Sample records for peanut oil high

  1. Peanut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ayres

    1983-01-01

    Conventional expeller and expeller\\/solvent extraction processes for peanuts are compared to the nonconventional processes\\u000a of direct solvent extraction, cold pressing and nonhexane solvent processes. Peanut composition, cleaning and specific extraction\\u000a procedures have a major impact on finished crude oil composition, refining characteristics, final oil and meal quality and\\u000a utility. Special care in raw material and process selection must be taken

  2. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  3. Carotenoid pigments of peanut oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold E. Pattee; Albert E. Purcell

    1967-01-01

    A method for analysis of carotenoid pigments in peanut oil is described. The major carotenoid pigments found in peanut oil\\u000a were beta-carotene and lutein. A sample of oil from immature peanuts contained 60 g of beta-carotene and 138 g of lutein\\u000a per liter of oil. The total carotenoid concentration in oil from mature peanuts appears to be less than 1

  4. Novel Germplasm with High Oil Content and Resistance to Aspergillus flavus and Bacterial Wilt Developed from Peanut Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo-Shou LIAO; Yong LEI; Dong Li; Sheng-Yu WANG; Jia-Quan HUANG; Xiao-Ping REN; Hui-Fang JIANG; Li-Ying YAN

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of resistances to aflatoxin contamination and bacterial wilt is one of the major objectives in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding for high oil content. In this study, 117 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed through crossing peanut varieties Yuanza 9102 and Zhonghua 5. Genetic analysis revealed that aflatoxin resistance was controlled by 2 major genes plus additive polygenes

  5. DETERMINATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 AND B2 IN PEANUT AND PEANUT OIL USING CLOUD POINT EXTRACTION FOLLOWED BY ULTRA-HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinling Lv; Yaling Yang

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC-FLD) determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) in peanut and peanut oil by cloud point extraction (CPE) has been developed. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen to extract the target aflatoxin. The different parameters affecting the extraction of target analytes such as pH, concentration of surfactant

  6. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  7. Physical and Chemical Characterizations of Normal and High-Oleic Oils from Nine Commercial Cultivars of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density and viscosity data as a function of temperature (5 to 100°C) were collected for oils (normal and high-oleic) from 9 cultivars of peanut. Density decreased linearly (R squared, greater than or equal to 0.99) with increasing temperature for all oils, whereas viscosity (dynamic or kinematic) d...

  8. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  9. The Naturally Occurring High Oleate Oil Character in Some Peanut Varieties Results from Reduced Oleoyl-PC Desaturase Activity from Mutation of Aspartate 150 to Asparagine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann C. Bruner; Sook Jung; Albert G. Abbott; Gary L. Powell

    2001-01-01

    tive breeding with little effect on the agronomic charac- teristics of the plant. For example, a high oleate peanut Commercially important high oleate seed oils, meaning that they cultivar called SunOleic 95R has been developed by the are low in polyunsaturated fatty acid content, are resistant to devel- University of Florida, in which the polyunsaturated fatty oping rancidity. A peanut

  10. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  11. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  12. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  13. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  14. Minimal effects of high-pressure treatment on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated into peanut butter and peanut products.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Somerville, Jeremy A; Balasubramaniam, V M; Lee, Ken

    2010-10-01

    About 1.2 billion pounds of peanut butter are consumed annually in the United States. In 2008 to 2009, an outbreak involving Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter led to a recall of over 3900 products by over 200 companies. More than 700 people became sick, 100 were hospitalized, and 9 people died from this outbreak. This study examines the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) to decrease S. Typhimurium American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 53647 inoculated into peanut butter and model systems. The viability of S. Typhimurium in peanut butter stored at room temperature was investigated. A culture of S. Typhimurium (6.88 log CFU/g) was inoculated into peanut butter. Following 28 d at 20 °C there was a 1.23-log reduction. Approximately 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g S. Typhimurium were inoculated into 4 brands of peanut butter, 3 natural peanut butters and peanut flour slurries at 2, 5, and 10% peanut flour protein in peanut oil and in distilled water. All were treated at 600 MPa for 5 min at 45 °C. While significant differences were found between natural peanut butter and peanut protein mixtures, the reduction was <1.0 log. The peanut flour/oil mixtures had a 1.7, 1.6, and 1.0-log reduction from HPP (2, 5, and 10% protein, respectively) whereas peanut flour/water mixtures had a 6.7-log reduction for all protein levels. Oil had a protective effect indicating HPP may not help the microbial safety of water-in-oil food emulsions including peanut butter. Practical Application: There have been multiple outbreaks of foodborne illness involving peanut butter products. This study looks at the potential use of high-pressure processing to reduce the bacteria that may be in peanut butter. PMID:21535491

  15. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

  1. RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

  2. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  3. Genomics of Peanut, a Major Source of Oil and Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is the second-most important grain legume cultivated, of importance for being a source of oil and protein. The perceived lack of variation in the cultivated species has resulted in a focus until recently on characterization and mapping of wild species, and on transformation of peanut with ge...

  4. Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Paxton; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Guo, Baozhu; Burow, Mark; Puppala, Naveen; Gallo, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B), oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues. PMID:19523230

  5. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  6. Antioxidant properties of extracts obtained from raw, dry-roasted, and oil-roasted US peanuts of commercial importance.

    PubMed

    Craft, Brian David; Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald Bruce

    2010-09-01

    Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial practices. Eighty percent (v/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A Spanish high-oleic peanut possessed the greatest naturally-occurring level of p-coumaric acid and its derivatives, followed by a high-oleic Runner, a normal Runner, and a Virginia peanut. Upon thermal processing, p-coumaric acid was liberated at the expense of its derivatives according to the relationship: oil roasting > dry roasting > raw. A high-oleic Runner exhibited the greatest increase (?785%) in free p-coumaric acid levels after oil roasting. For many of the samples from the 2007 crop, processing increased the TPC and antioxidant capacities in the order of raw < dry roast < oil roast, but results were cultivar dependent. Oil-roasted peanuts were more effective at scavenging O2(.-) than their dry-roasted counterparts, as determined by a photochemiluminescence assay. Overall findings indicate that although thermal processing altered the composition of peanut kernel antioxidants, TPC values and radical-scavenging activities are preserved. Depending on peanut type, cultivar, and harvest date, enhanced antioxidant capacities can result. PMID:20198439

  7. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  8. Genetic enhancement of peanut oil quality and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this project were to develop recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from SunOleic 97R x NC94022 ) for genetic and genomic studies and enhancement of peanut oil quality and disease resistance. The major fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid) were 83.5%, 1.8%, an...

  9. Acylglycerol structure of peanut oils of different atherogenic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Myher; L. Marai; A. Kuksis; D. Kritchevsky

    1977-01-01

    Detailed investigation was made of the triacylglycerol structure of native, simulated, and interesterified peanut oils, which\\u000a had previously been shown to differ markedly in their atherogenic potential. By means of chromatographic and stereospecific\\u000a analyses, it was shown that the more atherogenic native oil contains a significantly greater proportion of triacylglycerols\\u000a with linoleic insn-2-position and arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids insn-3-position

  10. Screening of the US peanut germplasm for oil content and fatty acid composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of plant oils. The oil contents and fatty acid compositions of fifty peanut accessions and two soybean accessions were analyzed and compared. In comparison of the oil content, peanut seeds contain a much higher amount of oil (51.94%) than soybean seed...

