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  1. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ... reactions in people who are allergic to peanuts, soybeans, and other members of the Fabaceae plant family.

  2. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rectally, peanut oil is used in ointments and medicinal oils for treating constipation. Pharmaceutical companies use peanut ... applied to the skin, or used rectally in medicinal amounts. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: ...

  3. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  4. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characterizations of Normal and High-Oleic Oils from Nine Commercial Cultivars of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density and viscosity data as a function of temperature (5 to 100°C) were collected for oils (normal and high-oleic) from 9 cultivars of peanut. Density decreased linearly (R squared, greater than or equal to 0.99) with increasing temperature for all oils, whereas viscosity (dynamic or kinematic) d...

  6. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  7. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  8. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  9. Evaluation of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The skins from peanuts are a low-value material from peanut processing and literature suggests it is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have any significant uses other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high anti...

  10. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  11. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  12. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  13. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  14. Characteristics and composition of peanut oil prepared by an aqueous extraction method.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Lu, J Y; Jones, G; Loretan, P A; Hill, W A

    1998-01-01

    Peanut is one of the crops being tested for NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for future long-duration human space missions. The ALS program is developing an integrated system for biomass (food, oxygen) production and resource recycling. Oil will be used mainly for cooking and its availability is important for food preparation. Peanut seeds contain 40-50% oil and hence are considered an excellent source of oil. In the ALS environment, a simple, compact, and energy-efficient system is needed. The feasibility of such a method, peanut oil preparation by water extraction, was investigated. The results indicated the important processing conditions to be: a peanut particle size of 0.02 cm or less, a pH of 4, simmering for 20 min plus churning at 65 degrees C for a few hours, and a centrifugation at 6000 x gn to separate the oil. The oil recovery yield was about 80%. The saponification value, specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity were similar to that of commercial peanut oil except the color was lighter for the water-extracted oil. Gas and thin-layer chromatographic analyses showed that fatty acid and lipid profiles were similar to the commercial peanut oil. The only difference observed was that the oil prepared by the aqueous method had lower linoleic and higher oleic acids than the commercial peanut oil. The oil prepared by this aqueous method appeared to be of high quality. PMID:11541680

  15. RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

  16. Analysis of Peanut Seed Oil by NIR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) were collected from Arachis hypogaea seed samples and used in predictive models to rapidly identify varieties with high oleic acid. The method was developed for shelled peanut seeds with intact testa. Spectra were evaluated initially by principal component an...

  17. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  18. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  19. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  20. Assessment and Characterization of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are a low-value material from peanut processing and are a good source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have a significant use other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high antioxidant activity, while little is known s...

  1. Molecular breeding for introgression of fatty acid desaturase mutant alleles (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) enhances oil quality in high and low oil containing peanut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Pandey, Manish K; Shasidhar, Yaduru; Variath, Murali T; Sriswathi, Manda; Khera, Pawan; Manohar, Surendra S; Nagesh, Patne; Vishwakarma, Manish K; Mishra, Gyan P; Radhakrishnan, T; Manivannan, N; Dobariya, K L; Vasanthi, R P; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    High oleate peanuts have two marketable benefits, health benefits to consumers and extended shelf life of peanut products. Two mutant alleles present on linkage group a09 (ahFAD2A) and b09 (ahFAD2B) control composition of three major fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids which together determine peanut oil quality. In conventional breeding, selection for fatty acid composition is delayed to advanced generations. However by using DNA markers, breeders can reject large number of plants in early generations and therefore can optimize time and resources. Here, two approaches of molecular breeding namely marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) and marker-assisted selection (MAS) were employed to transfer two FAD2 mutant alleles from SunOleic 95R into the genetic background of ICGV 06110, ICGV 06142 and ICGV 06420. In summary, 82 MABC and 387 MAS derived introgression lines (ILs) were developed using DNA markers with elevated oleic acid varying from 62 to 83%. Oleic acid increased by 0.5-1.1 folds, with concomitant reduction of linoleic acid by 0.4-1.0 folds and palmitic acid by 0.1-0.6 folds among ILs compared to recurrent parents. Finally, high oleate ILs, 27 with high oil (53-58%), and 28 ILs with low oil content (42-50%) were selected that may be released for cultivation upon further evaluation. PMID:26566838

  2. Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

  3. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

  4. Nondestructive estimation of oil and moisture content using NIR spectroscopy in Valencia and Virginia peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method by which these parameters could be measured rapidly and nondestructively for peanut pods (in-shell peanuts) would be useful for the industry. In this work, an attempt was made to measure oil and moisture content of...

  5. Long term testing of peanut oil in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

  6. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  12. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  13. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  14. De Novo Assembly of the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seed Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Unigenes for Oil Accumulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

  15. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  16. The Effect of Moisture Content on Storage Quality and Sensory Attributes of Oil Roasted Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical characteristics of peanuts may interact with processing conditions to impact quality. This study, examined the effects of preroast moisture content on the chemical and sensory characteristics of oil roasted peanuts. Virginia type peanuts were sequentially dried in-shell to obtain extra la...

  17. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  18. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  19. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

  20. Microstructures of oil roasted peanuts as affected by initial moisture content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil roasting of peanuts is a unit operation equal to that of deep frying of higher moisture foods. Retention of the oil taken up by the peanuts from oil roasting during the shelf life of the packaged product is necessary to prevent an unappealing greasy appearance. Properties of the end product we...

  1. Gene expression profiling during seed-filling process in peanut with emphasis on oil biosynthesis networks.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kapil; Kayam, Galya; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Hovav, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Pod-filling is an important stage of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed development. It is partially controlled by genetic factors, as cultivars considerably vary in pod-filling potential. Here, a study was done to detect changes in mRNA levels that accompany pod-filling processes. Four seed developmental stages were sampled from two peanut genotypes differing in their oil content and pod-filling potential. Transcriptome data were generated by RNA-Seq and explored with respect to genic and subgenomic patterns of expression. Very dynamic transcriptomic changes occurred during seed development in both genotypes. Yet, general higher expression rates of transcripts and an enrichment in processes involved "energy generation" and "primary metabolites" were observed in the genotype with the better pod-filling ("Hanoch"). A dataset of 584 oil-related genes was assembled and analyzed, resulting in several lipid metabolic processes highly expressed in Hanoch, including oil storage and FA synthesis/elongation. Homoeolog-specific gene expression analysis revealed that both subgenomes contribute to the oil genes expression. Yet, biases were observed in particular parts of the pathway with possible biological meaning, presumably explaining the genotypic variation in oil biosynthesis and pod-filling. This study provides baseline information and a resource that may be used to understand development and oil biosynthesis in the peanut seeds. PMID:27181953

  2. Development of a Pilot Scale Process to Sequester Aflatoxin and Release Bioactive Peptides from Highly Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut oil. PM applications are limited because of typical high concentrations of aflatoxin. For the first time, pilot-scale extraction of protein and sequestration of aflatoxin from PM were evaluated. Aqueous...

  3. Oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, and resveratrol content variability in FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical compo...

  4. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  5. Interfacial Properties of Raw and Roasted Peanut Oils as Related to Emulsification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roasted peanut oil is a unique product that can impart a desirable roasted peanut flavor in various emulsified formulations. Emulsification properties are a function of the oil physical properties, which include interfacial tension, viscosity, and density among others. These physical properties ha...

  6. Quantifying Aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using fabricating fluorescence probes based on upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuicui; Li, Huanhuan; Koidis, Anastasios; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth doped upconversion nanoparticles convert near-infrared excitation light into visible emission light. Compared to organic fluorophores and semiconducting nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer high photochemical stability, sharp emission bandwidths, and large anti-Stokes shifts. Along with the significant light penetration depth and the absence of autofluorescence in biological samples under infrared excitation, these UCNPs have attracted more and more attention on toxin detection and biological labelling. Herein, the fluorescence probe based on UCNPs was developed for quantifying Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil. Based on a specific immunity format, the detection limit for AFB1 under optimal conditions was obtained as low as 0.2ng·ml(-1), and in the effective detection range 0.2 to 100ng·ml(-1), good relationship between fluorescence intensity and AFB1 concentration was achieved under the linear ratios up to 0.90. Moreover, to check the feasibility of these probes on AFB1 measurements in peanut oil, recovery tests have been carried out. A good accuracy rating (93.8%) was obtained in this study. Results showed that the nanoparticles can be successfully applied for sensing AFB1 in peanut oil. PMID:27124091

  7. Quantifying Aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using fabricating fluorescence probes based on upconversion nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuicui; Li, Huanhuan; Koidis, Anastasios; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth doped upconversion nanoparticles convert near-infrared excitation light into visible emission light. Compared to organic fluorophores and semiconducting nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer high photochemical stability, sharp emission bandwidths, and large anti-Stokes shifts. Along with the significant light penetration depth and the absence of autofluorescence in biological samples under infrared excitation, these UCNPs have attracted more and more attention on toxin detection and biological labelling. Herein, the fluorescence probe based on UCNPs was developed for quantifying Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil. Based on a specific immunity format, the detection limit for AFB1 under optimal conditions was obtained as low as 0.2 ng·ml- 1, and in the effective detection range 0.2 to 100 ng·ml- 1, good relationship between fluorescence intensity and AFB1 concentration was achieved under the linear ratios up to 0.90. Moreover, to check the feasibility of these probes on AFB1 measurements in peanut oil, recovery tests have been carried out. A good accuracy rating (93.8%) was obtained in this study. Results showed that the nanoparticles can be successfully applied for sensing AFB1 in peanut oil.

  8. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  9. Determination of protein levels in soy and peanut oils by colorimetric assay and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Fu, Tong-Jen; Jackson, Lauren S; Gendel, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical methods are needed for measuring the levels of protein from allergenic food transferred into cooking oil. A simple method for determination of total protein in cooking oils was developed. Oil was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween (PBST) and the extracts were partitioned with hexane to remove residual oil. Total protein in the PBST extracts was assayed with bicinchoninic acid (BCA), micro-BCA, reducing-agent compatible BCA and CB-XT kits. These methods were used to measure recovery of protein from peanut butter spikes of soy and peanut oil in the range of 50-1000 ppm. Recoveries were generally above 70%. However, the BCA and micro-BCA assays were subject to interference and enhanced color formation which were probably due to co-extracted antioxidants present in oil. The reducing agent-compatible BCA and CB-X protein assays reduced interference and gave lower protein values in crude, cold-pressed, and refined peanut oils. Heating oil to 180 degrees C before extraction also reduced interference-induced color enhancement. A commercial ELISA test kit was also used to measure peanut protein in oil spiked with peanut butter. Recovery of peanut residues measured by ELISA was significantly decreased when the peanut butter-spiked oil was heated to 180 degrees C compared to unheated oil. Recovery of spiked peanut butter protein measured by the buffer extraction-colorimetric method was not decreased in heated oil. The method developed here could be used to determine protein levels in crude and refined oil, and to assess the potential for allergen cross-contact from reused cooking oil. PMID:20334183

  10. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  11. Application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy on Determination of Moisture, Total oil and Protein Contents of In-shell Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture, total oil and protein content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and protein ...

  12. Determination of In-shell Peanuts Moisture, Oil and Fatty Acids Composition Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and fatty acid content of V...

  13. Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid reverse the inhibitory effect of insulin production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α both in vitro and in vivo systems

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliou, Evros K; Gonzalez, Andres; Garcia, Carlos; Tadros, James H; Chakraborty, Goutam; Toney, Jeffrey H

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is a key player in pathogenesis. The inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a well known inflammatory protein, and has been a therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Crohn's Disease. Obesity is a well known risk factor for developing non-insulin dependent diabetes melitus. Adipose tissue has been shown to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and induce insulin resistance. Based on these observations, we sought to investigate the impact of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid in the presence of TNF-α in terms of insulin production, the molecular mechanisms involved and the in vivo effect of a diet high in oleic acid on a mouse model of type II diabetes, KKAy. Methods The rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 was used as a cell biological model since it exhibits glucose dependent insulin secretion. Insulin production assessment was carried out using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cAMP quantification with competitive ELISA. Viability of TNF-α and oleic acid treated cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. PPAR-γ translocation was assessed using a PPRE based ELISA system. In vivo studies were carried out on adult male KKAy mice and glucose levels were measured with a glucometer. Results Oleic acid and peanut oil high in oleic acid were able to enhance insulin production in INS-1. TNF-α inhibited insulin production but pre-treatment with oleic acid reversed this inhibitory effect. The viability status of INS-1 cells treated with TNF-α and oleic acid was not affected. Translocation of the peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor transcription factor to the nucleus was elevated in oleic acid treated cells. Finally, type II diabetic mice that were administered a high oleic acid diet derived from peanut oil, had decreased glucose levels compared to animals administered a high fat diet with no oleic acid. Conclusion

  14. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  15. Effect of peanut oil and randomized peanut oil on cholesterol and oleic acid absorption, transport, and distribution in the lymph of the rat.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, S; Flynn, T J; Calvert, R J; Kritchevsky, D

    1999-12-01

    Peanut oil was shown to be atherogenic in cholesterol-fed rats, rabbits, and monkeys. However, after randomization, a process in which the fatty acids in peanut oil are randomly rearranged, its atherogenicity was significantly reduced in cholesterol-fed rabbits and monkeys. The mechanism for this effect remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether the absorption, transport and distribution of dietary cholesterol and oleic acid in the lymph were altered in the presence of peanut oil or randomized peanut oil. Previous investigators collected lymph through the mesenteric duct for 6 h and analyzed lymph for cholesterol. In the present study, lymph fluids were collected at timed intervals for up to 8 h and then at 24 h via the thoracic duct. Cholesterol and oleic acid (fatty acid) were estimated not only in the whole lymph but also in lymph lipoprotein fractions and in major lipid fractions. A 24-h lymph collection will enhance accuracy as short-term fluctuations in lipid absorption will not affect the results. Thoracic duct lymph collection is quantitative compared to mesenteric duct lymph collection, which provides only a fraction of the total lymph. Rats were given a lipid emulsion containing either peanut oil or randomized peanut oil. The emulsion also contained cholesterol, oleic acid, and sodium taurocholate in saline and was given through a duodenal catheter. Results show that absorption, transport, and distribution of cholesterol and oleic acid in the lymph fluids were similar in both dietary groups. These results suggest that the atherogenicity of peanut oil may be due to other events taking place subsequent to the release of cholesterol-containing chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein by the small intestinal epithelial cells into the blood or may be due to the triglyceride structure itself. PMID:10652990

  16. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  17. Allergenic Properties of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Peanut Flour Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is a high protein, low oil, powdered material prepared from roasted 21 peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the 22 active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a 23 processing strategy ...

  18. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. PMID:25872432

  19. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  20. The Relationship of Initial Moistrue Content to Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Oil Uptake in Virginia-Type Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical characteristics of peanuts may interact with processing conditions to impact quality. This study examined the effects of peanut pre-roast moisture content (MC) on chemical, physical and sensory characteristics developed in oil roasting. A large lot of Virginia type peanuts were dried in-s...

  1. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Houska, Milan; Reed, Shawndrika

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens. Since high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts containing caffeic acid were treated with each of the following: (1) HP; (2) HP+PPO; (3) PPO; and (4) none. HP was conducted at 300 and 500 MPa, each for 3 and 10 min, 37 °C. After treatment, SDS-PAGE was performed and allergenic capacity (IgE binding) was determined colorimetrically in inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots, using a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic patients. Data showed that HP alone had no effect on major peanut allergens. However, HP at 500 MPa combined with PPO (HP500/PPO) induced a higher (approximately twofold) reduction of major peanut allergens and IgE binding than PPO alone or HP300/PPO. There was no difference between treatment times. We concluded that HP500/PPO at 3-min enhanced a twofold reduction of the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts, as compared to PPO itself.

  2. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time.

