the secretory apparatus of pancreatic islet cells closely resembles that of neurons, we decided to study the expression of PNUTL1 in the human endocrine

Gabriele Capurso; Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic; Massimo Milione; Francesco Panzuto; Nicoletta Campanini; Sally E. Dowen; Alessia Di Florio; Claudio Sette; Cesare Bordi; Nicholas R. Lemoine; Gianfranco Delle Fave

2005-01-01

124

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

125

Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.  

PubMed

In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

2010-01-01

126

Oxidative Stability of Conventional and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils with Added Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative stability of conventional and high-oleic varieties of commercial vegetable oils, with and without added antioxidants,\\u000a was evaluated using the oil stability index (OSI). Oil varieties studied were soybean (SOY), partially-hydrogenated soybean\\u000a (PHSOY), corn (CORN), sunflower (SUN), canola (CAN), high-oleic canola (HOCAN), very high-oleic canola (VHOCAN), oleic safflower\\u000a (SAF) and high-oleic sunflower (HOSUN). One or more commercial antioxidants were

Lilon I. Merrill; Oscar A. Pike; Lynn V. Ogden; Michael L. Dunn

2008-01-01

127

Highly restrictive diffusion under hydrotreating reactions of heavy residue oils  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ratio ({lambda}) of reactant molecular diameter to catalyst pore diameter on the restrictive diffusion under a highly restrictive regime of hydrotreating reactions of heavy residue oils over CoMo/alumina-alumina phosphate catalysts was investigated. Hydrotreating reactions of residual oils were carried out in a trickle bed reactor at 663 K and 7.6 MPa over a series of CoMo/alumina-aluminum phosphate catalysts. The values of the effective diffusivities and the relevant effectiveness factors for HDS and HDM reactions were determined by applying the Thiele relation to catalytic reactions. The effective diffusivities for the HDM reaction are always smaller than those for the HDS reaction. In addition, the effective diffusivity values decreased with increasing ratios of reactant molecular diameters to catalyst pore diameters for both HDS and HDM reactions, indicating a large restrictive diffusion effect. Two different regimes for restrictive diffusion were observed. The restrictive effect under reaction conditions is still severe for low values of {lambda}. However, this effect does not seem prominent for high values of {lambda}

Li, C. [Chinese Petroleum Corp., Chia-Yi (Taiwan, Province of China). Refining and Manufacturing Research Center; Chen, Y.W.; Tsai, M.C. [National Central Univ., Chung-Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-03-01

128

Production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid Karanja ( Pongamia pinnata) oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-edible oil contains several unsaponifiable and toxic components, which make them unsuitable for human consumption. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) is an underutilized plant which is grown in many parts of India. Sometimes the oil is contaminated with high free fatty acids (FFAs) depending upon the moisture content in the seed during collection as well as oil expression. The present study deals

Malaya Naik; L. C. Meher; S. N. Naik; L. M. Das

2008-01-01

129

Peanut Sensitization Profiles in Italian Children and Adolescents with Specific IgE to Peanuts  

PubMed Central

Peanuts are one of the most relevant foods implicated in IgE-mediated adverse reactions in pediatric population. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of sensitization towards five peanut allergenic components (rAra h 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9) in a population of Italian children and adolescents with specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut. rAra h 9 was the main allergen implicated in peanut sensitization (58%), followed by rAra h 8 (35%), rAra h 2 (27%), rAra h 3 (23%) and rAra h 1 (12.5%). rAra h 1, 2, and 3 were the main allergenic components in young children: 8/13 (62%) between 2 and 5 years, 8/23 (35%) between 6 and 11 years, and 3/12 (25%) between 1 and 16 years. No differences were found among the levels of sIgE towards rAra h 1, 2, 3, and 9 in the three groups; in contrast, the levels of sIgE against rAra h 8 showed an increasing trend according to age. In conclusion rAra h 1, 2, and 3 were the prevalent sensitizing allergens during the first years of life in Italian patients with sIgE to peanuts (“genuine” allergy); in contrast rAra h 9 and 8 were mainly involved in school-age children and adolescents with pollen allergy (“secondary” sensitization). PMID:24324955

Calamelli, Elisabetta; Ricci, Giampaolo

2013-01-01

130

Enhancing Resistance to Sclerotinia minor in Peanut by Expressing a Barley Oxalate Oxidase Gene1  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia minor Jagger is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a highly destructive disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Based on evidence that oxalic acid is involved in the pathogenicity of many Sclerotinia species, our objectives were to recover transgenic peanut plants expressing an oxalic acid-degrading oxalate oxidase and to evaluate them for increased resistance to S. minor. Transformed plants were regenerated from embryogenic cultures of three Virginia peanut cultivars (Wilson, Perry, and NC-7). A colorimetric enzyme assay was used to screen for oxalate oxidase activity in leaf tissue. Candidate plants with a range of expression levels were chosen for further analysis. Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern-blot analysis, and gene expression was demonstrated in transformants by northern-blot analysis. A sensitive fluorescent enzyme assay was used to quantify expression levels for comparison to the colorimetric protocol. A detached leaflet assay tested whether transgene expression could limit lesion size resulting from direct application of oxalic acid. Lesion size was significantly reduced in transgenic plants compared to nontransformed controls (65%–89% reduction at high oxalic acid concentrations). A second bioassay examined lesion size after inoculation of leaflets with S. minor mycelia. Lesion size was reduced by 75% to 97% in transformed plants, providing evidence that oxalate oxidase can confer enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight in peanut. PMID:15778458

Livingstone, D. Malcolm; Hampton, Jaime L.; Phipps, Patrick M.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

2005-01-01

131

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaOfree and SO3 in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash

C Freidin

1998-01-01

132

Soil Eukaryotic Microorganism Succession as Affected by Continuous Cropping of Peanut - Pathogenic and Beneficial Fungi were Selected  

PubMed Central

Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. Soil micro-organisms are efficient bio-indicators of soil quality and plant health and are critical to the sustainability of soil-based ecosystem function and to successful plant growth. In this study, 18S rRNA gene clone library analyses were employed to study the succession progress of soil eukaryotic micro-organisms under continuous peanut cultivation. Eight libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and its representative growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil micro-eukaryotic assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. Six eukaryotic groups were found and fungi predominated in all libraries. The fungal populations showed significant dynamic change and overall diversity increased over time under continuous peanut cropping. The abundance and/or diversity of clones affiliated with Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Glomerales, Orbiliales, Mucorales and Tremellales showed an increasing trend with continuous cropping but clones affiliated with Agaricales, Cantharellales, Pezizales and Pyxidiophorales decreased in abundance and/or diversity over time. The current data, along with data from previous studies, demonstrated that the soil microbial community was affected by continuous cropping, in particular, the pathogenic and beneficial fungi that were positively selected over time, which is commonplace in agro-ecosystems. The trend towards an increase in fungal pathogens and simplification of the beneficial fungal community could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut growth and yield over many years of continuous cropping. PMID:22808226

Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

2012-01-01

133

Preparation and characterisation of peanut seed skin polyphenols.  

PubMed

Using ?-amylase inhibition as a separation guide, polyphenolic compounds from peanut seed skin were prepared. During preparation, specific ?-amylase inhibitory activities were increased about 4-fold. High-resolution MALDI-TOF mass spectra showed that the structure of this sample was a series of polyflavan-3-ols, up to 15-mer, composed of catechin/epicatechin units together with several afzelechin/epiafzelechin units and gallocatechin/epigallocatechin units. The observed precious mass values suggest that the polymers consist of both interflavanoid C-C linkages (A-type) and interflavanoid ether linkages (B-type). Oral administration of the polyphenol fraction to rats fed corn starch significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose levels in a dose dependent manner. Administration of the polyphenol fraction to rats fed maltose or sucrose delayed the increase in blood glucose levels. These results suggest peanut seed skin contains polyphenols with strong ?-amylase inhibitory activity, which retard absorption of carbohydrates and mainly function through inhibition of ?-amylase. PMID:24423496

Tsujita, Takahiro; Shintani, Tomoyoshi; Sato, Hiroaki

2014-05-15

134

A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.  

PubMed

A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. PMID:25214353

Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

2011-09-01

135

New Aspects of Peanut and Tree Nut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, as our understanding of peanut and tree nut allergy has increased, the potential for real therapies has expanded\\u000a greatly. Hope for a cure for peanut and other food allergies is on the horizon. At the same time, the rates of peanut and\\u000a tree nut allergy have continued to increase, and much remains to be learned about these

Corinne A. Keet; Robert A. Wood

136

Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? both in vitro and in vivo systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor

Evros K Vassiliou; Andres Gonzalez; Carlos Garcia; James H Tadros; Goutam Chakraborty; Jeffrey H Toney

2009-01-01

137

Peanut Growing in the Gulf Coast Prairie of Texas.  

E-print Network

., Superintendent No. 14, Sonora, Sutton-Edwards Count **H. M. Beachell. B. S., Junior Agronomist W. H. Dameron, B. S., Superintenden No. 5. Temple, Bell County: I. B, Boughton, D. V. M., Veterinaria Henry Dunlavy, M. S., Superintendent W. T. Hardy. D. V. M... confection in the form of roasted peanuts or in peanut candy. Peanut TabIe 8. Yield per acre in tonu of air-dry forage (vinrs and nuts) of Soanish peanuts with different spacings in three-foot rows. S~acing ofplants, 1 1915 1 1916 1 1911 1918 1 1920 1...

Stansel, R. H. (Roy Harrison)

1935-01-01

138

Enzymatic determination of phenols using peanut peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of phenol and its derivatives on the kinetics of oxidation of aryldiamines (indicator-substrates) catalyzed by novel plant peroxidase—cationic peanut peroxidase—was studied. The character of influence of phenols on the kinetics of enzymatic oxidation of benzidine, o-dianisidine, and 3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with hydrogen peroxide was found to depend on a correlation between redox properties of phenols and the indicator-substrate of

Nailya A Bagirova; Tatyana N Shekhovtsova; Robert B van Huystee

2001-01-01

139

Relationship between platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase activity and apolipoprotein B levels in patients with peanut allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a highly potent phospholipid mediator responsible for the life-threatening manifestations of anaphylaxis. PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) inactivates PAF and protects against severe anaphylaxis whereas deficiency of PAF-AH predisposes to severe or fatal anaphylaxis. Determinants of PAF-AH activity have not been studied in patients with peanut allergy. Objectives To determine whether plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with peanut allergy is related to formation of circulating complexes with apolipoprotein B (apoB) the main surface protein on low density lipoprotein particles. Methods Plasma PAF-AH activity and apoB concentrations were measured in 63 peanut allergic patients (35 boys, 28 girls, ages 2 – 19?years). ApoB concentration was measured immunoturbidimetrically using goat anti-human apoB. The correlation between PAF-AH activity and apoB concentration was determined. Results A positive correlation was found between PAF-AH activity and apoB concentration (r2?=?0.59, P?peanut allergic patients, PAF-AH activity strongly correlates with apoB concentration, suggesting the presence of circulating PAF-AH- lipoprotein complexes. PMID:24808915

2014-01-01

140

Highly oil-producing microalgae selected through directed-evolution on a microfludic chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of photosynthetic microalgae produce signi?cant amounts of oil which can be easily converted to diesel fuel. However, as it stands today, biodiesel is signi?cantly more expensive than fossil fuels. We wish to improve the oil yield and production rate of a single species of microalgae through directed evolution. We propose to utilize our microfabication technology to create microhabitats to control the nutrient environment of the species, monitor oil production through Raman Spectroscopy, and punish colonies of algae which have low oil yield. We believe this process will produce a mutant species with a high oil yield.

Mestler, Troy; Estevez-Torres, Andre; Lambert, Guillaume; Austin, Robert H.

2009-03-01

141

Peanut Allergen Threshold Study (PATS): validation of eliciting doses using a novel single-dose challenge protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The eliciting dose (ED) for a peanut allergic reaction in 5% of the peanut allergic population, the ED05, is 1.5 mg of peanut protein. This ED05 was derived from oral food challenges (OFC) that use graded, incremental doses administered at fixed time intervals. Individual patients’ threshold doses were used to generate population dose-distribution curves using probability distributions from which the ED05 was then determined. It is important to clinically validate that this dose is predictive of the allergenic response in a further unselected group of peanut-allergic individuals. Methods/Aims This is a multi-centre study involving three national level referral and teaching centres. (Cork University Hospital, Ireland, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.) The study is now in process and will continue to run until all centres have recruited 125 participates in each respective centre. A total of 375 participants, aged 1–18 years will be recruited during routine Allergy appointments in the centres. The aim is to assess the precision of the predicted ED05 using a single dose (6 mg peanut?=?1.5 mg of peanut protein) in the form of a cookie. Validated Food Allergy related Quality of Life Questionnaires-(FAQLQ) will be self-administered prior to OFC and 1 month after challenge to assess the impact of a single dose OFC on FAQL. Serological and cell based in vitro studies will be performed. Conclusion The validation of the ED05 threshold for allergic reactions in peanut allergic subjects has potential value for public health measures. The single dose OFC, based upon the statistical dose-distribution analysis of past challenge trials, promises an efficient approach to identify the most highly sensitive patients within any given food-allergic population. PMID:24028324

2013-01-01

142

Goobers, ground pease, pindars, and peanuts: the transformation of the Texas peanut culture, 1890-1990  

E-print Network

mechanization all sped the increase at different. times. The precise reasons that farmers modified their cropping systems were varied and complex. The era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century was labeled the dawn of the New South and carried... with the conclusion that peanuts were only a part of the cropping 21 system, not the major money crop. Given the relative newness of the peanut culture to Texas and the size of each growing operation, one might conclude that the majority of the growers were white...

Born, Thomas Elliott

2012-06-07

143

Facile removal of oils from water surfaces through highly hydrophobic and magnetic polymer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, magnetic polymer nanocomposites were investigated as highly selective absorbent materials for removing oils from water surfaces. The nanocomposites with highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic surface were synthesized through a low-cost emulsion polymerization, and exhibited some practical properties including unsinkability, thermal stability and corrosive-resistance for real applications. These as-prepared nanoparticles could effectively absorb three kinds of oils up to above 3.63 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. It is very easy to collect the oil-absorbed nanoparticles by applying an external magnetic field. Besides, the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment, and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics after repeatedly removing oils from water surface for many cycles. The findings of this study might provide a convenient method for fast and selective removal of oils from the surface of water.

Gu, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Chen, Mudan; Mao, Jianyu; Xie, Tan

2014-05-01

144

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1993-01-19

145

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C[sub 20] to C[sub 60] or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C[sub 25] to C[sub 35] waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Jacobson, S.R. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

146

Significance of high-wax oil variability to Pacific Rim exploration and production  

SciTech Connect

High-Wax oils are a class of paraffinic crudes that occur widely in Pacific Rim petroleum systems. New analytical technologies, particularly High Temperature Gas Chromatography (HTGC) show unexpected variations in the molecular weight ranges and concentrations of paraffin waxes within this class of crudes. These variations are source and maturity-related, providing paleoenvironmental and generative information useful to exploration. Paleoenvironmental factors revealed by high-wax oil HTGC source signatures can also help interpret the potential for nearby reservoirs. Furthermore, variations in wax compositions affect flow and organic scale-forming properties that impact the production economics of these oils. Lacustrine-sourced high-wax oils contain broad distributions of paraffin waxes ranging from C{sub 20} to C{sub 60} or higher. Various algae appear to be the source of higher molecular weight waxes in these oils. Paleoenvironmental factors, such as water salinities and paleoclimate, affect wax compositions of resulting lacustrine high-wax oils. Other terrestrial-sourced oils generated by paralic or nearshore marine source rocks show high concentrations of C{sub 25} to C{sub 35} waxes, but much lower distributions of higher molecular weight waxes. These high-wax oils appear to. contain waxes derived principally from terrestrial, higher plant materials. Results for high-wax petroleum systems in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and China illustrate these conclusions with examples ranging in age from Carboniferous-Permian to late Tertiary.

Carlson, R.M.K. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Jacobson, S.R. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

147

Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)  

EIA Publications

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

2006-01-01

148

A RIGID, PERFORATED PLATE OIL BOOM FOR HIGH CURRENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A boom capable of diverting oil spills toward shore in a 3-knot (1.5 m/s) river or tidal current has been developed. Loss of No. 2 and No. 4 Fuel Oil at this velocity is typically less than 15 percent when the angle of the boom is 45 degrees to the shoreline. In contrast, convent...

149

An efficient method for the production of transgenic plants of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L .) through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledon explants from mature peanut seeds (Arachis hypogaea L.) were optimized to obtain adventitious shoot buds with high frequencies (>90%). Efficient transformation of these cotyledons by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 carrying neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and ß-glucuronidase (GUS; uidA), or coat protein gene of the Indian peanut clump virus (IPCVcp) and nptII on binary vectors (pBI121; pROKII:IPCVcp) led to

Kiran K Sharma; Vanamala Anjaiah

2000-01-01

150

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term

Nelly Bencheva; Carel Ligeon; Stanko Delikostadinov; Naveen Puppala; Curtis Jolly

151

Tried and True: Peanut butter and jelly science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you feeling frustrated with the quality of your students' writing or lack there of? If so, head straight for the peanut butter and jelly. Students will respond to this fun filled activity as they learn the importance of writing clear procedures in science. This visual lesson sticks with students like peanut butter to the roof of a mouth!

Farland, Donna

2006-04-01

152

Transcriptome profiling of peanut gynophores revealed global reprogramming of gene expression during early pod development in darkness  

PubMed Central

Background After the zygote divides few times, the development of peanut pre-globular embryo and fruit is arrested under white or red light. Embryo development could be resumed in dark condition after gynophore is buried in soil. It is interesting to study the mechanisms of gynophore development and pod formation in peanut. Results In this study, transcriptome analysis of peanut gynophore was performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 to understand the mechanisms of geocarpy. More than 13 million short sequences were assembled into 72527 unigenes with average size of 394 bp. A large number of genes that were not identified previously in peanut EST projects were identified in this study, including most genes involved in plant circadian rhythm, intra-cellular transportation, plant spliceosome, eukaryotes basal transcription factors, genes encoding ribosomal proteins, brassinosteriod biosynthesis, light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and TCA cycle. RNA-seq based gene expression profiling results showed that before and after gynophore soil penetration, the transcriptional level of a large number of genes changed significantly. Genes encoding key enzymes for hormone metabolism, signaling, photosynthesis, light signaling, cell division and growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism as well as genes involved in stress responses were high lighted. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of peanut gynophore generated a large number of unigenes which provide useful information for gene cloning and expression study. Digital gene expression study suggested that gynophores experience global changes and reprogram from light to dark grown condition to resume embryo and fruit development. PMID:23895441

2013-01-01

153

Dynamic stability analysis of cages in high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the cage stability of high-speed oil-lubricated angular contact ball bearings, a dynamic model of cages is\\u000a developed on the basis of Gupta’s and Meeks’ work. The model can simulate the cage motion under oil lubrication with all six\\u000a degrees of freedom. Particularly, the model introduces oil-film damping and hysteresis damping, and deals with the collision\\u000a contact as imperfect

Xiuhai Liu; Sier Deng; Hongfei Teng

2011-01-01

154

INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

2011-05-01

155

Current challenges in detecting food allergens by shotgun and targeted proteomic approaches: a case study on traces of peanut allergens in baked cookies.  

PubMed

There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (?10 ?g peanut g(-1) matrix) in baked cookies. PMID:22413066

Pedreschi, Romina; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Maquet, Alain

2012-02-01

156

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 188 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem on peanuts in South Carolina. Peanut root-knot (race 1) nematode is capable of causing severe losses

Stuart, Steven J.

157

Effect of secondary gas injection on the peanut shell combustion and its pollutant emissions in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor.  

PubMed

Peanut shell is a common agricultural waste in Asia, and its high calorific value is suitable to be used as a fuel. In this study, a vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC) with silica sand as the bed material was used for peanut shell combustion. There was no indication of bed agglomeration during combustions for as long as 12h. The temperatures and gas concentrations were measured along the axial direction at various operating conditions, including excess oxygen ratio and secondary gas flow rate. Results show that CO emission decreases with rising excess oxygen ratio and secondary gas flow rate, while NOx emissions show a reverse trend. To meet the minimum CO and NOx emission standards of Taiwan EPA, excess oxygen ratio ranging from 40% to 55% and secondary gas flow rate ranging from 1.56 to 2 Nm(3)/min are found optimal for crushed peanut shell combustion in a VFBC. PMID:24393745

Duan, Feng; Chyang, Chien-Song; Wang, Yuan-Jie; Tso, Jim

2014-02-01

158

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993March 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting

1993-01-01

159

Prototype high seas oil recovery system. Phase I. System development. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the preliminary design and development of a high seas oil spill recovery system. The oil recovery device consists of a series of vertical discs held in position by horizontal vanes which are attached on the disc peripheries. A stationary hollow trough is mounted through the center of the disc-vane assembly. Between the discs and attached to

W. T. Beran; B. Bruch; K. R. Maxwell

1972-01-01

160

Prototype high seas oil recovery system. Phase I. system development. Volume 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the preliminary design and development of a high seas oil spill recovery system. The oil recovery device consists of a series of vertical discs held in position by horizontal vanes which are attached on the disc peripheries. A stationary hollow trough is mounted through the center of the disc-vane assembly. Between the discs and attached to

W. T. Beran; B. Bruch; K. R. Maxwell

1972-01-01

161

Prototype high seas oil recovery system. Phase I. System development. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the preliminary design and development of a high seas oil spill recovery system. The oil recovery device consists of a series of vertical discs held in position by horizontal vanes which are attached on the disc peripheries. A stationary hollow trough is mounted through the center of the disc-vane assembly. Between the discs and attached to

W. T. Beran; B. Bruch; K. R. Maxwell

1972-01-01

162

HIGH-SPEED LOW POWER RADIAL TURBOCOMPRESSOR FOR OIL FREE HEATPUMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of oil in domestic heat pumps is a hindrance, particularly for enhanced surface evaporators and for advanced concepts based on two-stage cycles. Very compact oil-free dynamic compressor directly driven by high speed electric motors and supported on refrigerant vapor bearings represent a promising alternative. This paper presents a design analysis of the first stage prototype with the various

Jurg SCHIFFMANN; Daniel FAVRAT

163

Effect of Constant Magnetic Field on the Rheological Properties of High-Paraffinicity Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of constant magnetic field on the rheological properties and freezing point of a number of high-paraffinicity oils is studied. It is established that the rheological behavior of oils in a magnetic field depends on the content of paraffin hydrocarbons, resins, and asphaltenes. An increase in the main rheological parameters upon the action of magnetic field is observed for

Yu. V. Loskutova; N. V. Yudina

2003-01-01

164

Structure and stability of 2S albumin-type peanut allergens: implications for the severity of peanut allergic reactions  

PubMed Central

Resistance to proteolytic enzymes and heat is thought to be a prerequisite property of food allergens. Allergens from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are the most frequent cause of fatal food allergic reactions. The allergenic 2S albumin Ara h 2 and the homologous minor allergen Ara h 6 were studied at the molecular level with regard to allergenic potency of native and protease-treated allergen. A high-resolution solution structure of the protease-resistant core of Ara h 6 was determined by NMR spectroscopy, and homology modelling was applied to generate an Ara h 2 structure. Ara h 2 appeared to be the more potent allergen, even though the two peanut allergens share substantial cross-reactivity. Both allergens contain cores that are highly resistant to proteolytic digestion and to temperatures of up to 100 °C. Even though IgE antibody-binding capacity was reduced by protease treatment, the mediator release from a functional equivalent of a mast cell or basophil, the humanized RBL (rat basophilic leukaemia) cell, demonstrated that this reduction in IgE antibody-binding capacity does not necessarily translate into reduced allergenic potency. Native Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 have virtually identical allergenic potency as compared with the allergens that were treated with digestive enzymes. The folds of the allergenic cores are virtually identical with each other and with the fold of the corresponding regions in the undigested proteins. The extreme immunological stability of the core structures of Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 provides an explanation for the persistence of the allergenic potency even after food processing. PMID:16372900

Lehmann, Katrin; Schweimer, Kristian; Reese, Gerald; Randow, Stefanie; Suhr, Martin; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Rösch, Paul

2005-01-01

165

Fluorescence sorting instrument for the removal of aflatoxin from large numbers of peanuts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device capable of measuring fluorescence intensities from peanut surfaces and physically rejecting peanuts having undesired fluorescence properties is described. The device operates at a feed rate of 22 000 peanut halves per hour. The entire surface of each peanut is examined as 10 to 20 discrete spatial regions. Fluorescence intensities from each spatial region of each peanut are used to make accept/reject decisions in real time and are stored on an optical disk for off-line analysis.

Pelletier, M. J.; Spetz, W. L.; Aultz, T. R.

1991-08-01

166

Use of triacylglycerol profiles established by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection to predict the botanical origin of vegetable oils.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetable oils from different botanical origins by HPLC with UV-vis detection has been developed. Using a core-shell particle packed column (C18, 2.6 ?m), TAG separation was optimized in terms of mobile phase composition and column temperature. Using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C, excellent efficiency with good resolution between most of the TAG peak pairs, within a total analysis time of 15 min, was achieved. Using mass spectrometry detection, a total of 15 peaks, which were common to oils of six different botanical origins (corn, extra virgin olive, grapeseed, hazelnut, peanut and soybean) were identified. These peaks were used to construct linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models for botanical origin prediction. Ratios of the peak areas selected by pairs were used as predictors. All the oils were correctly classified with assignment probabilities higher than 95%. PMID:21855883

Lerma-García, M J; Lusardi, R; Chiavaro, E; Cerretani, L; Bendini, A; Ramis-Ramos, G; Simó-Alfonso, E F

2011-10-21

167

Comparison Between Oil-Mist and Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed, Small-Bore, Angular-Contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5x10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7% was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

168

Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

169

Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-edible filtered high viscous (72 cSt at 40°C) and high acid value (44mg KOH\\/gm) polanga (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) oil based mono esters (biodiesel) produced by triple stage transesterification process and blended with high speed diesel (HSD) were tested for their use as a substitute fuel of diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine. HSD and polanga oil methyl ester (POME)

P. K. Sahoo; L. M. Das; M. K. G. Babu; S. N. Naik

2007-01-01

170

Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.  