  11. De novo assembly of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed transcriptome revealed candidate unigenes for oil accumulation pathways.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongmei; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Hemin; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wanke; Chen, Shouyi

    2013-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the most important edible oil crops in the world. In order to survey key genes controlling peanut oil accumulation, we analyzed the seed transcriptome in different developmental stages of high- and low-oil peanut varieties. About 54 million high quality clean reads were generated, which corresponded to 4.85 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 59,236 unique sequences. Differential mRNA processing events were detected for most of the peanut Unigenes and found that 15.8% and 18.0% of the Unigenes were differentially expressed between high- and low-oil varieties at 30 DAF and 50 DAF, respectively. Over 1,500 Unigenes involved in lipid metabolism were identified, classified, and found to participate in FA synthesis and TAG assembly. There were seven possible metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of oil during seed development. This dataset provides more sequence resource for peanut plant and will serve as the foundation to understand the mechanisms of oil accumulation in oil crops. PMID:24040062

  12. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. ...carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner...

  18. EFFECT OF THE HIGH-OLEIC TRAIT AND PASTE STORAGE VARIABLES ON SENSORY ATTRIBUTE STABILITY OF ROASTED PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been much interest in the effect of the high-oleic acid trait of peanuts on various quality factors since discovery of high levels of oleic acid in a peanut mutant genotype. The trait provides greater oxidative stability for the high-oleic oil and seed. Several research groups have investi...

  19. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  20. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

  1. Fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in peanut oil: Therapy for childhood atopic dermatitis, even in patients who are peanut sensitive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy S. Paller; Sai Nimmagadda; Lawrence Schachner; Susan B. Mallory; Teri Kahn; Isaac Willis; Lawrence F. Eichenfield

    2003-01-01

    Background: Fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in a blend of refined peanut and mineral oils has been used as treatment for scalp psoriasis for several years, but only more recently for atopic dermatitis. Objective: We sought to study the effectiveness for atopic dermatitis, potential for adrenal axis suppression, and safety of the fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in oil in children with atopic dermatitis,

  2. Oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, and resveratrol content variability in FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical compo...

  3. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  4. Effect of peanut oil and randomized peanut oil on cholesterol and oleic acid absorption, transport, and distribution in the lymph of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramaniam Satchithanandam; Thomas J. Flynn; Richard J. Calvert; David Kritchevsky

    1999-01-01

    Peanut oil was shown to be atherogenic in cholesterol-fed rats, rabbits, and monkeys. However, after randomization, a process\\u000a in which the fatty acids in peanut oil are randomly rearranged, its atherogenicity was significantly reduced in cholesterol-fed\\u000a rabbits and monkeys. The mechanism for this effect remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether the absorption,\\u000a transport and distribution of dietary

  5. Peanut oil press redesign for Developing countries

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daipan

    2007-01-01

    One of the causes of malnutrition among the rural inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa is the high cost of dietary fats that are necessary to maintain normal body functions. Though the Food and Agriculture Organization of the ...

  6. Determination of In-shell Peanuts Moisture, Oil and Fatty Acids Composition Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and fatty acid content of V...

  7. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Average yields of peanut in the U.S. set an all time record of 4,695 kg ha-1 in 2012. This far exceeded the previous record yield of 3,837 kg ha-1 in 2008. Favorable weather conditions undoubtedly contributed to the record yields in 2012; however, these record yields would not have been achievable...

  8. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  9. Performance of sunflower oil with high levels of oleic and palmitic acids during industrial frying of almonds, peanuts, and sunflower seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Marmesat; M. Mancha; M. V. Ruiz-Méndez; M. C. Dobarganes

    2005-01-01

    High-oleic, high-palmitic sunflower oil (HOHPSO) is a seed oil from a new mutant sunflower line characterized by increased\\u000a levels of both oleic acid (>50%) and palmitic acid (>25%) and a high oxidative stability. In this study, its performance at\\u000a frying temperature was compared with that of palm olein in thermoxidative assays (4 h, 180C). Also, industrial discontinuous\\u000a frying of almonds,

  10. Recovery and purification of spanish high oleate peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and re...

  11. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  12. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ?-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ?-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1mol/L NaCl lowered ?-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. PMID:25872432

  13. Curing and drying effects upon the quality of Spanish peanuts

    E-print Network

    Aristizabal, Leon

    1968-01-01

    quality is determined on a similar basis, but there are no specific rules which apply to all conditions. Peanut flavor can be affected by moisture content, oil content, free fatty acid content, reducing sugars content, quality of the oil, maturity.... These characteristics are suggested by the apparent relationship of high scores with the low density, low shear press and 38 high oil content of the mature peanuts. The lowest score was for the partially cured peanuts and the highest score for the peanuts...

  14. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds. PMID:23104473

  15. Vegetable oil as a contaminated soil remediation amendment: application of peanut oil for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasvir K Pannu; Ajay Singh; Owen P Ward

    2004-01-01

    Peanut oil may be used as a natural, non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable extractant for decontamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Extraction efficiency was >90% when peanut oil at concentrations of 2.5–20% was used to remove anthracene from garden soil. Optimal pH for these extractions was 6 and 7. When soil spiked with a combination of 10 PAHs at 100?g\\/g

  16. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time.

  17. Effect of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts on the oxidative stability of peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) at various concentrations were tested in natural peanut oil stored at 65 degrees C for 35 days. The concentrations (weight/volume) of extracts added into oil were 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0%, and those of BHA were 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%. Antioxidant effect was determined by the measurement of peroxide value. After 7 days of storage, BHA and extracts of sumach were active in varying degrees against autoxidation of peanut oil, compared with the control test (P <.01). The sumach extracts generally inhibited the formation of hydroperoxide, as did BHA. After 28 days of storage, antioxidant effects of extracts were significantly decreased when compared with BHA. The decrease in the antioxidant activity of extracts might have resulted from the decrease of polyphenolic constituents. The results showed that high concentrations can enhance the potency of the antioxidant effect of sumach extract. PMID:12804022

  18. DEVELOPING HIGH O/L PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) CULTIVARS FOR THE SOUTHWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agencies listed above and the Texas Peanut Producers Board and the Oklahoma Peanut Commission initiated a program in 1996 to develop high O/L ratio peanut cultivars for the Southwestern Peanut Production area. The source for the high O/L genes was UF435-1 and UF435-2 for the Spanish materials a...

  19. Peanut Oil Stability and Physical Properties Across a Range of Industrially Relevant O/L Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1...

  20. Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein Hydrolysates from Roasted Peanut Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao Bing Zhang; Qi Yu Lu; Hongshun Yang; Yu Li; Shuai Wang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the roasting process on the extraction yield and oil quality, peanut seeds were roasted at different\\u000a temperatures (130–220 °C) for 20 min prior to the aqueous extraction of both oil and protein hydrolysates with Alcalase 2.4 L.\\u000a Roasting temperatures did not significantly affect the yields of free oil, whereas the temperature of 220 °C led to a reduced\\u000a recovery

  1. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 ?l/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 ?l/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 ?l/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), ?-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), ?-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

  2. Comparisons of biodiesel produced from unrefined oils of different peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesels were prepared according to standard procedures from oils of eight commercially available peanut cultivars and compared for differences in physical properties important to fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity was measured from 100 to 15 ºC, and differences (P<0.05) among cultivars occurred...