  3. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A V S; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Paterson, Andrew H; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-06-14

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45-56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  4. Draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor (Arachis duranensis) provides insights into geocarpy, oil biosynthesis, and allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Hongjie; Pandey, Manish K.; Yang, Qingli; Wang, Xiyin; Garg, Vanika; Li, Haifen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Hong, Yanbin; Upadhyaya, Hari; Guo, Hui; Khan, Aamir W.; Zhu, Fanghe; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Lijuan; Pierce, Gary J.; Zhou, Guiyuan; Krishnamohan, Katta A. V. S.; Chen, Mingna; Zhong, Ni; Agarwal, Gaurav; Li, Shuanzhu; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sharma, Shivali; Chen, Na; Liu, Haiyan; Janila, Pasupuleti; Li, Shaoxiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Tong; Sun, Jie; Li, Xingyu; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Mian; Yu, Lina; Wen, Shijie; Singh, Sube; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jinming; Zhang, Chushu; Yu, Yue; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Wang, Shuping; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Yu, Shanlin

    2016-01-01

    Peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a legume of South American origin, has high seed oil content (45–56%) and is a staple crop in semiarid tropical and subtropical regions, partially because of drought tolerance conferred by its geocarpic reproductive strategy. We present a draft genome of the peanut A-genome progenitor, Arachis duranensis, and 50,324 protein-coding gene models. Patterns of gene duplication suggest the peanut lineage has been affected by at least three polyploidizations since the origin of eudicots. Resequencing of synthetic Arachis tetraploids reveals extensive gene conversion in only three seed-to-seed generations since their formation by human hands, indicating that this process begins virtually immediately following polyploid formation. Expansion of some specific gene families suggests roles in the unusual subterranean fructification of Arachis. For example, the S1Fa-like transcription factor family has 126 Arachis members, in contrast to no more than five members in other examined plant species, and is more highly expressed in roots and etiolated seedlings than green leaves. The A. duranensis genome provides a major source of candidate genes for fructification, oil biosynthesis, and allergens, expanding knowledge of understudied areas of plant biology and human health impacts of plants, informing peanut genetic improvement and aiding deeper sequencing of Arachis diversity. PMID:27247390

  5. Peanut Oil Stability and Physical Properties Across a Range of Industrially Relevant O/L Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1...

  6. Peanut Oil Stability and Physical Properties Across a Range of Industrially Relevant O/L Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1....

  7. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  13. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. PMID:27596419

  14. Comparisons of biodiesel produced from unrefined oils of different peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesels were prepared according to standard procedures from oils of eight commercially available peanut cultivars and compared for differences in physical properties important to fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity was measured from 100 to 15 ºC, and differences (P<0.05) among cultivars occurred...

  15. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  16. Identification of inferior quality peanuts without shelling during peanut grading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts produced in United States are considered as high quality peanuts. To continue this quality, grading of farmers stock peanuts should be improved further. When the peanuts are picked from the farmers they are unshelled peanuts. There are some peanuts that contain kernels with damages, immature...

  17. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  18. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    PubMed

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed). PMID:21741232

  19. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils. PMID:26604391

  20. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To address increasing problems with mixing of high oleic peanut seed lots with normal oleic seed, the development of the lipid fraction of a range of immature to mature seed in two virginia type peanut cultivars was examined. that large seeded, high-oleic vA very large seeded high-oleic cultivar (...

  1. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

  2. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  3. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  4. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  5. Recovery and purification of spanish high oleate peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and re...

  6. Real-Time PCR Genotyping using Taqman Probes to Detect High Oleic Acid Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid is an important agronomic trait in peanut cultivars because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and a beneficial effect on human health. Currently, most high oleic peanuts confer limited resistance to ...

  7. High-resolution Orbitrap™-based mass spectrometry for rapid detection of peanuts in nuts.

    PubMed

    Monaci, Linda; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Bavaro, Simona L; Pilolli, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Peanut represents one of the most harmful allergenic foods capable of triggering severe and sometimes lethal reactions in allergic consumers upon ingestion of even small amounts. Several proteins capable of inducing allergic reactions that have been recognised by patients' IgE antibodies have been identified from this nut source. Methods mainly based on ELISA assays have been developed in order to detect peanuts in several food commodities. In addition LC-MS/MS methods based on different mass analysers have also been devised for tracing peanut contamination in different foods achieving low limits of detection. The applicability of a benchtop high-resolution Exactive™ mass spectrometer has never been investigated for the rapid screening of peanut contamination in complex food matrices like mixtures of nuts. We report in this paper the design of suitable peanut markers and the development of an high-resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer-based method for peanut detection in a mixture of nuts species. With this aim, different types of samples were prepared: (1) nuts-based powder made up of a mixture of hazelnuts, pistachios, almonds and walnuts; and (2) nuts powder fortified with peanuts. Different levels of fortifications were produced and the applicability of the method was tested. Finally, a subset of six peptides fulfilling specific analytical requirements was chosen to check the suitability of the method tailored to the detection of peanuts in nuts-based products, and two of them, peptides VYD and WLG, were selected as quantitative markers. The method proved to be a suitable screening tool to assess the presence of traces of peanuts in other tree nuts with a limit of detection as low as 4 µg of peanuts proteins or 26 µg of peanuts in 1 g of matrix. PMID:26156033

  8. Development of the Oleic Acid/Linoleic Acid Ratio in High-Oleic Valencia Market Type Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major fatty acids in peanuts are oleic acid (O), a monounsaturated omega-9, and linoleic acid (L), a polyunsaturated omega-6. Peanuts containing these two fatty acids in a ratio (O/L) above 9 are known as high oleic (HO). Normal oleic (NO) peanuts are those with an O/L ratio less than 9. HO pean...

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIONS IN THE U.S. PEANUT MINI-CORE COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain not only a high percentage of oil (49%) with high oleate but also a high percentage of protein (25%) and nutritious phytochemicals (such as flavonoids and resveratrol). Therefore, peanut is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. The U.S. Peanut ger...

  10. Combinations of corn glutel meal, clove oil, and sweep cultivation are ineffective for weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic peanut is difficult and lack of residual weed control complicates weed management efforts. Weed management systems using corn gluten meal in combination with clove oil and sweep cultivation were evaluated in a series of irrigated field trials. Corn gluten meal applied in a ...

  11. Progress on screening the USDA cultivated peanut germplasm collection for variability in seed weight, seed-coat color, oil content and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are over 10,000 accessions in the USDA peanut germplasm collection. Among them, 8,913 accessions are cultivated peanuts. To determine the variability of seed traits, we initiated a study to observe seed-coat color, measure seed weight, and quantify oil content and fatty acid composition by nuc...

  12. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  13. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  14. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  15. Insights into the novel members of the FAD2 gene family involved in high-oleate fluxes in peanut.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Zhao, Yongli; Prakash, C S; He, Guohao; Yin, Dongmei

    2015-08-01

    The FAD2 gene family is functionally responsible for the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid in oilseed plants. Multiple members of the FAD gene are known to occur in several oilseed species. In this study, six novel full-length cDNA sequences (named as AhFAD2-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6) were identified in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an analysis of which revealed open reading frames of 379, 383, 394, or 442 amino acids. Sequence comparisons showed that AhFAD2-1 and AhFAD2-2 shared 76% identity, while AhFAD2-2, -3, and -4 displayed highly significant homology. There was only 27% identity overlap between the microsomal ω-6 fatty acid desaturase and the chloroplast ω-6 fatty acid desaturase encoded by AhFAD2-1, -2, -3, -4, and AhFAD2-5, -6, respectively. The phylogeny tree of FAD2 transcripts showed five major groups, and AhFAD2-1 was clearly separated from other groups. Analysis of AhFAD2-1 and AhFAD2-2 transcript distribution in different peanut tissues showed that the AhFAD2-1 gene showed upward of a 70-fold increase in expression of fatty acid than the AhFAD2-2 gene in peanut developing seeds, while the AhFAD2-2 gene expressed most abundantly in peanut flowers. Because the AhFAD2-1 gene played a major role in the conversion of oleic to linoleic acid during seed development, the identification of this novel member in this study would facilitate the further genetic manipulation of peanut oil quality. The implications of overall results also suggest that there may be more candidate genes controlling levels of oleate acid in developing seeds. Results also may be due to the presence of complex gene networks controlling the fluxes between the endoplasmic reticulum and the chloroplast within the peanut cells. PMID:26332746

  16. Analysis of Cytokine Production by Peanut-Reactive T Cells Identifies Residual Th2 Effectors in Highly Allergic Children Who Received Peanut Oral Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Julia A.; Commins, Scott P.; Agrawal, Rachana; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Yu, Mingxi D.; Cronin, Julia; Heymann, Peter W.; Pomes, Anna; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Workman, Lisa; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Only limited evidence is available regarding the cytokine repertoire of effector T cells associated with peanut allergy, and how these responses relate to IgE antibodies to peanut components. Objective To interrogate T-cell effector cytokine populations induced by Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 among peanut allergic (PA) children in the context of IgE, and to evaluate their modulation during oral immunotherapy (OIT). Methods Peanut-reactive effector T cells were analyzed in conjunction with specific IgE profiles in PA children using intracellular staining and multiplex assay. Cytokine-expressing T cell subpopulations were visualized using SPICE. Results Ara h 2 dominated the antibody response to peanut as judged by prevalence and quantity among a cohort of children with IgE to peanut. High IgE (>15 kUA/L) was almost exclusively associated with dual sensitization to Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, and was age-independent. Among PA children, IL-4-biased responses to both major allergens were induced, regardless of whether IgE antibodies to Ara h 1 were present. Among subjects receiving OIT in whom high IgE was maintained, Th2 reactivity to peanut components persisted despite clinical desensitization and modulation of allergen-specific immune parameters including augmented specific IgG4 antibodies, Th1 skewing and enhanced IL-10. The complexity of cytokine-positive subpopulations within peanut-reactive IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ T cells was similar to that observed in those who received no OIT, but was modified with extended therapy. Nonetheless, high Foxp3 expression was a distinguishing feature of peanut-reactive IL-4+ T cells irrespective of OIT, and a correlate of their ability to secrete type 2 cytokines. Conclusion Though total numbers of peanut-reactive IL-4+ and IFN-γ+ T cells are modulated by OIT in highly allergic children, complex T-cell populations with pathogenic potential persist in the presence of recognized immune markers of successful immunotherapy. [Clinical

  17. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method. PMID:26471545

  18. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  19. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  20. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

  1. Protein Hydrolysis of Defatted Peanut Meal to Improve Nutritional and Functional Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Defatted peanut meal is a commercially available, high protein (50-60%) material remaining after oil extraction from peanut seed. Technologies are needed to improve the economic value of this commodity. The objectives of this work were to evaluate antioxidant activity and funct...

  2. Process development and characterization of spray dried protein/peptide concentrates derived from peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil from peanut kernels. Despite being an excellent source of protein (45-55%), the high levels of aflatoxin typically associated with this material currently limit applications to feed or fertilizer markets. Previously, ou...

  3. The Effect of Transglutaminase Crosslinking on the Rheological Characteristics of Heated Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour (PF) is a high-protein ingredient prepared after the partial extraction of oil from roasted peanut seed. Microbial transglutaminase (TGase) catalyzes protein crosslinking via acyl-transfer reactions, resulting in the modification of functional properties such as viscosity, gelation, so...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

  5. Heat resistance of Salmonella enterica is increased by pre-adaptation to peanut oil or sub-lethal heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-09-01

    Cross-protection represents a considerable challenge in the food industry where hurdled interventions are often employed to reduce Salmonella contamination. The heat resistance of Salmonella strains from five serotypes (i.e., Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Tennessee, Thompson and Hartford) at 70 °C was determined by measurement of viable cell populations before and after adaptation to two common stresses employed in low-water activity food processing, desiccation and sub-lethal heat treatment. Survival of Salmonella at 70 °C significantly increased (p < 0.05) following the six-day incubation in peanut oil (aw 0.52 ± 0.00) and/or the exposure to a sub-lethal heat treatment at 45 °C for 3 min. Quantitative PCR revealed upregulation of two desiccation stress-related genes, fadA and otsB, following the peanut oil incubation, whereas heat treatment induced upregulation of a heat-resistance gene, dnaK. Invasion gene invA and alternative sigma factor rpoE were downregulated following either of the treatments. Interestingly, different Salmonella strains yielded different transcriptional profiles. The strain-specific resistance phenotypes and transcriptional profiles provided further insights into the mechanisms employed to tolerate desiccation and heat stresses in the food industry. PMID:27217370

  6. Development of a real-time PCR genotyping assay to identify high oleic acid peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil is an important seed quality trait because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and has a beneficial effect on human health. Hence, a concentrated effort has be...

  7. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  8. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  9. A high-density genetic map of Arachis duranensis, a diploid ancestor of cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid species whose ancestral genomes are most likely derived from the A-genome species, A. duranensis, and the B-genome species, A. ipaensis. The very recent (several millennia) evolutionary origin of A. hypogaea has imposed a bottleneck for allelic and phenotypic diversity within the cultigen. However, wild diploid relatives are a rich source of alleles that could be used for crop improvement and their simpler genomes can be more easily analyzed while providing insight into the structure of the allotetraploid peanut genome. The objective of this research was to establish a high-density genetic map of the diploid species A. duranensis based on de novo generated EST databases. Arachis duranensis was chosen for mapping because it is the A-genome progenitor of cultivated peanut and also in order to circumvent the confounding effects of gene duplication associated with allopolyploidy in A. hypogaea. Results More than one million expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences generated from normalized cDNA libraries of A. duranensis were assembled into 81,116 unique transcripts. Mining this dataset, 1236 EST-SNP markers were developed between two A. duranensis accessions, PI 475887 and Grif 15036. An additional 300 SNP markers also were developed from genomic sequences representing conserved legume orthologs. Of the 1536 SNP markers, 1054 were placed on a genetic map. In addition, 598 EST-SSR markers identified in A. hypogaea assemblies were included in the map along with 37 disease resistance gene candidate (RGC) and 35 other previously published markers. In total, 1724 markers spanning 1081.3 cM over 10 linkage groups were mapped. Gene sequences that provided mapped markers were annotated using similarity searches in three different databases, and gene ontology descriptions were determined using the Medicago Gene Atlas and TAIR databases. Synteny analysis between A. duranensis, Medicago and Glycine revealed

  10. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  11. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  12. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  13. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  14. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  15. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated vegetable oil shall be considered to include partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. (d) If peanut butter is... processing, the oil content of the peanut ingredient may be adjusted by the addition or subtraction of...

  16. Pilot scale production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from aflatoxin contaminated peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein (45-50%) by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil. Applications of PM are limited to feeds and fertilizers because it typically contains a high concentration of aflatoxin. Recently, our lab has developed a process to r...

  17. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  18. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  19. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  20. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  1. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    PubMed

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. PMID:24211775

  2. Documentation for release of a high oleic runner peanut cultivar (tested as TX 994313)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the peanut acreage diminished in 2008 to 18,000 acres, the peanut crop remains a viable agricultural commodity in western and southwestern Oklahoma with an annual estimated value of $14 million. Production of peanut is adversely affected by soilborne pathogens, especially Sclerotinia minor...

  3. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9μgkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9μgkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0μgkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0μgkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

  4. Peanut allergen in house dust of eating area and bed--a risk factor for peanut sensitization?

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, V; Ahrens, B; Wehrmann, A-K; Kalb, B; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2013-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that high environmental exposure to peanut allergens may be a potent risk factor for cutaneous sensitization. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether peanut proteins are detectable in house dust of different household areas. Peanut levels of dust samples were measured with ELISA. Overall, peanut was detectable in 19 of 21 households in the eating area and/or in bed. The frequency of peanut consumption correlated with peanut levels. Forty-eight hours after intentional peanut consumption, peanut levels were highly increased. Nevertheless, further research is required to prove whether peanut allergen in house dust can cause sensitization via skin. PMID:24351066

  5. Distribution of peanut protein in the home environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to halt the rise in peanut allergy, we must determine how children become sensitized to peanut. High household peanut consumption used as an indirect marker of environmental peanut exposure is associated with the development of peanut allergy. We want to validate a method to quantify enviro...