PubMed

Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids. PMID:23888318

Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

2013-09-01

171

Effect of Anti-IgE Therapy in Patients with Peanut Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Peanut-induced anaphylaxis is an IgE-mediated condition that is estimated to affect 1.5 million people and cause 50 to 100 deaths per year in the United States. TNX-901 is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody against IgE that recognizes and masks an epitope in the CH3 region of IgE responsible for binding to the high-affinity Fc e recep- tor on mast

Donald Y. M. Leung; Hugh A. Sampson; John W. Yunginger; A. Wesley Burks; Lynda C. Schneider; Cornelis H. Wortel; Frances M. Davis; John D. Hyun; William R. Shanahan

2003-01-01

172

Two-state irreversible thermal denaturation of anionic peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), steady-state tryptophan fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism (CD) studies, together with enzymatic assays, were carried out to monitor the thermal stability of anionic peanut peroxidase (aPrx) at pH 3.0. The spectral parameters were seen to be good complements to the highly sensitive but integral method of DSC. Thus, changes in far-UV CD corresponded to changes

Laura S. Zamorano; David G. Pina; Francisco Gavilanes; Manuel G. Roig; Ivan Yu. Sakharov; Andrei P. Jadan; Robert B. van Huystee; Enrique Villar; Valery L. Shnyrov

2004-01-01

173

Ara h 1-Reactive T Cells in Peanut Allergic Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Effective immunotherapy for peanut allergy is hampered by a lack of understanding of peanut-reactive CD4+ T cells Objective To identify, characterize and track Ara h 1-reactive cells in peanut allergic subjects using Ara h 1-specific class II tetramers. Methods Tetramer Guided Epitope Mapping (TGEM) was used to identify the antigenic peptides within the peanut allergen Ara h 1. Subsequently, HLA class II/Ara h 1-specific tetramers were used to determine the frequency and phenotype of Ara h 1-reactive T cells in peanut-allergic subjects. Cytokine profiles of Ara h 1-reactive T cells were also determined. Results Multiple Ara h 1 epitopes with defined HLA restriction were identified. Ara h 1-specific CD4+ T cells were detected in all of the peanut-allergic subjects tested. Ara h 1-reactive T cells in allergic subjects expressed CCR4 but did not express CRTH2. The percentage of Ara h1-reactive cells that expressed the ?7 integrin was low compared to total CD4+ T cells. Ara h 1- reactive cells that secreted IFN-?, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-17 were detected. Conclusions In peanut-allergic individuals, Ara h 1-reactive T cells occurred at moderate frequencies, were predominantly CCR4+ memory cells and produced IL-4. Class II tetramers can be readily used to detect Ara h 1-reactive T cells in the peripheral blood of peanut allergic subjects without in vitro expansion and would be effective for tracking peanut-reactive CD4+ T cells during immunotherapy. PMID:21459424

DeLong, Jonathan H.; Hetherington, Kelly A.; Wambre, Erik; James, Eddie A.; Robinson, David; Kwok, William W.

2011-01-01

174

Aflatoxin production in peanut lines selected to represent a range of linoleic acid concentrations.  

PubMed

To determine whether concentrations of linoleate in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed oil could be used to predict an ability to support aflatoxin production, seeds of genotypes representing a range of linoleate content were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and assayed for aflatoxin content. Seeds were blanched and quartered, inoculated with conidia of A. flavus, placed on moistened filter paper in petri dishes, and incubated for 8 days at 28 degrees C. Multiple regression analysis was used to account for the variation among lines with the use of fatty acid concentrations as independent variables. In test 1, linoleate accounted for 39 to 44% of the variation among lines for aflatoxin B1 and B2 and total aflatoxin (26 to 27% after log transformation). Oleate accounted for substantial additional variation (27 to 29%) among lines (20 to 23% after log transformation). Other fatty acids accounted for small fractions of among-line variation. In test 2, linoleate accounted for about 35 to 44% of the variation among entries across traits (29 to 37% for log-transformed data); arachidate accounted for 19 to 29% (27 to 33% after log transformation). Eicosenoate accounted for a small part of the total entry variation. In both experiments, residual variation among entries was significant. Low-linoleate lines consistently contained more aflatoxin, whereas normal- to high-linoleate lines contained variable amounts. Although fatty acid concentrations accounted for significant portions of genetic variation, it is not practical to use them as predictors for susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination, especially for lines in the normal range for oleate and linoleate. PMID:15690813

Xue, H Q; Isleib, T G; Payne, G A; Novitzky, W F; OBrian, G

2005-01-01

175

Peanut sensitization in a group of allergic Egyptian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There are no published data on peanut sensitization in Egypt and the problem of peanut allergy seems underestimated. We sought\\u000a to screen for peanut sensitization in a group of atopic Egyptian children in relation to their phenotypic manifestations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We consecutively enrolled 100 allergic children; 2-10 years old (mean 6.5 yr). The study measurements included clinical evaluation\\u000a for site of allergy,

Elham Hossny; Ghada Gad; Abeer Shehab; Amgad El-Haddad

2011-01-01

176

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03

177

Formulation of a drinkable peanut-based therapeutic food for malnourished children using plant sources.  

PubMed

High ingredient costs continue to hamper local production of therapeutic foods (TFs). Development of formulations without milk, the most expensive ingredient, is one way of reducing cost. This study formulated a ready-to-drink peanut-based TF that matched the nutrient composition of F100 using plant sources. Three least cost formulations namely, A, B and C were designed using computer formulation software with peanuts, beans, sesame, cowpeas and grain amaranth as ingredients. A 100 g portion of the TF provided 101-111 kcal, 5 g protein and 5.3-6.5 g fat. Consumer acceptability hedonic tests showed that the products were liked (extremely and moderately) by 62-65% of mothers. These results suggest that nutrient dense TFs formulated from only plant sources have the potential to be used in the rehabilitation phase of the management of malnourished children after clinical testing. PMID:23198736

Nabuuma, Deborah; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Phillips, Robert Dixon; Chen, Jinru

2013-06-01

178

Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls, scanning electron microscopy images coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the percentage of copper on the modified hulls (2.5 %) was greater than on the unmodified hulls (1.6 %). This study concluded that the adsorption of copper using peanut hulls is a potential method for wastewater treatment and delignification and oxidation of the hulls increases the adsorption capacity approximately three-fold.

Davis, Kanika Octavia

179

Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

2014-01-01

180

Properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of oil-fuel ashes  

SciTech Connect

The residue of oil-fuel burned at the electrical power plant of Grao de Castellon (Spain) has been incorporated in Portland cement mortar and concrete. The used oil-fuel ash (OFA) had a high percentage of magnesium compounds because of magnesium oxide addition for removing slag and ashes from boilers and pipes. Several studies had been carried out on stabilization of toxic metals also occurring in oil-fuel ashes (particularly vanadium and nickel), by mixing with coal fly ashes and cement. In this case, the presence of magnesium compounds in the composition of the studied oil-fuel ashes could alter the mechanical and chemical properties of the cement matrix in fresh and hardened mortar and concrete. The authors present here the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of oil-fuel ashes and the behavior of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of these oil-fuel ashes. The study includes workability, water demand, setting time, expansion and compressive strength developments. Preliminary results demonstrate a high absorption of water by oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash pastes setting times was observed, due to the presence of carbonates. On the other hand, no significant expansion in specimens due to the presence of magnesium compounds was detected and, consequently, mechanical properties of hardened mortars containing oil-fuel ashes did not decrease with curing time. Compressive strengths for mortars containing OFA were much lower, however, than control mortar samples.

Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Monzo, J.; Bonilla, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)] [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

1999-06-01

181

Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S.  

PubMed

Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (SWP), caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae), was first observed in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia in the late 1980s and rapidly became a major limiting factor for peanut production in the region. Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) both occur on peanut throughout the southeastern U.S., but F. fusca is the predominant species that reproduces on peanut, and is considered to be the more important vector. Several non-crop sources of potential primary vectors and TSWV inoculum have been identified, but their relative importance has not been determined. The peanut growing season in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia is from April through November, and 'volunteer' peanut plants can be present for much of the remainder of the year. Therefore peanut itself has huge potential for perpetuating both vector and virus. Symptoms are often evident within a few days of seedling emergence, and disease progress is often rapid within the first 50-60 days after planting. Based on destructive sampling and assays for TSWV, there is often a high incidence of asymptomatic infections even in peanut genotypes that produce few and mild symptoms of infection in the field. Severity of SWP epidemics fluctuates significantly from year to year. The variability has not been fully explained, but lower incidences have been associated with years categorized as "La Niña" in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Planting date can have a large effect on disease incidence within a location. This may be linked to the thrips reproductive cycle and environmental effects on the plant and plant-thrips-virus interactions. Row pattern, plant population, and in-furrow applications of phorate insecticide can also affect epidemics of SWP. Considerable progress has been made in developing cultivars with natural field resistance to TSWV. Use of cultivars with moderate field resistance combined with other suppressive measures has been very successful for managing spotted wilt disease. Several new cultivars with higher levels of field resistance can improve control and allow more flexibility in the integrated management programme. Although effects of these factors on epidemics of SWP have been documented, mechanisms responsible for disease suppression by most factors have not been fully elucidated. PMID:21620508

Culbreath, A K; Srinivasan, R

2011-08-01

182

The development of a correlation for determining oil density in high temperature reservoirs  

E-print Network

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRELATION FOR DETERMINING OIL DENSITY IN HIGH TEMPERATURE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by Thurman William Witte Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CORRELATION FOR DETERMINING OIL DENSITY IN HIGH TEMPERATURE RESERVOIRS A Thesis by Thurman William Witte Jr. Approved as to style and content by...

Witte, Thurman William

2012-06-07

183

Summary of Gender Report for Peanut CRSP VT 54: Gender issues in Aflatoxin Incidence and Control in Peanut Production in Uganda Prepared by  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of gender, aflatoxin, and peanut production identifies gender roles, constraints, and opportunities in aflatoxin control in Iganga, Mayuge and Mubende districts in Uganda. Peanuts are a food and a cash crop, and the second most important legume to the household economy in both urban and rural households in the country. Women farmers predominantly grow and manage the peanut

Archileo Kaaya; Maria Elisa Christie

184

An evaluation of the sensitivity of subjects with peanut allergy to very low doses of peanut protein: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The minimum dose of food protein to which subjects with food allergy have reacted in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges is between 50 and 100 mg. However, subjects with peanut allergy often report severe reactions after minimal contact with peanuts, even through intact skin. Objective: We sought to determine whether adults previously proven by challenge to be allergic to peanut

Jonathan O'B. Hourihane; Sally A. Kilburn; Julie A. Nordlee; Susan L. Hefle; Steve L. Taylor; John O. Warner

1997-01-01

185

Childhood Peanut Allergy May Be Linked to Skin Gene Mutation  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Childhood Peanut Allergy May Be Linked to Skin Gene Mutation Study ... Friday, October 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Food Allergy Genes and Gene Therapy Skin Conditions FRIDAY, Oct. ...

186

Characterization of peanut-soybean films for food packaging applications  

E-print Network

Edible films made from peanut and soybean were developed using casting and single-screw extrusion methods. The effect of time, formulation and processing method on the rheological, barrier and physical properties of the experimental films were...

Tellez Garay, Angela Maria

2012-06-07

187

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01

188

Visualization of foam/oil in a new, high resolution, sandstone replica micromodel  

SciTech Connect

A new micromodel construction procedure has been developed as a tool to better understand and model pore level events in porous media. The construction procedure allows for the almost exact two-dimensional replication of any porous medium of interest. For the case presented here a berea sandstone was chosen. Starting with a thin section of the porous medium of interest, a two-dimensional replica of the flow path is etched into a silicon wafer to a prescribed depth. Bonding the etched pattern to a flat glass plate isolates the flow path and allows the pore level flow events to be studied. The high resolution micromodels constructed with the new procedure were used to study the effects of oil on the displacement characteristics of foam in a porous medium of intermediate wettability. A crude oil was injected into the micromodel, partially filling it. The oil was then produced under two different displacement schemes. First, a slug of surfactant was used. Second, foam generated in situ, far from the oil bank, was used to displace the oil. Qualitative observations indicate significant differences at the interface between the oil and the displacing phase. When slug surfactant injection is used, the oil appears to wet the surface. The oil displacement process is efficient due to a large fractional production of oil from the large pores before the surfactant breaks through. When in-situ foam is the displacing phase, the foam is observed to break near the oil interface. The liquid phase in the foam becomes the wetting phase. It is observed to reside in the small pores and to coat most of the grain surfaces. Displacement of oil under this injection scheme is inefficient due to transfer of the surfactant along grain edges and subsequent early breakthrough of the surfactant.

Hornbrook, J.W.; Pettit, P.; Castanier, L.M.

1992-08-01

189

Peanut Butter Cracker Sandwich Manufacturing Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many engineers, their first position after obtaining a B.S. degree is in manufacturing. Job titles like process engineer, product engineer, and quality engineer are common and are directly involved in manufacturing. Most engineering curricula do not cover manufacturing concepts. A student may not even have an opportunity through electives to study manufacturing since smaller engineering colleges rarely have a department of Manufacturing Engineering.A module on peanut butter cracker manufacturing was developed for the Introduction to Engineering course taken by most engineering students in their freshman year. The objective for the students is to design, build and then run a process to manufacture peanut butter cracker sandwiches. The culminating activity is a pilot production run where the students are assigned human operators for their process. The goal for the students is to make a profit during the pilot production run. Material costs, labor costs, quality specifications and selling price all determine whether or not the process was successful. The module includes activities where the students perform calculations and use Excel graphs to determine the process time required to make a profit, the impact of the number of operators on production, the interplay between fixed and variable costs, and the effect of yield on their profit. Students are required to write operating procedures and order supplies based on predictions of the quantity of sandwiches they will produce. Students also learn about quality control and process control, the cost of automation, development costs, and challenges in training operators. After more than two weeks of preparation, the students have 10 minutes to train their operators, and then the operators run the process for 10 minutes. After production day, the students write a report that includes an analysis of their production performance and suggested process modifications. Overall, the module provides a fun and informative introduction to some fundamental manufacturing concepts.The module learning objectives, section descriptions and handouts are included.

2009-08-05

190

Characterization of the esterification reaction in high free fatty acid oils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and vegetable oil prices have caused many biodiesel producers to turn to waste cooking oils as feedstocks. These oils contain high levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) which make them difficult or impossible to convert to biodiesel by conventional production methods. Esterification is required for ultra-high FFA feedstocks such as Brown Grease. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation has the potential to improve the kinetics of the esterification reaction. 2-level, multi-factor DOE experiments were conducted to characterize the esterification reaction in ultra-high FFA oils as well as determine whether ultrasonic irradiation gives any benefit besides energy input. The study determined that sulfuric acid content had the greatest effect followed by temperature and water content (inhibited reaction). Methanol content had no effect in the range studied. A small interaction term existed between sulfuric acid and temperature. The study also concluded that sonication did not give any additional benefit over energy input.

Altic, Lucas Eli Porter

191

Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Major Peanut Allergen Gene Families  

PubMed Central

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K.; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O.; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2014-01-01

192

Peanut peg strength and anatomy as related to disease resistance  

E-print Network

PEANUT PEG STRENGI'H AND ANATOMY AS RELATED TO DISEASE RESISTANCE A Thesis RONALD JAMES THOMAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1977 Major Subject: Plant Pathology PEANUT PEG STRENGTH AND ANATOMY AS RELATED TO DISEASE RESISTANCE A Thesis by RONALD JAMES THOMAS Approved as to style ar. d content by: (Ch izman of Committee) ( ead Department (Member (Member August 1977...

Thomas, Ronald James

2012-06-07

193

Flavor development in peanut protein cheese-like products  

E-print Network

and to make dairy analogues that are acceptable to the consumer. Soybean proteins have been used to make milk for infants who are allergic to cow's milk. Vitasoy, a commercial, heat sterilized bottled soya milk, is marketed in Japan. Sufu, a cheese... Krishnaswamy (1971) described the preparation of a cheese- like matrix based on peanut protein. A peanut protein isolate was homogenized with water, trisodium phosphate, skim milk powder, hydrogenated fat and emulsifiers. The mixture was then heated under...

Bath, Sheila Clare

2012-06-07

194

Forage Crops: Alfalfa, Peanuts, Velvet Beans, Millet, Rape  

E-print Network

1902. ALFALFA PEANUTS I~ELVET BEANS MILLET RAPE POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION. RRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIOIS, 1 OFFICERS. -- GOVERNING BOARD. I ............................................. &I. SANSOM.... This district will grow other crops to perfection such as oats, peas, potatoes, rape, peanuts, sor- ghum, etc. The change seems to be most naturally in the direction of stock farming. Texas is peculiarly adapted to stock raising. Upon the western plains...

Pittuck, B. C.

1903-01-01

195

Curing and drying effects upon the quality of Spanish peanuts  

E-print Network

tasters evaluated the roasted peanuts for the attributes of flavor, color, texture and product acceptance based on the following hedonic scale as developed by Norris (28). 9 Like extremely 7 Like slightly 5 Neither like nor dislike 26 3 Dislike... to volume ratio they separate before the mature peanuts although they have a higher density. Organoleptic Analyses Flavor. Flavor scores for the roasted immature fraction ranged from 2. 40 to 6. 00 on a nine point hedonic scale. Roasted mature pea- nuts...

Aristizabal, Leon

2012-06-07

196

Seasonal nitrogen fixation patterns of four peanut cultivars  

E-print Network

SEASONAL NITROGEN FIXATION PATTERNS OP FOUR PEANUT CULTIVARS A Thesis by WILLIAM HARMON TONN III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1979 Major Subject: Soil Science SEASONAL NITROGEN FIXATION PATTERNS OF FOUR PEANUT CULTIVARS A Thesis by WILLIAM HARMON TONN III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) August 1979 ABSTRACT...

Tonn, William Harmon

2012-06-07

197

Pretreatment of peanut kernels for effective skin removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new method for the removal of skins from peanut kernels by water-treatment, drying, and blanching in a standard split-nut\\u000a blancher has been developed on a pilot-plant scale. Optimum conditions for approximately 98% skin removal from U. S. No. 1\\u000a shelled Spanish peanuts by this method are water-treatment at room temperature, to gain not less than 20%, drying with forced

J. Pominski; E. L. D'Aquin; L. J. Molaison; E. J. McCourtney; H. L. E. Vix

1952-01-01

198

Seed-specific, developmentally regulated genes of peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cDNAs of seed-specific and developmentally regulated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genes were identified by differential screening of a peanut-seed cDNA library using cDNA probes constructed from mRNAs\\u000a isolated from immature and mature stages of the seed. Northern analysis, probed with the four cloned cDNAs, indicated that\\u000a the genes represented by two cDNAs were expressed abundantly early in seed development,

O. G. Paik-Ro; J. C. Seib; R. L. Smith

2002-01-01

199

Drying Spanish peanuts with intermittent heating, aerating and tempering processes  

E-print Network

DRYING SPANISH PEANUTS WITH INTERMITTENT HEATING, AERATING AND TEMPERING PROCESSES A Thesis By SHAH MUHAMMAD FAROUK Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering DRYING SPANISH PEANUTS WITH INTERMITTENT HEATING, AERATING AND TEMPERING PROCESSES A Thesis SHAH M~ FAROUK Approved as to style and content by: / / +Wc. c-'-s r...

Farouk, Shah Muhammad

2012-06-07

200

Monitoring and quantifying of oil migration in cocoa butter using a flatbed scanner and fluorescence light microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil migration from a nile red stained phase composed of a mixture of peanut oil and chemically interesterified hydrogenated palm oil into a cocoa butter matrix was quantified by the use of a flatbed scanner and epifluorescence light microscopy. A concentration gradient of linoleic acid (C18:2) in the cocoa butter phase confirmed that nile red migrated with the oil from

Stéphanie Marty; Ken Baker; Elena Dibildox-Alvarado; Juliana Neves Rodrigues; Alejandro G. Marangoni

2005-01-01

201

Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

202

Chemical plants: high-value molecules from essential oils.  

PubMed

As society faces a future of dwindling petrochemical supplies at increasing cost, much attention has been focused on methods to degrade biomass into renewable commodity-chemical building blocks. Reported here is a powerful complementary approach that amplifies the complexity of molecular structures present in plant materials. Essential-oil phenylpropenoids are transformed via acrylate cross-metathesis into potent antioxidants that are widely used in perfumery and cosmetics, and in treating disorders associated with oxidative damage. PMID:23126387

Lummiss, Justin A M; Oliveira, Kelley C; Pranckevicius, Alexandre M T; Santos, Alexandra G; dos Santos, Eduardo N; Fogg, Deryn E

2012-11-21

203

High oil- and polyphenol-producing species of the northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of plant species for their potential as renewable sources of industrial raw materials, conducted at the Northern\\u000a Regional Research Center, has been extended to include 110 species from North Dakota (ND), Colorado (CO), and Oregon (OR),\\u000a U.S.A. Plant samples were collected and analyzed for yields of “oil,” “polyphenol,” “hydrocarbon” and crude protein as well\\u000a as for botanical characteristics.

M. E. Carr; M. O. Bagby; W. B. Roth

1986-01-01

204

[Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea)].  

PubMed

Forty three rhizobium strains isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and 15 reference strains from other genus and species were analyzed by the method of 16S rRNA RFLP, 16S rRNA sequencing and 16S-23S IGS PCR RFLP. The results of the 16S rRNA RFLP shown that 43 strains tested were all ascribed to the genus of Bradyrhizobium phylogenetically. Strains tested were adjacent to the B. japonicum and far from B. elkanii 16S rRNA genotype. The genotypes generated by the 4 restriction endonucleases, Mbo I, Dde I, Hae III and Msp I, were same as the representatives of B. japonicum. The dendrogram generated by 16S rRNA sequence and Neighbor-joining method shown that peanut rhizobia clustered into the subcluster represented by B. japonicum and B. liaoningense, were more close to B. liaoningense genetically, and the sequence difference between them was less than 1%. High sequence similarity was also determined between B. liaoningense and B. japonicum. JZ1, representative strain of peanut rhizobia were systematically far from the B. elkanii, and the sequence divergence about 2%. The results from IGS RFLP analysis indicated that although they were phylogenetically close to B. japonicum and B. elkanii, peanut rhizobia forming an independent group at the similarity of 71% could be further divided into four subgroups, A, B, C and D. Subgroup A consisted of strains from different region, subgroup B was composed of strains from Wuchang, Qianjiang and Jingzhou, subgroup C was mainly composed of strains from Jingzhou and starins of subgroup D mainly from Neijiang. Reference strains from B. japonicum and B. elkanii were independently clustered into the subgroup E at the similarity of 71%. The geographical factor effect on genetic diversity of rhizobia was found. PMID:12693105

Yang, Jiang-Ke; Xie, Fu-Li; Zhou, Jun-Chu

2002-12-01

205

Determination of physicochemical properties of diacylglycerol oil at high pressure by means of ultrasonic methods.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to address, using ultrasonic methods, the impact of temperature and pressure on the physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil. The paper presents measurements of sound velocity, density and volume of DAG oil sample in the pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 0.6GPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50°C. Sound speed measurements were performed in an ultrasonic setup with a DAG oil sample located in the high-pressure chamber. An ultrasonic method that uses cross-correlation method to determine the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulses through the liquid was employed to measure the sound velocity in DAG oil. This method is fast and reliable tool for measuring sound velocity. The DAG oil density at high pressure was determined from the monitoring of sample volume change. The adiabatic compressibility and isothermal compressibility have been calculated on the basis of experimental data. Discontinuities in isotherms of the sound speed versus pressure point to the existence of phase transitions in DAG oil. The ultrasonic method presented in this study can be applied to investigate the physicochemical parameters of other liquids not only edible oils. PMID:25017363

Kie?czy?ski, Piotr; Szalewski, Marek; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Wieja, Krzysztof; Malanowski, Aleksander; Ko?ciesza, Rafa?; Tarakowski, Rafa?; Rostocki, Aleksander J; Siegoczy?ski, Ryszard M

2014-12-01

206

Porous carbon particles derived from natural peanut shells as lithium ion battery anode and its electrochemical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abandoned peanut shells, a common farm waste, have caused tremendous environmental pollution and huge waste deposits through burned and buried disposal approaches. In targeting to enhance the potential value of peanut shells and discover a new alternative candidate for lithium ion batteries, we adopted an easy to scale-up and highly repeated method to treat fresh and dry peanut shells via acid-treatment and pyrolysis, making porous structures on carbonized peanut shells. The pyrolysis process transformed the peanut shells to porous carbon (PC) materials in a quartz tube furnace at a series of temperatures from 500°C to 700°C in N2 under the condition of 40°C gradient temperatures with a heating rate of 2°C min-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the irregular porous structures and hundreds of micropores are distributed on the PC materials. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) test and particle size analysis are employed to investigate their characteristics of voltammetry and particle size distribution. PC material obtained at 620°C (PC-620) exhibited good particle distribution, porous structure and less agglomerated particles. When applied as anode materials in lithium ion batteries, the PC-620 electrode displayed the high reversible capacity of 608 mAh g-1. Moreover, the cycling performance of PC-620 was the most stable, with a high Coulombic efficiency of 98.9% at the 20th cycle, demonstrating a reversible capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite. Most importantly, the PC materials harvested from the wastes of natural resources are turned into valuable electrode materials for the high demand energy storage devices, which can significantly reduce severe environmental pollution and alleviate an energy shortage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Cao, Xiaoyu; Chen, Shuangqiang; Wang, Guoxiu

2014-07-01

207

The Cardioprotective Effects of Fish Oil During Pressure Overload Are Blocked by High Fat Intake  

PubMed Central

Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil may prevent development of heart failure through alterations in cardiac phospholipids that favorably impact inflammation and energy metabolism. A high-fat diet may block these effects in chronically stressed myocardium. Pathological left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy was generated by subjecting rats to pressure overload by constriction of the abdominal aorta. Animals were fed: (1) standard diet (10% of energy from fat), (2) standard diet with EPA+DHA (2.3% of energy intake as EPA+DHA), (3) high fat (60% fat); or (4) high fat with EPA+DHA. Pressure overload increased LV mass by ?40% in both standard and high-fat diets without fish oil. Supplementation with fish oil increased their incorporation into cardiac phospholipids, and decreased the proinflammatory fatty acid arachidonic acid and urine thromboxane B2 with both the standard and high-fat diet. Linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin (an essential mitochondrial phospholipid) were decreased with pressure overload on standard diet, which was prevented by fish oil. Animals fed high-fat diet had decreased linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin regardless of fish oil supplemention. Fish oil limited LV hypertrophy on the standard diet, and prevented upregulation of fetal genes associated with heart failure (myosin heavy chain-? and atrial natriuetic factor). These beneficial effects of fish oil were absent in animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, whereas treatment with EPA+DHA prevented tetralinoloyl cardiolipin depletion, LV hypertrophy, and abnormal genes expression with pressure overload, these effects were absent with a high-fat diet. PMID:19597033

Shah, Keyur B.; Duda, Monika K.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Chess, David J.; Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Xu, Wenhong; Murphy, Robert C.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

2011-01-01

208

Sophorolipid Production with High Yields on Whey Concentrate and Rapeseed Oil without Consumption of Lactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophorolipids were produced by single-step batch cultivation of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 on deproteinized whey concentrate and repeated feed of rapeseed oil. A mild sterilization method for whey was developed. High yields of 280 g dry sophorolipids l-1 were obtained from deproteinized whey concentrate containing 100 g lactose l-1 and 300 g rapeseed oil l-1. Surprisingly, the whey lactose was

Hans-J. Daniel; Ralf T. Otto; Matthias Reuss; Christoph Syldatk

1998-01-01

209

Pyrolysis of oil at high temperatures: Gas potentials, chemical and carbon isotopic signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the gas cracked from oil has been believed to be one of the important sources in highly matured marine basins, there\\u000a are still some debates on its resource potentials and chemical and isotopic compositions. In this study a Cambrian-sourced\\u000a marine oil sample from the Silurian reservoir of well TZ62 in the central Tarim basin was pyrolyzed using sealed gold

Hui Tian; XianMing Xiao; LiGuo Yang; ZhongYao Xiao; LiGuo Guo; JiaGui Shen; YuHong Lu

2009-01-01

210

High oil rates gauged from Haynesville in Alabama  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that oil wells with among the highest flowing capacities in the onshore U.S. are being completed in Alabama as operators press development of North Frisco City field. Five wells have been completed in the Monroe County field. A sixth well will be drilled in September, and four more locations have been identified on the 2,100 acre leasehold. The area is 4 miles west of Monroeville, Ala. Nuevo Energy Co., Houston, completed the field's most recent well earlier this month.