  3. The Effects of High Pressure Processing on Peanut Sauce Inoculated with Salmonella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara K. Stiles

    2010-01-01

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks have prompted the need for new processing options for peanut products. Traditional heating kill-steps have shown to be ineffective in lipid-rich matrices such as peanut products. High pressure processing is one such option for peanut sauce because it has a high water activity, which has proved to be a large contributing factor in microbial lethality due to

  4. A review of the nutritional composition, organoleptic characteristics and biological effects of the high oleic peanut.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, E J

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of literature has been published on the health benefits of peanuts, but the potential biological effects of high-oleic (HO) peanuts, along with their organoleptic characteristics have not been reviewed to date. In this paper, examination of evidence showed that HO peanuts provide a spectrum of nutrients and have improved sensory properties and technological advances, such as enhanced shelf life, beyond that of conventional peanuts. This may be attributed to their oleic to linoleic ratio (OL ratio) which is substantially (around 10 times) higher than normal peanuts. In terms of their biological effects, HO peanuts appear to be no more allergenic, and could even be less allergenic than conventional peanuts. There is also emerging evidence that HO peanuts may improve lipid profile and markers of glycemic control. Further randomized controlled human trials are now needed to build on animal and in vitro studies. PMID:25017702

  5. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  6. Biological observations from feeding heated corn oil and heated peanut oil to rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J C; Valli, V E; Chanin, B E

    1987-01-01

    Five groups of male weanling rats were provided purified diets containing 15% by weight of either fresh or laboratory-heated corn oil (FCO, HCO) or fresh, laboratory-heated, or commercial pressure deep-fry peanut oil (FPO, HPO, PPO). Total weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were consistently greater for the FCO, FPO, and PPO groups. Although relative heart weights were unaffected, the HCO and HPO produced elevated liver and kidney weights. The dietary fats had no effect on the hematological status of the animals or the proportions of cells comprising the total leukocytes of the blood. Physical, chemical, and microscopic evaluation of the urine detected no pathologic conditions. Rats fed diets containing HCO or HPO demonstrated toxicity of thermally oxidized fats by the appearance of diarrhea, dermatitis, seborrhea, and hair loss. Histological examinations revealed injury of the thymus by all fat samples except the FCO; the liver was damaged by the HCO, HPO, and PPO, and the testes and epididymides by HPO and PPO. In the latter case there was complete cessation of spermatogenesis. PMID:3586062

  7. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Unrefined Oils of Different Peanut Cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Davis; D. Geller; W. H. Faircloth; T. H. Sanders

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesels were prepared according to standard procedures from unrefined oils of eight commercially available peanut cultivars\\u000a and compared for differences in physical properties important to fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity\\u000a and density were measured from 100 to 15 °C, and differences (p < 0.05) in these physical properties occurred more frequently at lower temperatures when comparing the different cultivars.\\u000a Unlike data for

  8. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  9. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    PubMed

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed). PMID:21741232

  10. Identification of inferior quality peanuts without shelling during peanut grading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts produced in United States are considered as high quality peanuts. To continue this quality, grading of farmers stock peanuts should be improved further. When the peanuts are picked from the farmers they are unshelled peanuts. There are some peanuts that contain kernels with damages, immature...

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Raw, Dry-roasted, and Oil-roasted US Peanuts of Commercial Importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian David Craft; Agnieszka Kosi?ska; Ryszard Amarowicz; Ronald Bruce Pegg

    2010-01-01

    Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial\\u000a practices. Eighty percent (v\\/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were\\u000a found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A

  12. Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    : Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization pine pellets and peanut hulls, generates a hydrocarbon-rich liquid product (bio-oil) consisting of oily solubility. Peanut hull bio-oil is much more compositionally complex and contains more nitrogen

  13. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Sesame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatesh Balan; Chad A. Rogers; Shishir P. S. Chundawat; Leonardo da Costa Sousa; Patricia J. Slininger; Rajesh Gupta; Bruce E. Dale

    2009-01-01

    We have come up with a novel, integrated approach for making biodiesel by in-house producion of ethanol after fermentation\\u000a of hexane extracted edible oil cake fiber. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from commonly\\u000a available oil cakes (such as canola, sunflower, sesame, soy, peanut) and dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS). The\\u000a edible oil cakes and

  14. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIONS IN THE U.S. PEANUT MINI-CORE COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain not only a high percentage of oil (49%) with high oleate but also a high percentage of protein (25%) and nutritious phytochemicals (such as flavonoids and resveratrol). Therefore, peanut is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. The U.S. Peanut ger...

  16. Combinations of corn glutel meal, clove oil, and sweep cultivation are ineffective for weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic peanut is difficult and lack of residual weed control complicates weed management efforts. Weed management systems using corn gluten meal in combination with clove oil and sweep cultivation were evaluated in a series of irrigated field trials. Corn gluten meal applied in a ...

  17. Assessment of cadmium bioaccumulation and distribution in the kernels of peanut widely cultivated in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    To determine the low Cd accumulation genotypes of peanut and the key factor contributing to high Cd accumulation in peanut kernels, cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation and distribution in the kernels of nineteen genotypes of peanut widely cultivated in China were estimated in field experiment during duration of 130 days. Results showed that only four genotypes (Yuhua9626, Jihua9606, Luhua11 and Quanhua646) were identified as low-Cd accumulation group according to hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd accumulated in the nutritional tissues of the kernels followed in the order: extracted protein>residues>peanut oil. The protein plays a key role in the abnormal accumulation of Cd in the kernels of peanut. Thus, the control of human ingestion risk can be done by the extraction of peanut oil during deep processing of peanut. Meanwhile, the protein and residues of peanut should be paid more public attention when they enter into the food chain. PMID:25038268

  18. Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R × NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

  19. Electrospun porous structure fibrous film with high oil adsorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Wang, Li; Dong, Hua; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-06-27

    A low-cost, high-oil-adsorption film consisting of polystyrene (PS) fibers is fabricated by a facile electrospinning method. Different fiber diameter and porous fiber's surface morphology play roles in oil adsorption capacity and oil/water selectivity. The results showed that oil adsorption capacity of PS oil sorbent film with small diameter and porous surface structure for diesel oil, silicon oil, peanut oil and motor oil were approximate to 7.13, 81.40, 112.30, and 131.63 g/g, respectively. It was higher than normal fibrous sorbent without any porous structure. The thinner porous PS oil sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity in the cleanup of oil from water. PMID:22620260

  20. Production of Virginia Peanuts in the Rolling Plains and Southern High Plains of Texas

    E-print Network

    Lemon, Robert G.; Lee, Thomas A.

    1995-08-01

    -5140 Production of Virginia Peanuts in the Rolling Plains and Southern High Plains of Texas Robert G. Lemon and Thomas A. Lee* *Extension Agronomist and Extension Plant Pathologist, The Texas A&M University System. Texas Agricultural Extension Service...