  6. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  7. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

  8. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. PMID:23993554

  9. Extractable low mass proteins <30kDa from peanut display elevated antigenicity (IgG-binding) and allergenicity (IgE-binding) in vitro and are attenuated by thermal reactivity with non-peanut food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Lee, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    Human allergic reactions to peanut proteins and the associated risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis requires vigilant management of peanuts in food processing. Processed forms of peanuts with attenuated antigenicity and less severe immunogenic responses may lower the risk. Molecular subfractions of raw (UP), blanched (BP) and roasted (RP) peanuts were prepared including water-insoluble (P1), water-soluble high mass (>30kDa, P2) and water-soluble low mass (<30kDa, P3) fractions. Products were screened by measuring binding to IgG (polyclonal antibody against peanut allergen) and IgE (sera from peanut-allergic donors, RAST>3). The results showed that IgE titres were highest for total extracts of RP, particularly for P3 fractions of UP and RP, and were affected by further heating. Antigenicity was also modulated by heating in the presence of either peanut oil or non-peanut food ingredients (lactose, coconut oil). Results support several alternative methods for regulating peanut antigenicity using food processing approaches but require further substantiation in larger numbers of allergic and control donor sera. PMID:26471622

  10. Registration of ‘AU-1101’ peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AU-1101’ (Reg. No. CV-xxx, PI 661498) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with high yield and medium maturity, uniform pod size and shape, high grade, superior shelling characters, low oil content, normal oleic acid content, and good flavor. AU-...

  11. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil. Despite being an excellent source of high quality protein, applications of PM are limited to feed markets as this material typically contains high concentrations of aflatoxin. Our research group has developed a nov...

  12. Effect of Feeding by a Burrower Bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), on Peanut Flavor and Oil Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract A burrower bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say) (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), is known to feed extensively on peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., pods; particularly under certain reduced tillage production conditions. These bugs produce a strong odor when infested peanuts are uprooted, and previous anecdot...

  13. Development of a Novel Strategy to Isolate Lipophilic Allergens (Oleosins) from Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Christian; Kull, Skadi; Krause, Susanne; Schocker, Frauke; Petersen, Arnd; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins. Methods and Results A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was developed comprising a stepwise removal of seed storage proteins from oil bodies. Further separation of the oil body constituents, including the allergens Ara h 10, Ara h 11, the presumed allergen oleosin 3 and additional oleosin variants was achieved by a single run on a preparative electrophoresis cell. Protein identification realized by N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and homology search revealed the presence of oleosins, steroleosins and a caleosin. Immunoblot analysis with sera of peanut-allergic individuals illustrated the IgE-binding capacity of peanut-derived oleosins. Conclusion Our method is a novel way to isolate all known immunologically distinct peanut oleosins simultaneously. Moreover, we were able to provide evidence for the allergenicity of oleosins and thus identified peanut oleosins as probable candidates for component-resolved allergy diagnosis. PMID:25860789

  14. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  15. Seed chemical composition variability and FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds are nutritious containing high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemic...

  16. Peanut Performance and Weed Management in a High Residue Cover crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates conservation tillage is a viable option for successful peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, but more study is needed to help understand interactions between cover crop residues and peanut production. Specifically, additional information is needed about the effects o...

  17. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of a method using immunoaffinity column (IAC) cleanup with postcolumn derivatization and LC with a fluorescence detector (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AFs; sum of AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2) in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil have been established in a collaborative study involving 15 laboratories from six countries. Blind duplicate samples of blank, spiked at levels ranging from 0.25 to 20.0 microg/kg for AF, were analyzed. A naturally contaminated peanut oil sample was also included. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an IAC, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC-FLD analysis after postcolumn derivatization. Average recoveries of AFs from olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 84 to 92% (at spiking levels ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg); of AFB1 from 86 to 93% (at spiking levels ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg); of AFB2 from 89 to 95% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg); of AFG1 from 85 to 97% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 microg/kg); and of AFG2 from 76 to 85% (at spiking levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 microg/kg). RSDs for within-laboratory repeatability (RSD(r)) ranged from 3.4 to 10.2% for AF, from 3.5 to 10.9% for AFB1, from 3.2 to 9.5% for AFB2, from 6.5 to 14.9% for AFG1, and from 4.8 to 14.2% for AFG2. RSDs for between-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 6.1 to 14.5% for AF, from 7.5 to 15.4% for AFB1, from 7.1 to 14.6% for AFB2, from 10.8 to 18.1% for AFG1, and from 7.6 to 23.7% for AFG2. Horwitz ratio values were < or = 2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:23451385

  18. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: first action 2013.05.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative study of a method for determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and LC with fluorescence detection, previously published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1689-1700 (2012), was approved as First Action 2013.05 on March 29, 2013 by the Method-Centric Committee for Aflatoxins in Edible Oils. The method uses methanol for extraction followed by filtration. The extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column with antibodies specific for AFs, which are then eluted from the column with a methanol solution. Determination and quantification occur using RP-LC with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The average recovery of AFs in olive, peanut, and sesame oils in spiked samples (levels between 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 92%. The recoveries for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 86-93, 89-95, 85-97, and 76-85%, respectively. Within-laboratory RSD (RSDr) values for AFs ranged from 3.4 to 10.2%. RSDr values forAF B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 3.5-10.9, 3.2-9.5, 6.5-14.9, and 4.8-14.2%, respectively. Between-laboratory RSD (RSDR) values for AFs were 6.1-14.5%. RSD, values for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 7.5-15.4, 7.1-14.6, 10.8-18.1, and 7.6-23.7%, respectively. Horwitz ratio values were < or =2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:24282940

  19. Peanut immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy. Recent developments involve the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment. Various routes of administration are being investigated, including subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous routes. Other forms of treatment, such as the use of vaccines and anti-IgE molecules, are also under investigation. So far, results from immunotherapy studies have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitisation to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the issue of long-term tolerance has not been fully addressed yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. An assessment of cost/benefit ratio is also required prior to implementing this form of treatment. The use of immunotherapy for peanut allergy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use and should not be attempted outside specialist allergy units. PMID:25276342

  20. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  1. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  2. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  3. Process Induced Changes in Resveratrol in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is thought to have a variety of beneficial health effects. Fresh peanuts have been found to contain levels up to several ppm. Processing of peanuts for human consumption involves heat from roasting. Mechanical pressure and solvents are used to extract oil to prod...

  4. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  5. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  6. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  7. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  8. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  9. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  10. Effect of oil and dry roasting of peanuts at various temperatures and times on survival of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of outbreaks of salmonellosis since 2006 associated with the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter have increased concerns about this food and the associated processing methods. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the level of Salmonella reduction associated with o...

  11. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  12. Hydrophilic Lipophilic Antioxidant Activities of Commercially Available Peanut Flours and Peanut Seed Roasted to Differing Intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flours are commercially available, high protein ingredients prepared from partially defatted roasted peanut seed. Peanut flours have differing roast intensities and residual fat contents, which allows for these ingredients to be utilized in a variety of food formulations. Antioxidant proper...

  13. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA...

  14. Release of Lariat Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lariat is a high-oleic runner-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Red River Runner. Lariat (experimental designation ARSOK-R35) is the result of a cross between cultivar Red River Ru...

  15. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K.; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  17. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  18. In vitro propagation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by shoot tip culture.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Kaya, Ergun; Lambardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), also known as groundnut, is the most important species of Arachis genus, originating from Brazil and Peru. Peanut seeds contain high seed oil, proteins, amino acids, and vitamin E, and are consumed worldwide as edible nut, peanut butter, or candy, and peanut oil extracted from the seeds. The meal remaining after oil extraction is also used for animal feed. However, its narrow germplasm base, together with susceptibility to diseases, pathogens, and weeds, decreases yield and seed quality and causes great economic losses annually. Hence, the optimization of efficient in vitro propagation procedures would be highly effective for peanut propagation, as it would raise yield and improve seed quality and flavor. Earlier reports on traditional micropropagation methods, based on axillary bud proliferation which guarantees the multiplication of true-to-type plants, are still limited. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol to improve multiple shoot formation from shoot-tip explants by using AgNO(3) in combination with plant growth regulators. PMID:23179691

  19. Peanut allergens: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided. PMID:23638932

  20. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins in chilli, peanut and rice using silica based monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Lee, Tien Ping; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2012-07-15

    A simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic with fluorescence detection method for the determination of the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanuts, rice and chilli was developed. The sample was extracted using acetonitrile:water (90:10, v/v%) and then purified by using ISOLUTE® multimode solid phase extraction. After the pre-column derivatisation, the analytes were separated within 3.7 min using Chromolith® performance RP-18e (100-4.6mm) monolithic column. To assess the possible effects of endogenous components in the food items, matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification and validation. The recoveries of aflatoxins that were spiked into food samples were 86.38-104.5% and RSDs were <4.4%. The method was applied to the determination of aflatoxins in peanut (9), rice (5) and chilli (10) samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis using triple quadruple analyser and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes on the contaminated samples was performed for confirmation. PMID:25683424

  1. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented. PMID:26787930

  2. Developing therapies for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated, persisting immune disorder that is of major concern worldwide. Currently, no routine immunotherapy is available to treat this often severe and sometimes fatal food allergy. Traditional subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with crude peanut extracts has proven not feasible due to the high risk of severe systemic side effects. The allergen-specific approaches under preclinical and clinical investigation comprise subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy with whole-peanut extracts as well as applications of hypoallergenic peanut allergens or T cell epitope peptides. Allergen-nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, TCM herbal formulations and Toll-like receptor 9-based immunotherapy. The potential of genetically engineered plants with reduced allergen levels is being explored as well as the beneficial influence of lactic acid bacteria and soybean isoflavones on peanut allergen-induced symptoms. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated, several of these strategies hold great promise. It can be estimated that individual strategies or a combination thereof will result in a successful immunotherapy regime for peanut-allergic individuals within the next decade. PMID:25531161

  3. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the

  4. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  5. Color and texture of low-calorie peanuts as affected by a new oil extraction process named "Mechanical Expression Preserving Shape Integrity" (MEPSI).

    PubMed

    Nader, Joelle; Afif, Charbel; Louka, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    The current healthy life style pushed to develop and implement a novel efficient defatting process of high quality called "Mechanical Expression Preserving Shape Integrity" that conserved the sensory, color, textural, morphological and acceptability of partially defatted roasted peanuts. In this study, Response Surface Methodology was used to investigate the best extraction parameters (initial water content, pressure and pressing duration) based on the highest Color Consumer Evaluation scores, the best colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, ΔE*) and the most appealing textural attributes (Fracturability, First Fracture Work Done, First Fracture Percentage of Deformation, Rupture Force, Percentage of Deformation at Rupture). Experimental results showed that defatting promotes a lighter and neutral grain color, higher fracturability and rupture force as well as higher deformation strength. Aiming to retain most of the colorimetric and textural properties after defatting and roasting, it was found that peanuts should be hydrated to 7 % d.b. and treated at 4.74 MPa for 14.22 min. PMID:27570290

  6. Peanut disease evaluation research in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our peanut improvement efforts are focused on enhancing yield, quality, and disease resistance. Therefore, the major emphasis of this research project is to develop high oleic peanut cultivars possessing disease resistance, and high yield and grade. All the plot research reported here was performed...

  7. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Liu, Andrew H.; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J.; Stephens, Alick C.; Irwin McLean, W.H.; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Methods Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ≥5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. Results There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P < .01). The effect of EPE on peanut SPT sensitization was augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P < .01) and augmented even further in children with a history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P < .01); the effect of EPE on PA was also augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Conclusion Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. PMID:25457149

  8. Registration of high-oleic peanut germplasm line ARSOK-S1 (TX996784) with enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight and pod rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) germplasm line ARSOK-S1 was developed cooperatively between the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and Oklahoma State University, and was released in 2013. ARSOK-S1 (tested early as TX99678...

  9. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Peanut Skin Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are regarded as a low economic value by-product of the peanut industry; however, they contain high levels of bioactive compounds including catechins and procyanidins, which are known for their health-promoting properties. The in vitro antioxidant activity of peanut skin extracts (PSE) ...

  11. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  12. Maternal Consumption of Peanut during Pregnancy is Associated with Peanut Sensitization in Atopic Infants

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Stablein, Donald; Lindblad, Robert; Burks, A. Wesley; Liu, Andrew H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Fleischer, David M.; Leung, Donald YM; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is typically severe, life-long and prevalent. Objective To identify factors associated with peanut sensitization. Methods We evaluated 503 infants 3–15 months of age (mean, 9.4 months) with likely milk or egg allergy but no previous diagnosis of peanut allergy. A total of 308 had experienced an immediate allergic reaction to cow’s milk and/or egg and 204 had moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and a positive allergy test to milk and/or egg. A peanut IgE level of ≥ 5 kUA/L was considered likely indicative of peanut allergy. Results A total of 140 (27.8%) infants had PN-IgE levels ≥5 kUA/L. Multivariate analysis including clinical, laboratory and demographic variables showed frequent peanut consumption during pregnancy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7–4.9, p < 0.001), IgE levels to milk (p = 0.001) and egg (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.02) and non-white race (p = 0.02) to be the primary factors associated with peanut IgE ≥5 kUA/L. Frequency of peanut consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding showed a dose-response association with peanut IgE ≥ 5 kUA/L, but only consumption during pregnancy was a significant predictor. Among 71 infants never breastfed, frequent consumption of peanut during pregnancy was strongly associated with peanut IgE ≥ 5 kUA/L (OR-4.99, 95% CI-1.69–14.74, p < 0.004). Conclusions In this cohort of infants with likely milk or egg allergy, maternal ingestion of peanut during pregnancy was strongly associated with a high level of peanut sensitization. PMID:21035177

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  14. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  15. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  16. Development and evaluation of peanut germplasm with resistance to Aspergillus flavus from core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the main oil and cash crops in the world, is susceptible to Aspergillus flavus, resulting in loss in quality. Aspergillus flavus infection is a problem for peanut production and industry in China. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new peanut germplasm with ...

  17. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  18. In-field Peanut Processing for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The costs and environmental impact for using petroleum-based fuels such as diesel, has triggered considerable interest in the development of sustainable, on-farm biodiesel production systems. Field studies have demonstrated that a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can produce 1138 kg/ha of peanut oil at ...

  19. PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

  20. Peanut Allergens and Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolu...

  1. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively. PMID:26776014

  2. [What type of avoidance for peanut allergic children?].