Not Available

1992-08-24

211

Differential effect of high dietary iron on ?-tocopherol and retinol levels in the liver and serum of mice fed olive oil– and corn oil–enriched diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of dietary fats on cellular ?-tocopherol and retinol uptake in iron overload is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-iron diet on the retinol and ?-tocopherol levels in mice fed olive oil– and corn oil–enriched diets. Mice were fed for 3 weeks a standard mouse chow (the control group) and

Robert Domitrovi?; Marin Tota; ?edomila Milin

2008-01-01

212

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01

213

Development of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins: the influence of preparation method on the immunogenic properties.  

PubMed

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is based on the administration of allergens with the main disadvantage of inducing an allergic reaction. Within this context, we report the generation of an adjuvant and allergen-delivery system for peanut allergen immunotherapy with reduced IgE induction. Therefore, we prepared and characterized poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins using the solvent displacement method, with some modifications in the manufacturing process. The precipitation of polymer was performed with either a mixture of ethanol and water or water. The resultant nanoparticles were dried by either freeze-drying or spray-drying, respectively. Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins were successfully developed, achieving both high encapsulation efficiency (70-80%) and manufacturing yield (60-80%). After intradermal immunization of mice (C57Bl/6) with peanut proteins incorporated into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles, a strong mixed T(H)1/T(H)2-type immune response was observed. Furthermore, we also provide, to our knowledge for the first time, clear evidence of the influence of formulation design on the immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles. Taken together, our findings indicate that poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are efficient stimulators of immune responses and promising adjuvants and allergen-delivery systems applied for immunotherapy. PMID:22782031

Rebouças, Juliana De Souza; Irache, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Ana I; Esparza, Irene; Del Pozo, Victoria; Sanz, María L; Ferrer, Marta; Gamazo, Carlos

2012-10-01

214

Control efficacy of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BZ6-1 against peanut bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2 mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15 mL (10(8) cfu mL(-1)) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

215

Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2?mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15?mL (108 cfu?mL?1) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

Liang, Guobin

2014-01-01

216

Synthesis of highly hydrophobic floating magnetic polymer nanocomposites for the removal of oils from water surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of organic contaminants, particularly oil spills from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. In this article, we present a novel, economic and environment-friendly core-shell composite material based on magnetic hollow Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) that was fabricated by two-step process, which can fast and efficiently separate oils from water surface under a magnetic field. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with a polystyrene layer successfully to form water-repellent and oil-absorbing surfaces, which could float on water and selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3 times of the particles’ weight while completely repelling water. More importantly, the oils could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanocomposites by a simple treatment and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic characteristics, so the nanocomposites have an excellent recyclability in the oil-absorbent capacity. Several techniques such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used in the characterization of the materials. In addition, magnetic force and oils removal capability tests were also performed. It will open up a potential and broad application in wastewater treatment.

Chen, Mudan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Shen, Ping; Ma, Peichang; Gu, Junjun; Mao, Jianyu; Li, Fengsheng

2013-12-01

217

Fatty acids composition as a means to estimate the high heating value (HHV) of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

High heating value (HHV) is an important property which characterises the energy content of a fuel such as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. The previous assertion is particularly important for vegetable oils and biodiesels fuels which are expected to replace fossil oils. Estimation of the HHV of vegetable oils and biodiesels by using their fatty acid composition is the aim

Wanignon Ferdinand Fassinou; Aboubakar Sako; Alhassane Fofana; Kamenan Blaise Koua; Siaka Toure

2010-01-01

218

Influence of high content of dietary soybean oil on quality of large fresh, smoked and frozen Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was grown in sea cages from 700 g to a market size of 3.2 kg on diets containing either 29% Peruvian high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) fish oil (FO) or 29% soybean oil (SO) as oil source. Chemical analyses and a triangular consumer test were performed on fresh muscle, while colour, texture and liquid holding capacity (LHC) analyses

Anna Maria Bencze Rørå; Bente Ruyter; Jon Skorve; Rolf K. Berge; Karl-Erik Slinning

2005-01-01

219

Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops.  

PubMed

The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degrees C, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degrees C, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions. PMID:11542564

Stephens, S D; Watkins, B A; Nielsen, S S

1997-01-01

220

Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

1997-01-01

221

A parametric study on oil\\/air lubrication of a high-speed spindle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ball-bearing is widely used on many high-speed spindles due to its low starting friction and high load capacity. However, heat generation and dynamic loading caused by high-speed rotation have been obstacles for increasing the speed limit in many high-speed ball-bearing applications. Applying an appropriate lubrication and preload cannot be overemphasized. Recently, oil\\/air lubrication has been used on high-speed spindles

Cheng-Hsien Wu; Yu-Tai Kung

2005-01-01

222

Preparation and use of partially defatted peanut flour in breakfast cereal flakes  

E-print Network

absorption (WAI) and water solubility (WSI) indices increased for flakes with addition of peanut flour. Bowl fife, the time for crispiness to disappear after soaking in milk, decreased with addition of peanut flour. Sensory evaluation was conducted...

Cheewapramong, Panjama

2012-06-07

223

[The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].  

PubMed

The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikha?lova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

2005-01-01

224

High-speed Oil Engines for Vehicles. Part II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Further progress toward the satisfactory solution of the difficult problem of the distribution and atomization of the injected fuel was made by extensive experimentation with various fuel valves, nozzles, and atomizing devices. Valuable information was also obtained through numerous experimental researches on the combustion of oils and the manner of introducing the combustion air into the cylinder, as well as on the physical processes of atomization, the determination of the size of drops, etc. These researches led to the conclusion that it is possible, even without producing great turbulence in the combustion chamber and at moderate pump pressure, if the degree of atomization and the penetrative power of the fuel jet are adapted to the shape of the combustion chamber and to the dimensions of the cylinder.

Hausfelder, Ludwig

1927-01-01

225

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

226

Characterization of Feedstock for Production of High–viscosity Base Oils -  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil distillates and deasphalted products obtained in petroleum refining together with high–viscosity, naphthenes and aromatic hydrocarbons with a high proportion of short side chains contain an important amount of low–viscosity polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, resins, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

N. N. Starkova; V. M. Shuverov; V. G. Ryabov; Sh. M. Yunusov

2001-01-01

227

Monitoring peanut allergen in food products by measuring Ara h 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peanut allergy is an important health problem in the United States, affecting approximately 0.6% of children. Inadvertent exposure to peanut is a risk factor for life-threatening food-induced anaphylaxis. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an immunoassay for a major peanut allergen, Ara h 1, to detect peanut allergen in foods so that the risk of inadvertent

Anna Pomés; Ricki M. Helm; Gary A. Bannon; A. Wesley Burks; Amy Tsay; Martin D. Chapman

2003-01-01

228

Evidence of pathway-specific basophil anergy induced by peanut oral immunotherapy in peanut-allergic children  

PubMed Central

Background In Westernized countries, over 1% of the population is allergic to peanuts or tree nuts, which carries a risk of severe allergic reactions. Several studies support the efficacy of peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) for reducing the clinical sensitivity of affected individuals; however, the mechanisms of this effect are still being characterized. One mechanism that may contribute is the suppression of effector cells, such as basophils. Basophil anergy has been characterized in vitro as a pathway-specific hyporesponsiveness; however, this has not been demonstrated to occur in vivo. Objective To evaluate the hypothesis that basophil anergy occurs in vivo due to chronic allergen exposure in the setting of a clinical oral immunotherapy trial. Methods Samples of peripheral blood were obtained from subjects during a placebo-controlled clinical trial of peanut OIT. Basophil reactivity to in vitro stimulation with peanut allergen and controls was assessed by the upregulation of activation markers, CD63 and CD203c, measured by flow cytometry. Results The upregulation of CD63 following stimulation of the IgE receptor, either specifically with peanut allergen or non-specifically with anti-IgE antibody, was strongly suppressed by active OIT. However, OIT did not significantly suppress this response in basophils stimulated by the distinct fMLP receptor pathway. In the subset of subjects with egg sensitization, active peanut OIT also suppressed CD63 upregulation in response to stimulation with egg allergen. Allergen OIT also suppressed the upregulation of CD203c including in response to stimulation with IL-3 alone. Conclusion Peanut OIT induces a hyporesponsive state in basophils that is consistent with pathway-specific anergy previously described in vitro. This suggests the hypothesis that effector cell anergy could contribute to clinical desensitization. PMID:22805467

Thyagarajan, Ananth; Jones, Stacie M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Pons, Laurent; Kulis, Mike; Woo, Caitlin S.; Kamalakannan, Mohanapriya; Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Shreffler, Wayne G.

2013-01-01

229

High-pressure ignition of oil sands samples in oxygen atmospheres containing various concentrations of diluents  

SciTech Connect

In-situ recovery of oil from oil sands deposits by combustion requires the injection of vast quantities of oxygen into the bed of deposits. Accordingly, there is a need to establish the ignition characteristics of high-grade Athabasca oil sands in environments containing pure oxygen at high-pressure and including the role of the presence of various diluents with the oxygen. A high-pressure constant volume bomb with a water calorimeter was employed as the test apparatus over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa to 4.0 MPa at ambient temperature. The paper presents the results of an experimental program that examined the effects of changes in the pressure, amounts of diluents and ignition energy on the ignition limits and subsequent combustion processes at ambient initial temperature. Moreover, the morphological changes to the samples at various stages of the process were also examined and discussed.

Mehta, S.A.; Karim, G.A. (Dept. of Mehanical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1990-12-01

230

Impact of thermal processing on ELISA detection of peanut allergens.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of heat treatment on the solubility of peanut proteins and compared the performances of two commercial ELISA kits (Veratox Quantitative Peanut Allergen Test and BioKits Peanut Assay Kit) for quantitation of peanut residues as affected by different heat treatments (moist and dry heat) and detection targets (mixture of proteins vs specific protein). Both laboratory-prepared and commercial peanut flour preparations were used for the evaluation. The two ELISA kits tended to underestimate the levels of protein in samples that were subjected to elevated heat, respectively, by more than 60- or 400-fold lower for the autoclaved samples and by as much as 70- or 2000-fold lower for the dark-roast commercial flour samples. The BioKits test, which employs antibodies specific to a heat labile protein (Ara h 1), in general exhibited a greater degree of underestimation. These results suggest that commercial ELISA kits may not be able to accurately determine the amount of proteins present in thermally processed foods due to changes in the solubility and immunoreactivity of the target proteins. Users need to be aware of such limitations before applying ELISA kits for evaluation of food allergen control programs. PMID:23473340

Fu, Tong-Jen; Maks, Nicole

2013-06-19

231

Structure and organization of the genomic clone of a major peanut allergen gene, Ara h 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is one of the most allergenic foods. It contains multiple seed storage proteins identified as allergens, which are responsible for triggering IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Ara h 1 is a major peanut allergen recognized by over 90% of peanut sensitive population. The objectives of this study were to isolate, sequence, and determine the structure and organization of at least one

Olga M Viquez; Koffi N Konan; Hortense W Dodo

2003-01-01

232

Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: Data from 2 sequential cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Allergy to peanut is common. However, it is not known whether the prevalence of sensitization and clinical allergy to peanut is increasing. Objective: We sought to determine any change in the prevalence of peanut sensitization and reactivity in early childhood in 2 sequential cohorts in the same geographic area 6 years apart. Methods: Of 2878 children born between September

Jane Grundy; Sharon Matthews; Belinda Bateman; Taraneh Dean; Syed Hasan Arshad

2002-01-01

233

Rheological behavior of heavy oil and water mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-print Network

is divided into two categories. The first part was done by using a mercury capillary viscometer. A heavy oil sample (over 2,000 cp at standard condition) and three synthetic oil samples were analyzed at a range of temperatures up to about 350°F. The results...

Setiadarma, Agustinus

2012-06-07

234

Identification of an antioxidant, ethyl protocatechuate, in peanut seed testa.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity and identification of the antioxidant component of peanut seed testa were investigated. The antioxidant activity of peanut seed testa was studied in the linoleic acid model system by using the ferric thiocyanate method. Among the five organic solvent extracts, the ethanolic extracts of peanut seed testa (EEPST) produced higher yields and stronger antioxidant activity than other organic solvent extracts. EEPST was separated into 17 fractions on silica gel column chromatography. Fraction 17, which showed the largest yield and significant antioxidant activity, was separated by thin-layer chromatography. Four major antioxidative subfractions were present. Subfraction 17-2 was found to be effective in preventing oxidation of linoleic acid. This subfraction was further fractionated and isolated and characterized by UV, MS, IR, and (1)H NMR techniques. The active compound was identified as ethyl protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester). PMID:12670184

Huang, Shiow Chyn; Yen, Gow-Chin; Chang, Lee-Wen; Yen, Wen-Jye; Duh, Pin-Der

2003-04-01

235

Upgrading of high-boiling fraction of bio-oil in supercritical methanol.  

PubMed

In this work, the upgrading reactions of high-boiling fraction (HBF) of bio-oil were carried out over a series of supported mono- and bi-metallic catalysts under the supercritical methanol condition. During these reactions, esterification and cracking (alcoholysis and hydrocracking) were the two dominant processes. PtNi/MgO exhibited good performance, and gave a high yield (72.4 wt.%) of refined oil. The acid-base properties of the supports have an important effect on the coke deposition on the catalyst surface. The acidic catalysts gave the somewhat lower product yields, but tended to inhibit coking reaction. This would improve the life of the catalysts in the practical applications. The refined oil is believed to be a potential substitute or partial substitute for the fossil transportation fuel. PMID:21835611

Li, Wang; Pan, Chunyan; Sheng, Li; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Ping; Lou, Hui; Zheng, Xiaoming

2011-10-01

236

Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.  

PubMed

The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only ?-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of ?-, ?-, and ?-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of ?-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of ?-tocopherol. PMID:23870970

Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

2013-12-01

237

Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid.  

PubMed

Transesterification of waste cooking oil with high acid value and high water contents using heteropolyacid H3PW12O40 x 6H2O (PW12) as catalyst was investigated. The hexahydrate form of PW(12) was found to be the most promising catalyst which exhibited highest ester yield 87% for transesterification of waste cooking oil and ester yield 97% for esterification of long-chain palmitic acid, respectively. The PW12 acid catalyst shows higher activity under the optimized reaction conditions compared with conventional homogeneous catalyst sulfuric acid, and can easily be separated from the products by distillation of the excess methanol and can be reused more times. The most important feature of this catalyst is that the catalytic activity is not affected by the content of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the content of water in the waste cooking oil and the transesterification can occur at a lower temperature (65 degrees C), a lower methanol oil ratio (70:1) and be finished within a shorter time. The results illustrate that PW12 acid is an excellent water-tolerant and environmentally benign acid catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. PMID:18646228

Cao, Fenghua; Chen, Yang; Zhai, Fengying; Li, Jing; Wang, Jianghua; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shengtian; Zhu, Weimin

2008-09-01

238

A COMPARISON OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE PEANUT ELISA TEST KITS ON THE ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES OF DARK AND MILK CHOCOLATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions to peanut proteins by certain sensitive members of the population can result in dramatic and potentially catastrophic consequences. While peanut is not the only food known to cause allergies, it is the one that is most closely monitored. To address concerns related to peanut in food products, four commercial test kits have been developed to quantitatively analyze for peanut

W. Jeffrey Hurst; Earl R. Krout; Wesley R. Burks

2002-01-01

239

A study of peanut mycorrhiza and plant responses  

E-print Network

. In addition, secondary branches were more developed and the roots from the nonsterile soil had twice as many nodules on the roots as the non-mycorrhizal plants from sterile soil . The non-mycorrhizal peanuts were yellowish in color, taller and did.... In addition, secondary branches were more developed and the roots from the nonsterile soil had twice as many nodules on the roots as the non-mycorrhizal plants from sterile soil . The non-mycorrhizal peanuts were yellowish in color, taller and did...

Stichler, Charles

2012-06-07

240

Lower energy intake following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with iso-energetic consumption of potato crisps.  

PubMed

Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61 ± 1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56-84 g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60-90?g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (-21%; p<.001 and -17%; ppeanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight. PMID:25042089

Barbour, Jayne A; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wright, Graeme C; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M

2014-11-01

241

High yield bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis by metabolic controlling of Chlorella protothecoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of renewable energy sources is becoming increasingly necessary to mitigate global warming. Recently much research has been focused on identifying suitable biomass species, which can provide high-energy outputs, to replace conventional fossil fuels. This paper reports an approach for increasing the yield of bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis after manipulating the metabolic pathway in microalgae through heterotrophic growth.

Xiaoling Miao; Qingyu Wu

2004-01-01

242

The effect of oil industry “high density brines” on duckweed Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duckweed Lemna minor L. is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many substances due to its small size, rapid growth and ease of culture. Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride and calcium bromide and their 1:1 mixture are commonly used as “high density brines” for pressure control in oil wells. These solutions were added in Hoagland's nutrient medium

Mirta Tkalec; Željka Vidakovi?-Cifrek; Ivan Regula

1998-01-01

243

Multicomponent analysis of encapsulated marine oil supplements using high-resolution 1 H and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicomponent high-resolution 1 H and 13 C NMR analysis has been employed for the purpose of detecting and quantifying a wide range of fatty acids (as triacylglycerols or otherwise) in encapsulated marine cod liver oil supple- ments. The 1 H NMR technique provided quantitative data regarding the docosahexaenoic acid content of these prod- ucts, which serves as a valuable index

Navaede Siddiqui; Julia Sim; Christopher J. L. Silwood; Harold Toms; Richard A. Iles; Martin Grootveld

244

The Design and Synthesis of Highly Branched and Spherically Symmetric Fluorinated Oils and Amphiles  

PubMed Central

A new emulsifier design principle, based on concepts borrowed from protein science, is proposed. Using this principle, a class of highly branched and spherically symmetric fluorinated oils and amphiles has been designed and synthesized, for potential applications in the construction of fluorocarbon nanoparticles. The Mitsunobu reaction was employed as the key step for introducing three perfluoro-tert-butoxyl groups into pentaerythritol derivatives with excellent yields and extremely simple isolation procedures. Due to the symmetric arrangement of the fluorine atoms, each fluorinated oil or amphile molecule gives one sharp singlet 19F NMR signal. PMID:18461118

Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Y. Bruce

2007-01-01

245

Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.  

PubMed

The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut. PMID:19287723

De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

1990-07-01

246

A high resolution capacitive sensing system for the measurement of water content in crude oil.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ± 50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

Zubair, Muhammad; Tang, Tong Boon

2014-01-01

247

Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of canola oil with methanol in the presence of highly Brønsted acidic ionic liquids based on 1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazole, and the effect of reaction temperature, type and amount of catalyst, molar ratio and reaction time investigated. The results show that the 4B ionic liquid has the highest catalytic activity and best recyclability under the optimised reaction conditions. Thus, this ionic liquid is able to catalyze the transesterification of canola oil to its methyl esters in 5 h with yields of more than 95%. Density functional calculations (B3LYP), using the 6-311G basis set, have been performed to have a better understanding on the reactivity of these catalysts. The catalytic activity of 4B for the transesterification of other vegetable oils and alcohols has also been studied. PMID:20970994

Ghiaci, M; Aghabarari, B; Habibollahi, S; Gil, A

2011-01-01

248

Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.  

PubMed

To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes. PMID:23593468

Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R

2013-01-01

249

Interlaboratory validation study of five commercial ELISA test kits for the determination of peanut proteins in biscuits and dark chocolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an inter-laboratory study with five commercially available peanut ELISA test kits to detect and quantify peanut residues in two food matrices (biscuit and dark chocolate) at four different concentrations (0–10?mg peanut?kg matrix corresponding to about 0–2.5?mg peanut protein?kg matrix) are reported. In general the five ELISA test kits evaluated could detect peanut protein in the two food

R. E. Poms; M. E. Agazzi; A. Bau; M. Brohee; C. Capelletti; J. V. Nørgaard; E. Anklam

2005-01-01

250

Characterisation of a highly saturated Irvingia gabonensis seed kernel oil with unusual linolenic acid content.  

PubMed

The search for new sources of oil with improved characteristics has focused our attention on the characterisation of Irvingia gabonensis seed kernel oil. Physicochemical analysis have revealed the following assets: refractive index (1.42?±?0.00), free fatty acids (2.3?±?0.8%), peroxide value (3.33?±?0.57 meq O(2)/kg), iodine value (32.43?±?1.22?g I(2)/100?g), saponification value (233.75?±?2.60?mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (1.5?±?0.02%), carotenoids (63?±?0.01?mg ?-carotene/100?g) and phospholipids (2.1?±?0.01%). Absorbance of this oil decreased abruptly in the range of UV-B and UV-A wavelengths. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the major fatty acids were saturated, being mainly composed of lauric (C12:0, 39.35?±?0.01%) and myristic acids (C14:0, 20.54?±?0.01%). Nevertheless, an unusually high amount (6.44?±?0.02%) of linolenic acid was also noted. Mass spectrometer analysis of volatile compounds highlighted the presence of various aromatic and aliphatic organic compounds. I. gabonensis seed kernel oil also showed oxidative stability at 60?°C after 12 days of storage with maximum peroxide value of 34.66?meq O(2)/kg. In view of these interesting characteristics, I. gabonensis seed kernel could be used as an alternative source of oil for lipid industries. PMID:23345325

Zoué, Lessoy T; Bédikou, Micaël E; Faulet, Betty M; Gonnety, Jean T; Niamké, Sébastien L

2013-02-01

251

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

252

False positive detection of peanut residue in liquid caramel coloring using commercial ELISA kits.  

PubMed

Initial food industry testing in our laboratory using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods indicated that the darkest caramel color (class IV) unexpectedly contained traces of peanut protein, a potential undeclared allergen issue. Caramel production centers on the heating of sugars, often glucose, under controlled heat and chemical processing conditions with other ingredients including ammonia, sulfite, and/or alkali salts. These ingredients should not contain any traces of peanut residue. We sought to determine the reliability of commercially available peanut allergen ELISA methods for detection of apparent peanut residue in caramel coloring. Caramel color samples of classes I, II, III, and IV were obtained from 2 commercial suppliers and tested using 6 commercially available quantitative and qualitative peanut ELISA kits. Five lots of class IV caramel color were spiked with a known concentration of peanut protein from light roasted peanut flour to assess recovery of peanut residue using a spike and recovery protocol with either 15 ppm or 100 ppm peanut protein on a kit-specific basis. A false positive detection of peanut protein was found in class IV caramel colors with a range of 1.2 to 17.6 parts per million recovered in both spiked and unspiked liquid caramel color samples. ELISA kit spike/recovery results indicate that false negative results might also be obtained if peanut contamination were ever to actually exist in class IV caramel color. Manufacturers of peanut-free products often test all ingredients for peanut allergen residues using commercial ELISA kits. ELISA methods are not reliable for the detection of peanut in class IV caramel ingredients and their use is not recommended with this matrix. PMID:23647653

Stelk, T; Niemann, L; Lambrecht, D M; Baumert, J L; Taylor, S L

2013-07-01

253

Partial hydrogenation of methyl esters of sunflower oil catalyzed by highly active rhodium sulfonated triphenylphosphite complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated methyl esters of sunflower oil to monounsaturated methyl esters catalyzed by highly active rhodium sulfonated phosphite (Rh\\/STPP) complexes was studied in order to improve the quality of biodiesel in terms of increased oxidative stability and higher cetane numbers. The hydrogenation reaction proceeds under mild conditions and high catalytic activities (TOF=38,000h?1) were achieved employing Rh\\/STPP catalysts

Nikolaos Nikolaou; Christos E. Papadopoulos; Anastasia Lazaridou; Asimina Koutsoumba; Achilleas Bouriazos; Georgios Papadogianakis

2009-01-01

254

Shelf life of linseeds and peanuts in relation to roasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the oxidative status of peanuts and linseeds during storage were investigated by the ESR spin trapping technique with N-tert. butyl-?-phenylnitrone. It has proven to be a suitable method for the determination of the radical generating reactions in the very early stage of fat spoilage and deterioration reactions can still be detected, before changes in sensory properties are noticeable.