  1. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  2. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  3. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Ming; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Khera, Pawan; Wang, Hui; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Wang, Jianping; Holbrook, C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2014-12-10

    BackgroundPeanut is one of the major source for human consumption worldwide and its seed contain approximately 50% oil. Improvement of oil content and quality traits (high oleic and low linoleic acid) in peanut could be accelerated by exploiting linked markers through molecular breeding. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs associated with oil content, and estimate relative contribution of FAD2 genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) to oil quality traits in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations.ResultsImproved genetic linkage maps were developed for S-population (SunOleic 97R × NC94022) with 206 (1780.6 cM) and T-population (Tifrunner × GT-C20) with 378 (2487.4 cM) marker loci. A total of 6 and 9 QTLs controlling oil content were identified in the S- and T-population, respectively. The contribution of each QTL towards oil content variation ranged from 3.07 to 10.23% in the S-population and from 3.93 to 14.07% in the T-population. The mapping positions for ahFAD2A (A sub-genome) and ahFAD2B (B sub-genome) genes were assigned on a09 and b09 linkage groups. The ahFAD2B gene (26.54%, 25.59% and 41.02% PVE) had higher phenotypic effect on oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic/linoleic acid ratio (O/L ratio) than ahFAD2A gene (8.08%, 6.86% and 3.78% PVE). The FAD2 genes had no effect on oil content. This study identified a total of 78 main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) with up to 42.33% phenotypic variation (PVE) and 10 epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) up to 3.31% PVE for oil content and quality traits.ConclusionsA total of 78 main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and 10 E-QTLs have been detected for oil content and oil quality traits. One major QTL (more than 10% PVE) was identified in both the populations for oil content with source alleles from NC94022 and GT-C20 parental genotypes. FAD2 genes showed high effect for oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and O/L ratio while no effect on total oil content. The information on phenotypic effect of FAD2 genes for oleic acid, linoleic acid and O/L ratio, and oil content will be applied in breeding selection. PMID:25491595

  4. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  5. Variables affecting the yield of normal oleic acid produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of cottonseed and peanut oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Bailey; R. O. Feuge; B. A. Smith

    1942-01-01

    Summary  1. The effects of the following factors have been investigated in the hydrogenation of cottonseed and peanut oils: temperature,\\u000a concentration of catalyst, pressure of the hydrogen, degree of agitation, and nature of the nickel catalyst.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The formation of stearic acid was found to be repressed and the formation of “iso-oleic” acid simultaneously favored by\\u000a increasing the temperature, increasing the

  6. Beyond Biodiesel Running on Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    on straight veg- etable oil." Rudolf Diesel's first engine ran on peanut oil at the World Exhibition in Paris. This is called air-blast injection, and worked reasonably well with pure oils derived from peanuts and oil seeds, high-precision sys- tems can only tolerate vegetable oil if it is specially processed and introduced

  7. Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press

    E-print Network

    Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

    2007-01-01

    The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

  8. Peanut Butter Banana Nuggets Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Peanut Butter Banana Nuggets Ingredients: 1 cup whole wheat natural cereal 2 tablespoons peanut. 4. In small bowl, microwave peanut butter on high until smooth, about 1 to 2 minutes. 5. Peel and cut bananas into 2" slices. 6. Using a toothpick to pick up bananas, cover bananas in peanut butter

  9. Rheological properties of peanut butter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume P. Citerne; Pierre J. Carreau; Michel Moan

    2001-01-01

    The rheological properties of two types of commercial peanut butter have been studied. Both products are concentrated suspensions,\\u000a and differ by the presence of additives. The first type, referred to as “100% peanuts,” is an unstabilized suspension consisting\\u000a of solid peanut particles in peanut oil which is a Newtonian fluid. The second type, referred to as “smooth,” consists of\\u000a the

  10. Saturation of genetic maps for identification of QTLs controlling biotic resistance, morphological descriptors and oil quality in tetraploid peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low genetic diversity in cultivated peanut severely hampered construction of high density genetic maps and as a result genetic maps constructed so far could not go beyond 200 markers. The marker density of these maps is not satisfactory concerning the large genome size, allotetraploid nature and 20 ...

  11. Oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie A. Smith; Robert E. King; David B. Min

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative and thermal stabilities of genetically modified high oleic sunflower oil (87% oleic acid) were compared with those of regular sunflower (17% oleic acid), soybean, corn, and peanut oils during storage at 55°C and simulated deep fat frying at 185°C. Oxidative stability was evaluated by measuring the oxygen content and volatile compounds in the sample bottle headspace and peroxide

  12. Modification of vegetable oils. VII. Alkali catalyzed interesterification of peanut oil with ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Feuge; Audrey T. Gros

    1949-01-01

    HE alkali-catalyzed displacement of the glycerol in a fat by methanol or ethanol is an important reaction in fat and oil technology. Besides producing monoesters for use as such, the reaction simplifies the manufacture of some soaps, especially anhydrous soaps (2, 3); and it is valuable in conjunction with processes for fraetionating fatty acids. Potentially the reaction is important in

  13. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

  14. Effects of cooking methods on peanut allergenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Beyer; Ellen Morrow; Xiu-Min Li; Ludmilla Bardina; Gary A. Bannon; A. Wesley Burks; Hugh A. Sampson

    2001-01-01

    Background: Allergy to peanut is a significant health problem. Interestingly, the prevalence of peanut allergy in China is much lower than that in the United States, despite a high rate of peanut consumption in China. In China, peanuts are commonly fried or boiled, whereas in the United States peanuts are typically dry roasted. Objective: The aim of this study was

  15. Biologically Active Components and Nutraceuticals in Peanuts and Related Products: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Isanga; Guo-Nong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Peanuts are among the world's major oilseed crops. They are very nutritious with relatively high protein content and can be utilized in diverse ways. Their oil is very easily digested, and for this reason they are useful consumptives. Peanuts not only contain the so-called “good” fat (monounsaturated fat), but they are also high in a variety of helpful antioxidants, or

  16. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

    2010-01-01

    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences. PMID:20492171

  17. YELLOW NUTSEDGE (Cyperus esculentus L.) MANAGEMENT WITH DICLOSULAM AND METOLACHLOR COMBINATIONS IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. B.L. PORTER, P.A. DOTRAY,

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. B.L. PORTER, P.A. DOTRAY, J.W. KEELING, and T.A. BAUGHMAN; Texas Tech. Metolachlor has been used to control yellow nutsedge in peanut for several years. Due to concern about), and combinations of these herbicides. Florunner peanut was planted in 2000 in a producer's field near Denver City

  18. Process development and characterization of spray dried protein/peptide concentrates derived from peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil from peanut kernels. Despite being an excellent source of protein (45-55%), the high levels of aflatoxin typically associated with this material currently limit applications to feed or fertilizer markets. Previously, ou...

  19. The Effect of Transglutaminase Crosslinking on the Rheological Characteristics of Heated Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour (PF) is a high-protein ingredient prepared after the partial extraction of oil from roasted peanut seed. Microbial transglutaminase (TGase) catalyzes protein crosslinking via acyl-transfer reactions, resulting in the modification of functional properties such as viscosity, gelation, so...

  20. A high temperature sensor based on a peanut-shape structure Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Min

    2012-11-01

    A fiber temperature sensor with high sensitivity based on a Michelson interferometer is realized by fusion-splicing a peanut-shape structure in single-mode fiber (SMF). The theory and experimental results show that the peanut-shape structure can couple the light energy of the core mode into the cladding and re-couple the light in the cladding into the core. A high-quality interference spectrum with a fringe visibility of about 18 dB is observed. Experimental demonstration shows that the device can be heated up to 900 °C with a sensitivity of about ˜0.096 nm/°C. The device has the advantages of low-cost, high sensitivity and easy fabrication, which makes it attractive for sensing applications.

  1. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  2. Peanut Power

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the burning of peanut and the subsequent transfer of heat energy to a container of water. A laboratory activity guides students through a procedure where a peanut is mounted on a cork and placed in a "chimney" can. The temperature of water poised in a small can above the peanut is recorded before and after the peanut is burned.