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Dassonval, C; Agne, P-S-A; Rancé, F; Bidat, E

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed, from the literature, the balance benefit/risk of a strict avoidance of peanut in children with peanut allergy. The benefits of a strict avoidance diet seem limited: reactions to the low doses and to the peanut oil refined are rare and most often slight. It is not proven that a strict avoidance facilitates the cure of allergy. On the other hand, strict avoidance could induce a worsening of allergy, with deterioration of quality of life, creation of food neophobia. In case of cure of allergy, it is difficult to normalize the diet after a strict avoidance. Outside of the rare sensitive patients to a very low dose of peanut, for which a strict avoidance is counseled, the report benefits risk is in favor of the prescription of adapted avoidance to the eliciting dose. For the majority of the peanut allergic children, it seems to us that the avoidance can and must be limited to the non hidden peanut. PMID:16828543

  3. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  4. Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Toit, George Du; Roberts, Graham; Sayre, Peter H.; Bahnson, Henry T.; Radulovic, Suzana; Santos, Alexandra F.; Brough, Helen A.; Phippard, Deborah; Basting, Monica; Feeney, Mary; Turcanu, Victor; Sever, Michelle L.; Lorenzo, Margarita Gomez; Plaut, Marshall; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in Western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. We evaluated strategies of peanut consumption and avoidance to determine which strategy is most effective in preventing the development of peanut allergy in infants at high risk for the allergy. Methods We randomly assigned 640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. Participants, who were at least 4 months but younger than 11 months of age at randomization, were assigned to separate study cohorts on the basis of preexisting sensitivity to peanut extract, which was determined with the use of a skin-prick test — one consisting of participants with no measurable wheal after testing and the other consisting of those with a wheal measuring 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The primary outcome, which was assessed independently in each cohort, was the proportion of participants with peanut allergy at 60 months of age. Results Among the 530 infants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had negative results on the skin-prick test, the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (P<0.001). Among the 98 participants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had positive test results, the prevalence of peanut allergy was 35.3% in the avoidance group and 10.6% in the consumption group (P = 0.004). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of serious adverse events. Increases in levels of peanut-specific IgG4 antibody occurred predominantly in the consumption group; a greater percentage of participants in the avoidance group had elevated titers of peanut-specific IgE antibody. A larger wheal on the skin-prick test and a lower ratio of peanut-specific IgG4:IgE were associated with peanut allergy. Conclusions The early introduction of

  5. Cloning and characterization of SPL-family genes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhao, S Z; Zhao, C Z; Zhang, Y; Xia, H; Lopez-Baltazar, J; Wan, S B; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) proteins play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stressors. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a globally important oil crop. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of 15 SPLs in the peanut by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and analyzed their genomic DNA sequences. cDNA lengths varied significantly, from 369 to 3102 bp. The SBP domain of the peanut SPL proteins was highly conserved compared to SPLs in other plant species. Based on their sequence similarity to SPLs from other plant species, the peanut SPLs could be grouped into five subgroups. In each subgroup, lengths of individual genes, conserved motif numbers, and distribution patterns were similar. Seven of the SPLs were predicted to be targets of miR156. The SPLs were ubiquitously expressed in the roots, leaves, flowers, gynophores, and seeds, with different expression levels and accumulation patterns. Significant differences in the expression of most of the SPLs were observed between juvenile and adult leaves, suggesting that they are involved in developmental regulation. Dynamic changes occurred in transcript levels at stage 1 (aerial grown green gynophores), stage 2 (gynophores buried in soil for about three days), and stage 3 (gynophores buried in soil for about nine days with enlarged pods). Possible roles that these genes play in peanut pod initiation are discussed. PMID:26909986

  6. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

  7. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  8. Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Du, Fangling

    2012-10-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil and protein producing crops in the world. Yet the amounts of peanut processing by-products containing proteins, fiber and polyphenolics are staggering. With the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for landfilling, wastes/by-product utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several peanut by-products are produced from crush peanut processes and harvested peanut, including peanut meal, peanut skin, peanut hull and peanut vine. Some of peanut by-products/waste materials could possibility be used in food processing industry, The by-products of peanut contain many functional compounds, such as protein, fiber and polyphenolics, which can be incorporated into processed foods to serve as functional ingredients. This paper briefly describes various peanut by-products produced, as well as current best recovering and recycling use options for these peanut byproducts. Materials, productions, properties, potential applications in food manufacture of emerging materials, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. PMID:24082262

  9. Graphene oxide: an adsorbent for the extraction and quantification of aflatoxins in peanuts by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiupin

    2013-11-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and specifically selected by centrifugation to extract four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) as an effective adsorbent. Then, the amount of aflatoxins was quantitatively measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency, including the GO amount, methanol concentration in the extraction solvent, spiked amount, extraction time, and elution cycle, were also investigated and optimized in this work. Under optimal conditions, good linear relationships were achieved with the correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.99217 to 0.99995. The detection limit of this method for the four aflatoxins ranged from 0.08 to 0.65ng/g. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to determine aflatoxins in peanut samples. The results show that the recoveries of the four aflatoxins range from 85.1% to 100.8% with the relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 7.9%. PMID:24161148

  10. Calcium contributes to photoprotection and repair of photosystem II in peanut leaves during heat and high irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous calcium nitrate on photoinhibition and thylakoid protein level in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1,200 µmol/m(2) per s) stress. Compared with control seedlings (cultivated in 0 mmol/L Ca(NO3 )2 medium), the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in Ca(2+) -treated plants showed a slight decrease after 5 h stress, accompanied by lower degree of PSII closure (1-qP), higher non-photochemical quenching, and lower level of membrane damage. Ca(2+) inhibitors were used to analyze the varieties of antioxidant enzymes activity and PSII proteins. These results indicated that Ca(2+) could protect the subunits of PSII reaction centers from photoinhibition by reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the presence of both ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-tetraacetic acid and ascorbic acid (AsA), the net degradation of the damaged D1 protein was faster than that only treated with AsA. Our previous study showed that either the transcriptional or the translational level of calmodulin was obviously higher in Ca(2+) -treated plants. These results suggested that, under heat and HI stress, the Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway can alleviate the photoinhibition through regulating the protein repair process besides an enhanced capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species. PMID:25103557

  11. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinyan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Mingna; Yang, Zhen; He, Yanan; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Results A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut. PMID:22110666

  12. Flavor and Antioxidant Capacity of Peanut Paste and Peanut Butter Supplemented with Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins (PS) are a good source of phenolic compounds. This study evaluated antioxidant properties and flavor of peanut paste and peanut butter enhanced with peanut skins. PS were added to peanut paste and peanut butter in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 % (w/w). PS, ...

  13. High value oils from plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years, there is increasing opportunity to use these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly ...

  14. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  15. Determination of the phytoalexin resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) in peanuts and pistachios by high-performance liquid chromatographic diode array (HPLC-DAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Tokuşoglu, Ozlem; Unal, Mustafa Kemal; Yemiş, Fadim

    2005-06-15

    The phytoalexin resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) in edible peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) varieties grown in Turkey was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatographic diode array and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection. trans-Resveratrol in six peanut varieties, five pistachio varieties, and four market samples ranged between 0.03 and 1.92 microg/g. The Cerezlik 5025 peanut (1.92 +/- 0.01 microg/g) and Ohadi pistachio genotype (1.67 +/- 0.01 microg/g) had significantly higher trans-resveratrol contents. Peanuts contained 0.03-1.92 microg/g (av = 0.84 microg/g) of trans-resveratrol, whereas pistachio contained 0.09-1.67 microg/g (av = 1.15 microg/g). With exposure to UV light for 1 min, trans-resveratrol concentrations of samples ranged from 0.02 to 1.47 microg/g and those of cis-resveratrol from 0.008 to 0.32 microg/g. The occurrence of resveratrol in peanut and pistachio was confirmed by total ion chromatograms (TIC) of bis[trimethylsilyl]trifluoroacetamide derivatives of resveratrol isomers and comparison of the mass spectral fragmentation data with those of a resveratrol standard. Formation of the cis-isomer in pistachios was higher than in peanuts. PMID:15941348

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  17. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  18. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  19. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  20. International peanut yield gains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is grown in more than 100 countries, with China, India, the U.S., Nigeria, and Indonesia being the largest producers. Peanut production systems range from very primitive with only hand labor and few inputs of fertilizer or chemical controls for weeds or diseases to other systems that are h...

  1. REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

  2. Progress on genetic linkage maps, traits/QTLs, and utilization in two recombinant inbred line populations of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a highly nutritional crop, is used in edible products or crushed for cooking oil, and is susceptible to a range of diseases, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early and late leaf spot (ELS and LLS). Losses in productivity and quality are also attributable to environmental stresses ...

  3. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  4. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

  5. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  6. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  7. Peanut consumption in adolescents is associated with improved weight status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jennette Palcic; Johnston, Craig A; El-Mubasher, Abeer A; Papaioannou, Maria A; Tyler, Chermaine; Gee, Molly; Foreyt, John P

    2013-07-01

    Studies have shown an association between nut consumption and health benefits in adults such as lower lipid levels, lower body mass indices, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Few studies have demonstrated these health benefits in children. To determine the association between peanut consumption and weight, intake of nutrients of concern, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol in Mexican American children, baseline data from 262 sixth-grade students (48% female) in a school-based weight management program were analyzed to compare differences between peanut and non-peanut eaters. It was hypothesized that Mexican American children who consume peanuts will be less overweight and have a better nutrient and lipid profile when compared to those who do not eat peanuts. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire as a baseline dietary assessment before beginning the program. Children were identified as either a peanut consumer (n = 100) or non-peanut consumer (n = 162). Body mass index measurements were taken on all participants. A smaller sample of participants submitted blood for lipid analysis. Analyses revealed that children in the peanut consumer group were less likely to be overweight or obese than children in the non-peanut consumer group (χ(2) = 13.9, P = .001), had significantly higher intakes of several vitamins and micronutrients (i.e., magnesium, vitamin E), and had lower low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels. These results illustrate that consumption of peanuts and/or peanut butter is associated with lower weight status, improved diet, and lipid levels among Mexican American children. Future research is needed to clarify the role of peanut consumption in children's overall health. PMID:23827129

  8. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  9. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  10. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  11. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  12. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  13. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  14. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baifen; Han, Zheng; Cai, Zengxuan; Wu, Yongjiang; Ren, Yiping

    2010-03-01

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products was developed. The sample was extracted by 84% of acetonitrile aqueous solution and the extract was purified by a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method. Then, the analytes were separated on Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile/methanol (50/50, v/v). The separated compounds were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electro-spray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9990), average recovery (74.7-86.8%) and precision (relative standard deviation < or = 10.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of the six aflatoxins in peanuts and their derivative products. Finally, a total of 73 samples randomly collected from different areas in Zhejiang province were screened for aflatoxins with the proposed method. The results showed that 31 samples of peanut butter, 14 samples of fresh peanut and 5 samples of musty peanut were contaminated with aflatoxins. Meanwhile, this was the first report on aflatoxins M1 and M2, which were found in unprocessed peanuts and their derivative products. PMID:20152266

  15. Effects of Temperature and Pore Structure on High Surface Area-Activated Carbon Obtained from Peanut Shells.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, D; Lee, Y S

    2016-03-01

    Activated carbon was synthesized from peanut shells by treating with H3PO4 with an intention to enhance the surface area and to find its electrochemical performance in EDLC as electrode material. The powdered peanut shells were pyrolyzed at three different temperatures namely 300 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C respectively. The structural and surface properties of the pyrolyzed carbon materials were studied using N2 adsorption/desorption, Raman, TEM and SEM analysis. There has been remarkable increase in the surface area of the carbon pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C due to the effect of pore generations. The surface area of the 600 degrees C pyrolyzed sample was found to be 1629 m2/g. The electrochemical properties of all the samples were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The system showed excellent cycleability and a maximum specific capacitance of 291 Fg(-1) was obtained in a 0.1 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution. The effects of the various properties of the activated carbon on the EDLC performance are discussed. PMID:27455740

  16. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanuts germplasm of Henan and detection of their elite allelic variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts i...

  17. Peanut response to naturally-derived herbicides used in organic crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed-free irrigated trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to quantify phytotoxic effects of herbicides with the potential to be used in organic peanut production. Clove oil and citric plus acetic acid were each applied at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), two weeks after VE (2 wk), four weeks a...

  18. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  19. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  20. Processing effects on peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the majority of patients, roasted peanuts resulted in a higher skin prick test (SPT). Purified Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 from roasted peanut binds higher IgE levels than from raw peanuts. To determine if there are any structural changes; and if these changes contribute to increased IgE bind...

  1. Uniform peanut performance test 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  2. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 3 Georgia lines,...

  3. Uniform peanut performance test 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  4. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  5. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 7 Georgia lines,...

  6. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 4 Georgia lines,...

  7. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  8. Assessment of taste attributes of peanut meal enzymatic-hydrolysis hydrolysates using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  9. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  10. Bioavailability of polyphenols from peanut skin extract associated with plasma lipid lowering function.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Hurley, Steven; Hanner, Tracy; Baxter, Sarah A Schwatrz; Johnston, Thomas A; Su, Mingming; Holmes, Bryce M; Yu, Jianmei; Williams, Leonard L

    2014-04-01

    Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols including procyanidins and is shown to have hypolipidemic properties. This study investigated the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols using a rat model. First, the bioavailability of peanut skin polyphenols in rat plasma was evaluated. Our results showed procyanidin A2 levels in plasma peaked within 30 min of ingestion. The results of a second study show that peanut skin extract supplemented in addition to oil gavage resulted in significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and VLDL within 5h. In the third study, rats were given a Western type diet for 5 weeks with peanut skin extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The main effects observed were lowering of total blood lipid and reduction of the plasma fatty acids profile. Our results suggest that procyanidin A may impart a key role of hypolipidemic effect seen in peanut skin polyphenols. PMID:24262521

  11. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence repeat (SSR) Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  12. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  13. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly. PMID:12462617

  14. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... peanut product that is nutritionally inferior to peanut butter shall be labeled as an imitation of peanut butter under § 101.3(e)(2) of this chapter; a spreadable peanut product shall be considered nutritionally equivalent to peanut butter if it meets all of the following conditions: (1) Protein. (i) The protein...

  15. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  16. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  17. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  18. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  19. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  20. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  1. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  2. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  3. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  4. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  5. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  6. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  7. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  8. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  9. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  10. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed: a comparison of two methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  11. Comparing three methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  12. Effects of high peanut meal with different crude protein level supplemented with amino acids on performance, carcass traits and nitrogen retention of Chinese Yellow broilers.

    PubMed

    Gou, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Jiang, Z Y; Zheng, C T; Li, L; Ruan, D; Chen, F; Lin, X J

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of feeding high peanut meal diets of reduced crude protein (CP) content supplemented with essential amino acids (EAA) on growth performance, carcass traits, biochemical indices in plasma, and nitrogen (N) retention of male and female Lingnan Yellow broilers from day 22 to day 42 of age. Each of four dietary treatments (19%, 18%, 17% or 16% CP, dietary CP level reduced by the reduced dietary peanut meal) contained six replicate pens with 35 birds of each sex (males and females with equal number), separately (1680 in total). The three diets with reduced CP were supplemented with 5 EAA to meet the requirements and provide the same levels as in the 19% CP diet. Average daily gain decreased and feed:gain ratio was worse in both sexes with reduced CP% (linear, p < 0.05). Dressing percentage increased as CP% decreased in males (linear, p < 0.05) and thigh muscle percentage reduced slightly in females (linear, p < 0.05). Abdominal fat percentage of males fed the 17% CP was the lowest (quadratic, p < 0.05). The plasma metabolic indices, concentrations of triglycerides and malondialdehyde, showed linear responses to reduced CP% (p < 0.05) with triglycerides increasing while malondialdehyde decreased. Plasma uric acid increased in females (linear, p < 0.05), but not in males, as CP% decreased. Efficiency of N retention increased and N excretion strikingly decreased with lower CP diets (p < 0.001), and both variables showed significant (p < 0.05) linear and quadratic effects. It is concluded that there was a limit to which dietary CP of broilers could be reduced without adverse effects. Dietary CP could be reduced to 17% for males and 18% for females (or 18% when fed together) between day 22 and day 42, if diets are supplemented with synthetic EAA. PMID:27401885

  13. Peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to limited hectares and production in comparison to field corn, soybean, and wheat, commercial research and development efforts by major manufacturers for potential new peanut herbicides are minimal. Field trials were conducted in Ty Ty and Plains Georgia in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the tolera...

  14. Registration of "Sugg" Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

  15. Biology, speciation, and utilization of peanut species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...

  16. Registration of 'Red River Runner' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Red River Runner' (tested as TX 994313) is a high oleic runner peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar cooperatively developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Texas AgriLife Research and Extension, and Oklahoma Agricultura...

  17. Novel strategy to create hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; Kulis, Mike; White, Brittany L; Grace, Mary H; Guo, Rishu; Burks, A Wesley; Davis, Jack P; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-07-23

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Upon peanut consumption by an allergic individual, epitopes on peanut proteins bind and cross-link peanut-specific IgE on mast cell and basophil surfaces triggering the cells to release inflammatory mediators responsible for allergic reactions. Polyphenolic phytochemicals have high affinity to bind proteins and form soluble and insoluble complexes with unique functionality. This study investigated the allergenicity of polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices prepared by complexing various polyphenol-rich plant juices and extracts with peanut flour. Polyphenol-fortified peanut matrices reduced IgE binding to one or more peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested changes in secondary protein structure. Peanut protein-cranberry polyphenol fortified matrices triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than unmodified flour in an ex vivo assay using human blood and less mast cell degranulation when used to orally challenge peanut-allergic mice. Polyphenol fortification of peanut flour resulted in a hypoallergenic matrix with reduced IgE binding and degranulation capacity, likely due to changes in protein secondary structure or masking of epitopes, suggesting potential applications for oral immunotherapy. PMID:24758688

  18. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  19. Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Reis, Caio E G; Ribeiro, Daniela N; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0-240 min)- and second (240-490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0-490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0-240 min) and glucose IAUC (240-490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women. PMID:23122211

  20. Plant Resistance to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol within Peanut Germplasm and Its Wild Relatives in the US Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  1. PROGRESS REPORT: WEED MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC PEANUT PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have been conducted in Tifton, GA since 2003 to develop weed management systems for organic peanut production. Trials in conventional tillage production systems evaluated row patterns, cultivation, and remedial weed management using propane flaming, clove oil, and citric acid. Weed control...