Bettina Cämmerer; Lothar W. Kroh

2009-01-01

255

Salinity and nitrogen nutrition studies on peanut and cotton plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the nitrogen form (NH4 or NO3 ) added to the nutrient solution and salinity levels (NaCl) was studied in peanut and cotton plants grown in hydroponics. Salinity levels particularly affected the growth of NH4 ?fed plants. Salinity and nitrogen form had different effects in the levels of K and Na in the shoots of these two species.

E. O. Leidi; M. Silberbush; M. I. M. Soares; S. H. Lips

1992-01-01

256

Weed Management with Diclosulam in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted at three locations in North Carolina in 1998 and 1999 and one location in Virginia in 1998 to evaluate weed management systems in peanut. Treatments consisted of diclosulam alone preemergence (PRE), or diclosulam plus metolachlor PRE alone or followed by (fb) bentazon plus acifluorfen postemergence (POST). These systems were also com­ pared with commercial standards of

ANDREW J. PRICE; JOHN W. WILCUT; CHARLES W. SWANN

2002-01-01

257

A Handbook of Peanut Growing in the Southwest.  

E-print Network

Bulletin 727 Texas Agricul turd Experiment Station November, 1950 Bulletin B-361 Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station A Handbook of In the Southwest PEANUT GROW TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION The Texas Agricultural... and Mechanical College System College Station, Texas NG and OKLAHOMA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION -. p, - Oklahoma A. & M. Collega .,/ ... - ,-* .., Stillwater, Okla. -- / LIBRARY - -- - --- rr- --.,.A Preparation and pub Eication of this handbook...

1950-01-01

258

Cloning and Expression Analysis of cDNAs Encoding ABA 8'-Hydroxylase in Peanut Plants in Response to Osmotic Stress  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism is one of the determinants of endogenous ABA levels affecting numerous aspects of plant growth and abiotic-stress responses. The major ABA catabolic pathway is triggered by ABA 8'-hydroxylation catalysed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, the cytochrome P450 CYP707A family. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were cloned and characterized from peanut. Expression analyses showed that AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were expressed ubiquitously in peanut roots, stems, and leaves with different transcript accumulation levels, including the higher expression of AhCYP707A1 in roots. The expression of AhCYP707A2 was significantly up-regulated by 20% PEG6000 or 250 mmol/L NaCl in peanut roots, stems, and leaves, whereas the up-regulation of AhCYP707A1 transcript level by PEG6000 or NaCl was observed only in roots instead of leaves and stems. Due to the osmotic and ionic stresses of high concentration of NaCl to plants simultaneously, low concentration of LiCl (30 mmol/L, at which concentration osmotic status of cells is not seriously affected, the toxicity of Li+ being higher than that of Na+) was used to examine whether the effect of NaCl might be related to osmotic or ionic stress. The results revealed visually the susceptibility to osmotic stress and the resistance to salt ions in peanut seedlings. The significant up-regulation of AhCYP707A1, AhCYP707A2 and AhNCED1 transcripts and endogenous ABA levels by PEG6000 or NaCl instead of LiCl, showed that the osmotic stress instead of ionic stress affected the expression of those genes and the biosynthesis of ABA in peanut. The functional expression of AhCYP707A1 cDNA in yeast showed that the microsomal fractions prepared from yeast cell expressing recombinant AhCYP707A1 protein exhibited the catalytic activity of ABA 8'-hydroxylase. These results demonstrate that the expressions of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 play an important role in ABA catabolism in peanut, particularly in response to osmotic stress. PMID:24825163

Wan, Xiao-Rong; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Li, Ling

2014-01-01

259

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31

260

Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich ELISA for Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 in Food  

PubMed Central

We have established a highly sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to measure the content of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 in foods. Two mAbs were selected out of 12 murine hybridoma cells secreting Ara h 1-specific antibody. Using mAb 6 as the capture antibody and HRP-labelled mAb 4 as the detection antibody, the limit of detection (LOD) the assay was 0.34 ng/mL. Cross-reaction analysis showed that this method was strongly specific and had no cross-reactions with Ara h 2, pea protein or soy protein. Sample analysis showed that this ELISA was a useful tool to monitor peanut allergens in food products by measuring Ara h 1 content. PMID:23880725

Peng, Juan; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

2013-01-01

261

Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens.  

PubMed

Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. PMID:25295541

Tordesillas, Leticia; Goswami, Ritobrata; Benedé, Sara; Grishina, Galina; Dunkin, David; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Maleki, Soheila J; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia

2014-11-01

262

Hydrogeological conditions of heavy high-viscous oil distribution in northeast Ural-Povolzhye (Udmurtia, Perm, and Kirov Region)  

SciTech Connect

The major question while investigating the origin of subsurface oilfield waters is the development of regional and local hydrogeological oil exploration indices. For determination of the influence of subsurface water on oil pools it is necessary to study paleohydrogeological interrelations and regularities, and the interaction of sub-surface waters and oils. While considering these problems, paleohydrogeological cycles, which include crustal elevation and sea level regression are identified. Nine or ten paleohydrogeological cycles are marked in the Udmurtia, Permian, and Kirov territories, depending on regional paleotectonical history. Mesozoic-Cainozoic tectonic movements are the important cause of generation of heavy high-viscous oil pools.

Kouznetsova, T.A. [All-Russia Petroleum Scientific-Research Geological-Exploration Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

263

Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon. PMID:23628785

Kana, Jean Raphael; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A.; Teguia, Alexis

2013-01-01

264

Sesamin and sesamolin as unexpected contaminants in various cold-pressed plant oils: NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.  

PubMed

Thirteen cold-pressed oils (Japanese quince seed, black caraway, flaxseed, rapeseed, hemp, peanut, sunflower, pumpkin, hazelnut, poppy, walnut, almond and sesame oil) manufactured by the same company over a 2-year period (2011-12) were assessed for lipophilic compounds. The presence of sesamin and sesamolin, two characteristic lignans of sesame oil, were detected in all tested plant oils. Both lignans were identified by NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and confirmed by a RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) method. The lowest amount of sesamin and sesamolin was found for Japanese quince seed oil (0.10 and 0.27 mg/100 g), and the highest, excluding sesame oil, for almond oil (36.21 and 105.42 mg/100 g, respectively). The highly significant correlation between sesamolin and sesamin concentrations was found in all samples tested (r = 0.9999; p < 0.00001). These results indicate contamination of cold-pressed oils from the same source. This investigation highlights the fact that increasing the range of products manufactured by the same company can contribute to a lesser regard for the quality of the final product. Moreover, less attention paid to the quality of final product can be related to the health risks of consumers especially sensitive to allergens. Therefore, proper cleaning of processing equipment is needed to prevent cross-contact of cold-pressed oils. PMID:24428708

Górna?, Pawe?; Siger, Aleksander; Pugajeva, Iveta; Segli?a, Dalija

2014-04-01

265

High performance thin layer chromatography determination of cellobiosan and levoglucosan in bio-oil obtained by fast pyrolysis of sawdust.  

PubMed

In this work, high performance thin layer liquid chromatography (HTPLC) is applied to the determination of sugars in fast pyrolysis liquids (bio-oil) and fractions thereof. The proposed procedure allows the separation of anhydrosugar levoglucosan and cellobiosan, as well as glucose, arabinose, xylose and cellobiose. Pre-treatment and derivatization of samples are not necessary and volatile compounds present in bio-oil do not interfere with sugar analysis. The detrimental effect of the complex bio-oil matrix on columns and detector lifetime is avoided by using disposable HTPLC plates. Prior screening of glucose, present especially in aged and aqueous bio-oil fractions, is required to quantify cellobiosan without interference. Concentrations of levoglucosan and cellobiosan in bio-oil samples obtained from Pinus radiata sawdust were ranged between 1.27-2.26% and 0.98-1.96% respectively, while a bio-oil sample obtained from native wood contained a higher levoglucosan concentration. PMID:21570078

Tessini, Catherine; Vega, Mario; Müller, Niels; Bustamante, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich; Berg, Alex; Mardones, Claudia

2011-06-17

266

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

Adams, C.D.

1992-07-18

267

A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

Howard, Samuel A.

2007-01-01

268

Canola and high erucic rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel: Preliminary tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperative project using the facilities of the POS Pilot Plant Corporation, the Saskatchewan Research Council and the Agricultural\\u000a Engineering Department, University of Saskatchewan, and funded by Agriculture Canada, was initiated in 1980 to investigate\\u000a the feasibility of using canola and high erucic rapeseed oil as a replacement\\/extender to diesel fuel in direct-injection\\u000a diesel engines. Work carried out included the

R. C. Strayer; J. A. Blake; W. K. Craig

1983-01-01

269

The field pilot of microbial enhanced oil recovery in a high temperature petroleum reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the technical feasibility and effectiveness of improving oil recovery by microbial enhanced water-flooding techniques in high temperature petroleum reservoirs, a field project was initiated with the nature-occurring microorganisms and nutrient injected into an integrated, close Unit with temperature of 73 °C and salinity of 16,790 mg\\/L in 2001 in Dagang Oilfield, PetroChina. This paper presents the field design

Liu Jinfeng; Ma Lijun; Mu Bozhong; Liu Rulin; Ni Fangtian; Zhou Jiaxi

2005-01-01

270

Lipid metabolism in pigs fed beef tallow or high-oleic acid sunflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to establish the effects of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and beef tallow on tissue fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activities in swine; and to compare effects of HOSO and tallow on swine plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein-cholesterol fractions. Sixteen gilts were divided into two groups: eight fed a control diet containing 10 g\\/100 g beef

Ingrid L. Klingenberg; Darrel A. Knabe; Stephen B. Smith

1995-01-01

271

Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Highly Charged Polyelectrolyte-Grafted Silica Nanoparticles †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully sulfonated poly(styrenesulfonate) brushes were grown from the surface of colloidal silica particles and used to prepare stable trichloroethylene-in-water and heptane-in-water Pickering emulsions. These particles were highly charged and colloidally stable in water but could not be dispersed in trichloroethylene or heptane. Both two-phase (emulsion plus neat water) and three-phase (emulsion separating neat oil and water phases) systems were observed,

Navid Saleh; Traian Sarbu; Kevin Sirk; Gregory V. Lowry; Krzysztof Matyjaszewski; Robert D. Tilton

2005-01-01

272

Demulsification of Gas Oil\\/Water Emulsion via High Intensity Ultrasonic Standing Wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intensity ultrasonic standing wave field was established in a horizontal direction and its effect on “gas oil” in “water” emulsion separation rate was studied. Also, effects of four parameters on emulsion instability behavior were investigated: ultrasound irradiation time(5-30 min), emulsion position in ultrasound field(17-37 cm), ultrasound input intensity(20,45 and 75%) and dispersed phase concentration(0.5,2 and 10%). Emulsion light absorbance, droplet diameter

H. Ghafourian Nasiri; M. T. Hamed Mosavian; R. Kadkhodaee

2012-01-01

273

Cytogenetic Damage in Shallot ( Allium cepa ) Root Meristems Induced by Oil Industry “High-Density Brines”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg dm?3 and 1.61 kg dm?3, respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry “high-density brines.” In our experiment they\\u000a were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol dm?3 to study their cytotoxic effect on the

M. Pavlica; I. Regula; D. Pape

2002-01-01

274

Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of canola oil with methanol in the presence of highly Brønsted acidic ionic liquids based on 1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazole, and the effect of reaction temperature, type and amount of catalyst, molar ratio and reaction time investigated. The results show that the 4B ionic liquid has the highest catalytic activity and best recyclability under the optimised reaction

M. Ghiaci; B. Aghabarari; S. Habibollahi; A. Gil

2011-01-01

275

The Impact of Blanching and High-Pressure Pretreatments on Oil Uptake of Fried Potato Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high-pressure (HP) pretreatment on oil uptake of potato slices is examined in this paper. Potato slices were\\u000a treated either by HP or thermal blanching, or a combination of thermal blanching followed by HP prior to frying. The effect\\u000a of HP on starch gelatinization and potato microstructure was assessed by differential scanning calorimeter and environmental\\u000a scanning electron microscope

Mohammed K. Al-Khusaibi; Keshavan Niranjan

276

Evaluation of reduced allergenicity of irradiated peanut extract using splenocytes from peanut-sensitized mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peanut (PN) allergy is one of the most serious forms of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used for the preservation of food. The results of our previous studies showed that the IgE-binding capacity to several antigens were profoundly reduced after gamma irradiation. In this study, we evaluated the changes of allergenecity and cytokine production profiles after exposure of irradiated PN extract in a PN-allergy mouse model. Mice were sensitized to PN extract by intragastric administration on days 0, 1, 2, and 7, and then challenged on day 21. Four weeks later, we evaluated the cytokine production patterns and proliferation responses of splenocytes that were stimulated with intact PN extract, compared to 10 and 50 kGy irradiated PN extract. When the cells were stimulated with 10 kGy of irradiated PN extract, a higher level of production of IFN-? and IL-10 cytokines was observed. However, stimulation with 50 kGy of irradiated PN extract resulted in a higher level of production of only IFN-? cytokines. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio increased in response to treatment with gamma-irradiated PNs. The results of this study show that the allergenicity of PN extracts could be reduced by gamma irradiation which caused downregulation of Th2 lymphocyte activity in the PN-sensitized mice.

Oh, Sejo; Jang, Da-In; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Soo-Young

2009-07-01

277

Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Based Gene Expression Studies in Peanut  

PubMed Central

The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut. PMID:24167633

Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K.

2013-01-01

278

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-01

279

Biosynthesis of 4-methyleneglutamic acid by peanut seedlings: Evidence for the involvement of a distinct source of leucine  

SciTech Connect

Germinating peanut seeds accumulate 4-methyleneglutamic acid its {gamma}-amide(MeGlx), as well as 4-methylglutamic acid(MGlu) for which leucine has been implicated as a precursor. When we incubated detached peanut cotyledons with {sup 14}C-leucine for 24-96 hr, most of the label was found in non-extractable components, while small but significant amounts were present in MeGlx, MGlu, and free leucine. The level of leucine in storage protein of ungerminated seeds is similar to the maximum level of MeGlx found in germinated seeds; further correlations were observed in various peanut tissues between rapid accumulation of MeGlx and the presence of high levels of glyoxysomal enzymes (catalase and isocitrate lyase). These results suggest that during germination, most of the leucine in the seed storage protein is converted to MeGlx, possibly by a glyoxysomal oxidase system in cotyledons, whereas most of the free leucine for protein synthesis is formed de novo.

Winter, H.C.; Dekker, E.E. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

1989-04-01

280

Peanut Meal and Cottonseed Meal as Protein Supplements in Rations for Fattening Yearling Steers.  

E-print Network

.- - - LGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR College Station, Texas I BULLETIN B OCTOBER, 1946 I 1 PEANUT MEAL AND COTTONSEED MEAL i I AS PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS IN RATIONS FOR FATTENING YEARLING STEERS . i 1 I I Texas... at Lubbock, in cooperation with Texas Technological College, peanut meal was as reliable a protein supplement in ra- tions for fattening yearling steers as cottonseed meal. In five of the six trials the steers fed peanut meal made slightly greater gains...

Langley, B. C.; Stangel, W. L.; Marion, P. T.; Jones, J. M.; Dickson, R. E.; Jones, J. H.

1946-01-01

281

Cloning and characterization of a novel peanut allergen Ara h 3 isoform displaying potentially decreased allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut allergy is one of the most serious food allergies. The major peanut allergens are designated Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3. A previously unidentified ara h 3-related cDNA, ara h 3-im, was isolated and its corresponding protein product confirmed in peanut seed by N-terminal sequencing. Ara h 3-im is distinct from other related allergens in

I.-H. Kang; M. Gallo

2007-01-01

282

Activity of oil-formulated conidia of the fungal entomopathogens Nomuraea rileyi and Isaria tenuipes against lepidopterous larvae.  

PubMed

The fungi Nomuraea rileyi and Isaria tenuipes (=Paecilomyces tenuipes) are ecologically obligate, widespread pathogens of lepidopterans. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the activity of oil-suspended conidia of N. rileyi and I. tenuipes against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea, and Heliothis virescens. The tests consisted of two bioassay sets. In the first set, conidia of N. rileyi and I. tenuipes were suspended in water+Tween 80, and in vegetable (canola, soybean) and mineral (proprietary mixture of alkanes and cyclic paraffins) oils, and tested against S. frugiperda. Both fungi were highly compatible with oils and caused mortalities near 100% in all oil treatments; the lowest LT(50) values were 4.7 days for N. rileyi in mineral oil and 6.0 days for I. tenuipes in soybean oil. The second set included additional fungal strains and oil formulations (mineral, canola, sunflower, olive and peanut oils) tested against larvae of S. exigua, S. frugiperda, H. zea and H. virescens. The highest activity was that of N. rileyi in mineral oil against Spodoptera spp., with LT(50) values of 2.5 days (strain ARSEF 135) and 3 days (strain ARSEF 762) respectively. For two different isolates of I. tenuipes the lowest LT(50) values (5.1-5.6 days respectively) were obtained with mineral oil formulations against Spodoptera spp. and H. zea respectively. Additionally, we tested both fungi against prepupae of all four lepidopteran species. Mortalities with I. tenuipes against S. exigua ranged from 90% to 100% (strains ARSEF 2488 and 4096); N. rileyi caused 95% mortality on S. frugiperda. The activity of formulations depended on host species and oil used; Spodoptera spp. was more susceptible to these fungi than Heliothis and Helicoverpa. The results indicate that a comprehensive evaluation of these entomopathogens in agriculture using oil application technologies is advisable, particularly, in organic and sustainable settings. PMID:20025883

Vega-Aquino, Paulina; Sanchez-Peña, Sergio; Blanco, Carlos A

2010-03-01

283

High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.  

SciTech Connect

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01

284

Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

1980-01-01

285

Self-assembly of amphiphilic peanut-shaped nanoparticles  

E-print Network

We use computer simulation to investigate the self-assembly of Janus-like amphiphilic peanut-shaped nanoparticles, finding phases of clusters, bilayers and micelles in accord with ideas of packing familiar from the study of molecular surfactants. However, packing arguments do not explain the hierarchical self-assembly dynamics that we observe, nor the coexistence of bilayers and faceted polyhedra. This coexistence suggests that experimental realizations of our model can achieve multipotent assembly of either of two competing ordered structures.

Stephen Whitelam; Stefan A. F. Bon

2009-07-18

286

Repetitive somatic embryogenesis from peanut cultures in liquid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A regeneration system based on repetitive somatic embryogenesis was developed for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Embryogenic suspension cultures were initiated using individual somatic embryos induced from immature cotyledons cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 40 mg\\/l 2,4-D for 30 days. After transfer to a modified MS liquid medium, the somatic embryos produced masses of secondary and tertiary

Richard E. Durham; Wayne A. Parrott

1992-01-01

287

Development comparisons of ten peanut genotypes in Texas  

E-print Network

increased very little. The R & (pod diameter 2X peg diameter) stage is suggested as a convenient pre-harvest maturity stage for peanut workers to group breed- ing lines into approximate maturity groups when compared with known 2 checks. Although... Reproductive Development Flowering Pegging Fruit Development Maturity Determination Predicting Maturity from Meteorological Data Components of Earliness Develooment Stage Descriptions 3 4 6 6 9 10 15 16 16 17 MATERIALS AND-METHODS RESULTS...

Mosciaro, Aristides Dante

2012-06-07

288

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by Ralstonia eutropha in high cell density palm oil fermentations  

E-print Network

Improved production costs will accelerate commercialization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer and PHA-based products. Plant oils are considered favorable feedstocks, due to their high carbon content and relatively low ...

Yusof, Zainal Abidin Mohd

289

High density SNP and SSR-based genetic maps of two independent oil palm hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Oil palm is an important perennial oil crop with an extremely long selection cycle of 10 to 12 years. As such, any tool that speeds up its genetic improvement process, such as marker-assisted breeding is invaluable. Previously, genetic linkage maps based on AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers were developed and QTLs for fatty acid composition and yield components identified. High density genetic maps of crosses of different genetic backgrounds are indispensable tools for investigating oil palm genetics. They are also useful for comparative mapping analyses to identify markers closely linked to traits of interest. Results A 4.5 K customized oil palm SNP array was developed using the Illumina Infinium platform. The SNPs and 252 SSRs were genotyped on two mapping populations, an intraspecific cross with 87 palms and an interspecific cross with 108 palms. Parental maps with 16 linkage groups (LGs), were constructed for the three fruit forms of E. guineensis (dura, pisifera and tenera). Map resolution was further increased by integrating the dura and pisifera maps into an intraspecific integrated map with 1,331 markers spanning 1,867 cM. We also report the first map of a Colombian E. oleifera, comprising 10 LGs with 65 markers spanning 471 cM. Although not very dense due to the high level of homozygosity in E. oleifera, the LGs were successfully integrated with the LGs of the tenera map. Direct comparison between the parental maps identified 603 transferable markers polymorphic in at least two of the parents. Further analysis revealed a high degree of marker transferability covering 1,075 cM, between the intra- and interspecific integrated maps. The interspecific cross displayed higher segregation distortion than the intraspecific cross. However, inclusion of distorted markers in the genetic maps did not disrupt the marker order and no map expansion was observed. Conclusions The high density SNP and SSR-based genetic maps reported in this paper have greatly improved marker density and genome coverage in comparison with the first reference map based on AFLP and SSR markers. Therefore, it is foreseen that they will be more useful for fine mapping of QTLs and whole genome association mapping studies in oil palm. PMID:24767304

2014-01-01

290

A solid state high voltage pulse modulator which is compact and without oil or a pulse transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional high voltage pulsed modulator utilizes a pulse transformer, PFN (Pulse forming network), and thyratron to develop high voltage power pulses for klystron, magnetrons, lasers, etc. The pulse transformer, PFN, and thyratron normally operate in oil at high voltage and are large and expensive. The use of thyratron, high voltages and no redundancy reduces the reliability of the present

R. L. Cassel

2004-01-01

291

Overexpression of a pea DNA helicase (PDH45) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) confers improvement of cellular level tolerance and productivity under drought stress.  

PubMed

Peanut, a major edible oil seed crop globally is predominantly grown under rainfed conditions and suffers yield losses due to drought. Development of drought-tolerant varieties through transgenic technology is a valid approach. Besides superior water relation traits like water mining, intrinsic cellular level tolerance mechanisms are important to sustain the growth under stress. To achieve this objective, the focus of this study was to pyramid drought adaptive traits by overexpressing a stress responsive helicase, PDH45 in the background of a genotype with superior water relations. PCR, Southern, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in peanut transgenics. At the end of T? generation, eight transgenic events were identified as promising based on stress tolerance and improvement in productivity. Several transgenic lines showed stay-green phenotype and increased chlorophyll stability under stress and reduced chlorophyll retardation under etherel-induced simulated stress conditions. Stress-induced root growth was also substantially higher in the case of transformants. This was reflected in increased WUE (low ?¹³C) and improved growth rates and productivity. The transgenics showed 17.2 and 26.75 % increase in yield under non-stress and stress conditions over wild type ascertaining the feasibility of trait pyramiding strategy for the development of drought-tolerant peanut. PMID:23881361

Manjulatha, M; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, A Manoj; Sudhakar, Chinta; Prasad, T G; Tuteja, Narendra; Udayakumar, M

2014-02-01

292

Chronic intake of high fish oil diet induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched fish oil exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in animal models with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), comprised of myeloid progenitors and precursors of myeloid cells, play vital roles in cancer. How fish oil affects the generation of MDSCs and the tumor development remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that dietary intake of high fish oil diet suppresses CD8+ T cells activation and proliferation in vivo via elevated levels of MDSCs. Mechanistically, high fish oil diet induces the expression of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and promotes myelopoiesis in the spleen as well as other peripheral tissues. The immature myeloid cells in the spleen exhibit morphological and functional characteristics of MDSCs with the capability to downregulate CD8+ T cells activation. Depletion of MDSCs using anti-Gr-1 antibody decreases the growth of subcutaneously transferred B16 melanoma in mice on high fish oil diet. Interestingly, diet-induced production of MDSCs is not solely dependent of the spleen, as splenectomy has no effect on the tumor progress. Our data show that the liver functions as an alternative extramedullary hematopoiesis organ to support MDSCs differentiation and maintain tumor growth. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into the physiological effects of fish oil and points to MDSCs as a possible mediator linking dietary fish oil intake and immunosuppression in cancer immunosurveillance. PMID:24691944

Li, Xiaoping; Cheng, Lu; Han, Mutian; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Xia; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Minghui; Shao, Qixiang; Qi, Ling

2014-01-01

293

Influence of kernel size on the presence of Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin content and moisture content in Dominican Republic grown peanuts  

E-print Network

Dajabon ? Santiago Rodriguez area. High aflatoxin content of pc anuts was usually correlated with high A. flavus infection. However, a high toxin content was sometimes found in the absence of this fungus. Con- versely, species of the A. flavus group... t basis! of samples co) looted in July from "-an Juan and Dajabon-Santiago Rodriguez areas. Moisture contents of kernels of three different izcs as determined by moisture meLer method (A) and oven method (B) Rate of water absorption by peanut kernels...

Herrera-Perez, Teodoro

2012-06-07

294

Muscle-like high-stress dielectric elastomer actuators with oil capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite being capable of generating large strains, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are short of strength. Often, they cannot produce enough stress or as much work as that achievable by human elbow muscles. Their maximum actuation capacity is limited by the electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomers. Often, failures of these soft actuators are pre-mature and localized at the weakest spot under high field and high stress. Localized breakdowns, such as electrical arcing, thermal runaway and punctures, could spread to ultimately cause rupture if they were not stopped. This work shows that dielectric oil immersion and self-clearable electrodes nibbed the buds of localized breakdowns from DEAs. Dielectric oil encapsulation in soft-membrane capsules was found to help the DEA sustain an ultra-high electrical breakdown field of 835\\;MV{{m}^{-1}}, which is 46% higher than the electrical breakdown strength of the dry DEA in air at 570\\;MV{\\mkern 1mu} {{m}^{-1}}. Because of the increased apparent dielectric strength, this oil-capsuled DEA realizes a higher maximum isotonic work density of up to 31.51Jk{{g}^{-1}}, which is 43.8% higher than that realized by the DEA in air. Meanwhile, it produces higher maximum isometric stress of up to 1.05 MPa, which is 75% higher than that produced by the DEA in air. Such improved actuator performances are comparable to those achieved by human flexor muscles, which can exert up to 1.2 MPa during elbow flexion. This muscle-like, high-stress dielectric elastomeric actuation is very promising to drive future human-like robots.