  3. Quantitative high resolution 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance of the olefinic and carbonyl carbons of edible vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt F. Wollenberg

    1990-01-01

    The acyl distribution and acyl positional distribution (1,3-acyl and 2-acyl) of triacylglycerols derived from edible vegetable\\u000a oils has been examined by13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The acyl profile of three natural oils (corn, peanut, canola) and one specialty\\u000a oil (high oleic sunflower oil, Trisun 80) has been defined from the high resolution (medium field 75.4 MHz) spectrum of the

  4. Comparison of the ? 12 fatty acid desaturase gene between high-oleic and normal-oleic peanut genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanlin Yu; Lijuan Pan; Qingli Yang; Ping Min; Zengkai Ren; Hongsheng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    ?12 fatty acid desaturase gene has been targeted as a logical candidate controlling the high oleate trait in peanut seeds. By RT-PCR method, the full-length cDNAs of ?12 fatty acid desaturase gene were isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes with normal and high ratio of oleic to linoleic acid, which were designated AhFAD2B and AhFAD2B?, respectively. Sequence alignment of

  5. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  6. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  7. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  8. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    PubMed

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 ?L/g of boldo and 3 and 5 ?L/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, ?-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and ?-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. PMID:24211775

  9. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    PubMed

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. PMID:23993554

  10. GEORGANIC - A PEANUT CULTIVAR FOR ORGANIC FARMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a rapidly growing market for organic peanuts and peanut products. Organic growers in the Southeastern U.S. need peanut cultivars that compete well with weeds and that have high levels of resistance to multiple pests. Georganic is a peanut cultivar that was released to meet those needs. ...

  11. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9?gkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9?gkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0?gkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0?gkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

  12. High-oleate peanut mutants result from a MITE insertion into the FAD2 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Patel; S. Jung; K. Moore; G. Powell; C. Ainsworth; A. Abbott

    2004-01-01

    A high-oleate trait in the cultivated peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) was reported to rely on the allelic composition of the two homeologous, microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase genes ( ahFAD2A or ahFAD2B). The enzyme activity of either ahFAD2A or ahFAD2B is sufficient for a normal oleate phenotype, and a significant reduction in the levels of ahFAD2B and a mutation in ahFAD2A

  13. A study of the relationships among consumer acceptance, oxidation chemical indicators, and sensory attributes in high-oleic and normal peanuts.

    PubMed

    Nepote, V; Olmedo, R H; Mestrallet, M G; Grosso, N R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between overall acceptance, chemical indicators, and sensory attributes in roasted peanuts harvested from high-oleic peanut genotypes produced in Argentina. Oleic/linoleic ratio (O/L), peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, consumer acceptance, and descriptive analysis were performed on roasted peanuts prepared using 16 genotypes of normal and high-oleic peanuts. Principal component and cluster analysis were performed on the chemical and sensory data from peanut genotypes. Acceptance was positively associated with O/L, crunchiness, sweetness, roasted peanutty flavor, and hardness. Acceptability was negatively associated with cardboard, oxidized, and sour flavors. The high-oleic genotypes, 4896-11-C, and 9399-10 showed high consumer acceptance with 7 or "like moderately" in a hedonic scale of 9 points. Some high-oleic peanut lines, such as 9399-10, could be used to replace normal peanuts without affecting consumer acceptance of peanut products processed from them and more stability due to the high-oleic condition. PMID:19200116

  14. Two alleles of ahFAD2B control the high oleic acid trait in cultivated peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high oleic:linoleic acid ratio (O/L) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds is controlled primarily by two recessive genes, ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B (ol1 and ol2). Marker-assisted breeding for high O/L could become routine provided that user-friendly and economical markers could be developed that would...

  15. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  16. An aptamer based surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the detection of ochratoxin A in wine and peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiling; Feng, Mengxue; Zuo, Limin; Zhu, Zhentai; Wang, Fengwei; Chen, Long; Li, Jinghua; Shan, Guangzhi; Luo, Shi-Zhong

    2014-10-30

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), as a kind of chlorophenolic mycotoxin, exist widely in plant origin food and is harmful to human. Herein, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor using an anti-OTA aptamer immobilized sensor chip was developed to measure ochratoxin A (OTA) quantificationally through a straightforward direct binding assay. The streptavidin protein as a crosslinker was immobilized onto the surface of a sensor chip and the biotin-aptamer was captured through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The biosensor exhibited a detection range from 0.094 to 100ng/mL (linear range from 0.094 to 10ng/mL) of OTA with a lower detection limit of 0.005ng/mL. Detection of OTA in wine and peanut oil was further performed in the SPR biosensor using simple liquid-liquid extraction for sample pretreatments. Recoveries of ochratoxin A from spiked samples ranged from 86.9% to 116.5% and coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 0.2% to 6.9%. The developed methods in our studies showed good analytical performances with limits of detection much lower than the maximum residue limit, as well as a good reproducibility and stability. PMID:25461176

  17. Peanuts in Texas.

    E-print Network

    McNess, George Thomas

    1928-01-01

    J ' , \\ T J 1 : r , A9-428-15,000-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL *~XP~RIM~~'F"'STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 381 MAY, 1928 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY PEANUTS IN TEXAS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS Peanuts had not been an important commercial crop in Texas until the war-time demand for vegetable oils brought the crop into prominence, and in 1918 a peak of 7,117,000 bushels was reported, which declined in 1926 to 1...

  18. Development of a Novel Strategy to Isolate Lipophilic Allergens (Oleosins) from Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Christian; Kull, Skadi; Krause, Susanne; Schocker, Frauke; Petersen, Arnd; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins. Methods and Results A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was developed comprising a stepwise removal of seed storage proteins from oil bodies. Further separation of the oil body constituents, including the allergens Ara h 10, Ara h 11, the presumed allergen oleosin 3 and additional oleosin variants was achieved by a single run on a preparative electrophoresis cell. Protein identification realized by N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and homology search revealed the presence of oleosins, steroleosins and a caleosin. Immunoblot analysis with sera of peanut-allergic individuals illustrated the IgE-binding capacity of peanut-derived oleosins. Conclusion Our method is a novel way to isolate all known immunologically distinct peanut oleosins simultaneously. Moreover, we were able to provide evidence for the allergenicity of oleosins and thus identified peanut oleosins as probable candidates for component-resolved allergy diagnosis. PMID:25860789

  19. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and pressure cycling on a pathogenic Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail inoculated into creamy peanut butter.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Salmonella enterica serovars to survive in high fat content, low water activity foods like peanut butter has been demonstrated by large foodborne illness outbreaks in recent years. This study investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing, including pressure cycling, to inactivate Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter. A cocktail of pathogenic strains of Salmonella Enteritidis PT30, Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Oranienburg, Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella Enteritidis PT 9c, and Salmonella Montevideo obtained from peanut butter- and nut-related outbreaks was inoculated (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g) into creamy peanut butter and high pressure processed under five different sets of conditions, which varied from 400 to 600 MPa and from 4 to 18 min. The log CFU reductions achieved varied from 1.6 to 1.9. Control experiments in which Salmonella was inoculated (10(9) CFU/g) into 0.1% peptone buffer and high pressure processed at 600 MPa for 18 min showed inactivation to below the detection limit of 100 CFU/g, confirming that high pressure processing is effective at destroying Salmonella in high-moisture environments. Pressure cycling under three sets of conditions consisting of pressures from 400 to 600 MPa, 3 to 10 pressure cycles, and hold times of 6 min for each cycle showed reductions similar to those seen in noncycling experiments. The results of our experiments suggest that the peanut butter food matrix facilitates the survival of Salmonella when exposed to high hydrostatic pressure processing. PMID:22221373

  20. Marker-assisted selection to pyramid nematode resistance and the high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic challenges of peanut farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars that can cope with new problems. Application of molecular markers in peanut breeding programs can greatly compress the cultivar development process from ten to fifteen years to less than three yea...