  2. Evaluation of Peanut Cultivars for Suitability in Biodiesel Production Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen currently and previously available peanut cultivars were field tested for oil production capability in a low-input production system designed for biodiesel use. This low input system was characterized by strip tillage into a rolled rye cover crop, no use of either insecticides or fungicid...

  3. Nutrient Composition of the Peanut Core of the Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts from the Core Collection designated as the Core of the Core Collection were grown in Tifton, GA in 2005. Amino acids, folic acid and total oil content were determined on the whole seed. Amino acid concentrations were generally close to commonly reported values. Folic acid concentration var...

  4. Effects of Bahiagrass and Nematicides on Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    A field infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and with a history of peanut yield losses was divided into two equal parts. One-half of the field (bahia site) was planted to bahiagrass in 1986 and maintained through 1987. The other half (peanut site) was planted to soybean in 1986 and peanut in 1987 with hairy vetch planted each fall as a cover crop. In 1988 identical nematicide treatments including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), aldicarb, and ethoprop were applied to the two sites, and the sites were planted with the peanut cultivar Florunner. At mid-season, population levels of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles in the bahia site were relatively low, compared with those in the peanut site. At harvest, however, population levels were high in both sites. No nematicide treatment increased yields over the untreated control in either site (P ≤ 0.05). Bahiagrass alone and the combination of bahiagrass and 1,3-D applied broadcast resulted in 6.6-fold and 9.7-fold increases in yield, respectively, over the untreated control in the peanut site. All treatments in the bahia site resulted in increased vegetative growth and yields, compared with the duplicate treatments in the peanut site. PMID:19287670

  5. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. PMID:25683560

  6. The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy Study: The Benefits of Early Peanut Introduction, and a New Horizon in Fighting the Food Allergy Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies have explored associations between timing of peanut, egg, and milk introduction and food allergy development, noting significant associations with reduced respective rates of milk, egg, and peanut allergy associated with earlier timing of introduction. Interventional studies developed to more definitively explore these outcomes have been published for egg and peanut, and are ongoing for multiple other allergens. This review focuses on the recent publication regarding the LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy) study, its highly favorable results, the policy implications of its findings, and the horizon for primary prevention as a realistic strategy to prevent food allergy. PMID:26456447

  7. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  8. Gamma irradiation of peanut kernel to control mold growth and to diminish aflatoxin contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y.-Y. Chiou, R.

    1996-09-01

    Peanut kernel inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus conidia were gamma irradiated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy using Co60. Levels higher than 2.5 kGy were effective in retarding the outgrowth of A. parasiticus and reducing the population of natural mold contaminants. However, complete elimination of these molds was not achieved even at the dose of 10 kGy. After 4 wk incubation of the inoculated kernels in a humidified condition, aflatoxins produced by the surviving A. parasiticus were 69.12, 2.42, 57.36 and 22.28 μ/g, corresponding to the original irradiation levels. Peroxide content of peanut oils prepared from the irradiated peanuts increased with increased irradiation dosage. After storage, at each irradiation level, peroxide content in peanuts stored at -14°C was lower than that in peanuts stored at an ambient temperature. TBA values and CDHP contents of the oil increased with increased irradiation dosage and changed slightly after storage. However, fatty acid contents of the peanut oil varied in a limited range as affected by the irradiation dosage and storage temperature. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern of peanuts revealed no noticeable variation of protein subunits resulting from irradiation and storage.

  9. Blockade of peanut allergy with a novel Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Sun, Yongtao; Chang, Lee-Jah; Li, Newton; Li, Huabin; Yu, Yanni; Bryce, Paul J.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Zhu, Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional immunotherapy for peanut allergy using crude peanut extracts is not recommended because of the unacceptably high risk of anaphylaxis. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is not currently undertaken for peanut allergy. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a novel peanut-human fusion protein to block peanut-induced anaphylaxis. Methods We genetically designed and expressed a novel plant-human fusion protein composed of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and human IgG Fcγ1. We tested the Ara h 2–Fcγ fusion protein (AHG2)’s function in purified human basophils. Transgenic mice expressing human FcεRIα and a murine peanut allergy model were used. Results AHG2 inhibited histamine release induced by whole peanut extract (WPE) from basophils of patients with peanut allergy, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce mediator release. AHG2 inhibited the WPE-induced, peanut-specific, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in hFcεRIα transgenic mice. AHG2 also significantly inhibited acute anaphylactic reactivity, including the prototypical decrease in body temperature in WPE-sensitized mice challenged with crude peanut extract. Histologic evaluation of the airways showed that AHG2 decreased peanut-induced inflammation, whereas the fusion protein itself did not induce airway inflammation in peanut-sensitized mice. AHG2 did not exert an inhibitory effect in mice lacking FcγRII. Conclusion AHG2 inhibited peanut-specific IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro and in vivo. Linking specific peanut allergen to Fcγ can provide a new approach for the allergen immunotherapy of peanut allergy. PMID:23199607

  10. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Maleki, Soheila J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients' IgE repertoires may mean that some patients' IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  11. Boiling and Frying Peanuts Decreases Soluble Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 But Does Not Generate Hypoallergenic Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Sarah S.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergy continues to be a problem in most developed countries of the world. We sought a processing method that would alter allergenic peanut proteins, such that allergen recognition by IgE from allergic individuals would be significantly reduced or eliminated. Such a method would render accidental exposures to trace amounts of peanuts safer. A combination of boiling and frying decreased recovery of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 at their expected MWs. In contrast, treatment with high pressures under varying temperatures had no effect on protein extraction profiles. Antibodies specific for Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 bound proteins extracted from raw samples but not in boiled/fried samples. However, pre-incubation of serum with boiled/fried extract removed most raw peanut-reactive IgE from solution, including IgE directed to Ara h 1 and 2. Thus, this method of processing is unlikely to generate a peanut product tolerated by peanut allergic patients. Importantly, variability in individual patients’ IgE repertoires may mean that some patients’ IgE would bind fewer polypeptides in the sequentially processed seed. PMID:27310538

  12. Identification and characterization of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGSs) from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food legume grown worldwide for providing edible oil and protein. However, due to scarcity of genetic diversity, peanut is very vulnerable to a variety of pathogens, such as rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.), early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidic...

  13. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  14. An Apparent Anomaly in Peanut Leaf Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Pallas, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Conductance to gaseous transfer is normally considered to be greater from the abaxial than from the adaxial side of a leaf. Measurements of the conductance to water vapor of peanut leaves (Arachis hypogaea L.) under well watered and stress conditions in a controlled environment, however, indicated a 2-fold higher conductance from the adaxial side of the leaf than from the abaxial. Studies of conductance as light level was varied showed an increase in conductance from either surface with increasing light level, but conductance was always greater from the adaxial surface at any given light level. In contrast, measurements of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf conductance showed an approximate 2-fold greater conductance from the abaxial surface than from the adaxial. Approximately the same number of stomata were present on both peanut leaf surfaces and stomatal size was similar. Electron microscopic examination of peanut leaves did not reveal any major structural differences between stomata on the two surfaces that would account for the differences in conductance. Light microscope studies of leaf sections revealed an extensive network of bundle sheaths with achloraplastic bundle sheath extensions; the lower epidermis was lined with a single layer of large achloraplastic parenchyma cells. Measurements of net photosynthesis made on upper and lower leaf surfaces collectively and individually indicated that two-thirds of the peanut leaf's total net photosynthesis can be attributed to diffusion of CO2 through the adaxial leaf surface. Possibly the high photosynthetic efficiency of peanut cultivars as compared with certain other C3 species is associated with the greater conductance of CO2 through their upper leaf surfaces. Images PMID:16661294

  15. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  16. Identification of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chromosomes using a fluorescence in situ hybridization system reveals multiple hybridization events during tetraploid peanut formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laining; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tian, Li; Chen, Lei; Yu, Weichang

    2016-09-01

    The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea (AABB) is thought to have originated from the hybridization of Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaënsis (BB) followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. In this study, we cloned and analyzed chromosome markers from cultivated peanut and its wild relatives. A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping cocktail was developed with which to study the karyotypes and chromosome evolution of peanut and its wild relatives. Karyotypes were constructed in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors using our FISH-based karyotyping system. Comparative karyotyping analysis revealed that chromosome organization was highly conserved in cultivated peanut and its two putative progenitors, especially in the B genome chromosomes. However, variations existed between A. duranensis and the A genome chromosomes in cultivated peanut, especially for the distribution of the interstitial telomere repeats (ITRs). A search of additional A. duranensis varieties from different geographic regions revealed both numeric and positional variations of ITRs, which were similar to the variations in tetraploid peanut varieties. The results provide evidence for the origin of cultivated peanut from the two diploid ancestors, and also suggest that multiple hybridization events of A. ipaënsis with different varieties of A. duranensis may have occurred during the origination of peanut. PMID:27176118

  17. Sclerotinia blight resistance in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut acreage in Oklahoma has declined in recent years; however, peanuts remain an important economic crop for certain growers. Yield limiting factors such as diseases, adverse weather conditions, weeds, and insects can decrease yield. Managing irrigation, chemical applications, and tillage pract...

  18. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. In 1995, plant material transfer agreements were also accepted among all cooperators in the UPPT. The year 2012 completed...

  19. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  20. Characterization of Folate in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The folate levels in a group of raw and roasted samples selected from the 2007 and the 2008 Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) and from a set of raw samples from the Core of the Core of the Peanut Germplasm collection grown in 2006 and 2008 were determined. The samples were digested in protea...

  1. Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

  2. Molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan M H; Dumitru, Catalina; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-11-01

    Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers. PMID:23249205

  3. High risk groups in oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  4. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  5. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  6. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  7. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  8. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  9. High-Temperature Natural Antioxidant Improves Soy Oil for Frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5%...

  10. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil

  11. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Do; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut. PMID:26901068

  12. Benefits of Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Persist After One-Year Peanut Avoidance

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Friday, March 4, 2016 Benefits of peanut allergy prevention strategy persist after one- ... LEAP study ate this peanut snack. NIAID The benefits of regularly consuming peanut-containing foods early in ...

  13. Belonolaimus longicaudatus: An Emerging Pathogen of Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuwa, Kanan; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Drew, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is an economically important ectoparasitic nematode that is highly pathogenic on a wide range of agricultural crops in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Although this species is commonly found in Florida in hardwood forests and as a soilborne pathogen on turfgrasses and numerous agronomic and horticultural crops, it has not been reported infecting peanut. In the summers of 2012 and 2013, sting nematode was found infecting three different peanut cultivars being grown on two separate peanut farms in Levy County, FL. The damage consisted of large irregular patches of stunted, chlorotic plants at both farms. The root systems were severely abbreviated and there were numerous punctate-like isolated lesions observed on pegs and pods of infected plants. Sting nematodes were extracted from soil collected around the roots of diseased peanut over the course of the peanut season at both farm sites. Peanut yield from one of these nematode-infested sites was 64% less than that observed in areas free from sting nematodes. The morphological characters of the nematode populations in these fields were congruous with those of the original and other published descriptions of B. longicaudatus. Moreover, the molecular analyses based on the sequences of D2/D3 expansion fragments of 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA genes from the nematodes further collaborates the identification of the sting nematode isolates as B. longicaudatus. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF963097, KF963098 for ITS, and KF96399, KF963100 for D2-D3). The results of the phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of these isolates from peanut compared with those of other isolates from Florida suggests that the sting nematode from both peanut farms are genetically close to B. longicaudatus populations occurring in the state. Peanut plants inoculated with both nematode isolates showed punctate-like isolated lesions on pods

  14. The Complexities of Early Peanut Introduction for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M; Atkins, Dan; Chan, Edmond S

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the timing of introducing major food allergens, such as peanut, into the diet of at-risk infants have undergone major changes in the past decade. The most substantial modification has been a shift toward advice that delaying beyond 4 to 6 months does not prevent and might actually increase the risk of food allergy. The Learning Early About Peanut (LEAP) study published last year provided strong evidence that early peanut introduction with regular ingestion has a potentially dramatic benefit. Although there is little current doubt of the effectiveness of early peanut introduction, many unanswered questions remain. Previous guidelines defined infants at risk as those with a first-degree relative with allergic disease, whereas the LEAP study defined high risk as severe eczema or egg allergy. The LEAP study chose to screen infants but did not have a comparison group randomized without screening. In the following case-based discussion, we explore the complexities of LEAP implementation for the practicing allergist. These include nonuniformity in the literature for defining at-risk infants, difficulties in assessing eczema severity objectively, variable adherence to current guidelines, proposed peanut screening methods contrasting with existing food allergy guidelines to not routinely screen before ingestion, unclear interpretation of positive test results if screened, risks of screening extending to foods not studied in the LEAP study, and uncertainties about the optimal dose and duration of peanut once introduced. PMID:26968960

  15. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of peanut major allergen Ara h 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-10-01

    The crystallization of peanut allergen Ara h 3 is reported. The peanut is a significant food source, but is responsible for many cases of anaphylaxis. The peanut 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ara h 3 is one of the best characterized allergens. In this study, Ara h 3 was extracted from peanut kernels and purified by sequential anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel-filtration chromatography to very high purity to facilitate crystallization and structural studies. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained and refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  16. Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.

    PubMed

    de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface. PMID:24020650

  17. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  18. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique. PMID:24492256

  19. Evaluation of disease reaction and agronomic traits of selected peanut entries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our peanut improvement efforts are focused on enhancing yield, quality and disease resistance. Therefore, the major emphasis of this research project is to develop high oleic peanut cultivars possessing disease resistance, and high yield and grade. All the plot research reported here was performed...

  20. Association of nitrogen fixation to water use efficiency and yield traits of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of N2 fixation might be an effective strategy in peanut breeding for high yield under drought stress conditions. However, under water limited conditions peanut varieties having high water-use efficiency (WUE) are favorable. A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at ...

  1. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Lowers Blood Triglyceride Levels, Possibly Through a Pathway Involving SREBP-1c in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that peanut sprout extracts (PSE) could reduce fat accumulation through activating the transcription of SREBP-1c genes. Sprague-Dawley (SD) were randomly assigned into two groups and fed the following diet for 4 weeks; 10 normal fat (NF, 7 g of fat/100 g diet) and 30 high fat (HF, 20 g of fat/100 g diet). After 4 weeks, the HF group was divided into three groups; HF, HF with 15 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+low PSE, 0.025% resveratrol), and HF with 30 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+high PSE, 0.05% resveratrol) and fed for an additional 5 weeks. The HF+high PSE group had significantly lower weight gain than the HF group. Plasma triglyceride (TG) level and the hepatic total lipid level were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group compared to the HF group. Fecal excretions of total lipids, cholesterol, and TG in the HF+high PSE group tended to be higher than in the HF group, but these differences were not significant. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-c (SREBP-1c) were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group than in the HF group. The mRNA expressions of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE groups compared to the HF group. The mRNA expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase1 was significantly higher than the HF group in both the HF+low PSE and HF+high PSE groups, with much greater increase observed in the HF+high PSE group. In conclusion, consumption of PSE was effective for improving blood lipid levels, possibly by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1c, in rats fed a high-fat diet. PMID:25946626

  2. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and the US using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Khera, Pawan; Huang, Bingyan; Yuan, Mei; Katam, Ramesh; Zhuang, Weijian; Harris-Shultz, Karen; Moore, Kim M; Culbreath, Albert K; Zhang, Xinyou; Varshney, Rajeev K; Xie, Lianhui; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-05-01

    Cultivated peanut is grown worldwide as rich-source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for cultivar improvement. The objectives of this study were to develop highly informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from different breeding programs in China, India and the US. A total of 111 SSR markers were selected for this study, resulting in a total of 472 alleles. The mean values of gene diversity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.480 and 0.429, respectively. Country-wise analysis revealed that alleles per locus in three countries were similar. The mean gene diversity in the US, China and India was 0.363, 0.489 and 0.47 with an average PIC of 0.323, 0.43 and 0.412, respectively. Genetic analysis using the STRUCTURE divided these peanut lines into two populations (P1, P2), which was consistent with the dendrogram based on genetic distance (G1, G2) and the clustering of principal component analysis. The groupings were related to peanut market types and the geographic origin with a few admixtures. The results could be used by breeding programs to assess the genetic diversity of breeding materials to broaden the genetic base and for molecular genetics studies. PMID:26178804

  4. Contribution of root-knot nematodes to aflatoxin contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut kernels are susceptible to colonization by Aspergillus spp. which, under conditions of drought and high temperatures, can produce aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our primary objective was to determine the mechanism by which the peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) increases aflatoxi...