La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Wei-Yee Tan, Adrian

2014-10-01

295

Genetic Linkage Map of a High Yielding FELDA DelixYangambi Oil Palm Cross  

PubMed Central

Enroute to mapping QTLs for yield components in oil palm, we constructed the linkage map of a FELDA high yielding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), hybrid cross. The parents of the mapping population are a Deli dura and a pisifera of Yangambi origin. The cross out-yielded the average by 8–21% in four trials all of which yielded comparably to the best current commercial planting materials. The higher yield derived from a higher fruit oil content. SSR markers in the public domain - from CIRAD and MPOB, as well as some developed in FELDA - were used for the mapping, augmented by locally-designed AFLP markers. The female parent linkage map comprised 317 marker loci and the male parent map 331 loci, both in 16 linkage groups each. The number of markers per group ranged from 8–47 in the former and 12–40 in the latter. The integrated map was 2,247.5 cM long and included 479 markers and 168 anchor points. The number of markers per linkage group was 15–57, the average being 29, and the average map density 4.7 cM. The linkage groups ranged in length from 77.5 cM to 223.7 cM, with an average of 137 cM. The map is currently being validated against a closely related population and also being expanded to include yield related QTLs. PMID:22069457

Seng, Tzer-Ying; Mohamed Saad, Siti Hawa; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Harminder Singh, Rajinder Singh; Qamaruz Zaman, Faridah; Tan, Soon-Guan; Syed Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah

2011-01-01

296

Isolation of terpenoids from Pimpinella anisum essential oil by high-performance counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

High-performance counter-current chromatography was successfully used for the isolation and purification of terpenoid compounds from the essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. A two-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane/methanol/ethyl acetate/water (5:2:5:2, v/v/v/v) was suitable for the purification of linalool, terpinen-4-ol, ?-terpineol, p-anisaldehyde, while n-heptane/methanol (1:1, v/v) was used for the isolation of anethole and foeniculin. A scale-up process from analytical to preparative was developed. Additionally, a stepwise gradient elution was applied and instead of two different runs, 40 min each, one 80 min separation was performed; although the time of separation remains the same, it was possible to repeat the efficiency even if the water-containing mobile phase was changed to a nonaqueous system. The obtained essential oil, as well as purified compounds, was analyzed by GC. A total of 0.64 mg of linalool, 0.52 mg of terpinen-4-ol, 0.10 mg of ?-terpineol, 0.62 mg of p-anisaldehyde, 15 mg of anethole, and 2.12 mg of foeniculin were obtained from 210 mg of the essential oil of P. anisum L. in a short time with purities of 99, 98, 94, 93.54, 93, and 93.6%, respectively. PMID:23749680

Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Walasek, Magdalena; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-08-01

297

Properties of high-oleic palm oils derived by fractional crystallization.  

PubMed

High-oleic palm oil (HOPO) with an oleic acid content of 59.0% and an iodine value (IV) of 78.2 was crystallized in a 200-kg De Smet crystallizer with a predetermined cooling program and appropriate agitation. The slurry was then fractionated by means of dry fractionation at 4, 8, 10, 12, and 15 degrees C. The oil and the fractionated products were subjected to physical and chemical analyses, including fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, cloud point, slip melting point, and cold stability test. Fractionation at 15 degrees C resulted in the highest olein yield but with minimal oleic acid content. Due to the enhanced unsaturation of the oil, fractionation at relatively lower crystallization temperature showed a considerable effect on fatty acid composition as well as triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of liquid fractions compared to higher crystallization temperature. The olein and stearin fractionated at 4 degrees C had the best cold stability at 0 degrees C and sharper melting profile, respectively. PMID:18387090

Ramli, M R; Siew, W L; Cheah, K Y

2008-04-01

298

Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong  

E-print Network

Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genet- ically diverse group

299

40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

2013-07-01

300

40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

2011-07-01

302

40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from...eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

2012-07-01

303

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

SciTech Connect

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}/cellulose/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

McNutt, W.J. [Berkshire Transformer Consultants, Inc., Pittsfield, MA (United States)] [Berkshire Transformer Consultants, Inc., Pittsfield, MA (United States); Provost, R.L. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Whearty, R.J. [Whearty (R.J.), Marlton, NJ (United States)] [Whearty (R.J.), Marlton, NJ (United States)

1996-07-01

304

Thermal life evaluation of high temperature insulation systems and hybrid insulation systems in mineral oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual temperature test cell has been developed for simultaneous accelerated aging of two different solid insulation materials immersed in mineral oil. This cell was used to derive test data on a cellulose\\/mineral oil system, a Nomex{reg_sign}\\/mineral oil system and on a hybrid Nomex{reg_sign}\\/cellulose\\/mineral oil system. The data are presented and discussed.

W. J. McNutt; R. L. Provost; R. J. Whearty

1996-01-01

305

Immunogenetic analysis of the heavy chain variable regions of IgE from patients allergic to peanuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanuts are one of the most allergenic of the foods, and hypersensitivity responses to peanut allergens can be fatal. Although the nature of the antigenic components of peanuts is being defined at the molecular level, there is little information on the induced IgE antibodies, which are central to the allergic reaction. Recognition sites of IgE antibody molecules arise from the

Alenka Janezic; Caroline J. Chapman; Rachel E. Snow; Jonathan O'Br. Hourihane; John O. Warner; Freda K. Stevenson

1998-01-01

306

Open top chamber experiment study to assess effects of ground level ozone on local peanut cultivar in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple portable open top chamber ozone fumigation system was applied to investigate the phytotoxic effects of ground level ozone (O3) on a local peanut cultivar in Vietnam. The system was installed directly in the peanut field at a peri?urban area of Hanoi. Peanut L14 (Arachis hypogaea L.) was exposed to ozone during the flowering stage for seven hours per

Dinh Thi Hai Van; Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh

2009-01-01

307

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide, application rates, adjuvants, and precautions. GLYPHOSATE does not adequately control cutleaf evening primrose Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 164 Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut

Duchowski, Andrew T.

308

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide to specific label for weeds controlled, application rates, adjuvants, and precautions. GLYPHOSATE does/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut (cont) Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest

Stuart, Steven J.

309

Discriminant analyses of peanut allergy severity O.Collignon1,2  

E-print Network

Discriminant analyses of peanut allergy severity scores O.Collignon1,2 , J.-M.Monnez2 , P.Vallois2, France Abstract Peanut allergy is one of the most prevalent food allergies. The possibility of a lethal term goal of replacing invasive allergy tests. Discriminant analyses of DBPCFC score, the eliciting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

Profitability and Resource Allocation Among Cotton and Peanuts When Considering Planting and Harvest Timeliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvest timeliness is a continual problem in rotation of cotton and peanuts. Efficient allocation of land and labor resources during production of cotton and peanuts requires decisions be made on allocating resources throughout the growing season. Of particular concern is efficient allocation during planting and harvesting. Through economic analysis and linear programming optimization, planting and harvesting timeliness issues are addressed

Timothy A. Meeks; Archie Flanders; W. Donald Shurley; Fred C. White; Lewell F. Gunter

2005-01-01

311

EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE 2007 RECALL ON THE DEMAND FOR PEANUT BUTTER BRANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Food and Drug Administration confirmed in February 2007 that a major foodborne illness outbreak was caused by two peanut butter brands, Peter Pan and Great Value, manufactured by ConAgra Foods Inc. at its Sylvester, Georgia, processing plant. As a result, on February 14, 2007, ConAgra voluntarily issued a nationwide recall of its Peter Pan and Great Value peanut

Rafael Bakhtavoryan; Oral Capps Jr.; Victoria Salin

2011-01-01

312

Mycobiota and mycotoxins in Brazilian peanut kernels from sowing to harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total mycobiota and the mycotoxin contamination of peanuts were analyzed in plants collected at different stages of the pod maturity sampled in Junqueirópolis, at São Paulo State (Brazil). The prevalent peanut mycobiota were Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus flavus, present in 26% and 17% respectively of the samples analyzed. In soil, the genus Penicillium and Fusarium were most frequently detected,

Edlayne Gonçalez; Juliana H. C. Nogueira; Homero Fonseca; Joana D. Felicio; Francisco A. Pino; Benedito Corrêa

2008-01-01

313

Examination of the internalization of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in peanut, Arachis hypogaea, using immunocytochemical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of products of plant origin, such as tomatoes, melons, peppers, and peanuts, have been implicated in Salmonella spp. associated outbreaks in recent years. Although these bacteria have been found to internalize within some plants associated with foodborne-related outbreaks, the internalization in peanut plants has not been examined to date. To investigate internalization and where the bacteria localize within

Amanda J. Deering; Robert E. Pruitt; Lisa J. Mauer; Bradley L. Reuhs

314

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

lance nematodes in cotton. Field Crop Hosts for Common Nematodes Crop Root-knot Lesion Lance SoybeanSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 198 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem

Duchowski, Andrew T.

315

Parsing the Peanut Panic: The Social Life of a Contested Food Allergy Epidemic  

PubMed Central

As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising “epidemic,” and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. PMID:23746608

Waggoner, Miranda R.

2013-01-01

316

Production of Recombinant Peanut Allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

Background Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/or unacceptable levels of side effects. The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production can alleviate some of these issues. Several allergens have been tested in high-level expression systems and in most cases show immunereactivity comparable to their natural counterparts. The gram positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid containing the P170 promoter and the SP310mut2 signal sequence. Flask cultures grown overnight showed secretion of the 17 kDa Ara h 2 protein. A batch fermentation resulted in 40 mg/L recombinant Ara h 2. Purification of Ara h 2 from the culture supernatant was done by hydrophobic exclusion and size separation. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal analysis showed a recombinant Ara h 2 of full length and correctly processed by the signal peptidase. The immunological activity of recombinant Ara h 2 was analysed by ELISA using antibodies specific for native Ara h 2. The recombinant Ara h 2 showed comparable immunereactivity to that of native Ara h 2. Conclusion Recombinant production of Ara h 2 using L. lactis can offer high yields of secreted, full length and immunologically active allergen. The L. lactis expression system can support recombinant allergen material for immunotherapy and component resolved allergen diagnostics. PMID:17711578

Glenting, Jacob; Poulsen, Lars K; Kato, Kentaro; Madsen, Søren M; Frøkiær, Hanne; Wendt, Camilla; Sørensen, Helle W

2007-01-01

317

Development of a high seas oil recovery system. Phase II. Appendix III. Systems tests. Final report, May 1972June 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phase-II report covers design, construction, and test of a prototype 2000 gpm oil recovery system for the high seas. The prototype system consists of a weir\\/basin assembly, transfer and control system, and auxiliary equipment which includes a handling system, packaging system, and a flotsam fence. The transfer system has four hydraulic-motor-driven gear pumps, a 300-ft. hydraulic umbilical, an oil-water

R. L. Beach; F. A. March; L. S. Brown; T. S. McMahon; J. Papp

1973-01-01

318

Phylogenetic diversity and activity of anaerobic microorganisms of high-temperature horizons of the Dagang oil field (P. R. China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of microorganisms of major metabolic groups and the rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis processes in\\u000a the formation waters of the high-temperature horizons of Dagang oil field have been determined. Using cultural methods, it\\u000a was shown that the microbial community contained aerobic bacteria oxidizing crude oil, anaerobic fermentative bacteria, sulfate-reducing\\u000a bacteria, and methanogens. Using cultural methods, the possibility

T. N. Nazina; N. M. Shestakova; A. A. Grigor’yan; E. M. Mikhailova; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; Cingxian Feng; Fangtian Ni; S. S. Belyaev

2006-01-01

319

Nanowire-haired inorganic membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater ultralow adhesive superoleophobicity for high-efficiency oil/water separation.  

PubMed

A novel all-inorganic Cu(OH)2 nanowire-haired membrane with superhydrophilicity and underwater ultralow adhesive superoleophobicity is fabricated by a facile surface oxidation of copper mesh that allows effective separation of both immiscible oil/water mixtures and oil-in-water emulsions solely driven by gravity, with extremely high separation efficiency. The all-inorganic membrane exhibits superior solvent and alkaline resistance and antifouling property compared to organic-based membranes. PMID:23788392

Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Wen Bin; Shi, Zhun; Wang, Dong; Jin, Jian; Jiang, Lei

2013-08-14

320

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15

321

AhNRAMP1 iron transporter is involved in iron acquisition in peanut.  

PubMed

Peanut/maize intercropping is a sustainable and effective agroecosystem to alleviate iron-deficiency chlorosis. Using suppression subtractive hybridization from the roots of intercropped and monocropped peanut which show different iron nutrition levels, a peanut gene, AhNRAMP1, which belongs to divalent metal transporters of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) gene family was isolated. Yeast complementation assays suggested that AhNRAMP1 encodes a functional iron transporter. Moreover, the mRNA level of AhNRAMP1 was obviously induced by iron deficiency in both roots and leaves. Transient expression, laser microdissection, and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that AhNRAMP1 was mainly localized on the plasma membrane of the epidermis of peanut roots. Induced expression of AhNRAMP1 in tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to iron deprivation. These results suggest that the AhNRAMP1 is possibly involved in iron acquisition in peanut plants. PMID:22611231

Xiong, Hongchun; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Senoura, Takeshi; Nakazono, Mikio; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Shen, Hongyun; Duan, Penggen; Guo, Xiaotong; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

2012-07-01

322

One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.  

PubMed

A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

2012-10-01

323

Polyphenols in olive oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of total polyphenols and o-diphenols were determined in virgin oils and in chloroform\\/methanol-extracted oils.\\u000a The solventextracted oils were richer in polyphenols than the virgin oils. High polyphenol content was associated with a high\\u000a resistance to oxidation of the oils. A linear relationship was found between polyphenol content and the oxidative stability\\u000a of the virgin oils during storage at

T. Gutfinger

1981-01-01

324

Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean\\u000a and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and\\u000a degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of\\u000a 60 C or higher, molar ratios of at

B. Freedman; E. H. Pryde; T. L. Mounts

1984-01-01

325

Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial  

PubMed Central

Background There are presently no available therapeutic options for peanut-allergic patients. Objective To investigate the safety, efficacy, and immunologic effects of peanut sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Methods After a baseline oral food challenge (OFC) of up to 2g of peanut powder (~50% protein) (median successfully consumed dose [SCD] 46mg), 40 subjects, aged 12–37 (median 15) years, were randomized 1:1 across 5 sites to daily peanut or placebo SLIT. A 5g OFC was performed after 44 weeks followed by unblinding; placebo subjects then crossed over to higher dose peanut SLIT, followed by a subsequent crossover Week 44 5g OFC. Week 44 OFCs from both groups were compared to baseline OFCs; subjects successfully consuming 5g or at least 10-fold more peanut powder than the baseline OFC threshold were considered responders. Results After 44 weeks of SLIT, 14/20 (70%) subjects receiving peanut SLIT were responders compared to 3/20 (15%) subjects receiving placebo (p<0.001). In peanut-SLIT responders, median SCD increased from 3.5mg to 496mg. After 68 weeks of SLIT, median SCD significantly increased to 996mg (compared to week 44, p=0.05). The median SCD at the Week 44 crossover OFC was significantly higher than baseline (603mg vs 71mg; p=0.02). 7/16 (44%) crossover subjects were responders; median SCD increased from 21mg to 496mg among responders. Of 10,855 peanut doses through Week 44 OFCs, 63.1% were symptom-free; excluding oral/pharyngeal symptoms, 95.2% were symptom-free. Conclusions Peanut SLIT safely induced a modest level of desensitization in a majority of subjects compared to placebo. Longer duration of therapy showed statistically significant increases in the SCD. PMID:23265698

Fleischer, David M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Liu, Andrew H.; Stablein, Donald; Henning, Alice K.; Mayer, Lloyd; Lindblad, Robert; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.

2012-01-01

326

Efficacy, safety and immunological actions of butanol-extracted FAHF-2 on peanut anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background Therapies for peanut allergy (PNA) are urgently needed. Food Allergy Herbal Formula -2 (FAHF-2) has profound therapeutic effects in a murine peanut allergy model and is safe for food allergic adults in clinical trials. However the large FAHF-2 pill-load is not conducive to clinical studies in children. Thus refining FAHF-2 to decrease pill-load is essential for the inclusion of children in clinical trials and to facilitate studying FAHF-2 as a clinically useful botanical drug. Objectives Testing long term efficacy and safety of a butanol-purified extract of FAHF-2 (B-FAHF-2) in a murine model of PNA, and to explore its immunological mechanisms of action. Methods FAHF-2 was purified by butanol extraction. C3H/HeJ mice with established PNA received the 1st course of B-FAHF-2 at 6 mg, twice daily for 7 weeks (PNA/B-FAHF-2) or water (PNA/Sham) and were then challenged immediately after completing the treatment and 6 more times every 1–2 months post treatment up to week 50. Mice then received a second course of B-FAHF-2 treatment at week 52 and were challenged at week 65. In vivo and in vitro immunological effects on T, B and mast cells were also determined. Results Butanol purification reduced the volume of the effective dose ~5 fold. All PNA/B-FAHF-2 mice were completely protected from peanut anaphylaxis until the 5th challenge after the 1st course of treatment, as compared to PNA/sham mice. Partial protection persisted up to 50 weeks. A 2nd treatment course restored complete protection. B-FAHF-2 significantly suppressed Th2 cytokine, IgE and histamine levels in vivo, and showed direct inhibition of Th2, IgE-producing B cells and mast cell activation in vitro. B-FAHF-2 had a high margin of safety. Conclusion and clinical relevance B-FAHF-2 produced long-lasting protection against PN anaphylaxis for approximately half of the murine lifespan without side effects. B-FAHF-2 exhibited direct effects on multiple food allergy effector cells. PMID:21121976

Srivastava, Kamal; Yang, Nan; Chen, Yuming; Lopez-Exposito, Ivan; Song, Ying; Goldfarb, Joseph; Zhan, Jixun; Sampson, Hugh; Li, Xiu-Min

2010-01-01

327

Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Arachis includes Arachis hypogaea (cultivated peanut) and wild species that are used in peanut breeding or as forage. Molecular markers have been employed in several studies of this genus, but microsatellite markers have only been used in few investigations. Microsatellites are very informative and are useful to assess genetic variability, analyze mating systems and in genetic mapping. The objectives of this study were to develop A. hypogaea microsatellite loci and to evaluate the transferability of these markers to other Arachis species. Results Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci. Conclusion These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species. PMID:17326826

Gimenes, Marcos A; Hoshino, Andrea A; Barbosa, Andrea VG; Palmieri, Dario A; Lopes, Catalina R

2007-01-01

328

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01

329

Oxidative stability of high-fatty acid rice bran oil at different stages of refining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of natural antioxidants and the oxidative stability of rice bran oils at different refining steps were determined.\\u000a Tocopherols and oryzanols were constant in crude and degummed oils but decreased in alkali-refined, bleached and deodorized\\u000a oils. The process of degumming, alkali-refining, bleaching and deodorization removed 34% of the tocopherols and 51% of the\\u000a oryzanols. During storage of deodorized oil

Suk Hoo Yoon; Sun Ki Kim

1994-01-01

330

High temperature shape memory alloy actuators through mechanical treatments for an oil & gas down-hole valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape memory alloy actuators, with their simple operation through heating, and high solid state strain and force output are ideally suited to a range of robust engineering applications within the oil & gas industry, such as down-well flow control valves. Because reservoir temperatures can reach up to 250°C for very deep wells, a range of alloys with high transition temperatures

J. Gore; A. Bowles; M. Maylin; L. Chandrasekaran; D. Forsyth; M. Buyers

2008-01-01

331

NMR measurement of oil shale magnetic relaxation at high magnetic field  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at low field is used extensively to provide porosity and pore-size distributions in reservoir rocks. For unconventional resources, due to low porosity and permeability of the samples, much of the signal exists at very short T2 relaxation times. In addition, the organic content of many shales will also produce signal at short relaxation times. Despite recent improvements in low-field technology, limitations still exist that make it difficult to account for all hydrogen-rich constituents in very tight rocks, such as shales. The short pulses and dead times along with stronger gradients available when using high-field NMR equipment provides a more complete measurement of hydrogen-bearing phases due to the ability to probe shorter T2 relaxation times (-5 sec) than can be examined using low-field equipment. Access to these shorter T2 times allows for confirmation of partially resolved peaks observed in low-field NMR data that have been attributed to solid organic phases in oil shales. High-field (300 MHz or 7 T) NMR measurements of spin-spin T2 and spin-lattice T1 magnetic relaxation of raw and artificially matured oil shales have potential to provide data complementary to low field (2 MHz or 0.05T) measurements. Measurements of high-field T2 and T1-T2 correlations are presented. These data can be interpreted in terms of organic matter phases and mineral-bound water known to be present in the shale samples, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and show distributions of hydrogen-bearing phases present in the shales that are similar to those observed in low field measurements.

Seymour, Joseph D.; Washburn, Kathryn E.; Kirkland, Catherine M.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Codd, Sarah L.

2013-01-01

332

Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

333

Structure and function of the peanut panallergen Ara h 8.  

PubMed

The incidence of peanut allergy continues to rise in the United States and Europe. Whereas exposure to the major allergens Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 6 can cause fatal anaphylaxis, exposure to the minor allergens usually does not. Ara h 8 is a minor allergen. Importantly, it is the minor food allergens that are thought to be responsible for oral allergy syndrome (OAS), in which sensitization to airborne allergens causes a Type 2 allergic reaction to ingested foods. Furthermore, it is believed that similar protein structure rather than a similar linear sequence is the cause of OAS. Bet v 1 from birch pollen is a common sensitizing agent, and OAS results when patients consume certain fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, and peanuts. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of Ara h 8, a Bet v 1 homolog. The overall fold is very similar to that of Bet v 1, Api g 1 (celery), Gly m 4 (soy), and Pru av 1 (cherry). Ara h 8 binds the isoflavones quercetin and apigenin as well as resveratrol avidly. PMID:24253038

Hurlburt, Barry K; Offermann, Lesa R; McBride, Jane K; Majorek, Karolina A; Maleki, Soheila J; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

2013-12-27

334

Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

2007-01-01

335

QTL verification of grain protein content and its correlation with oil content by using connected RIL populations of high-oil maize.  

PubMed

Maize with high grain protein and oil contents offers great advantages for human food and animal feed. In this study, grain protein contents of 282 and 263 F7:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of 2 crosses were evaluated in 4 environments within and between populations. The RILs were developed from crosses between an inbred high-oil maize line and 2 normal dent inbred maize lines. A total of 16 single-population QTLs and 19 joint-population QTLs were identified for protein content, and 21 QTLs were detected for protein-oil in each of the 4 environments tested and in combination. Most of the QTLs for protein content were greatly influenced by variation among populations and environments. Seven QTLs showed generational consistency compared with QTLs detected in the 2 F2:3 populations. However, 7 and 6 QTLs were detected in only the RIL and F2:3 populations, respectively. Protein and protein-oil QTLs with the same parental effects were detected at bins 3.03-3.05, 5.04-5.06, 6.03-6.05, 8.03-8.04, and 8.04-8.06, demonstrating that tightly linked and/or pleiotropic QTLs are controlling both traits at these bins. Four single-population QTLs and 11 joint-population QTLs identified at bins 3.02-3.03, 3.05, 7.01, 8.02, 8.03, 8.04-8.05, 8.05, 9.03, and 9.05 with intervals <5 cM could be used in marker-assisted selection. Along with the previously detected QTLs qPRO1-8-1 and qPRO1-5-1 at bins 8.03-8.04 and 5.02-5.04, the QTLs detected herein could be used to develop near isogenic lines and chromosome segment substitution lines in future studies. PMID:24615052

Yang, G H; Dong, Y B; Li, Y L; Wang, Q L; Shi, Q L; Zhou, Q

2014-01-01

336

Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

2012-01-01

337

Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella on raw shelled peanuts in the United States.  

PubMed

Recalls and/or outbreaks associated with Salmonella contamination in peanut-containing products were reported over the past several years. There are very limited data available on the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella on raw shelled peanuts in the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw shelled peanuts in the United States and to estimate that concentration of Salmonella. Samples of Runner- and Virginia-type raw shelled peanuts from the 2008, 2009, and 2010 crop years were proportionately sampled from each growing region, based on 2007 production volume. Of 944 raw shelled peanut samples (375 g each), 22 (2.33%) were positive for Salmonella by the VIDAS Salmonella assay. Salmonella serovars identified in this study included Agona, Anatum, Braenderup, Dessau, Hartford, Meleagridis, Muenchen, Rodepoort, Tennessee, and Tornow. The concentration levels of Salmonella in positive samples, as determined by a most-probable-number assay, were <0.03 to 2.4 MPN/g. These data will be useful when designing and validating processes for the reduction or elimination of Salmonella in peanuts and/or peanut-containing products. PMID:23575117

Calhoun, Stephen; Post, Laurie; Warren, Benjamin; Thompson, Sterling; Bontempo, Ann Rogers

2013-04-01

338

Petit-exposure at neutrino beamline (PEANUT)  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of using nuclear emulsion as a particle detector are well known. The high resolution of emulsion has made it a medium of choice for a number of applications where the required spatial and angular resolution are paramount and its limitations due to the lack of timing information are less important. Emulsions are commonly used as cosmic ray detectors and have found applications in high energy experiments for detecting short lived particles such as charm, beauty and tau. The addition of electronic detectors to emulsion experiments solved the problem of the lack of timing information in the emulsion, but it was the development of automatic scanning machines that revolutionized the use of these hybrid detectors, making them capable of performing even in high rate environments. Most recently, The DONuT experiment (FNAL-E872), used a hybrid emulsion spectrometer to make the first direct observation of tau neutrino interactions [1]. The CNGS facility is being constructed to deliver a {nu}{sub {mu}} beam from the CERN SPS to the Gran Sasso Laboratory. Since it is believed that {nu}{sub {mu}} {leftrightarrow} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations explain the observed atmospheric {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit, the CNGS beam, coupled with a detector capable of observing {tau} appearance is an important experiment in the context of the world wide effort to determine the neutrino mass mixing matrix. The OPERA detector has been optimized to detect a significant sample of {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions by the subsequent observation of {tau} production and decay [2]. The OPERA target is a massive emulsion detector made in a sandwich structure of lead plates and layers of nuclear emulsion. For historical reasons this arrangement has been called an Emulsion Cloud Chamber or ECC. The ECC concept, which has many advantages over the use of bulk emulsion, has been used in the DONuT experiment. The ECC detector is capable of measuring all of the tracks, not due to nuclear fragments, coming from the primary neutrino interaction vertex, with their three dimensional slopes and momenta. It is also capable of electron identification with good e/{gamma} separation, due to its very fine segmentation. The OPERA ECC target modules are constructed as bricks of dimensions 12.5 x 10.0 x 7.5 cm{sup 3} in horizontal, vertical and along the beam axis. Each brick consists of series of 56 (1 mm thick) plates of passive material (lead or iron) alternated with emulsion films (43 {micro}m emulsion layer on both sides of a transparent 200 {micro}m thick plastic film). In preparation for OPERA we would like to expose the OPERA target modules to a beam of neutrinos. This will allow us to test many of our analysis procedures and techniques as well as to validate the simulation of neutrino interactions, both for the production of forward and backward particles. Although the HE (high energy) beam of NuMI would be a better match to the CNGS energy, data acquired with NuMI LE (low energy) beam would serve the same purpose, albeit more challenging. Given the high interaction rate from the NuMI beam, the test detector target mass can be kept low and additional detectors can easily be built around a small target. These measurements are not possible in the CNGS beam, since it has no short baseline hall.