  1. Defatted peanuts: Preliminary cost study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Molaison; K. M. Decossas; J. Pominski; E. L. Patton

    1962-01-01

    Defatted peanuts are high in protein and low in fat content. A preliminary cost study for defatting Virginia peanuts with\\u000a hexane in three all-new hypothetical commerical plants indicates operating cost can be as low as 84 cents\\/lb of peanuts extracted\\u000a when packaged in 502308 tins. Cost in fully depreciated plants is as low as 61.5 cents for a volume of

  2. STRONGARM PERFORMANCE IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. J.R. Karnei, P.A. Dotray, J.W. Keeling, and T.A. Baughman. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and Texas Tech University, Lubbock and Texas

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    STRONGARM PERFORMANCE IN TEXAS HIGH PLAINS PEANUT. J.R. Karnei, P.A. Dotray, J.W. Keeling, and T Extension Service, Vernon. ABSTRACT Field studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate weed control and peanut controlled shining tickseed 60-70% late season. Peanut growth and yield response to Strongarm was observed

  3. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: first action 2013.05.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Liang, Chengzhu; Trucksess, Mary W; Xu, Yanli; Lv, Ning; Wu, Zhenxing; Jing, Ping; Fry, Fred S

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative study of a method for determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil using immunoaffinity column cleanup, postcolumn derivatization, and LC with fluorescence detection, previously published in J. AOAC Int. 95, 1689-1700 (2012), was approved as First Action 2013.05 on March 29, 2013 by the Method-Centric Committee for Aflatoxins in Edible Oils. The method uses methanol for extraction followed by filtration. The extract is applied to an immunoaffinity column with antibodies specific for AFs, which are then eluted from the column with a methanol solution. Determination and quantification occur using RP-LC with fluorescence detection after postcolumn derivatization. The average recovery of AFs in olive, peanut, and sesame oils in spiked samples (levels between 2.0 and 20.0 microg/kg) ranged from 84 to 92%. The recoveries for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 86-93, 89-95, 85-97, and 76-85%, respectively. Within-laboratory RSD (RSDr) values for AFs ranged from 3.4 to 10.2%. RSDr values forAF B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 3.5-10.9, 3.2-9.5, 6.5-14.9, and 4.8-14.2%, respectively. Between-laboratory RSD (RSDR) values for AFs were 6.1-14.5%. RSD, values for AFs B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 7.5-15.4, 7.1-14.6, 10.8-18.1, and 7.6-23.7%, respectively. Horwitz ratio values were < or =2 for the analytes in the three matrixes. PMID:24282940

  4. Food uses of peanut protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Lusas

    1979-01-01

    Approximately 19 million metric tons of peanuts (Arachis lypogae L.) are harvested annually, and contribute over 3.5 million tons to the world’s protein pool for food and feed uses. Peanut\\u000a is the world’s fourth most important source of edible vegetable oil and the third most important source of vegetable protein\\u000a feed meal. About 70% of the U.S. Crop is consumed

  5. Physical properties of peanut hull pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Fasina

    2008-01-01

    Peanut hull (peanut pods and waste materials from processing of peanuts) was pelleted through a 3\\/16-in. (4.76mm) diameter die. The effect of change in moisture content (4.2–21.2%, wet basis) of the pellets (due to exposure of the pellets to low or high humidity storage environments) on physical properties were measured. Pelleting increased the bulk density of the peanut hull from

  6. Peanut immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy. Recent developments involve the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment. Various routes of administration are being investigated, including subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous routes. Other forms of treatment, such as the use of vaccines and anti-IgE molecules, are also under investigation. So far, results from immunotherapy studies have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitisation to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the issue of long-term tolerance has not been fully addressed yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. An assessment of cost/benefit ratio is also required prior to implementing this form of treatment. The use of immunotherapy for peanut allergy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use and should not be attempted outside specialist allergy units. PMID:25276342

  7. Oral Sensitization to Peanut Is Highly Enhanced by Application of Peanut Extracts to Intact Skin, but Is Prevented when CpG and Cholera Toxin Are Added

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Adel-Patient; Sandrine Ah-Leung; Hervé Bernard; Coralie Durieux-Alexandrenne; Christophe Créminon; Jean-Michel Wal

    2007-01-01

    Background: CpG oligonucleotides might offer an alternative to conventional immunotherapy in preventing and potentially reversing Th2-biased immune deregulation which leads to allergy. However, non-invasive ways of administration, especially in peanut-allergic patients, should be explored. Methods: One hundred micrograms of whole peanut protein extract (PE) alone, or mixed with cholera toxin (CT, 50 ?g) plus CpG (100 ?g) as adjuvant, was

  8. Peanut Profits and Irrigation Yield Response in the Northern Texas High Plains, A Non-Traditional Production Area.

    E-print Network

    Harman, Wyatte L.; Regier, C.; Petr, F.; Lansford, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    response to surface (furrow) irrigation as an alternative crop in the northern Texas High Plains, and (2) evaluate the profitability of peanut production in this non-tradi tional short-growing-season region. Review of Literature Newman (1979...) and Bausch et al. (1971) found that early season plant water stress delayed blooming as well as maturity, reduced vegetative growth, and resulted in lower yields. Newman indicated stress at the bloom stage at Stephenville, Texas, where the frost free...

  9. Process Induced Changes in Resveratrol in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is thought to have a variety of beneficial health effects. Fresh peanuts have been found to contain levels up to several ppm. Processing of peanuts for human consumption involves heat from roasting. Mechanical pressure and solvents are used to extract oil to prod...

  10. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Shi, Xiaolei; Burk, Caitlin M; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have emerged to reduce/eliminate the allergenicity of peanuts or to better treat peanut-allergic individuals. In this review, we give an overview of peanut allergy, with a focus on peanut proteins, including the impact of thermal processing on peanut protein structure and detection in food matrices. We discuss several strategies currently being investigated to mitigate peanut allergy, including genetic engineering, novel processing strategies, and immunotherapy in terms of mechanisms, recent research, and limitations. All strategies are discussed with considerations for both peanut-allergic individuals and the numerous industries/government agencies involved throughout peanut production and utilization. PMID:24387606

  11. Peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2014-01-01

    The earliest known evidence of peanut farming dates back 7,600 years. With a prevalence of roughly 1%, peanut allergy is a diagnostic and treatment challenge, but is also a very good model for studying all aspects of food allergy, including its molecular basis and pathomechanisms. Therefore, the very starting point for elucidating all these aspects is the identification of peanut allergens with subsequent clearing of their structure and their preparation as pure recombinant and/or natural allergens. This is the basis for in vitro diagnostic tests as well as the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. With regard to class I food allergy, peanut allergy affects by far the largest group of patients. In peanuts, 12 allergens have been identified and their molecular characteristics are described herein. Ara h 1, Ara h 3.01 and Ara h 3.02 (the former Ara h 4) belong to the cupin superfamily. The conglutins Ara h 2, Ara h 6 and Ara h 7, and the non-specific lipid transfer protein Ara h 9 belong to the prolamin superfamily. Ara h 5 (profilin) and Ara h 8 (Bet v 1-homologous protein) cause class II food allergies and are associated with inhalation allergy to pollen via the sequential and/or conformational similarity of molecules. Two peanut oleosins are listed as Ara h 10 and Ara h 11 and two defensins as Ara h 12 and Ara h 13 by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The effect of the above-specified allergens has to be considered in the context of their matrix, which is influenced by processing factors and the individual's immune system. PMID:24925406