  5. Broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum effects on peanut yield and uptake of nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop that requires large amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) and super phosphate (SP) have been used for calcium and phosphorus fertilizer for peanut. Broiler litter ash (BLA), a high phosphorus byproduct pr...

  6. The Effects of Transglutaminase on the Functional Properties of Peanut Flour Dispersions Containing Casein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light roast-12% fat peanut flour (PF) is a high protein food ingredient. Recently, we observed that microbial transglutaminase (TGase) crosslinked peanut proteins and changed the functional characteristics of the final product. Therefore, in this study, we determined the effects of TGase polymeriz...

  7. Heritability and genetic relationships for drought-related traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reduced productivity in peanut. Cultivars that have high water-use efficiency have the potential to enhance crop yield. Water-use efficiency (WUE) is often correlated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotopic composition (d13C) in peanut. A good knowledge...

  8. UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING PEANUTS TO DETERMINE FRUITY-FERMENTED OFF FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual peanut kernels may develop a fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor if exposed to elevated temperatures soon after digging. Typically, high moisture, immature peanuts exposed to temperatures above 35ºC either in the windrow or during artificial curing may develop the FF off-flavor. Because of t...

  9. Investigating kernel moisture content at the front and back of semitraliers during peanut drying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of peanut drying can be influenced by many factors. Such factors include temperature and relative humidity of the air used for aeration, air velocity through the peanuts, and any obstructions to air flow caused by foreign material. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that a semitraile...

  10. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  11. Discriminating olive and non-olive oils using HPLC-CAD and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    de la Mata-Espinosa, P; Bosque-Sendra, J M; Bro, R; Cuadros-Rodríguez, L

    2011-02-01

    This work presents a method for an efficient differentiation of olive oil and several types of vegetable oils using chemometric tools. Triacylglycerides (TAGs) profiles of 126 samples of different categories and varieties of olive oils, and types of edible oils, including corn, sunflower, peanut, soybean, rapeseed, canola, seed, sesame, grape seed, and some mixed oils, have been analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a charged aerosol detector was used to characterize TAGs. The complete chromatograms were evaluated by PCA, PLS-DA, and MCR in combination with suitable preprocessing. The chromatographic data show two clusters; one for olive oil samples and another for the non-olive oils. Commercial oil blends are located between the groups, depending on the concentration of olive oil in the sample. As a result, a good classification among olive oils and non-olive oils and a chemical justification of such classification was achieved. PMID:21060998

  12. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  13. Removing Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 from Peanut Extracts Using p-Aminobenzamidine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Ara h 1 is one of 3 major allergens in peanut. Removing Ara h 1 from a peanut extract may produce a hypoallergenic peanut extract for immunotherapy and other purposes. Methods: Peanut extracts were treated overnight with and without 10 mM p-aminobenzamidine (pABA, a protease inhibitor) i...

  14. Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

  15. Highly recyclable superhydrophobic sponge suitable for the selective sorption of high viscosity oil from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2015-08-15

    Inspired by the adhesion of marine mussels, a kind of superhydrophobic oil sorbent was successfully fabricated by robustly immobilizing the micro/nanostructure layer onto the sponge skeleton. The as-prepared sponges possess excellent hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 154°, which enables the sponge to selectively absorb various oils floating on water surface. The oil sorption capacities of as-prepared sponge for a series of oils can reach 18.3-46.8g/g. The absorbed oil can be recovered by mechanical squeezing and the resulting sponge can be recycled more than 70 cycles while still keeping high oil sorption capability. More importantly, the obtained sponge has excellent affinity to the high viscosity oils. Therefore, the as-prepared sponge might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils especially high viscosity oils from water surface. PMID:26092604

  16. Method and apparatus for recovering high viscosity oils

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.

    1984-03-06

    Improved methods and apparatus are provided for recovering high viscosity oils from a sub-surface earth formation utilizing horizontal well apparatus. A plurality of horizontal drill holes extend from a large diameter vertical shaft hole into the formation of interest. Steam may be injected into the formation through selectively placed conventional vertical wells terminating within the oil-bearing formation, while oil is recovered from the lateral drill holes. A noncondensible gas or cold water may be injected into the formation subsequent to steam injection to enhance the overall recovery of oil.

  17. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  18. Bahiagrass, Corn, Cotton Rotations, and Pesticides for Managing Nematodes, Diseases, and Insects on Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Burton, G. W.; Culbreath, A. K.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolaniltreated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut. PMID:19270889

  19. Bahiagrass, corn, cotton rotations, and pesticides for managing nematodes, diseases, and insects on peanut.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Burton, G W; Culbreath, A K; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H

    1999-06-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolaniltreated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut. PMID:19270889

  20. Roast effects on the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of peanut flours, blanched peanut seed and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (H&L-ORAC) of peanut flours, blanched peanut seed, and peanut skins were characterized across a range of roast intensities. H-ORAC ranged from 5910-7990, 3040-3700 and 152,290-209,710 'moles Trolox/100g for the flours, seed, and skins, ...

  1. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of the high oleic peanut Cultivar OLin and Identification of SNPs between cultivars.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total RNA was extracted from leaf, root and immature pod (yellow stage of development) tissue of greenhouse grown plants of the high oleic Texas AgriLife cultivar OLin and analyzed by next generation DNA sequencing. Illumina (Solexa) sequencing of the complete transcriptome of OLin provided 28.8 mi...

  2. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria,and Other Nematodes and Crop Yields in Rotations of Cotton, Peanut, and Wheat Under Minimum Tillage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Handoo, Z. A.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat, cotton, and peanut were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos (6.7 kg a.i./ha) and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage and irrigation for 6 years. The cropping sequences included a wheat winter cover crop each year and summer crops of cotton every year, peanut every year, or cotton rotated every other year with peanut. The population densities of Meloidogyne spp. and Helicotylenchus dihystera were determined monthly during the experiment. Numbers of M. incognita increased on cotton and decreased on peanut, whereas M. arenaria increased on peanut, and decreased on cotton; both nematode species remained in moderate to high numbers in plots of wheat. Root damage was more severe on cotton than peanut and was not affected by fenamiphos treatment. The H. dihystera population densities were highest in plots with cotton every summer, intermediate in the cotton-peanut rotation, and lowest in plots with peanut every summer. Over all years and cropping sequences, yield increases in fenamiphos treatment over untreated control were 9% for wheat, 8% for cotton, and 0% for peanut. Peanut yields following cotton were generally higher than yields following peanut. These results show that nematode problems may be manageable in cotton and peanut production under conservation tillage and irrigation in the southeastern United States. PMID:19270949

  3. Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.

    PubMed

    el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

    1998-12-01

    Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

  4. Registration of 'Tamrun OL07' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity and quality of peanut are adversely affected by the fungus Sclerotinia minor which causes Sclerotinia blight disease. This paper reports on the release of a Sclerotinia-resistant runner peanut cultivar named 'Tamrun OL07'. This peanut cultivar possesses desirable agronomic traits such...

  5. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  6. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF PEANUT RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the mineralizable nitrogen (N) content of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residue. The objective of this study was to determine the N contribution of pre- and post harvest peanut residue on two soil types. Aboveground peanut residue (cv. Georgia Green) was collected prio...

  7. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  8. 76 FR 31574 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  9. Transcript profiling of developing peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate regulatory processes and mechanisms underlying the development of peanut seeds, 8 x 15k microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of a runner peanut genotype. Developing peanut pods from six development stages corresponding R2 through R8 stages were profiled. Sever...

  10. Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

  11. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  12. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  13. Immunogenicity of Peanut Proteins Containing Poly(Anhydride) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    De S. Rebouças, Juliana; Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana I.; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced TH1 and TH2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic TH2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both TH1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-TH1 immune response. PMID:24899075

  14. Resistance to Ditylenchus africanus present in peanut breeding lines

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald, Alexander H.; de Waele, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Peanut is an important cash crop both for commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa. The effect of Ditylenchus africanus on peanut is mainly qualitative, leading to downgrading of consignments. This nematode is difficult to control because of its high reproductive and damage potential. The objective of this study was to identify peanut genotypes with resistance to D. africanus that would also be sustainable under field conditions. Selected peanut genotypes were evaluated against D. africanus in microplot and field trials. The inbred lines PC254K1 and CG7 were confirmed to be resistant to D. africanus. The resistance expressed by these two genotypes was sustainable under field conditions. The breeding line PC287K5 maintained low nematode numbers in some trials, but its level of resistance was not as strong or as sustainable as that of PC254K1 or CG7. However, PC287K5 could still play an important role in the peanut industry where lower D. africanus populations occur. PMID:22736852

  15. Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Fangjie; Zou Changling; Sun Fangwen; Xiao Yunfeng

    2011-05-15

    Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5 deg. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

  16. Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

  17. Effect of chemical modifications on allergenic potency of peanut proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bencharitiwong, Ramon; van der Kleij, Hanneke P.M.; Koppelman, Stef J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modification of native peanut extracts could reduce adverse effects of peanut immunotherapy. Objective: We sought to compare native and chemically modified crude peanut extract (CPE) and major peanut allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 in a mediator-release assay based on the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell line transfected with human Fcε receptor. Methods: Native Ara h 2/6 was reduced and alkylated (RA), with or without additional glutaraldehyde treatment (RAGA). CPE was reduced and alkylated. Sera of subjects with peanut allergy (16 males; median age 7 years) were used for overnight RBL-passive sensitization. Cells were stimulated with 0.1 pg/mL to 10 μg/mL of peanut. β-N-acetylhexosaminidase release (NHR) was used as a marker of RBL degranulation, expressed as a percentage of total degranulation caused by Triton X. Results: Median peanut-specific immunoglobulin E was 233 kUA/L. Nineteen subjects were responders, NHR ≥ 10% in the mediator release assay. Responders had reduced NHR by RA and RAGA compared with the native Ara h 2/6. Modification resulted in a later onset of activation by 10- to 100-fold in concentration and a lowering of the maximum release. Modified RA-Ara h 2/6 and RAGA-Ara h 2/6 caused significantly lower maximum mediator release than native Ara h 2/6, at protein concentrations 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL (p < 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively, for RA; and < 0.001, 0.026, and 0.041, respectively, for RAGA). RA-CPE caused significantly lower maximum NHR than native CPE, at protein concentration 1 ng/mL (p < 0.001) and 10 ng/mL (p < 0.002). Responders had high rAra h 2 immunoglobulin E (mean, 61.1 kUA/L; p < 0.001) and higher NHR in mediator release assay to native Ara h 2/6 than CPE, which indicates that Ara h 2/6 were the most relevant peanut allergens in these responders. Conclusions: Chemical modification of purified native Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 reduced mediator release in an in vitro assay ∼100-fold, which indicates decreased

  18. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    PubMed

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter. PMID:26787989

  19. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European

  20. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  1. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the

  2. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and

  3. Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

  4. High-pressure pyrolysis of Green River oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.; Singleton, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    Oil yields, compositions and rates of evolution are reported for heating rates from 1 to 100/sup 0/C/h and pressures of 1.5 and 27 atm. Pyrolysis occurred in an autogenous atmosphere and volatile products were allowed to escape the pyrolysis region continuously. Higher pressures and lower heating rates during pyrolysis cause a decrease in oil yield, although the effects are not additive. The lowest oil yield was approximately 72 wt% or 79 vol% of Fischer assay. Lower oil yield is generally accompanied by lower boiling point distribution, nitrogen content and density and higher H/C ratios. Oils produced at high pressure and slow heating rates are a clear amber color instead of the usual opaque brown. The effect of pyrolysis conditions on biological markers and other diagnostic hydrocarbons is also discussed. Existing kinetic expressions for oil evolution slightly overestimate the shift in the oil evolution rate vs. temperature with a decrease in heating rate. Finally, the rate of oil evolution is retarded by pressure, a factor not taken into account by current kinetic expressions.

  5. Peanut peg strength and post harvest pod scavenging for full phenotypic yield over digging date and variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New peanut cultivars are available with very high yield potential and high levels of disease resistance. With rising input costs and shrinking return margins, all efforts must be made to harvest the full yield produced. Peanut crops are susceptible to high levels of pod loss during digging from a ...

  6. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  7. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  8. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame. PMID:24576357

  9. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  10. CONTROL OF AFLATOXINS IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, methods to control aflatoxins in peanuts have focused on postharvest measures to reduce existing contamination. Recently, a biopesticide was developed and shown in plot studies to prevent much of the preharvest contamination that normally occurs under late-season drought conditions. Th...

  11. PEANUT AND OTHER FOOD ALLERGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past decade, there has been an increase in allergic reactions to peanut and other food proteins, often resulting in fatal reactions. The development of improved methods for both diagnosis and treatment of all allergies requires a better understanding of the allergenic proteins and the immune...

  12. Towards deploying genomic selection for improving complex traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an effective approach for improving qualitative traits and has been successfully used to develop improved lines for rust resistance and high oleate trait in peanut. Further efforts are underway to pyramid genomic regions for multiple qualitative traits (rust re...

  13. SOME RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS PEANUT FLOUR DISPERSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological behaviors of aqueous peanut flour dispersions were characterized across a range of conditions, including controlled heating and cooling rates under both large and small-strain deformations. Fat content of the dry flours influenced rheological characteristics, as dispersions of highe...

  14. Considerations for Marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. These ...

  15. Development of Peanut Germplasm with Improved Drought Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed significant reductions in preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) in peanut genotypes with drought tolerance. These sources of resistance to drought and PAC have been entered into a hybridization program. They have been crossed with cultivars and breeding lines that have high yie...

  16. Yield and Economic Responses of Peanut to Crop Rotation Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  17. RNAi control of aflatoxins in peanut plants, a multifactorial system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut plants is a multifactorial and hyper variable system. The use of RNAi biotechnology to silence single genes in plants has inherently high-variability among transgenic events. Also the level of expression of small interfe...

  18. Effects of deficit irrigation and temperature stress on peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particularly in the Ogallala Region of Texas and New Mexico, efficient production relies upon the peanut crop’s ability to yield under decreased water availability and oftentimes critical heat stress. The dry climate (approximately 450 mm rainfall per annum) necessitates high expenditures on irriga...

  19. Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

  20. A preliminary report on the effect of digging date on fatty acid composition of Red River Runner peanut cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut marketability in the southwestern United States is driven by the availability of cultivars possessing high oleic content, high yield, and superior grade. For the traditional low O/L peanuts, the O/L ratio increases as the developmental stage increases. No previous reports have appeared on t...

  1. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil. PMID:26292410

  2. Induction of Allergic Responses to Peanut Allergen in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN) extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40–50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep) showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy. PMID:23284686

  3. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  4. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  5. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Cao, Shengbin; Xu, Guangbiao

    2016-03-15

    Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6min when the water ran at 60.35ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates. PMID:26642440

  6. [Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

  7. High-sulfur crude oils of Ulyanovsk Oblast

    SciTech Connect

    Lazareva, I.S.; Aksenova, L.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors summarize the physicochemical characteristics of crude oils taken from various horizons in the Birlinsk, Pravdinsk, and bezymyannoe fields in Ulyanovsk Oblast. These crudes are heavy, medium-wax, high-sulfur, high-resin. Paraffinic hydrocarbons are shown to predominate in the narrow naphtha cuts.