Niwa, K.; /Nagoya U.

2005-08-01

339

High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Foam used for the Thermal Management of Engine Oil  

SciTech Connect

The need for maintaining a lower specific engine oil temperature is essential in enhancing the longevity of the oil and of the engine and its components. By decreasing the engine oil temperature the oil is able to perform its job more efficiently. It is proposed to use the carbon foam, with its exceptional thermal management capabilities, to aid in reducing and stabilizing the engine oil temperature during steady state operation. Also, it is possible to use the carbon foam to heat the engine oil during startup to reduce emissions and possibly engine wear. The mesophase pitch derived carbon foam, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a material that offers excellent thermal management capability. The foam has an open cell structure (0.98 fraction open porosity) with graphitic ligaments aligned parallel to the cell walls. The alignment of the graphitic ligaments in a three dimensional array gives the foam homogeneous thermal properties, unlike graphite fibers. The bulk thermal conductivity of the foam has been measured to be 175 W/m{center_dot}K, placing it on the level of 6061 aluminum, which has a bulk thermal conductivity of 180 W/m{center_dot}K. Copper has a bulk thermal conductivity over two times higher, at 400 W/m{center_dot}K. The proposed research will entail using the carbon foam, with its excellent thermal management capabilities, as a cooling and heating medium for engine oil, or in other words an oil temperature regulator. The foam will aid in maintaining a specific oil temperature during steady state operation and in heating of the engine oil at startup. Being able to maintain a consistent oil temperature will ensure better operation of engine oil, by extending the life of the oil and engine. All Parties will conduct research efforts in order to determine the best utilization of the carbon foam in managing engine oil temperatures.

Ott, R.D.; McMillan, A.D.; Choudhury, A.

2006-02-02

340

Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin  

PubMed Central

Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

2011-01-01

341

Cyclodextrin polymers as highly effective adsorbents for removal and recovery of polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) contaminants in insulating oil.  

PubMed

A total of 179 countries (parties) ratified the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and agreed to destroy polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and develop a sound management plan by 2028. Currently, still 3 million tons of PCB-contaminated oil and equipment need to be managed under the Stockholm Convention. Thus, the development of a facile and environmentally benign method to treat large amounts of oil stockpiles contaminated with PCBs is a crucial subject. Herein, we report that cyclodextrin (CD) polymers, which are easily prepared by cross-linking the renewable cyclic oligosaccharide ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) with dibasic acid dichlorides, are a new selective and powerful adsorbent to remove PCB contaminants in oil. When PCB (100 ppm)-contaminated oil was passed through a column packed with the terephthaloyl-cross-linked ?-CD polymer (TP-?-CD polymer) at 80-110 °C, the PCB contaminants were completely removed from the oil. Additionally, methyl esterification of the free carboxylic groups of the TP-?-CD polymer enabled the complete recovery of the PCBs adsorbed on the polymer (with >99.9% recovery efficiency) by simply washing with acetone. The methyl-esterified TP-?-CD polymer could be recycled at least 10 times for PCB adsorption without any loss in the adsorption capability. These results revealed that the ?-CD polymers can function as highly effective and powerful adsorbents for the removal and recovery of PCBs from PCB-contaminated oil and, thus, significantly contribute to the protection of the global environment. PMID:24946276

Kawano, Shintaro; Kida, Toshiyuki; Miyawaki, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Yuki; Kato, Eiichi; Nakano, Takeshi; Akashi, Mitsuru

2014-07-15

342

Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).  

PubMed

This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified and accounted for 92.4% of the total oil composition. The major components were undecan-2-one (49.08%), nonan-2-one (33.15%), limonene (4.19%) and decanone (2.71%). Antifungal ability of essential oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against five plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium polyphialidicum. The oils were also tested in vitro for herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of two weed species, Triticum durum and Phalaris canariensis L. PMID:25109925

Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

2014-11-01

343

High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOEpatents

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

344

A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale  

DOEpatents

This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

Coburn, T.T.

1988-07-26

345

A review on hydrolytic enzymes in the treatment of wastewater with high oil and grease content.  

PubMed

Wastewater from dairies and slaughterhouses contains high levels of fats and proteins that present low biodegradability. A large number of pretreatment systems are employed to remove oil and grease (O&G) to prevent a host of problems that may otherwise arise in the biological process, and reduce the efficiency of the treatment station. Problems caused by excessive O&G include a reduction in the cell-aqueous phase transfer rates, a sedimentation hindrance due to the development of filamentous microorganisms, development and flotation of sludge with poor activity, clogging and the emergence of unpleasant odors. Therefore the application of a pretreatment to hydrolyze and dissolve lipids may improve the biological degradation of fatty wastewaters, accelerating the process and improving time efficiency. However thus far, only a few studies describing the degradation of fats and oils by alkaline/acid/enzymatic hydrolysis have been reported; the treatment of effluents from several origins is a new and promising application for lipases. Among the strains that produce the hydrolytic enzymes studied, the fungus Penicillium restrictum is a particularly promising one. When cultivated in low-cost solid medium composed of agro-industrial waste, P. restrictum produces a pool of hydrolases capable of degrading the most complex organic compounds. This degradation enables a considerable increase in organic matter removal efficiency to be realized, which results in the attainment of a high-quality effluent in the subsequent biological treatment stage. Consequently, there is presently a wide variety of ongoing scientific investigation in the field of developing enzymatic hydrolysis processes to precede traditional biological treatment. PMID:16621527

Cammarota, M C; Freire, D M G

2006-11-01

346

A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats  

PubMed Central

Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

347

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Major Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars Grown in China by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei’s genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars. PMID:24520347

Ren, Xiaoping; Jiang, Huifang; Yan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Lei, Yong; Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Qi, Yue; Wei, Wenhui; Liao, Boshou

2014-01-01

348

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO), soybean (SO) or linseed (LO) oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic ?-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain whole body cholesterol levels but not HUFA levels. PMID:18577222

Leaver, Michael J; Villeneuve, Laure AN; Obach, Alex; Jensen, Linda; Bron, James E; Tocher, Douglas R; Taggart, John B

2008-01-01

349

Highly efficient and flexible electrospun carbon-silica nanofibrous membrane for ultrafast gravity-driven oil-water separation.  

PubMed

A novel free-standing and flexible electrospun carbon-silica composite nanofibrous membrane is newly introduced. The characterization results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers are constructed by carbon chains interpenetrated through a linear network of 3-dimensional SiO2. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the presence of insulating silica further improve the thermal resistance of the membrane. Additionally, the mechanical strength test shows that the membrane's toughness and flexibility can be enhanced if the concentration of SiO2 is maintained below 2.7 wt %. Thermal and chemical stability test show that the membrane's wettability properties can be sustained at an elevated temperature up to 300 °C and no discernible change in wettability was observed under highly acidic and basic conditions. After surface-coating with silicone oil for 30 mins, the composite membrane exhibits ultra-hydrophobic and superoleophilic properties with water and oil contact angles being 144.2 ± 1.2° and 0°, respectively. The enhanced flexibility and selective wetting property enables the membrane to serve as an effective substrate for separating free oil from water. Lab-scale oil-water separation test indicates that the membrane possesses excellent oil-water separation efficiency. In addition, its inherent property of high porosity allows oil-water separation to be performed in a gravity-driven process with high-flux. We anticipate that this study will open up a new avenue for fabrication of free-standing carbonaceous composite membrane with tunable flexibility for energy efficient and high-throughput production of clean water. PMID:24867399

Tai, Ming Hang; Gao, Peng; Tan, Benny Yong Liang; Sun, Darren D; Leckie, James O

2014-06-25

350

Experimental Study of High Efficiency CO2 Scroll Compressor with a Control of Oil Flow to Compression Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the carbon dioxides (CO2) is a high density refrigerant, the displacement volume of the CO2 compressor becomes smaller for a fixed cooling capacity, while the pressure difference between the adjacent compression chambers becomes larger. For developing a CO2 compressor with high efficiency, it was necessary to reduce the leakages through the clearances between the orbiting and fixed scrolls. The previous study for a R410A scroll compressor has addressed a new intermittent oil supply mechanism exhibiting the superior characteristics in oil flow control. In this study, therefore, the same intermittent oil supply mechanism was applied to a CO2 scroll compressor, where the relationship between the oil flow rate to the compression chamber and the corresponding performance was investigated in detail. As a result, it was made clear that the optimal ratio of the oil flow rate to the refrigerant flow rate in CO2 scroll compressor is about 5 % to achieve the higher efficiency, which is larger than that of the R410A scroll compressor.

Sawai, Kiyoshi; Hiwata, Akira; Futagami, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Noboru; Morimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Noriaki

351

Experiments on Ball and Roller Bearings Under Conditions of High Speed and Small Oil Supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes a testing machine on which 35 millimeter bearings (bore) can be run at speeds of the order of 21,000 rpm, while the following factors are recorded: 1) oil circulation through bearing and oil temperature. 2) maximum temperature of outer bearing ring, 3) radial and axial load on bearing, 4) radial, axial, and angular clearance of bearing, 5) power consumption of bearing. The experiments show that the lubrication was most reliable and oil consumption lowest when the oil was introduced through a hole in the outer or inner ring of the bearing.

Getzlaff, Gunter

1940-01-01

352

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Third quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program ``Kilntrol.`` It is included in the Appendix of this report.

Adams, D.C.

1992-10-01

353

Multistate outbreak of Salmonella infections associated with peanut butter and peanut butter-containing products--United States, 2008-2009.  

PubMed

On November 25, 2008, an epidemiologic assessment began of a growing cluster of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium isolates that shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern in PulseNet. As of January 28, 2009, 529 persons from 43 states and one person from Canada had been reported infected with the outbreak strain. This report is an interim summary of results from ongoing epidemiologic studies and recall and control activities by CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local public health agencies. Confirmed, reported onset of illness dates have ranged from September 1, 2008, to January 16, 2009. A total of 116 patients were reported hospitalized, and the infection might have contributed to eight deaths. Sequential case-control studies have indicated significant associations between illness and consumption of any peanut butter (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 2.53), and specific brands of prepackaged peanut butter crackers (mOR = 12.25), but no association with national brand jarred peanut butter sold in grocery stores. Epidemiologic and laboratory findings indicate that peanut butter and peanut paste produced at one plant are the source of the outbreak. These products also are ingredients in many foods produced and distributed by other companies. This outbreak highlights the complexities of "ingredient-driven" outbreaks and the importance of rapid outbreak detection and investigation. Consumers are advised to discard and not eat products that have been recalled. PMID:19194370

2009-02-01

354

Continuous enzymatic transesterification of high oleic sunflower oil in a packed bed reactor: influence of the glycerol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transesterification of high oleic sunflower oil with butanol by the immobilized Lipozyme® in n-hexane was carried out in a continuous packed bed reactor, oleic acid, butyl ester, and glycerol being formed as the main products. It was found that glycerol, insoluble in n-hexane, remained in the reactor adsorbed onto the enzymatic support, leading to a drastic decrease in enzymatic

Valérie Dossat; Didier Combes; Alain Marty

1999-01-01

355

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

356

Is silicone oil optic neuropathy caused by high intraocular pressure alone? A semi-biological model  

PubMed Central

Background Silicone oil endotamponade is used for the repair of complicated retinal detachments. Cataract, glaucoma and corneal endothelial dysfunction are the most frequent complications of silicone oil tamponade. Clinical and histopathological studies have revealed that silicone oil can penetrate into the optic nerve and into the brain. The mechanism by which silicone oil moves from intraocular into the optic nerve is still under debate. To investigate the effect of intraocular pressure only, a post?mortem experimental histological study was performed to determine whether silicone oil penetration from the globe into the optic nerve after vitrectomy and silicone oil instillation is a purely pressure?related phenomenon. Although a post?mortem study excludes physiological processes, it serves as a model for the study of pure physical forces onto biological structures. Methods The study was carried out on 20 human eyes with their optic nerves attached. All specimens had been harvested from patients without known eye disease. The vitreous body was removed with a syringe and the globe was filled with silicone oil. A lipophil fluorescence marker (Bodipy) was added in 8 eyes. The mean intraocular pressure after silicone oil filling measured 40?mm Hg and the globes stayed under pressure for up to 16?weeks. The eyes and optic nerves were stained with H&E and examined with light, phase?contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Results None of the 20 specimens examined showed silicone oil in the retrolaminar portion of the optic nerve. Conclusions Migration of silicone oil into the optic nerve was not demonstrated in this human post?mortem study. Therefore other factors, such as pre?existing glaucomatous damage to the disc region and/or active transport mechanisms must be involved in the development of silicone oil?associated optic neuropathy. PMID:17475700

Knecht, Pascal; Groscurth, Peter; Ziegler, Urs; Laeng, Hubert R; Jaggi, Gregor P; Killer, Hanspeter E

2007-01-01

357

Viscosity of plant oils as a function of temperature, fatty acid chain length, and unsaturation  

E-print Network

REFERENCES 47 APPENDIX A Experimental Results 50 B Plots of Residual Values versus Predicted Values for the Plant Oils . . . . . 53 C 3-D Plots of Viscosity of Plant Oils versus Fatty Acid chain Length and Unsaturation at 20 and 70'C 61 TABLE... of viscosity of plant oils versus fatty acid chain length and unsaturation at 60'C . 29 Bl Residual plot for sesame oil from the statistical analyses of the Arrhenius model 54 B2 Residual plot for peanut oil from the statistical analyses of the Arrhenius...

Neo, Tong Heng

2012-06-07

358

Effects of row spacing on diseases, herbicide persistence, and qualitative characteristics of peanut  

E-print Network

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the effects of row-spacing on diseases, weed control, herbicide persistence and plant development in peanut. Tebuconazole, when averaged across cultivars and row spacing, effectively controlled...

Besler, Brent Alan

2005-08-29

359

Peanut Allergy in Children: Relationships to Health-Related Quality of Life, Anxiety, and Parental Stress  

E-print Network

This study examined relationships between Health Related Quality of Life, child anxiety, and parental stress in a sample of children with peanut allergy. 51 families were recruited to complete a series of measures including a demographic...

Roy, Kimberlee Marie

2008-07-22

360

De Novo Synthesis of Isocitritase in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cotyledons 1  

PubMed Central

Germination of peanut seed is accompanied by a rapid increase in isocitritase (isocitrate lyase, EC 4.1.3.1) during the first 4 days. The presence of cycloheximide (50 ?g/ml) during water imbibition inhibited the increase in isocitritase activity. Actinomycin D conversely did not inhibit isocitritase activity until the second day of imbibition while RNA synthesis was inhibited. Germination of peanut seed in 14C-reconstituted amino acids followed by fractionation of a 20 to 35% ammonium sulfate preparation on a Sephadex G-200 column (57-fold purification) showed that the active enzymic fraction coincided with a large peak of radioactivity. Germination of peanut seed in 45% D2O followed by enzyme purification and CsCl equilibrium centrifugation revealed that all the enzyme from D2O seed had a higher density than normal isocitritase. These data indicate that isocitritase in peanut seed is synthesized de novo. PMID:16656822

Gientka-Rychter, Anna; Cherry, Joe H.

1968-01-01

361

Response of Peanuts to Irrigation Management at Different Crop Growth Stages  

E-print Network

had a different schedule of either irrigating or stressing the peanut plant during one or more of three crop growth stages. The three crop growth stages were: (1) pegging; (2) early maturation; and (3) late maturation. Rainfall during the vegetative...

Howell, T. A.; McFarland, M. J.; Reddell, D. L.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Dahmen, P.

362

Salmonellosis and the GI Tract: More than Just Peanut Butter  

PubMed Central

Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., causing approximately 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats. However, almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of over 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the U.S. occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and a variety of immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis; however, bacteremia, endovascular, and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, with antibiotic therapy reserved among persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and among consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis. PMID:18627657

Cianflone, Nancy F. Crum

2009-01-01

363

Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using living peanut seedling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of nanoparticles by environment friendly method is an important aspect of nanotechnology. In the present study, extracellular reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles was carried out using living peanut plant. The electron microscopic analysis shows that the formed nanoparticles were of different shapes and sizes. The formed nanoparticles were polydispersed. The shapes of the nanoparticles were spherical, square, triangle, hexagonal and rod. Most of the particles were spherical and 56 nm in size. EDS analysis confirmed the formed nanoparticles were of silver. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed by diffraction. This method opens up an exciting possibility of plant-based synthesis of other inorganic nanomaterials. This study confirms the synthesis of extracellular silver nanoparticles by living plant.

Raju, D.; Paneliya, Nikita; Mehta, Urmil J.

2014-10-01

364

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

365

Effect of high-intensity ultrasound and cooling rate on the crystallization behavior of beeswax in edible oils.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of wax concentration (0.5 and 1%), cooling rate (0.1, 1, and 10 °C/min), and high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the crystallization behavior of beeswax (BW) in six different edible oils. Samples were crystallized at 25 °C with and without HIU. Crystal sizes and morphologies and melting profiles were measured by microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Higher wax concentrations resulted in faster crystallization and more turbidity. Phase separation was observed due to crystals' sedimentation when samples were crystallized at slow cooling rates. Results showed that HIU induced the crystallization of 0.5% BW samples and delayed phase separation in sunflower, olive, soybean, and corn oils. Similar effects were observed in 1% samples where HIU delayed phase separation in canola, soybean, olive, and safflower oils. PMID:25265535

Jana, Sarbojeet; Martini, Silvana

2014-10-15

366

Performance and Durability of High Temperature Foil Air Bearing for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and durability of advanced, high temperature foil air bearings are evaluated under a wide range (10-50 kPa) of loads at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The bearings are made from uncoated nickel based superalloy foils. The foil surface experiences sliding contact with the shaft during initial start/stop operation. To reduce friction and wear, the solid lubricant coating, PS304, is applied to the shaft by plasma spraying. PS304, is a NiCr based Cr2O3 coating with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride solid lubricant additions. The results show that the bearings provide lives well in excess of 30,000 cycles under all of the conditions tested. Several bearings exhibited lives in excess of 100,000 cycles. Wear is a linear function of the bearing load. The excellent performance measured in this study suggests that these bearings and the PS304 coating are well suited for advanced high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

DellaCorte, C.; Valco, M. J.; Radil, K. C.; Heshmat, H.

1999-01-01

367

Performance and Durability of High Temperature Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance and durability of advanced, high temperature foil air bearings are evaluated under a wide range (10-50 kPa) of loads at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The bearings are made from uncoated nickel based superalloy foils. The foil surface experiences sliding contact with the shaft during initial start/stop operation. To reduce friction and wear, the solid lubricant coating, PS304, is applied to the shaft by plasma spraying. PS304 is a NiCr based Cr2O3 coating with silver and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride solid lubricant additions. The results show that the bearings provide lives well in excess of 30,000 cycles under all of the conditions tested. Several bearings exhibited lives in excess of 100,000 cycles. Wear is a linear function of the bearing load. The excellent performance measured in this study suggests that these bearings and the PS304 coating are well suited for advanced high temperature, oil-free turbomachinery applications.

DellaCorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Valco, M. J.; Radil, K. C.; Heshmat, H.

2000-01-01

368

De-oiling and Pre-treatments for High-Quality Potato Chips  

E-print Network

A de-oiling step using a centrifuge ensures oil content reduction and improves the quality of fried snacks. A commercial deep-fat fryer with the basket loaded with potatoes and a sample holder was used to fry potato slices, non-pretreated, blanched...

Kim, Tae Hoon

2012-02-14

369

An analysis of progress in breeding Sclerotinia blight resistant runner-type peanut  

E-print Network

? type peanut with good resistance to both pod rot (Pythium myriotylum Drechs) and Sclerotinia blight (Smith et aL, 1991). Canopies of Pronto, Spanco, and Starr are similar to Tamspan 90. However, physiological resistance is present in Tamspan 90... ? type peanut with good resistance to both pod rot (Pythium myriotylum Drechs) and Sclerotinia blight (Smith et aL, 1991). Canopies of Pronto, Spanco, and Starr are similar to Tamspan 90. However, physiological resistance is present in Tamspan 90...

Goldman, Jason James

2012-06-07

370

Consumption of peanut foliage by the bollworm, Heliothis zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae  

E-print Network

CONSUMPTION OP PEANUT FOLIAGE BY THE BOLLHOPM, Heliothis zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) A Thesis by FRED ROSS HUFFiiN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University ir. par=izl fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Entomology CONSUMPTION OF PEANUT FOLIAGE BY THE BOLLWORM, Heliothis zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) A Thesis by FRED ROSS HUFFMAN Approved as o style and content by hairman of Commit e) ( ad...

Huffman, Fred R

2012-06-07

371

SITE-SPECIFIC IRRIGATION OF PEANUTS ON A COASTAL PLAIN FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigator-Pro is an expert system that prescribes irrigation for corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We conducted an experiment in 2007 to evaluate Irrigator-Pro as a tool for variable rate irrigation of peanut using a site-specific center pivot irrigation system. Treatments were irrigation of whole plots based on the expert system, irrigation of individual

Philip J. Bauer; Kenneth C. Stone; Warren J. Busscher; Joseph A. Millen; Dean E. Evans; Ernest E. Strickland

372

Mean geocarposphere temperatures that induce preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanuts under drought stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently undamaged peanuts grown under environmental stress in the form of drought and heat become contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin in the soil prior to harvest. The upper mean temperature limit for aflatoxin contamination in undamaged peanut kernels grown under drought stress the latter 4–6 weeks of the growing season was between 29.6–31.3°C. The lower limit was between 25.7–26.3°C.

Richard J. Cole; Timothy H. Sanders; Robert A. Hill; Paul D. Blankenship

1985-01-01

373

Acclimation of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) leaf photosynthesis to elevated growth CO 2 and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Florunner) was grown from seed sowing to plant maturity under two daytime CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) of 360?molmol?1 (ambient) and 720?molmol?1 (elevated) and at two temperatures of 1.5 and 6.0°C above ambient temperature. The objectives were to characterize peanut leaf photosynthesis responses to long-term elevated growth [CO2] and temperature, and to assess whether elevated [CO2] regulated

Joseph C. V. Vu

2005-01-01

374

Development of SCAR marker linked to a root-knot nematode resistant gene in peanut  

E-print Network

). Estimated annual peanut yield losses caused by M. arenaria are 8 %, 5.5 %, and 3 % for Alabama, Georgia, and Texas, respectively (Koenning et al., 1999; Minton and Baujard, 1990). The three major species attacking peanut are M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M.... javanica. Meloidogyne arenaria is the most prevalent species in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Texas (Ingram, 1980; Motsinger et al., 1976; Wheeler and Starr, 1987). The life cycle of the root-knot nematode consists of the egg, four juvenile stages...

Yang, Hee Jeong

2004-11-15

375

Predicting yield loss of peanut in Texas caused by Meloidogyne arenaria  

E-print Network

PREDICTING YIELD LOSS OF PEANUT IN TEXAS CAUSED BY MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA A Thesis by TERRY ANN WHEELER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Nay 1987 Major Subject: Plant Pathology PREDICTING YIELD LOSS OF PEANUT IN TEXAS CAUSED HY MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA A Thesis TERRY ANN WHEELER Approved as to style and content by: James L. Starr (committee chairman) Oli D. Smith (Me er) J seph A...

Wheeler, Terry Ann

2012-06-07

376

Response of peanuts to irrigation management at different crop growth stages  

E-print Network

for peanuts at. different crop growth stages for tne Spanish and the Florunner varieties. The yield of the two varieties was evaluated under seven different irrigation treatments including a "no stress" check treatment and a dryland treatment. Each... treatment had a different schedule of either irrigating or stressing the peanut plant during one or more of three crop growth stages . The three crop growth stages were: (1) pegging; (2) early maturation; and (3) late maturation. Rainfall during...

Dahmen, Pieter George

2012-06-07

377

Monitoring peanut contamination in Mali (Africa) using AVHRR satellite data and a crop simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peanut is the main legume crop of Mali, West Africa. It can be contaminated by aflatoxin, a natural toxin that may develop due to drought condi tions at pre-harvest stage and also due to temperature- and humidity-related factors that may occur during the post-harvest storage. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut can cause liver diseases, such as jaundice, hepatitis, or cancer. In

V. K. Boken; Gerrit Hoogenboom; J. H. Williams; Bamory Diarra; Siriba Dione; G. L. Easson

2008-01-01

378

Prevalence and counts of Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in raw, shelled runner peanuts.  