  12. Diversity and compatibility of peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) bradyrhizobia and their host plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Chen; Xiaoping Zhang; Zewdu Terefework; Seppo Kaijalainen; Dengyu Li; Kristina Lindström

    2003-01-01

    A high degree of genetic diversity among 125 peanut bradyrhizobial strains and among 32 peanut cultivars collected from different regions of China was revealed by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Eighteen different peanut bradyrhizobial genotypes and six peanut cultivars were selected for symbiotic cross-inoculation experiments. The genomic diversity was reflected in the symbiotic diversity. The peanut cultivars

  13. STORAGE WATER ACTIVITY EFFECT ON OXIDATION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-OLEIC PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts were stored under different water activities and maintained using saturated salt solutions, for 14 wks. Peroxide values, percent moisture, and sensory attributes were determined at 2 wk intervals. Peroxide values increased over time for all treatments. The highest oxidation values were obser...

  14. Infants and Peanut Exposure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... right-hand corner of the player. Infants and Peanut Exposure HealthDay February 24, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... Food Allergy Transcript Does delaying the introduction of peanuts to children's diets help prevent peanut allergy later ...

  15. Chemical Analyses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Anyasor; K. O. Ogunwenmo; O. A. Oyelana; D. Ajayi; J. Dangana

    2009-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil from seeds of six varieties; boro red, boro light, mokwa, ela, campala and guta as well as oil from three geographical zones in Nigeria; northern, eastern and western were investigated. Gas chromatography analysis showed high concentrations of oleic and linoleic acids in the oil samples. Capric (0.0) and Lauric (8.1) acids were absent and highest,

  16. Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyan Zhao; Jun Chen; Fangling Du

    Peanut is one of the most important oil and protein producing crops in the world. Yet the amounts of peanut processing by-products\\u000a containing proteins, fiber and polyphenolics are staggering. With the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for landfilling,\\u000a wastes\\/by-product utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several peanut by-products are produced from\\u000a crush peanut processes and harvested peanut,

  17. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  18. Changes in the phytochemical composition and profile of raw, boiled, and roasted peanuts.

    PubMed

    Chukwumah, Yvonne; Walker, Lloyd; Vogler, Bernhard; Verghese, Martha

    2007-10-31

    Peanuts are consumed mostly as processed products. Although the effect of processing on isoflavone composition of legumes has been extensively studied, there has been no such study on peanuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of processing (boiling, oil- and dry-roasting) on the phytochemical composition of peanuts. Boiling had a significant effect on the phytochemical composition of peanuts compared to oil- and dry-roasting. Boiled peanuts had the highest total flavonoid and polyphenol content. The biochanin A and genistein content of boiled peanut extracts were two- and fourfold higher, respectively. trans-Resveratrol was detected only in the boiled peanuts, with the commercial product having a significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher concentration. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometry chromatograms for the boiled peanut extracts show the presence of four additional peaks that were not observed in the raw peanut extracts. PMID:17924703

  19. Application of High-Power Ultrasound to Improve Adhesion of Honey on Roasted Peanuts to Improve Oxidative Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wambura; Henok Tegete; Martha Verghese

    The extent of honey-coating retention on the surface of sonicated peanuts was studied to evaluate the efficacy of sonication\\u000a to improve adhesion of honey on peanuts. Samples (150 g each) were sonicated in 450 ml petroleum ether for 5, 10, and 15 min.\\u000a Following sonication, 25 ml of honey was poured and stirred over the peanuts then roasted in an oven at 177 °C for

  20. Developing therapies for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated, persisting immune disorder that is of major concern worldwide. Currently, no routine immunotherapy is available to treat this often severe and sometimes fatal food allergy. Traditional subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with crude peanut extracts has proven not feasible due to the high risk of severe systemic side effects. The allergen-specific approaches under preclinical and clinical investigation comprise subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy with whole-peanut extracts as well as applications of hypoallergenic peanut allergens or T cell epitope peptides. Allergen-nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, TCM herbal formulations and Toll-like receptor 9-based immunotherapy. The potential of genetically engineered plants with reduced allergen levels is being explored as well as the beneficial influence of lactic acid bacteria and soybean isoflavones on peanut allergen-induced symptoms. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated, several of these strategies hold great promise. It can be estimated that individual strategies or a combination thereof will result in a successful immunotherapy regime for peanut-allergic individuals within the next decade. PMID:25531161

  1. The Effect of Sorting Farmers' Stock Peanuts by Size and Color on Partitioning Aflatoxin into Various Shelled Peanut Grade Sizes 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas B. Whitaker; Joe W. Dorner; Marshall Lamb; Andrew B. Slate

    2005-01-01

    Farmers' stock peanuts are processed into shelled peanuts using several basic sorting pro- cesses. After removal of foreign material and the shelling process, loose shelled kernels and shelled kernels are typically sorted by size into jumbo (J), medium, (M), number one (N1), other edibles (OE), sound splits (SS), and oil stock (OS) grades. Using electronic color sorters, shelled peanuts in

  2. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  3. Pilot plant preparation of defatted peanuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pominski; E. L. Patton; J. J. Spadaro

    1964-01-01

    Interest in defatted peanuts is due to several factors: lower calorie value; possible increase in shelf-life by minimizing\\u000a oil randicity, possible use by hemophiliacs to control bleeding; and development of a new product to increase utilization\\u000a of peanuts. Based on previously conducted laboratory work, pilot plant runs were conducted to prepare large amounts of materials\\u000a for taste and appearance evaluation,

  4. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n?=?4x?=?40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n?=?2x?=?20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the homoeologous linkage groups between A (A. duranensis) and B (A. batizocoi) genomes. Comparison of the A- and B-genome genetic linkage maps also showed a total of five inversions and one major reciprocal translocation between two pairs of chromosomes under our current mapping resolution. Conclusions Our findings will contribute to understanding tetraploid peanut genome origin and evolution and eventually promote its genetic improvement. The newly developed EST-SSR markers will enrich current molecular marker resources in peanut. PMID:23140574

  5. Relationship between biomass, seed components and seed Cd concentration in various peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars grown on Cd-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gangrong; Su, Gengqiang; Lu, Ziwei; Liu, Caifeng; Wang, Xvming

    2014-12-01

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) exhibit high genotypic variations in seed Cd accumulation, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to reveal the main factors that determine Cd concentration in peanut seeds. The biomasses and Cd accumulation in plant tissues as well as the Cd distribution in the seeds of 15 peanut cultivars were analyzed in a pot experiment at 4mgkg(-1) Cd (treatment) and 0mgkg(-1) Cd (control). Peanuts exhibited large variations among cultivars in terms of Cd accumulation and distribution at the whole-plant and seed levels. The peanut cultivars were divided into three groups based on [Cd]embryos as follows: (i) high Cd accumulators (Zhenghong 3 and Haihua 1), (ii) low Cd accumulators (Qishan 208, Luhua 8, and Yuhua 15), and (iii) intermediate Cd accumulators (10 remaining cultivars). [Cd]embryos was significantly correlated with [Cd]testae and [Cd]oils at control conditions, whereas in the 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatment, [Cd]embryos was negatively correlated with plant biomass, total Cd and its proportion in vegetative organs, and seed oil contents. [Cd]embryos was positively correlated with protein contents, [Cd]oils, and proportion of Cd in protein extracts at 4mgkg(-1) Cd treatments. The attenuation of Cd by high biomass of vegetative tissues and Cd-binding proteins in seeds mainly determined the Cd concentration in peanut seeds. PMID:25244685