  8. Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT

    PubMed Central

    Rahmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

  9. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of WRKY Gene Family in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Lin, Jer-Young; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Bi, Yuping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement. PMID:27200012

  11. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  12. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

  13. The Peanut Plant and Light: Spermidines from Peanut Flowers and Studies of their Photoisomerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  14. High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kathleen; Gehring, Marta Meta

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5% EPT-OILShield and an untreated control SBO were used for intermittent batch frying of tortilla chips at 180 degrees C for up to 65 h. Oil frying stability was measured by free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC). Chips were aged for up to 4 mo at 25 degrees C and evaluated for rancid flavor by a 15-member, trained, experienced analytical sensory panel and for hexanal content as an indicator of oxidation. Oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield had significantly less FFA and TPC than the control. The effect of EPT-OILShield was apparently retained in aged chips because hexanal levels were significantly lower in chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in chips fried in the control. Tortilla chips fried in the control were rancid after 2 mo at 25 degrees C at sampling times evaluated from 25 to 65 h; however, chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield and used for 65 h were described as only slightly rancid after 4 mo. Gamma tocopherol levels were significantly higher in the chips fried in the oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in the control, helping to inhibit oxidation in the tortilla chips during storage. PMID:19723188

  15. Performance of sampling plans to determine aflatoxin in farmers' stock peanut lots by measuring aflatoxin in high-risk-grade components.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, T B; Hagler, W M; Giesbrecht, F G

    1999-01-01

    Five 2 kg test samples were taken from each of 120 farmers' stock peanut lots contaminated with aflatoxin. Kernels from each 2 kg sample were divided into the following U.S. Department of Agriculture grade components: sound mature kernels plus sound splits (SMKSS), other kernels (OK), loose shelled kernels (LSK), and damaged kernels (DAM). The kernel mass (g), aflatoxin mass (ng), and aflatoxin concentration (ng of aflatoxin/g of peanuts) were measured for each of the 2400 component samples. The variabilities associated with measuring aflatoxin mass (ng) in OK + LSK + DAM, or A(OLD)ng, and in LSK + DAM, or A(LD)ng, and aflatoxin concentration (ng/g) in OK + LSK + DAM, or A(OLD)ng/g, and in LSK + DAM, or A(LD)ng/g, were determined. The variance associated with measuring aflatoxin in each of the 4 combinations of components increased with aflatoxin, and functional relationships were developed from regression analysis. The variability associated with estimating the lot concentration from each of the 4 combinations of components was also determined. The coefficients of variation (CV) associated with estimating the aflatoxin for a lot with aflatoxin at 100 ng/g were 90, 86, 94 and 96% for aflatoxin masses A(OLD)ng and A(LD)ng and aflatoxin concentrations A(OLD)ng/g and A(LD)ng/g, respectively. The performance of aflatoxin sampling plans using the combination of aflatoxin masses in OK + LD + DAM and LD + DAM components was evaluated with a 2 kg test sample and a 50 ng/g accept/reject limit. PMID:10191533

  16. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  17. Proteomic screening points to the potential importance of Ara h 3 basic subunit in allergenicity of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are complex with high protein contents and have been identified as one of the most allergenic foods. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent discoveries on the potential importance of peanut allergen Ara h 3 basic subunit, which has been overlooked in early literature, including recent...

  18. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  19. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  20. A multi-component approach to screening F1 hybrid peanut seed for disease resistance and oleic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of cultivated peanut, an important agronomic crop throughout the United States and the world, is consistently threatened by various diseases and pests. Furthermore, the peanut industry in the Southwestern U.S. currently demands varieties with high oleic acid content. In order to acc...

  1. Meloidogyne javanica on Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cetintas, R.; Lima, R. D.; Mendes, M. L.; Brito, J. A.; Dickson, D. W.

    2003-01-01

    A mixed population of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and M. javanica race 3 is reported on peanut from a field in Levy County, Florida. Confirmation of M. javanica on peanut is based on esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns resolved on polyacrylamide slab gels following electrophoresis, and perineal patterns. Up to 29% of 290 individual females collected from peanut roots in the field in autumn 2002 showed a typical esterase J3 phenotype for M. javanica. This is the third report of M. javanica infecting peanut in the United States. PMID:19262776

  2. Sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy: Long-term follow-up of a randomized multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Burks, A. Wesley; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Fleischer, David M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Vickery, Brian P.; Liu, Andrew H.; Henning, Alice K.; Lindblad, Robert; Dawson, Peter; Plaut, Marshall; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported initial results of the first multi-center randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial of peanut sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), observing a favorable safety profile associated with modest clinical and immunologic effects in the first year. Objective To provide long-term (3-year) clinical and immunologic outcomes for our peanut SLIT trial. Key endpoints: (1) percentage of responders at 2 years (could consume 5g of peanut powder or a 10-fold increase from baseline), 2) percentage reaching desensitization at 3 years, (3) percentage attaining sustained unresponsiveness after 3 years, (4) immunologic endpoints and (5) assessment of safety parameters. Methods Response to treatment was evaluated in 40 subjects aged 12-40 years by performing a 10g peanut powder oral food challenge (OFC) following 2 and 3 years of daily peanut SLIT therapy. At 3 years, SLIT was discontinued for 8 weeks followed by another 10g OFC, and an open feeding of peanut butter to assess sustained unresponsiveness. Results Approximately 98% of the 18,165 doses were tolerated without adverse reactions beyond the oropharynx, with no severe symptoms or uses of epinephrine. A high rate (>50%) discontinued therapy. By study end, 4/37 (10.8%) of SLIT treated participants were fully desensitized to 10g of peanut powder, and all 4 achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Responders at 2 years showed a significant decrease in peanut-specific basophil activation and skin prick test titration compared to non-responders. Conclusions Peanut SLIT induced a modest level of desensitization, decreased immunologic activity over 3 years in responders, and had an excellent long-term safety profile. However, most patients discontinued therapy by the end of year 3, and only 10.8% of subjects achieved sustained unresponsiveness. PMID:25656999

  3. Synthesis of a Novel Highly Oleophilic and Highly Hydrophobic Sponge for Rapid Oil Spill Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Maryam; Azizian, Saeid

    2015-11-18

    A highly hydrophobic and highly oleophilic sponge was synthesized by simple vapor-phase deposition followed by polymerization of polypyrrole followed by modification with palmitic acid. The prepared sponge shows high absorption capacity in the field of separation and removal of different oil spills from water surface and was able to emulsify oil/water mixtures. The sponge can be compressed repeatedly without collapsing. Therefore, absorbed oils can be readily collected by simple mechanical squeezing of the sponge. The prepared hydrophobic sponge can collect oil from water in both static and turbulent conditions. The proposed method is simple and low cost for the manufacture of highly oleophilic and highly hydrophobic sponges, which can be successfully used for effective oil-spill cleanup and water filtration. PMID:26496649

  4. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M S; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M V C; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H L; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the 'reference set' of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15-20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (p value > 2.1 × 10-6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81-90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  5. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  6. Effects of stir-fry cooking with different edible oils on the phytochemical composition of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; López-Berenguer, Carmen; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general and broccoli in particular protect humans against cancer; they are rich sources of glucosinolates and possess a high content on flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. The contents of total intact glucosinolates, total phenolics, vitamin C, and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) in the edible portions of freshly harvested broccoli (florets), which was subjected to stir-frying treatments, were evaluated. In the present work, the stir-fry cooking experiments were carried out using different edible oils from plant origin (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soyabean oil, and safflower oil) known and used worldwide. Results showed that during stir-frying, phenolics and vitamin C were more affected than glucosinolates and minerals. Stir-fry cooking with extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut, or safflower oil did not reduce the total glucosinolate content of the cooked broccoli compared with that of the uncooked sample. The vitamin C content of broccoli stir-fried with extra virgin olive or sunflower oil was similar to that of the uncooked sample, but greater than those samples stir-fried with other oils. PMID:17995900

  7. OHMSETT 'HIGH SEAS' PERFORMANCE TESTING: MARCO CLASS V OIL SKIMMER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A MARCO Class V oil skimmer was tested at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's OHMSETT facility to determine the device's 'high seas' performance characteristics. Performance data was obtained for several simulated offshore wave conditions at various collection speeds. Skim...

  8. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  9. In vitro antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao Bing

    2016-07-01

    The antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates were investigated using a microplates assay. When peanut proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent by various enzymes, their thrombin inhibitory abilities were significantly enhanced. However, the resultant hydrolysates showed significantly different activities even at the same degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates generated by Alcalase 2.4L displayed the best antithrombotic activities and the hydrolysis process was further optimized by response surface methodology. The antithrombotic activities were increased to 86% based on a protein concentration of 50mg/ml under the optimal conditions: pH 8.5, enzyme concentration of 5000IU/g of peanut proteins, and 2h hydrolysis time at 50°C. The Alcalase 2.4L crude hydrolysates were then fractionated successively by preparative and semi-preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide fraction collected inhibited thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen completely at a concentration of 0.4mg/ml, with an antithrombotic activity close to that of heparin at quite a low concentration (0.2mg/ml). This peptide fraction was further analyzed by online reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and three new peptides were identified as Ser-Trp-Ala-Gln-Leu, Gly-Asn-His-Glu-Ala-Gly-Glu and Cys-Phe-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Glu, respectively. This research provided an effective way to produce antithrombotic peptides from peanut proteins, and also helped to elucidate the structure-function relationships of peanut peptides. PMID:26920259

  10. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744

  11. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil. PMID:25892814

  12. An Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Oil Biosynthesis in High- and Low-Oil Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shi-Bo; Li, Qi-Gang; Song, Jian; Hao, Yu-Qi; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Huan-Quan; Dunwell, Jim M.; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Seed oils provide a renewable source of food, biofuel and industrial raw materials that is important for humans. Although many genes and pathways for acyl-lipid metabolism have been identified, little is known about whether there is a specific mechanism for high-oil content in high-oil plants. Based on the distinct differences in seed oil content between four high-oil dicots (20~50%) and three low-oil grasses (<3%), comparative genome, transcriptome and differential expression analyses were used to investigate this mechanism. Among 4,051 dicot-specific soybean genes identified from 252,443 genes in the seven species, 54 genes were shown to directly participate in acyl-lipid metabolism, and 93 genes were found to be associated with acyl-lipid metabolism. Among the 93 dicot-specific genes, 42 and 27 genes, including CBM20-like SBDs and GPT2, participate in carbohydrate degradation and transport, respectively. 40 genes highly up-regulated during seed oil rapid accumulation period are mainly involved in initial fatty acid synthesis, triacylglyceride assembly and oil-body formation, for example, ACCase, PP, DGAT1, PDAT1, OLEs and STEROs, which were also found to be differentially expressed between high- and low-oil soybean accessions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct differences of oleosin in patterns of gene duplication and loss between high-oil dicots and low-oil grasses. In addition, seed-specific GmGRF5, ABI5 and GmTZF4 were predicted to be candidate regulators in seed oil accumulation. This study facilitates future research on lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of seed oil content. PMID:27159078

  13. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  14. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  15. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  16. SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

  17. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  18. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  19. REGISTRATION OF 'TAMRUN OL 02' PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, is a major disease of peanut in Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia. The disease causes reduction in yield and quality of peanut, as well as increasing production costs. Therefore, our main interest and research goal is to enhan...

  20. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  1. Selection of groundnut variety for making a good quality peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Dhamsaniya, Navnitkumar K; Patel, Naginbhai C; Dabhi, Mukesh N

    2012-02-01

    Flavor and compositional quality are the ultimate criterion of the desirability of any food product. The nutritive value of any peanut product is closely associated with the fatty acid composition of its oil content, which influences its quality. Peanut butter was prepared using seven groundnut varieties commonly grown in major groundnut producing states of India. The flavor and compositional quality were determined using the standard procedures. The color code to the butter preparation was assigned by visually comparing the color of the butter with those given in the handbook of standard colors. On the basis of a combined evaluation, it could be recommended that the groundnut variety Somnath is the best-suited variety for producing peanut butter amongst the selected varieties. PMID:23572834

  2. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  3. Peanut proteins in periodate specific anion sensing: An ensuing reduction in allergic response.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Sen, Souvik; Majumdar, Dipanwita; Singha, Achintya; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-04-15

    Peanut proteins conarachin II, conarachin I and arachin were found to behave as highly selective fluorescence sensors for periodate amongst a set of different anions. The interactions of the proteins with periodate were also confirmed by other spectral methods and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicate a selective interaction of peanut proteins with periodate amongst chloride, sulphate, iodide, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, bromide, fluoride, persulphate, acetate, thiosulphate, arsenite, arsenate, sulphite, and iodide. Periodate sensing using different synthesized organic molecules are already reported in the literature. In this article we report the efficiency of peanut proteins as anion sensor which are bioactive and inexpensive too. The protein periodate interactions have also resulted in a simultaneous reduction in allergenicity of the peanut proteins. A change in the secondary structure of the protein was found responsible for this change which was further established with the help of circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26675870

  4. Leaf photosynthesis and Rubisco activity and kinetics of soybean, peanut, and rice grown under elevated atmospheric CO2, supraoptimal air temperature, and soil water deficit.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, peanut and rice were grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and under varying day/night temperature (T) regimes ranging from 28/18 to 48/38C for soybean and peanut, or soil water deficit for rice, (a) to determine the interactive impacts of high CO2-high T, or high CO2-drought, on midday leaf...

  5. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  6. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  7. Chemistry and Biochemstry of Peanut Skins. Implications of Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut shelling plants in the US produce thousands of tons of peanut skins each year. Currently, this material is considered a waste product with limited end uses and no real monetary value. Peanut skins were obtained from a regional peanut processor and subjected to a several types of solvent ext...

  8. Performance of Equipment for In-field Peanut Shelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs included in growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for the edible market. These processes are cost-prohibitive when producing peanuts for biodiesel. Shelling peanuts during harvest would significantly reduc...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  19. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  20. Oil seal effects and subsynchronous vibrations in high-speed compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Kocur, J. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Oil seals are commonly used in high speed multistage compressors. If the oil seal ring becomes locked up against the fixed portion of the seal, high oil film crosscoupled stiffnesses can result. A method of analysis for determining if the oil seals are locked up or not is discussed. The method is then applied to an oil seal in a compressor with subsynchronous vibration problems.

  1. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  2. Comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in thermally processed peanuts and in pure form

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...

  3. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste. PMID:21286847

  4. Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to

  5. Cadmium re-distribution from pod and root zones and accumulation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kairong; Song, Ningning; Zhao, Qiaoqiao; van der Zee, S E A T M

    2016-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes may differ greatly with regard to cadmium (Cd) accumulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To determine the key factors that may contribute to Cd re-distribution and accumulation in peanut genotypes with different Cd accumulating patterns, a split-pot soil experiment was conducted with three common Chinese peanut cultivars (Fenghua-6, Huayu-20, and Huayu-23). The growth medium was separated into pod and root zones with varied Cd concentrations in each zone to determine the re-distribution of Cd after it is taken up via different routes. The peanut cultivars were divided into two groups based on Cd translocation efficiency as follows: (1) high internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivar (Fenghua-6) and (2) low internal Cd translocation efficiency cultivars (Huayu-20 and Huayu-23). Compared with Fenghua-6, low Cd translocation cultivars Huayu-20 and Huayu-23 showed higher biomass production, especially in stems and leaves, leading to dilution of metal concentrations. Results also showed that Cd concentration in roots increased significantly with increasing Cd concentrations in soils when Cd was applied in the root zone. However, there were no significant differences in the root Cd concentrations between different pod zone Cd treatments and the control, suggesting that root uptake, rather than pod uptake, is responsible for Cd accumulation in the roots of peanuts. Significant differences of Cd distribution were observed between pod and root zone Cd exposure treatments. The three peanut cultivars revealed higher kernel over total Cd fractions for pod than for root zone Cd exposure if only extra applied Cd was considered. This suggests that uptake through peg and pod shell might, at least partially, be responsible for the variation in Cd re-distribution and accumulation among peanut cultivars. Cd uptake by plants via two routes (i.e., via roots and via pegs and pods, respectively) and internal Cd translocation

  6. Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours.