PubMed

Three major outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to consumption of peanut butter during the last 6 years have underscored the need to investigate the potential sources of Salmonella contamination in the production process flow. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and levels of Salmonella in raw peanuts. Composite samples (1,500 g, n = 8) of raw, shelled runner peanuts representing the crop years 2009, 2010, and 2011 were drawn from 10,162 retained 22-kg lot samples of raw peanuts that were negative for aflatoxin. Subsamples (350 g) were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Salmonella was found in 68 (0.67%) of 10,162 samples. The highest prevalence rate (P < 0.05) was for 2009 (1.35%) compared with 2010 (0.36%) and 2011 (0.14%). Among four runner peanut market grades (Jumbo, Medium, No. 1, and Splits), Splits had the highest prevalence (1.46%; P < 0.05). There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence by region (Eastern versus Western). Salmonella counts in positive samples (most-probable-number [MPN] method) averaged 1.05 (range, 0.74 to 5.25) MPN per 350 g. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli was found in only three samples (0.030%). Typing of Salmonella isolates showed that the same strains found in Jumbo and Splits peanuts in 2009 were also isolated from Splits in 2011. Similarly, strains isolated in 2009 were also isolated in 2010 from different peanut grades. These results indicated the persistence of environmental sources throughout the years. For five samples, multiple isolates were obtained from the same sample that had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types. This multistrain contamination was primarily observed in Splits peanuts, in which the integrity of the kernel is usually compromised. The information from the study can be used to develop quantitative microbial risk assessments models. PMID:24112565

Miksch, Robert R; Leek, Jim; Myoda, Samuel; Nguyen, Truyen; Tenney, Kristina; Svidenko, Vladimir; Greeson, Kay; Samadpour, Mansour

2013-10-01

379

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1996-02-20

380

Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

1996-02-20

381

High-speed video observation and on-line measurements of oil aeration in an internal combustion engine  

E-print Network

Along the oil's journey through the oil lube system, the oil lubricates, cools, removes impurities, supports load, and minimizes friction. At the end of the oil's journey it returns to the sump where it remains nearly ...

Manz, Devon L

2005-01-01

382

Sensory attribute variation in low-temperature-stored roasted peanut paste.  

PubMed

Length of sample storage can become significant in sensory studies due to panel fatigue limitations and samples needed for a reasonable expectation of finding significant differences. In roasted peanut sensory studies samples are stored between -10 and -23 degrees C to prevent or retard changes. Studies of up to 13 months' duration have examined stability and slow-rate sensory changes. Sweet taste was relatively stable, whereas bitter and tongue burn attributes increased slightly. Stale taste increased, suggesting lipid oxidation was taking place even at -23 degrees C. Painty attribute did not increase until stale was >3. An increase in fruity attribute was unexpected. With increases in fruity and stale attributes a decrease in roasted peanut was expected. However, storage at -23 degrees C seems to stabilize the roasted peanut lability when compared to storage at -10 degrees C. Fruity and stale interactions with roasted peanut and lability of roasted peanut were shown to be three separate and identifiable effects on roasted peanut. PMID:10794645

Pattee, H E; Giesbrecht, F G; Isleib, T G

1999-06-01

383

Preclinical evaluation of single-cell oils that are highly enriched with arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important in human brain and retina development, and there is growing evidence showing the importance of these fatty acids in infant nutrition. Triglyceride oils, highly enriched in ARA (ARASCO®) and DHA (DHASCO®), were evaluated using very high dose acute (20 g\\/kg) and 4-wk subchronic gavage feedings in weanling Sprague-Dawley rats. The combination

K. Boswell; E.-K. Koskelo; L. Carl; S. Glaza; D. J. Hensen; K. D. Williams; D. J. Kyle

1996-01-01

384

Development and characterization of BAC-end sequence derived SSRs, and their incorporation into a new higher density genetic map for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop worldwide, valued for its edible oil and digestible protein. It has a very narrow genetic base that may well derive from a relatively recent single polyploidization event. Accordingly molecular markers have low levels of polymorphism and the number of polymorphic molecular markers available for cultivated peanut is still limiting. Results Here, we report a large set of BAC-end sequences (BES), use them for developing SSR (BES-SSR) markers, and apply them in genetic linkage mapping. The majority of BESs had no detectable homology to known genes (49.5%) followed by sequences with similarity to known genes (44.3%), and miscellaneous sequences (6.2%) such as transposable element, retroelement, and organelle sequences. A total of 1,424 SSRs were identified from 36,435 BESs. Among these identified SSRs, dinucleotide (47.4%) and trinucleotide (37.1%) SSRs were predominant. The new set of 1,152 SSRs as well as about 4,000 published or unpublished SSRs were screened against two parents of a mapping population, generating 385 polymorphic loci. A genetic linkage map was constructed, consisting of 318 loci onto 21 linkage groups and covering a total of 1,674.4 cM, with an average distance of 5.3 cM between adjacent loci. Two markers related to resistance gene homologs (RGH) were mapped to two different groups, thus anchoring 1 RGH-BAC contig and 1 singleton. Conclusions The SSRs mined from BESs will be of use in further molecular analysis of the peanut genome, providing a novel set of markers, genetically anchoring BAC clones, and incorporating gene sequences into a linkage map. This will aid in the identification of markers linked to genes of interest and map-based cloning. PMID:22260238

2012-01-01

385

Analysis of protease activity in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on peanut seed infection and aflatoxin contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are aflatoxin-producing fungi that can infect peanut seeds in field crops. An association between A. parasiticus proteolytic enzyme activities and peanut fungal infection was examined. For this study, a model of inductive and non-inductive\\u000a culture media to produce A. parasiticus extracellular protease before infection was used. These A. parasiticus cultures were used to infect peanut

R. Asis; V. Muller; D. L. Barrionuevo; S. A. Araujo; M. A. Aldao

2009-01-01

386

Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.  

PubMed

Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration. PMID:19368214

Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

2009-03-15

387

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed oil: A potential solvent-free and high antioxidative edible oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) trends and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus cannabinus seed oils were studied. SFE results indicate that extraction pressure is the major factor determining the oil yield. In comparison, classic Soxhlet extraction (SOX\\/L) yielded higher oil content than SFE (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in oil content were observed in SFE at 600 bars\\/80°C, rapid Soxhlet extraction

Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

2009-01-01

388

Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors.  

PubMed

Combined system of high-rate anaerobic reactors for treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) was developed and investigated in this study. The system composed of one common primary hybrid reactor which was shared by two different secondary filter reactors. An overall COD removal efficiency of 93.5% was achieved in both systems. The secondary reactors contributed not only in enhancing the COD removal efficiency, but also ensured the performance stability of the entire system. Biomass remained intact in the secondary reactor in contrast to the primary reactor in which occasional washout of biomass was observed. The pH of POME was adjusted at the beginning of the operation, as the process continued POME did not require the external pH adjustment as the pH was maintained in desired range. The biogas was produced up to 110 l/d with the yield of 0.171-0.269 l [CH?]/g [COD removed] and 59.5-78.2% content of methane. PMID:23489567

Choi, Won-Ho; Shin, Chang-Ha; Son, Sung-Min; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Park, Joo-Yang

2013-08-01

389

Numerical study of the motion of microscopic oil droplets under high turbulence.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of small oil droplets in water undergoing isotropic turbulence is analyzed computationally to explain the observations of Friedman and Katz (2002), where the rise velocity of droplets smaller than 800 ?m diameter is enhanced by turbulence whereas rise of larger droplets is retarded. The study explores whether these effects can be explained using a one-way coupling model combining DNS of the field with Lagrangian tracking of droplets using a dynamical equation with buoyancy, virtual mass, pressure, drag, lift and history forces. Results indicate that using empirically-determined drag and lift coefficients, the observed droplet behavior is not reproduced. Lift and history forces are shown to not to account for the observed mean droplet rise. From correlations for settling of heavy particles under intense turbulence, suppression of drag and virtual mass for droplet diameters near ten times the Kolmogorov lengthscale was postulated. Analysis indicate that the model then recovers observed small droplet rise enhancement and large droplet rise retardation. Results underscore difficulties in modeling the motion of small particles under high turbulence, especially when the particle size is near the turbulence microscale.

Snyder, Murray; Knio, Omar; Katz, Joseph; Le Maître, Olivier

2007-11-01

390

Achieving Conservation when Opportunity Costs Are High: Optimizing Reserve Design in Alberta's Oil Sands Region  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

Schneider, Richard R.; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W. L.; Boutin, Stan

2011-01-01

391

Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined. PMID:21858046

Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

2011-01-01

392

Cytogenetic damage in shallot ( Allium cepa) root meristems induced by oil industry "high-density brines".  

PubMed

Saturated water solutions of calcium chloride, calcium bromide (densities 1.30 kg x dm(-3) and 1.61 kg x dm(-3), respectively) and their 1:1 mixture have been commonly used as oil industry "high-density brines." In our experiment they were added to tap water in amounts appropriate to achieve concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) to study their cytotoxic effect on the root tip cells of shallot ( Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum). All tested solutions in concentrations of 0.075 and 0.1 mol x dm(-3) caused significant inhibition of shallot root growth. CaBr (2) showed this effect in concentration 0.05 mol x dm(-3). The investigated solutions in all concentrations applied decreased mitotic activity in root tip cells. The most of mitotic abnormalities were the consequence of spindle failure and chromosome stickiness. Furthermore, the cell microtubules were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm that most abnormalities observed were the consequence of spindle failure. The present study, as well as previously done Lemna tests and Chlorella tests showed that investigated samples have certain effects on plants, so constant control of their presence in the environment is needed. PMID:12202923

Vidakovi?-Cifrek, Z; Pavlica, M; Regula, I; Papes, D

2002-10-01

393

Optimisation of olive oil phenol extraction conditions using a high-power probe ultrasonication.  

PubMed

A new method of ultrasound probe assisted liquid-liquid extraction (US-LLE) combined with a freeze-based fat precipitation clean-up and HPLC-DAD-FLD-MS detection is described for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenol analysis. Three extraction variables (solvent type; 100%, 80%, 50% methanol, sonication time; 5, 10, 20 min, extraction steps; 1-5) and two clean-up methods (n-hexane washing vs. low temperature fat precipitation) were studied and optimised with aim to maximise extracts' phenol recoveries. A three-step extraction of 10 min with pure methanol (5 mL) resulted in the highest phenol content of freeze-based defatted extracts (667 ?g GAE g(-1)) from 10 g of EVOO, providing much higher efficiency (up to 68%) and repeatability (up to 51%) vs. its non-sonicated counterpart (LLE-agitation) and n-hexane washing. In addition, the overall method provided high linearity (r(2)?0.97), precision (RSD: 0.4-9.3%) and sensitivity with LODs/LOQs ranging from 0.03 to 0.16 ?g g(-1) and 0.10-0.51 ?g g(-1) of EVOO, respectively. PMID:23442714

Jerman Klen, T; Mozeti? Vodopivec, B

2012-10-15

394

Development of wear resistant nanostructured duplex coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel process for use in oil sands industry.  

PubMed

Oil sands deposits in Northern Alberta, Canada represent a wealth of resources attracting huge capital investment and significant research focus in recent years. As of 2005, crude oil production from the current oil sands operators accounted for 50% of Canada's domestic production. Alberta's oil sands deposits contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which over 175 billion are recoverable with current technology, and 315 billion barrels are ultimately recoverable with technological advances. A major problem of operating machinery and equipment in the oil sands is the unpredictable failure from operating in this highly aggressive environment. One of the significant causes of that problem is premature material wear. An approach to minimize this wear is the use of protective coatings and, in particular, a cermet thin coating. A high level of coating homogeneity is critical for components such as bucketwheels, draglines, conveyors, shovels, heavyhauler trucks etc. that are subjected to severe degradation through abrasive wear. The identification, development and application of optimum wear solutions for these components pose an ongoing challenge. Nanostructured cermet coatings have shown the best results of achieving the degree of homogeneity required for these applications. In this study, WC-17Co cermet powder with nanocrystalline WC core encapsulated with 'duplex' Co layer was used to obtain a nanostructured coating. To apply this coating, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique was used, as it is known for producing wear-resistant coatings superior to those obtained from plasma-based techniques. Mechanical, sliding wear and microstructural behavior of the coating was compared with those of the microstructured coating obtained from spraying WC-10Co-4Cr cermet powder by HVOF technique. Results from the nanostructured coating, among others, showed an average of 25% increase in microhardness, 30% increase in sliding wear resistance and a significant increase in the dry sand abrasion wear resistance when compared with the microstructured coating. PMID:19916449

Saha, Gobinda C; Khan, Tahir I; Glenesk, Larry B

2009-07-01

395

High-energy photon transport modeling for oil-well logging  

E-print Network

Nuclear oil well logging tools utilizing radioisotope sources of photons are used ubiquitously in oilfields throughout the world. Because of safety and security concerns, there is renewed interest in shifting to ...

Johnson, Erik D., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

396

Numerical study on the motion of microscopic oil droplets in high intensity isotropic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rise of small oil droplets in water under isotropic turbulence conditions is analyzed computationally. The effort focuses on the puzzling behavior observed by Friedman and Katz [Phys. Fluids 14, 3059 (2002)], namely, that the rise velocity of droplets smaller than 800?m in diameter is enhanced by turbulence, whereas the rise of larger droplets is suppressed. Specifically, the study explores whether these effects can be captured or explained using a simplified one-way coupling model that combines direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow field with Lagrangian tracking of the droplets using a dynamical equation that accounts for buoyancy, virtual mass, pressure, drag, lift, and history forces. The computational method used is adapted from the model of Snyder et al. [Phys. Fluids 19, 065108 (2007)], which showed excellent correlation between computational results and extensive experimental data for microbubbles in isotropic turbulence. The computed results indicate that, using the quasisteady, empirically determined drag and lift coefficients, one is unable to reproduce the experimentally observed droplet rise velocities. Numerical experiments on the effect of lift and history forces also indicate that, within a broad range of uncertainty, these forces do not account for the discrepancy between measured and computed trends. Guided by correlations obtained for the settling of heavy particles under high turbulence intensities, suppression of the drag and virtual mass coefficients for droplet diameters near ten times the Kolmogorov lengthscale was consequently postulated. Computed results indicate that, using this postulate, the simplified model is able to recover the observed enhancement of the mean rise of small droplets. These experiences underscore the difficulties in modeling the motion of small particles under high turbulence intensities, especially when the particle size is close to the turbulence microscale.

Snyder, Murray R.; Knio, Omar M.; Katz, Joseph; Le Maître, Olivier P.

2008-07-01

397

Recovery of vanadium in deep processing of medium- and high-sulfur crude oils and bitumens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of vanadium from the products of crude oil and hit=men processing has become an active issue because of the shortage of vanadium, the rarity of vanadium ore deposits, and the low concentrations of vanadium in the richest ores (1000-1500 g\\/tonne [ppm by weight]). The vanadium concentration in many crude oils and bitumens is comparable to that in ores. For

D. M. Soskind; V. V. Gribkov; N. P. Slatvinskii-Sidak; M. I. Popov; V. A. Bryukvin; A. G. Vorontnikov

1988-01-01

398

High-resolution mass spectrometry of nitrogenous compounds of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic nitrogenous compounds isolated from extracts of Green River Formation oil shale were analyzed. The major homologous constituents found were the compositional types - namely, quinolines, tetrahydrequinolines with minor amounts of pyridines and indoles series and traces of more aromatized nitrogen compounds. These results are correlated with nitrogen compounds isolated from Green River Formation retort oil and are a survey of the unaltered nitrogen compounds indigeneous to the shale.

Simoneit, B. R.; Schnoes, H. K.; Haug, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

1971-01-01

399

Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution), the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

Broström, G.; Carrasco, A.; Hole, L. R.; Dick, S.; Janssen, F.; Mattsson, J.; Berger, S.

2011-11-01

400

Changes in seed yield and oil fatty acid composition of high oleic sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in relation to the sowing date and the water regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower is one of the most cultivated oil crops in the world. Recently, high oleic acid cultivars have been developed whose oil has higher oxidative stability and better dietary properties than standard genotypes. In Mediterranean environments where water deficit frequently occurs, early sowing and irrigation are used to overcome environmental constraints due to water scarcity. Since, in the literature, the

Z. Flagella; T. Rotunno; E. Tarantino; R. Di Caterina; A. De Caro

2002-01-01

401

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

402

The Use of SNP Markers for Linkage Mapping in Diploid and Tetraploid Peanuts  

PubMed Central

Single nucleotide polymorphic markers (SNPs) are attractive for use in genetic mapping and marker-assisted breeding because they can be scored in parallel assays at favorable costs. However, scoring SNP markers in polyploid plants like the peanut is problematic because of interfering signal generated from the DNA bases that are homeologous to those being assayed. The present study used a previously constructed 1536 GoldenGate SNP assay developed using SNPs identified between two A. duranensis accessions. In this study, the performance of this assay was tested on two RIL mapping populations, one diploid (A. duranensis × A. stenosperma) and one tetraploid [A. hypogaea cv. Runner IAC 886 × synthetic tetraploid (A. ipaënsis × A. duranensis)4×]. The scoring was performed using the software GenomeStudio version 2011.1. For the diploid, polymorphic markers provided excellent genotyping scores with default software parameters. In the tetraploid, as expected, most of the polymorphic markers provided signal intensity plots that were distorted compared to diploid patterns and that were incorrectly scored using default parameters. However, these scorings were easily corrected using the GenomeStudio software. The degree of distortion was highly variable. Of the polymorphic markers, approximately 10% showed no distortion at all behaving as expected for single-dose markers, and another 30% showed low distortion and could be considered high-quality. The genotyped markers were incorporated into diploid and tetraploid genetic maps of Arachis and, in the latter case, were located almost entirely on A genome linkage groups. PMID:24212082

Bertioli, David J.; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Chu, Ye; Dantas, Karinne M.; Santos, Silvio P.; Gouvea, Ediene; Guimaraes, Patricia M.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C. M.; Knapp, Steven J.; Moretzsohn, Marcio C.

2013-01-01

403

Improving the Survivability of High Speed Ball Bearings under Oil Shut-off Conditions by Chemical Modification of the Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil shut-off tests were performed using 150 mm bore M50-steel ball bearings under high speed rotation conditions. This investigation demonstrated that bearings that had received chemical modification of the surface were able to delay the onset of bearing seizure after lubricant shut-off Comparing the chemically modified surface, to a conventional bearing surface, this paper describes the differences and changes in

S. Ijuin; T. Yuruzume; Y. Shoda; K. Toma; H. Kawamura

1995-01-01

404

Açaí ( Euterpe oleraceae) ‘BRS Pará’: A tropical fruit source of antioxidant dietary fiber and high antioxidant capacity oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a study of the concentrations of dietary fiber (DF) and antioxidant capacity in fruits (pulp and oil) of a new açaí (Euterpe oleraceae) cultivar—‘BRS-Pará’, with a view to determine the possibility of using it as a source of antioxidants in functional foods or dietary supplements. Results show that ‘BRS-Pará’ açaí fruits has a high content of DF

Maria do Socorro M. Rufino; Jara Pérez-Jiménez; Sara Arranz; Ricardo Elesbão Alves; Edy S. de Brito; Maria S. P. Oliveira; Fulgencio Saura-Calixto

2011-01-01

405

Analysis of triacylglyceride hydroperoxides in vegetable oils by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacylglyceride hydroperoxides (HPO-TAG), the primary autoxidation products of triacylglycerides (TAG), have been analyzed\\u000a in polyunsaturated vegetable oils by means of nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with\\u000a ultraviolet detection. Using a retention time model based on equivalent carbon numbers, mono- and bishydroperoxy TAG and hydroxy\\u000a TAG could be identified. The correlation between the peroxide value (POV) determined by iodometric titration

Christina Bauer-Plank; Lisette Steenhorst-Slikkerveer

2000-01-01

406

FBG pressure sensor of high pressure electric oil pumps for prestressing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prestressed concrete structure is getting more and more extensive application in architecture, hydraulic engineering and traffic engineering because of its significant advantages of crack later or not cracks completely. It is an internal stress concrete structure that a certain force relies on prestressing tendons. The effectivity of the prestressing tendon in concrete structure is directly related to the reliability, applicability and viability of the whole concrete structure. So it is a key program to apply accurate prestress to the prestressing tendon. According to the pressure sensing principle of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG), a circular plate diaphragm-based FBG sensor for high pressure electric oil pumps that is the pressure source device of the prestressed concrete structure was presented. To overcome the cross sensitivity of temperature and pressure, two FBGs were integrated in the sensor, one of the FBGs isolated from the pressure is used as temperature compensation grating, it is called temperature-FBG comparing to another FBG called pressure-FBG. The elastic diaphragm was chosen as the pressure sensing element whose distortion displace is proportional to the difference of the two sides' pressure of the diaphragm. A certain stress is applied to the pressure-FBG which is stuck to the center of the diaphragm, and then the reflection wavelength of the pressure-FBG is inverse proportional to load of the diaphragm. The results indicated that the linearity is up to 99.99%, and the pressure sensitivity coefficient is 0.024nm/MPa within the measurement scope of 0-70MPa.

Guo, Zhenwu; Liu, Guangwei; Meng, Qingbin; Ge, Fuwei; Li, Weixiang

2013-03-01

407

Postprandial Changes in High Density Lipoproteins in Rats Subjected to Gavage Administration of Virgin Olive Oil  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The present study was designed to verify the influence of acute fat loading on high density lipoprotein (HDL) composition, and the involvement of liver and different segments of small intestine in the changes observed. Methods and Results To address these issues, rats were administered a bolus of 5-ml of extra-virgin olive oil and sacrificed 4 and 8 hours after feeding. In these animals, lipoproteins were analyzed and gene expressions of apolipoprotein and HDL enzymes were assessed in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and liver. Using this experimental design, total plasma and HDL phospholipids increased at the 8-hour-time-point due to increased sphingomyelin content. An increase in apolipoprotein A4 was also observed mainly in lipid-poor HDL. Increased expression of intestinal Apoa1, Apoa4 and Sgms1 mRNA was accompanied by hepatic decreases in the first two genes in liver. Hepatic expression of Abcg1, Apoa1bp, Apoa2, Apoe, Ptlp, Pon1 and Scarb1 decreased significantly following fat gavage, while no changes were observed for Abca1, Lcat or Pla2g7. Significant associations were also noted for hepatic expression of apolipoproteins and Pon1. Manipulation of postprandial triglycerides using an inhibitor of microsomal transfer protein -CP-346086- or of lipoprotein lipase –tyloxapol- did not influence hepatic expression of Apoa1 or Apoa4 mRNA. Conclusion All these data indicate that dietary fat modifies the phospholipid composition of rat HDL, suggesting a mechanism of down-regulation of hepatic HDL when intestine is the main source of those particles and a coordinated regulation of hepatic components of these lipoproteins at the mRNA level, independently of plasma postprandial triglycerides. PMID:23383120

Martinez-Beamonte, Roberto; Navarro, Maria A.; Acin, Sergio; Guillen, Natalia; Barranquero, Cristina; Arnal, Carmen; Surra, Joaquin; Osada, Jesus

2013-01-01

408

Comparison of the effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humans13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs, composed of medium-chain fatty acids 8:0 and 10:0) have long been described as having neutral effects on serum cholesterol concentrations, experimental evidence supporting this claim is limited. In a randomized, crossover, metabolic-ward study, we compared the lipid effects of a natural food diet supplemented with either MCTs, palm oil, or high oleic acid sunflower oil in

Nib B Cater; Howard J Heller; Margo A Denke

409

Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process.  

PubMed

Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. PMID:24621207

Duong, Phuoc H H; Chung, Tai-Shung; Wei, Shawn; Irish, Lana

2014-04-15

410

Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the Full City accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important decision support system (DeSS) useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models is of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the Full City accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws but including an analysis based on a higher resolution model (1.5 km resolution) for the area the model system show results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble using three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

Broström, G.; Carrasco, A.; Hole, L. R.; Dick, S.; Janssen, F.; Mattsson, J.; Berger, S.

2011-06-01

411

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?peanut enriched (46 g/d) ADA meal plan over 24 weeks improves the nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471

2014-01-01

412

Isolation, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel water soluble protein from Inca peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.).  

PubMed

A water soluble storage albumin from Inca peanut (IPA) accounted for approximately 25% (w/w) of defatted seed flour weight, representing 31% of the total seed protein. IPA is a 3S storage protein composed of two glycosylated polypeptides, with estimated molecular weights (MW) of 32800 and 34800 Da, respectively. IPA has an estimated sugar content of 4.8% +/- 0.92% (n = 6). IPA is a basic protein (pI of approximately 9.4) and contains all of the essential amino acids in adequate amounts when compared to the FAO/WHO recommended pattern for a human adult. The tryptophan content of IPA is unusually high (44 mg/g of protein), whereas the phenylalanine content is low (9 mg/g of protein). IPA is a highly digestible protein in vitro. PMID:12166980

Sathe, Shridhar K; Hamaker, Bruce R; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara; Venkatachalam, Mahesh

2002-08-14

413

Color and volatile analysis of peanuts roasted using oven and microwave technologies.  

PubMed

Roasted peanut color and volatiles were evaluated for different time and temperature combinations of roasting. Raw peanuts were oven roasted at 135 to 204 °C, microwave roasted for 1 to 3 min, or combination roasted by microwave and oven roasting for various times and temperatures. Volatiles were measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. L* values were used to categorize peanuts as under-roasted, ideally roasted, and over-roasted. The total roasting time in order to achieve ideal color was not shortened by most of the combination treatments compared to their oven roasted equivalents. Oven before microwave roasting compared to the reverse was found to significantly increase the L* value. Peanuts with the same color had different volatile levels. Hexanal concentrations decreased then increased with roasting. Pyrazine levels increased as roasting time increased, although oven at 177 °C treatments had the highest and microwave treatments had the lowest levels. Volatile levels generally increased as roasting time or temperature increased. Oven 177 °C for 15 min generally had the highest level of volatiles among the roasting treatments tested. Soft independent modeling of class analogies based on volatile levels showed that raw peanuts were the most different, commercial samples were the most similar to each other, and oven, microwave, and combination roasting were all similar in volatile profile. PMID:25182117

Smith, Alicia L; Barringer, Sheryl A

2014-10-01

414

Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.  

PubMed

A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p < 0.05). In all probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

2014-12-01

415

Optimization of ingredient levels for the development of peanut based fiber rich pasta.  