    PubMed

    McWatters, K H; Resurreccion, A V; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

    1995-01-01

    Cowpeas and peanuts are legumes of major dietary and economic importance. They are favored worldwide because of their palatability, contribution to nutritional status, and low cost as a protein source compared to animal protein. Flours processed from cowpeas and peanuts have unique physico-chemical and sensory properties when used in composite flour mixtures. Appropriate blends of cowpea and peanut flours to replace wheat flour in Chinese-type noodles, muffins, and tortillas were determined using modelling and optimization procedures. For noodles, 15% peanut flour and 8% cowpea flour supplementation produced an acceptable product with high protein content (21%). For wheat flour replacement in muffins, up to 43% cowpea and up to 44% peanut flours may be used. However, when wheat flour replacement is 50% or greater, cassava flour should comprise 56 to 72% of the blend with a few exceptions. In tortillas, 24% cowpea and 46% peanut flours produced products similar in quality characteristics to those made from 100% wheat flour. The systematic approach used in these studies is more efficient than the traditional substitution method to optimize sensory qualities of wheat-based products containing composite flours. PMID:7784400

  7. Functional Genomic Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Interacting with Resistant and Susceptible Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Houmiao; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Silong; Dai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Huifang; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus)–peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one (T1), three (T2) and seven (T3) days post-inoculation. The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. Comparison of expression levels both af_R vs. af_S and T2 vs. T3 uncovered 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus-R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops. PMID:26891328

  8. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  9. High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

  10. Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Weaver, C. F.; Robertson, D. G.; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut. PMID:19290315

  11. The molecular basis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Maleki, Soheila J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that similar short peptide sequences among unrelated peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  12. The Case of the Disappearing "Peanuts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail

    1994-01-01

    Presents a series of investigations focusing on the biodegradable packing materials ("peanuts"), which provide a method for exploring science through experimentation. These activities can help fourth through sixth graders sharpen their critical thinking and science process skills. (PR)

  13. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  14. High Doses of Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doses of Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack Study found improved heart function, less scarring To ... 2, 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart attack patients who took high doses of fish oil ...

  15. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  16. Sustained unresponsiveness to peanut in subjects who have completed peanut oral immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Kulis, Michael; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Berglund, Jelena P.; Burk, Caitlin; Hiegel, Anne; Carlisle, Suzanna; Christie, Lynn; Perry, Tamara T.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Sheikh, Saira; Virkud, Yamini; Smith, P. Brian; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Durham, Stephen R.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Background Although peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been conclusively shown to cause desensitization, it is currently unknown whether clinical protection persists after stopping therapy. Objective Our primary objective was to determine whether peanut OIT can induce sustained unresponsiveness following withdrawal of OIT. Methods We conducted a pilot clinical trial of peanut OIT at two U.S. centers. Subjects aged 1–16 were recruited and treated for up to five years with peanut OIT. The protocol was modified over time to permit dose increases to a maximum of 4000 mg peanut protein/day. Blood was collected at multiple time points. Clinical endpoints were measured with 5000 mg double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges once specific criteria were met. Results Of the 39 subjects originally enrolled, 24 completed the protocol and had evaluable outcomes. 12/24 (50%) successfully passed a challenge one month after stopping OIT and achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Peanut was added to the diet. At baseline and the time of challenge, such subjects had smaller skin tests as well as lower IgE levels specific for peanut, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2, and lower ratios of peanut-specific:total IgE, compared to subjects not passing. There were no differences in peanut IgG4 levels or functional activity at end-of-study. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of sustained unresponsiveness after peanut OIT, occurring in half of subjects treated up to five years. OIT favorably modified the peanut-specific immune response in all subjects completing the protocol. Smaller skin tests and lower allergen-specific IgE levels were predictive of successful outcome. PMID:24361082

  17. Circuits and signal conditioning for a peanut-drying monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-harvest processes at peanut buying points and other peanut grading facilities have a direct impact on the quality of the product. Peanut drying is an essential task for safe peanut storage. The rate at which peanuts are dried can also affect the flavor and milling qualities. Current peanut dryi...

  18. Relationship between Meloidogyne arenaria and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Wilson, D. M.; Holbrook, C. C.; Maw, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Damaged and developing kernels of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are susceptible to colonization by fungi in the Aspergillus flavus group which, under certain conditions, produces aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our objective was to determine whether infection of peanut roots and pods by Meloidogyne arenaria increases aflatoxin contamination of the kernels when peanut is subjected to drought stress. The experiment was a completely randomized 2-x-2 factorial with 6 replicates/treatment. The treatment factors were nematodes (plus and minus M. arenaria) and fungus (plus and minus A. flavus inoculum). The experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in microplots under an automatic rain-out shelter. In treatments where A. flavus inoculum was added, aflatoxin concentrations were high (> 1,000 ppb) and not affected by nematode infection; in treatments without added fungal inoculum, aflatoxin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in kernels from nematode-infected plants (1,190 ppb) than in kernels from uninfected plants (79 ppb). There was also an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.83 in 2001, r² = 0.43 in 2002; P ≤ 0.04). Colonization of kernels by A. flavus increased with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.18; P = 0.04) in 2001 but not in 2002. Root-knot nematodes may have a greater role in enhancing aflatoxin contamination of peanut when conditions are not optimal for growth and aflatoxin production by fungi in the A. flavus group. PMID:19262803

  19. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review. PMID:25102573

  20. Enhanced Approaches for Identifying Amadori Products: Application to Peanut Allergens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katina L; Williams, Jason G; Maleki, Soheila J; Hurlburt, Barry K; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2016-02-17

    The dry roasting of peanuts is suggested to influence allergic sensitization as a result of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on peanut proteins. Identifying AGEs is technically challenging. The AGEs of a peanut allergen were probed with nano-scale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Amadori product ions matched to expected peptides and yielded fragments that included a loss of three waters and HCHO. As a result of the paucity of b and y ions in the MS/MS spectrum, standard search algorithms do not perform well. Reactions with isotopically labeled sugars confirmed that the peptides contained Amadori products. An algorithm was developed on the basis of information content (Shannon entropy) and the loss of water and HCHO. Results with test data show that the algorithm finds the correct spectra with high precision, reducing the time needed to manually inspect data. Computational and technical improvements allowed for better identification of the chemical differences between modified and unmodified proteins. PMID:26811263

  1. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  2. Generation and stabilization of whey-based monodisperse naoemulsions using ultra-high pressure homogenization and small amphipathic co-emulsifier combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) was used to generate monodisperse stable peanut oil nanoemulsions within a desired nanosize range (<100 nm) (DNR) stabilized using combinations of whey protein concentrate (WPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100 (X100), and zwitterionic sulfobetaine-base...

  3. Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

  4. Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

  5. Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

    2014-07-01

    Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

  6. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  7. The peanut genome consortium and peanut genome sequence: Creating a better future through global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. The U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) was launched in 2004, and expanded to a gl...

  8. Association of root, specific leaf area and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading to water use efficiency of peanut under different available soil water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is the major abiotic constraint affecting peanut productivity and quality worldwide. There is a pressing need to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) of rain-fed peanut production. Breeding varieties with high water use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. The objective...

  9. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine

    PubMed Central

    Leishman, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methods Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Results Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Conclusions Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil. PMID:26565552

  10. Correlation of crude oils with their oil source formation, using high resolution GLC C6-C7 component analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    A novel method based on high resolution gas liquid chromatography (GLC) component analyses of shale and crude oil C6-C7 hydrocarbons is reported, by means of which the composition parameters in an oil are compared with the corresponding parameters in a shale. A similarity coefficient has been devised to measure the degree of correlation between crude oil and source rock hydrocarbons and between the hydrocarbons from different groups of crude oils, having 1.00 as its theoretical maximum value and a fraction close to zero as its minimum. With values above 0.80, correlation between the given hydrocarbons is considered good, and poor below 0.73. It has been found that erroneous crude oil-source rock combinations from areas with more than one source formation have low similarity coefficients, indicating that the correlation method proposed is functioning properly.

  11. Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.

    PubMed

    Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation. PMID:25053066

  12. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions. For instance, treatment of roasted peanut kernels with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 1-3h significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein while reducing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut kernel extracts by 100% and 98%, respectively, based on ELISA readings. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels in peanut protein extracts were inversely correlated with protein solubility in roasted peanut. Blanching of kernels enhanced the effectiveness of enzyme treatment in roasted peanuts but not in raw peanuts. The optimal concentration of enzyme was determined by response surface to be in the range of 0.1-0.2%. No consistent results were obtained for raw peanut kernels since Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 increased in peanut protein extracts under some treatment conditions and decreased in others. PMID:25214091

  13. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  14. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

  15. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  16. Oral and sublingual peanut immunotherapy is not ready for general use.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an investigational peanut allergy treatment aimed to achieve specific oral tolerance induction. Allergic children are given titrated oral (or sublingual) doses of their allergen on a daily basis, unlike in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). OIT is theorized to cause a shift from a Th2 to a Th1 regulatory environment, reflected by increases in food-specific IgG4/IgE, and the production of FoxP3. Peanut OIT holds special promise because peanut allergy has an unfavorable natural history and is rarely outgrown. A high percentage of the participants experience symptoms during peanut OIT, including anaphylaxis, warranting epinephrine and/or discontinuation of therapy. This is a concerning fact given that the studies have mostly targeted only older children, with less historical reactivity for enrollment. The handful of peanut OIT studies have shown that some participants can be desensitized to peanut, but none have shown that long-term tolerance can be reestablished. Factors predictive of which patients are most likely to succeed and become desensitized through OIT are unknown. Some private practices have begun offering peanut OIT as a therapy. Such practice is potentially dangerous given the safety and efficacy of OIT in randomized controlled clinical trials is still not well established. Therefore, until further investigation emerges that conclusively demonstrates OIT is safe, intermediate and long-term outcomes are better established, the number of participants that experience symptoms is reduced, and proof of concept established in patients of all ages, (irrespective of past reaction severity), OIT is not ready for use in the general allergy practice. PMID:23676568

  17. Short-term scheduling of crude oil operations in refinery with high-fusion-point oil and two transportation pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, NaiQi; Zhu, MengChu; Bai, LiPing; Li, ZhiWu

    2016-07-01

    In some refineries, storage tanks are located at two different sites, one for low-fusion-point crude oil and the other for high one. Two pipelines are used to transport different oil types. Due to the constraints resulting from the high-fusion-point oil transportation, it is challenging to schedule such a system. This work studies the scheduling problem from a control-theoretic perspective. It proposes to use a hybrid Petri net method to model the system. It then finds the schedulability conditions by analysing the dynamic behaviour of the net model. Next, it proposes an efficient scheduling method to minimize the cost of high-fusion-point oil transportation. Finally, it gives a complex industrial case study to show its application.

  18. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  19. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  20. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  1. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  2. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  3. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  4. Soybean-Peanut Rotations for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Robertson, D. G.; Backman, P. A.; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Rotating soybean (Glycine max cv. Kirby) with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for managing Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was studied for 3 years (1985-87) in a field near Headland, Alabama. Each year soybean plots had lower soil numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) at peanut harvest than did plots in peanut monocnlture. Peanut following either 1 or 2 years of soybean resulted in approximately 50% reduction in J2 soil population densities and a 14% (1-year soybean) or 20% (2-year soybean) increase in yields compared with continuous peanut. The soybean-peanut rotation increased peanut yield equal to or higher than the yield obtained with continuous peanut treated with aldicarb at 0.34 g a.i./mL. PMID:19290309

  5. Peanut Allergy Treatment: The Earlier in Childhood, the Better

    MedlinePlus

    ... new research suggests. The treatment is called oral immunotherapy -- also known as exposure therapy. In this approach, peanut-allergic children are given very tiny amounts of peanut allergen as directed by a doctor. Over time, these ...

  6. The origin of virgin argan oil's high oxidative stability unraveled.

    PubMed

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Haddad, Aziza; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2012-05-01

    To prepare either virgin edible or beauty argan oil, roasted or unroasted argan kernels are cold-pressed, respectively. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of edible and beauty argan oil immediately after preparation and after a two-year delay has led to the suggestion that phospholipids are a new and essential type of oil component participating in the excellent oxidative stability of edible argan oil, in addition to the already suggested Maillard-reaction products, phenols, and tocopherols. PMID:22799092

  7. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    PubMed

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides. PMID:21080075

  8. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  9. High risk groups in an oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Marine, W.M.; Perry, B.W.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosis, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns.

  10. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  11. Estimation of genetic variability among peanut genotypes for resistance to leaf spot disease.

    PubMed

    Bano, Q; Hassan, M; Hussain, S B; Javed, M; Zulfiqar, M A; Younas, M; Baber, M; Zubair, M; Hussain, S M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify high-yielding peanut genotypes with resistance to leaf spot disease. The experiments included material from fourteen local and four exotic peanut genotypes that showed highly significant differences among morphological and disease severity parameters in all the genotypes which, in turn, suggested diversity genotypes. Disease severity analysis showed that the highest disease score and damaged leaf area were observed in the genotype Kelincer and the lowest scores and leaf damaged areas were observed in Majalaya super and BARI-2000, respectively. Based on these results, the genotypes BARI-2011, Chakori, Golden, BARI-89, Majalaya Super, BARD-699, BARI-2000, SP-1, and No. 334 can be used by breeders in peanut improvement programs for the development of new cultivars with higher disease resistance and increased yield. PMID:27525936

  12. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

  13. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernel by processing conditions, such as, pretreatment with heat and proteolysis at different enzyme concentrations and treatment times. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicator...

  14. Passive transient transfer of peanut allergy by liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dewachter, P; Vézinet, C; Nicaise-Roland, P; Chollet-Martin, S; Eyraud, D; Creusvaux, H; Vaillant, J C; Mouton-Faivre, C

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of transient symptomatic transferred IgE-mediated peanut allergy after elective blood-group compatible liver transplantation. We show that the allergy was transient and therefore passive, authorizing further uneventful peanut consumption. Skin tests with commercial peanut extract and native peanut were performed in the recipient. Circulating specific IgE against peanut and recombinant peanut allergens (rArah1, rArah2, rArah3) was measured in stored serum samples collected from the recipient between 6 months before and 8 months after liver transplantation. Specific IgE levels in the donor were measured at the time of multiorgan donation. In the recipient, diagnosis of IgE-mediated peanut anaphylaxis was based on the clinical history and detection of specific IgE against peanut and recombinant major peanut allergens (rArah1, rArah2 and rArah3). Skin tests were negative and specific IgE undetectable 6 months after the clinical reaction. Oral peanut challenge was negative excluding persistent peanut allergy. This case confirms that IgE-mediated peanut allergy can be transferred by liver transplantation and shows that it may be transient and therefore passively acquired. PMID:21668638

  15. Molecular Diversity of the peanut rust pathogen and its host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia arachidis Speg is the causal agent of peanut rust, an important foliar disease of peanut in mainly low input peanut (Arachis hypogaea) producing countries with warm, tropical climates. Management of this disease in these countries is best realized through host resistance. Knowledge on the v...

  16. Critical Period of Tropical Spederwort (Commelina benghalenisis) in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical spiderwort (also known as Benghal dayflower) is one of the most troublesome weeds in Georgia peanut. There are several effective tropical spiderwort control options in peanut, but there is no information concerning the critical time of tropical spiderwort interference with peanut. Field s...

  17. NIR reflectance method to determine the Moisture Content in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture content (mc) in peanuts is an important property that is measured and monitored at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. In this work an NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) reflectance method, that would rapidly determine the average mc of a peanut sample (about ...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  2. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  4. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  6. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  8. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  10. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  15. 75 FR 38771 - Notice of the Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of the Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... 2002 requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  16. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  18. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  20. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...