PubMed

Defatted peanut flour is rich source of protein and popularly use for fortification of different food products. Pasta was prepared using semolina, whereas defatted peanut flour and carrot powder were added for fortification. Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of peanut flour, semolina and carrot fiber on overall acceptability, percent expansion, hardness, solid loss and bulk density of pasta product. A rotatable central composite design was used to develop models for the responses. It was found out that an increase in semolina to peanut flour and carrot powder ratio increased the percent solid loss and decreased the hardness of uncooked pasta. Individual contour plots of the different responses were superimposed and regions meeting the maximum overall acceptability (7.81) and hardness (26.984 kg) as well as minimum solid loss (11.47 %) and bulk density below 260 kg/m(3) however percent expansion was found below 190 %. The product was acceptable at ingredient composition of 205.59 g semolina, 16.70 g peanut flour and 10 g carrot powder. PMID:25328216

Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Prasad, Kamlesh; Seth, Dibyakant

2014-10-01

416

Explaining parallel computing at Middle School What Grown-Ups Do Not Understand About Parallel Programming: The Peanut Butter and Jelly Story  

E-print Network

Programming: The Peanut Butter and Jelly Story Computers are machines engineered to operate by themselves the following problem. You have two jars. Due to a mistake, one is imprinted with the words `peanut butter' but has jelly and the other is imprinted with the word `jelly' but has peanut butter. You need to swap

Shapiro, Benjamin

417

Isoosmotic Regulation of Cotton and Peanut at Saline Concentrations of K and Na 1  

PubMed Central

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants were grown for 4 weeks in saline, isoosmotic rooting substrates with different proportions of K and Na. Isoosmotic media did not affect growth (except at the highest external K concentrations) or estimates of intracellular osmotic pressure in expanding leaves (i.e. osmotic pressure of leaf sap and intracellular osmotic pressure as calculated from pressure-volume curves). In expanded leaves, an increase in the proportion of external K increased sap osmotic pressure. The sum of [K+Na+Cl] in the sap of expanding and expanded leaves accounted for the effect of isoosmotic media on the concentration of osmolytes with high electrical conductance, so the difference between sap osmotic pressure and [K+Na+Cl] accounted for the concetration of osmolytes with low conductance. In expanding leaves, an increase in the proportion of external K increased [K+Na+Cl] and decreased the concentration of osmolytes with low conductance. In expanded leaves, an increase in the proportion of external K increased [K+Na+Cl] to approximately the same extent as sap osmotic pressure. Isoosmotic regulation was apparent in expanding leaves but not evident in expanded leaves. This suggests a turgor homeostat which can influence the concentration of organic solutes in expanding leaves but cannot control the import of inorganic solutes from a rooting medium nor the total production of organic solutes in plants with a low sink:source ratio. PMID:16666244

Lauter, David J.; Meiri, Avraham; Shuali, Margot

1988-01-01

418

Properties of Milk Supplemented with Peanut Sprout Extract Microcapsules during Storage  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk with added powdered peanut sprout extract microcapsules (PPSEM) during the storage at 4°C for 16 d. The size of PPSEM varies from 3 to 10 ?m as observed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pH values of all samples ranged from 6.8 to 6.6 during the storage. Release of resveratrol for 0.5 and 1% PPSEM addition was about 0.89 ?l/ml and TBARS value found to lower during storage of 16 d. The a* and b* color values of high concentrations (1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%) of PPSEM-added milk samples were significantly increased during the storage (p<0.05). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability of PPSEM (0.5 and 1%) added milk sample were quite similar to that of control. Based on the data, it was concluded that the low concentrations of the microcapsules (0.5 and 1.0%, w/v) could be suitable to produce the microcapsule-supplemented milk without significant adverse effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk. PMID:25049901

Lee, Y. K.; Ganesan, P.; Kwak, H. S.

2013-01-01

419

RETRACTED: A process for high yield and scaleable recovery of high purity eicosapentaenoic acid esters from microalgae and fish oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low expense process is developed for recovering esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microalgae and fish oil. Over 70% of the EPA content in the esterified crude extract of microalgae were recovered at purities exceeding 90%. The recovery scheme utilizes either wet or freeze-dried algal biomass. The process consists of only three main steps: 1) simultaneous extraction and transesterification of

El-Hassan Belarbi; Emilio Molina; Yusuf Chisti

2000-01-01

420

A process for high yield and scaleable recovery of high purity eicosapentaenoic acid esters from microalgae and fish oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low expense process is developed for recovering esterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from microalgae and fish oil. Over 70% of the EPA content in the esterified crude extract of microalgae were recovered at purities exceeding 90%. The recovery scheme utilizes either wet or freeze-dried algal biomass. The process consists of only three main steps: 1) simultaneous extraction and transesterification of

El Hassan Belarbi; Emilio Molina; Yusuf Chisti

2000-01-01

421

Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the US determined by a random digit dial telephone survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Allergy to peanuts and tree nuts (TNs) is one of the leading causes of fatal and near-fatal food-induced allergic reactions. These allergies can be lifelong and appear to be increasing in prevalence. Despite the seriousness of these allergies, the prevalence of peanut and TN allergy in the general population is unknown. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence of

Scott H. Sicherer; Anne Muñoz-Furlong; A. Wesley Burks; Hugh A. Sampson

1999-01-01

422

High-throughput analysis of lipid hydroperoxides in edible oils and fats using the fluorescent reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine.  

PubMed

A fluorometric method for the determination of hydroperoxides (HP) in edible oils and fats using the reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) was developed and validated. Two solvent media containing 100% butanol or a mixture of chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) can be used to solubilise lipid samples. Regardless of the solvent used to solubilise the sample, the DPPP method was precise, accurate, sensitive and easy to perform. The HP content of 43 oil and fat samples was determined and the results were compared with those obtained by means of the AOCS Official Method for the determination of peroxide value (PV) and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) method. The proposed method not only correlates well with the PV and FOX methods, but also presents some advantages such as requiring low sample and solvent amounts and being suitable for high-throughput sample analysis. PMID:24874381

Santas, Jonathan; Guzmán, Yeimmy J; Guardiola, Francesc; Rafecas, Magdalena; Bou, Ricard

2014-11-01

423

Fast and selective removal of oils from water surface via highly hydrophobic core-shell Fe2O3@C nanoparticles under magnetic field.  

PubMed

The removal of oil spills or organic contaminants from water surface is of great technological importance for environmental protection. A major challenge is the fast distribution and collection of absorbent materials with high separation selectivity, good thermal stability, and excellent recyclability. Here we reported fast and selective removal of oils from water surface through core-shell Fe(2)O(3)@C nanoparticles under magnetic field. These nanoparticles combined with unsinkable, highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic properties, could selectively absorb lubricating oil up to 3.8 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. The oil-absorbed nanoparticles were quickly collected in seconds by applying an external magnetic field. More importantly, the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment whereas the particles still kept highly hydrophobic and superolephilic characteristics. Experiment results showed that the highly hydrophobic Fe(2)O(3)@C nanoparticles could be reused in water-oil separation for many cycles. Our results suggest a facile and efficient method that might find practical applications in the cleanup of oil spills and the removal of organic pollutants on water surface. PMID:20942429

Zhu, Qing; Tao, Feng; Pan, Qinmin

2010-11-01

424

Breeding of high-oil Jatropha curcas L for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Different geographic seed sources (80) of Jatropha curcas L. were collected in South China and planted in a germplasm resource garden to study their biological and agricultural properties. The average ground diameter, tree height and crown size of two-year old plants of the 80 sources was 7.6 cm, 167 cm and 114 cm, respectively, the average 1000-seed weight was 0.676 (0.477-0.876) kg. The trees grew further to the average size of 12.6 cm diameter, 2.69 m height and 2.1 m crown at the 4th year. Among the 80 sources, six sources had higher oil yield (seed oil content of 40%-42%) and better behaving in expression of phenotype were selected for a small-scale trial of forestation to determine oil yield. Among them a provenance with outstand in expression of phenotype yielded 964.3, 2000.6 and 2858.7 kg/ha was achieved for two- three- and four-year old trees, respectively. Additionally, a new Jatropha mutant was found in the wild and hybridization experiments showed that its oil content increased by 6%. PMID:21280435

Yang, Chengyuan; Fang, Zhen; Li, Bo; Liu, Gang; Li, Jianzhong

2010-11-01

425

Heterogeneous esterification of oil with high amount of free fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frying oils have become the newest raw material for the transesterification reaction for the production of biodiesel. However, these compounds usually come with a certain amount of free fatty acids. These impurities can be transformed into esters and the production of biodiesel could be increased.The use of basic resins to perform the esterification reaction into biodiesel is studied in this

J. M. Marchetti; V. U. Miguel; A. F. Errazu

2007-01-01

426

Hybrid high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) organogels with oil separation properties.  

PubMed

Hybrid HIPE organogels were prepared from pre-formed hybrid organogels, which were formed from a triblock ionomer and Fe3O4 nanoparticles via charge-driven assembly. Magnetic materials can be obtained from these hybrid HIPE organogels simply by removal of solvents, and these materials have been confirmed to be excellent candidates for absorption of oil from water. PMID:25253419

Zhang, Tao; Wu, Yuanpeng; Xu, Zhiguang; Guo, Qipeng

2014-10-14

427

HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN RESIDUAL OIL ASH AND DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential use of sorbents to manage ultrafine ash aerosol emissions from residual oil combustion was investigated using a downfired 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor. The major constituents were vanadium (V), iron (Fe), nickel, (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Of the...

428

Preparative compound class separation of heavy oil vacuum residua by high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe an HPLC system used to separate deasphalted vacuum resids of heavy oils, into saturates, aromatics and two types of resins, at preparative scale. The separation is achieved using two silica and one cyano bonded silica columns, and cyclopentane, a mixture of chloroform-methanol and dichloromethane as solvents. Automated repetitive injection is required. Recoveries of the sample are around 100%.

Carbognani, L.; Izquierdo, A. (Dept. of Analysis and Evaluation, Intevep, S.A., Caracas, Venezuela (US))

1990-01-01

429

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants.

Edwards, Peter M.; Brown, Steven S.; Roberts, James M.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M.; Degouw, Joost A.; Dubé, William P.; Field, Robert A.; Flynn, James H.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O.; Lefer, Barry L.; Lerner, Brian M.; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A.; Murphy, Shane M.; Parrish, David D.; Senff, Christoph J.; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R.; Trainer, Michael K.; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J.; Young, Cora J.; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

2014-10-01

430

High winter ozone pollution from carbonyl photolysis in an oil and gas basin.  

PubMed

The United States is now experiencing the most rapid expansion in oil and gas production in four decades, owing in large part to implementation of new extraction technologies such as horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing. The environmental impacts of this development, from its effect on water quality to the influence of increased methane leakage on climate, have been a matter of intense debate. Air quality impacts are associated with emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), whose photochemistry leads to production of ozone, a secondary pollutant with negative health effects. Recent observations in oil- and gas-producing basins in the western United States have identified ozone mixing ratios well in excess of present air quality standards, but only during winter. Understanding winter ozone production in these regions is scientifically challenging. It occurs during cold periods of snow cover when meteorological inversions concentrate air pollutants from oil and gas activities, but when solar irradiance and absolute humidity, which are both required to initiate conventional photochemistry essential for ozone production, are at a minimum. Here, using data from a remote location in the oil and gas basin of northeastern Utah and a box model, we provide a quantitative assessment of the photochemistry that leads to these extreme winter ozone pollution events, and identify key factors that control ozone production in this unique environment. We find that ozone production occurs at lower NOx and much larger VOC concentrations than does its summertime urban counterpart, leading to carbonyl (oxygenated VOCs with a C = O moiety) photolysis as a dominant oxidant source. Extreme VOC concentrations optimize the ozone production efficiency of NOx. There is considerable potential for global growth in oil and gas extraction from shale. This analysis could help inform strategies to monitor and mitigate air quality impacts and provide broader insight into the response of winter ozone to primary pollutants. PMID:25274311

Edwards, Peter M; Brown, Steven S; Roberts, James M; Ahmadov, Ravan; Banta, Robert M; deGouw, Joost A; Dubé, William P; Field, Robert A; Flynn, James H; Gilman, Jessica B; Graus, Martin; Helmig, Detlev; Koss, Abigail; Langford, Andrew O; Lefer, Barry L; Lerner, Brian M; Li, Rui; Li, Shao-Meng; McKeen, Stuart A; Murphy, Shane M; Parrish, David D; Senff, Christoph J; Soltis, Jeffrey; Stutz, Jochen; Sweeney, Colm; Thompson, Chelsea R; Trainer, Michael K; Tsai, Catalina; Veres, Patrick R; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Warneke, Carsten; Wild, Robert J; Young, Cora J; Yuan, Bin; Zamora, Robert

2014-10-16

431

CD4-Blockade Can Induce Protection from Peanut-Induced Anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been shown effective in inducing immune tolerance in a range of animal models of autoimmunity, allergy, and transplantation. We investigated whether CD4-blockade, effective in inducing transplantation tolerance, could prevent systemic immune responses leading to anaphylaxis. We found that treatment with a non-depleting anti-CD4 mAb could prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis following subsequent systemic exposure to crude peanut extract (CPE). Furthermore, the effect of CD4-blockade did not interfere with overall immune competence, as anti-CD4 treated mice remained fully competent to respond to unrelated antigens. Protection from anaphylaxis correlated with increased frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and was abrogated following Treg depletion. Taken together our data suggest that activation of T cells by CPE in presence of CD4-blockade leads to Treg expansion that can prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:22566846

Duarte, Joana; Caridade, Marta; Graca, Luis

2011-01-01

432

Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO) in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO), driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in

Michael J Leaver; Laure AN Villeneuve; Alex Obach; Linda Jensen; James E Bron; Douglas R Tocher; John B Taggart

2008-01-01

433

Ara h 1 CD4+ T cell epitope-based peptides: candidates for a peanut allergy therapeutic  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut allergy is a life-threatening condition; there is currently no cure. While whole allergen extracts are used for specific immunotherapy for many allergies, they can cause severe reactions and even fatalities in peanut allergy. Objective To identify short, HLA-degenerate CD4+ T cell epitope-based peptides of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 that target allergen-specific T cells without causing IgE-mediated inflammatory cell activation, as candidates for safe peanut-specific immunotherapy. Methods Ara h 1-specific CD4+ T cell lines (TCL) were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of peanut-allergic subjects using CFSE-based methodology. T cell epitopes were identified using CFSE and thymidine-based proliferation assays. Epitope HLA-restriction was investigated using blocking antibodies, HLA-genotyping and epitope prediction algorithms. Functional peanut-specific IgE reactivity to peptides was assessed by basophil activation assay. Results A total of 145 Ara h 1-specific TCL were generated from 18 HLA-diverse peanut-allergic subjects. The TCL recognized 20-mer peptides throughout Ara h 1. Nine 20-mers containing the most frequently recognized epitopes were selected and their recognition confirmed in 18 additional peanut-allergic subjects. Ten core epitopes were mapped within these 20-mers. These were HLA-DQ and/or HLA–DR restricted, with each presented on at least two different HLA-molecules. Seven short (? 20 aa) non-basophil-reactive peptides encompassing all core epitopes were designed and validated in peanut-allergic donor PBMC T cell assays. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Short CD4+ T cell epitope-based Ara h 1 peptides were identified as novel candidates for a safe, T cell targeted peanut-specific immunotherapy for HLA-diverse populations. PMID:23711131

Prickett, S R; Voskamp, A L; Phan, T; Dacumos-Hill, A; Mannering, S I; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

2013-01-01

434

Characterization of Peanut Germin-Like Proteins, AhGLPs in Plant Development and Defense  

PubMed Central

Background Germin-like superfamily members are ubiquitously expressed in various plant species and play important roles in plant development and defense. Although several GLPs have been identified in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), their roles in development and defense remain unknown. In this research, we study the spatiotemporal expression of AhGLPs in peanut and their functions in plant defense. Results We have identified three new AhGLP members (AhGLP3b, AhGLP5b and AhGLP7b) that have distinct but very closely related DNA sequences. The spatial and temporal expression profiles revealed that each peanut GLP gene has its distinct expression pattern in various tissues and developmental stages. This suggests that these genes all have their distinct roles in peanut development. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that AhGLP2 and 5 undergo a protein transport process after synthesis. The expression of all AhGLPs increased in responding to Aspergillus flavus infection, suggesting AhGLPs' ubiquitous roles in defense to A. flavus. Each AhGLP gene had its unique response to various abiotic stresses (including salt, H2O2 stress and wound), biotic stresses (including leaf spot, mosaic and rust) and plant hormone stimulations (including SA and ABA treatments). These results indicate that AhGLPs have their distinct roles in plant defense. Moreover, in vivo study of AhGLP transgenic Arabidopsis showed that both AhGLP2 and 3 had salt tolerance, which made transgenic Arabidopsis grow well under 100 mM NaCl stress. Conclusions For the first time, our study analyzes the AhGLP gene expression profiles in peanut and reveals their roles under various stresses. These results provide an insight into the developmental and defensive roles of GLP gene family in peanut. PMID:23626720

Wang, Tong; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Fanghe; Li, Haifen; Li, Ling; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Shanlin; Liang, Xuanqiang

2013-01-01

435

A method for measuring the thickness of transparent oil film on water surface using laser trigonometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for measurement of thickness of transparent oil film on water surface based on laser trigonometry. With an oblique incident mode of single-point laser triangulation ranging system, laser light is incident on the upper and lower surfaces of the oil film being measured and an ellipse light spot is formed on the upper and lower surfaces of the oil film. The two light spots are imaged on an image plane CCD by an imaging lens and the image spot is formed and stored in a computer. The thickness of oil film being measured can be obtained by displacement of the image spot and the configuration parameter of the imaging system. The experiment is conducted using edible peanut oil and diesel oil. The research results show that the method presented in this paper is feasible and applicable to dynamic on-line measurement of oil film thickness of oil spill on sea surface.

Qieni, Lü; Baozhen, Ge; Wenda, Yao; Yimo, Zhang

2011-01-01

436

10.1586/ECI.13.33 551ISSN 1744-666X 2013 Expert Reviews Ltdwww.expert-reviews.com Peanut allergy is a life-threatening, IgE-mediated  

E-print Network

allergy is a life-threatening, IgE-mediated allergic disease. The prevalence of peanut allergy in school­12]. Compared with other food allergies, peanut allergy is less likely to be out- grown and is estimated discussion and debate about risk factors for development of peanut allergy. The majority of peanut

Engel, Jonathan

437

Conversion efficiency and oil quality of low-lipid high-protein and high-lipid low-protein microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for converting algae into biocrude oil. Here, HTL of a low-lipid high-protein microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.) and a high-lipid low-protein microalgae (Chlorella sp.) was studied. An orthogonal design was applied to investigate the effects of reaction temperature (220-300°C), retention time (30-90 min), and total solid content (TS, 15-25%wt) of the feedstock. The highest biocrude yield for Nannochloropsis sp. was 55% at 260°C, 60 min and 25%wt, and for Chlorella sp. was 82.9% at 220°C, 90 min and 25%wt. The maximum higher heating values (HHV) of biocrude oil from both algae were ? 37 MJ/kg. GC-MS revealed a various distribution of chemical compounds in biocrude. In particular, the highest hydrocarbons content was 29.8% and 17.9% for Nannochloropsis and Chlorella sp., respectively. This study suggests that algae composition greatly influences oil yield and quality, but may not be in similar effects. PMID:24413449

Li, Hao; Liu, Zhidan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Lu, Haifeng; Duan, Na; Liu, Minsheng; Zhu, Zhangbing; Si, Buchun

2014-02-01

438

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

439

Understanding high wintertime ozone pollution events in an oil and natural gas producing region of the western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent increases in oil and natural gas (NG) production throughout the western US have come with scientific and public interest in emission rates, air quality and climate impacts related to this industry. This study uses a regional scale air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate high ozone (O3) episodes during the winter of 2013 over the Uinta Basin (UB) in northeastern Utah, which is densely populated by thousands of oil and NG wells. The high resolution meteorological simulations are able to qualitatively reproduce the wintertime cold pool conditions that occurred in 2013, allowing the model to reproduce the observed multi-day buildup of atmospheric pollutants and accompanying rapid photochemical ozone formation in the UB. Two different emission scenarios for the oil and NG sector were employed in this study. The first emission scenario (bottom-up) was based on the US EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) (2011, version 1) for the oil and NG sector for the UB. The second emission scenario (top-down) was based on the previously derived estimates of methane (CH4) emissions and a regression analysis for multiple species relative to CH4 concentration measurements in the UB. WRF-Chem simulations using the two emission data sets resulted in significant differences for concentrations of most gas-phase species. Evaluation of the model results shows greater underestimates of CH4 and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the simulation with the NEI-2011 inventory than the case when the top-down emission scenario was used. Unlike VOCs, the NEI-2011 inventory significantly overestimates the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while the top-down emission scenario results in a moderate negative bias. Comparison of simulations using the two emission data sets reveals that the top-down case captures the high O3 episodes. In contrast, the simulation case using the bottom-up inventory is not able to reproduce any of the observed high O3 concentrations in the UB. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the major factors driving high wintertime O3 in the UB are shallow boundary layers with light winds, high emissions of VOCs from oil and NG operations compared to NOx emissions, enhancement of photolysis fluxes and reduction of O3 loss from deposition due to snow cover. Simple emission reduction scenarios show that the UB O3 production is VOC sensitive and NOx insensitive. The model results show a disproportionate contribution of aromatic VOCs to O3 formation relative to all other VOC emissions. We also present modeling results for winter of 2012, when high O3 levels were not observed in the UB. The air quality model together with the top-down emission framework presented here may help to address the emerging science and policy related questions surrounding the environmental impact of oil and NG drilling in western US.

Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S.; Trainer, M.; Banta, R.; Brewer, A.; Brown, S.; Edwards, P. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Frost, G. J.; Gilman, J.; Helmig, D.; Johnson, B.; Karion, A.; Koss, A.; Langford, A.; Lerner, B.; Olson, J.; Oltmans, S.; Peischl, J.; Pétron, G.; Pichugina, Y.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T.; Schnell, R.; Senff, C.; Sweeney, C.; Thompson, C.; Veres, P.; Warneke, C.; Wild, R.; Williams, E. J.; Yuan, B.; Zamora, R.

2014-08-01

440

Structure of high internal phase aqueous-in-oil emulsions and related inverse micelle solutions. 3. Variation of surfactant.  

PubMed

The small angle neutron scattering from high internal phase water-in-hexadecane and saturated ammonium nitrate-in-hexadecane emulsions is compared with that from related hexadecane-based inverse micellar solutions. Three molecular weights of the monodisperse polyisobutylene acid amide (PIBSA) surfactant 750, 1200, and 1700 were studied over a range of surfactant concentrations. As an additional comparison, emulsions based on sorbitan monooleate and isostearate surfactants were investigated. The scattering from molecular weight 1200 water-based PIBSA emulsions can be fitted at all concentrations to a model with a surfactant coated aqueous droplet-oil interface together with the majority of the surfactant in the oil phase of the emulsion in the form of inverse micelles. Variation of the molecular weight shows a variety of phases of increasing curvature: lamellar, sponge, and, most commonly, the emulsion structure described above. In addition, the molecular weight affects the oil component in the emulsions, which can contain either cylindrical micelles or spherical micelles of varying water but constant hexadecane content. Increased phase curvature is favored by both increased PIBSA molecular weight and ammonium nitrate dissolved in the water. These observations are consistent with "Wedge theory". The structures observed in the emulsions are close to those observed in related inverse micellar solutions made from hexadecane, the surfactant, and water. Lower concentrations of surfactant in the micellar solutions decrease micelle curvature, except where the inverse micelles are spherical and small; here, there is little effect of dilution. Substitution of sorbitan surfactants for PIBSAs produces slightly less organized but similar structures, with smaller spherical micelles containing proportionally more water. The aqueous-oil droplet interface has a relatively invariant monolayer of adsorbed surfactant. For all emulsions, we can infer from the mass balance that micelle concentrations are depressed in the inverse micellar solutions because up to half the added surfactant is present as individually dissolved molecules. PMID:19681586

Reynolds, Philip A; Gilbert, Elliot P; Henderson, Mark J; White, John W

2009-09-10

441

Facile purification of tocopherols from soybean oil deodorizer distillate in high yield using lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tocopherols have been purified from deodorizer distillate produced in the final deodorization step of vegetable oil refining\\u000a by a process including molecular distillation. Deodorizer distillate contains mainly tocopherols, sterols, and free fatty\\u000a acids (FFA); the presence of sterols hinders tocopherol purification in good yield. We found that Candida rugosa lipase recognized sterols as substrates but not tocopherols, and that esterification

Yuji Shimada; Seiichi Nakai; Masaharu Suenaga; Akio Sugihara; Motohiro Kitano; Yoshio Tominaga

2000-01-01

442

When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... peanut butter on toast, crackers, apples, bananas, or celery. One tablespoon of creamy peanut butter will provide ... nuts, fatty fish, avocados, and olive oil. Drink juices made from real fruit that are high in ...

443

Investigation of high-temperature, igneous-related hydraulic fracturing as a reservoir control in the Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat oil fields, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Research in progress to evaluate natural, igenous-related hydrothermal fracturing as a reservoir control in two eastern Nevada oil fields has revealed evidence of a far more comprehensive role for moderate- to high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin-and-Range oil-reservoir evolution. Fluid-inclusion and petrographic studies have shown that (now) oil-bearing dolomite breccias of the Blackburn field (Pine Valley, Eureka County) were formed when overpressured, magmatically-heated, high-temperature (>350{degrees}C) hydrothermal brines explosively ruptured their host rocks; similar studies of texturally identical breccias of the Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat field (Railroad Valley, Nye County) so far do not support such an explosive origin. At Grant Canyon, however, hydrothermal, breccia-cementing quartz hosts primary oil, aqueous/oil, and aqueous fluid inclusions (homogenization temperature = 120{degrees}C) which document a direct geothermal connection for oil migration and entrapment. Moreover, at both Blackburn and Grant Canyon/Bacon Flat, the oil reservoirs are top- and side-sealed by hydrothermally altered Tertiary ignimbrites and epiclastic rocks. Contemporary geothermal activity is also apparent at gra