  6. Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

  7. Dynamic succession of soil bacterial community during continuous cropping of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

  8. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  9. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Liu, Andrew H.; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J.; Stephens, Alick C.; Irwin McLean, W.H.; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Methods Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ?5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. Results There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P < .01). The effect of EPE on peanut SPT sensitization was augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P < .01) and augmented even further in children with a history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P < .01); the effect of EPE on PA was also augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Conclusion Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. PMID:25457149

  10. Evaluation of enzymatic modification of peanut protein isolate

    E-print Network

    Hostetler, Marsha Kay

    1979-01-01

    basic with saturated NaOH, 12 distilled and the armenia trapped in 4K boric acid. The ammonia was titrated directly with standardized 0. 25N HC1. The amount of nitrogen was then calculated using the formula: (S ? B) x N x 14. 007 5 N? x 100 Mg... of Defatted Peanut Flour . Preparation of Peanut Protein Isolate Experimental Procedures Proximate Composition . Moisture . Oil Total Protein Amino Acid Analysis . Preparation of Peanut Protein Isolate for Proteolysis Electrophoresis Nitrogen...

  11. Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

    2013-08-02

    that maintain acceptable seed sizes. Increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut oil and reducing the long chain saturated fatty acid concentration (which includes arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids) produces high quality, stable...

  12. BREEDING FOR EARLY-MATURING PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of peanut grown in West Texas is affected by a shorter growing season, longer time to maturity, and reduced oleic to linoleic ratios (O/L). We have begun development of material to combine earlier maturity, high O/L, and acceptable sucrose content. F2:6 runner and Spanish peanuts were ...

  13. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  14. Peanut protein concentrate: Production and functional properties as affected by processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe

    2007-01-01

    Peanut protein concentrate (PPC) was isolated from fermented and unfermented defatted peanut flour by isoelectric precipitation and physical separation procedures. PPC was dried by spray or vacuum drying. PPC powders from each drying technique were evaluated for proximate composition and functional properties (protein solubility, water\\/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foaming capacity and viscosity) along with defatted peanut flour and soy

  15. Physical properties of peanut hull pellets.

    PubMed

    Fasina, O O

    2008-03-01

    Peanut hull (peanut pods and waste materials from processing of peanuts) was pelleted through a 3/16-in. (4.76 mm) diameter die. The effect of change in moisture content (4.2-21.2%, wet basis) of the pellets (due to exposure of the pellets to low or high humidity storage environments) on physical properties were measured. Pelleting increased the bulk density of the peanut hull from 151 kg/m(3) to more than 600 kg/m(3). Bulk density, particle density and durability of the pelleted peanut hull of pellets were significantly affected by moisture content attained by the pellets during exposure to the low or high humidity environment. Air relative humidity significantly influenced the rate at which the pellets exchange moisture with the environment while air temperature did not. The values of the constants of the GAB model were obtained from moisture sorption isotherm at 25 degrees C. PMID:17475480

  16. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and cashews. What Happens With a Nut or Peanut Allergy? The body's immune system normally fights infection. ... are lifelong in many people. Continue Living With Peanut or Tree Nut Allergy If allergy skin testing ...

  17. National Peanut Board

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those with an interest in peanuts, the National Peanut Board Web site will provide a host of information on this well-known legume. The site has different themed sections dealing with the history of the peanut, and continue on to give a detailed explanation of the production process involved with turning peanuts into a host of products. Additionally, the extensive research and promotion activities of the National Peanut Board are detailed on the site. A map shows the primary peanut growing regions on the United States and a cookbook offers a multitude of ways to use peanuts in different dishes. Perhaps the most interesting part of the site is a section offering a range of facts on the peanut and its uses throughout the world.

  18. Burn a Peanut

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Doherty

    2000-01-01

    In this activity, learners burn a peanut, which produces a flame that can be used to boil away water and count the calories contained in the peanut. Learners use a formula to calculate the calories in a peanut and then differentiate between food calories and physicist calories as well as calories and joules.

  19. PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

  20. Distribution of aflatoxins in various fractions separated from raw peanuts and defatted peanut meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Natarajan; K. C. Rhee; C. M. Cater; K. F. Mattil

    1975-01-01

    The present investigation is the first definitive study of the distribution of aflatoxins in a wet-milling process of raw\\u000a peanuts. The results show that the majority of the aflatoxins originally present in the peanuts remained in the solid fractions,\\u000a particularly the protein fraction, during wet-milling. In the protein concentrate preparation, the concentrates carried 81–89%\\u000a of the total toxin; crude oil,

  1. [Research advances in cadmium pollution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-rong; Zhang, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil-bearing crop in the world, and as well, an important resource of plant protein and a main raw material for food processing. With the increasing of its direct human consumption and food processing, the Cd concentration in peanut kernel has aroused great concern in recent years. China is a main country of the production and exportation of peanut, but the Cd enrichment in peanut kernel is the main obstacle for its peanut export trade. In this paper, the research advances in Cd pollution of peanut kernel were reviewed, based on the characteristics and mechanisms of Cd accumulation and distribution in peanut kernel, the intra-specific variation of kernel Cd content, and the measures in controlling kernel Cd content. Two strategies were put forward for controlling Cd pollution of peanut kernel, i.e., to reduce the Cd uptake by main root system of peanut plant, and to control the transference of Cd from root to fruit (kernel). In order to applying the strategies effectively, researches on the mechanisms of Cd accumulation in peanut kernel should be enhanced in three aspects, i.e., root vitality and its relationship with Cd accumulation in kernel, mechanism of fruit Cd absorption and its contribution to kernel Cd content, and mechanism of Cd transference in plants and its effects on kernel Cd content. PMID:19288735

  2. High value oils from plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years, there is increasing opportunity to use these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly ...

  3. Controlling vanadium from high metals crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W. [Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Martin, G.R. [Process Consulting Services, Inc., Grapevine, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Processing heavier high metals crude oils continues to be an objective of many refiners. Refiners manage the vanadium and other contaminants with hydroprocessing and FCC catalysts that are more tolerant to metals. Although hydroprocessing and FCC catalyst formulations are critical and will be required for the bulk of the metals removal, many times primary distillation impacts on vanadium are ignored. Distillation system designs can significantly impact the metals content of the gas oil pool or the total gas yields for a targeted metals level. Commercial experience shows that total gas oil metals to the hydroprocessing unit can be reduced by 20 to 40% for a given gas yield or the total gas oil yield can be increased for a given metals target by optimizing primary distillation system performance. Total gas oil vanadium content has varied from 5 to 2 weight ppm depending on crude oil metals level, unit process design, distillation unit operation, and equipment design. An actual example using a 22.0 API Bochequero Field blend will be used to illustrate the points covered. The source of the vanadium in the various gas oil pool components will be evaluated and show potential gas oil quality improvements based on primary distillation system design and operation modifications. In the example, the refiner processes 145,000 bpd of crude oil through a conventional integrated atmospheric/vacuum unit and processes the vacuum residue in a delayed coker. The gas oil blend streams consists of atmospheric gas oil, light vacuum gas oil, and heavy vacuum gas oil from the crude unit and heavy coker gas oil from the delayed coker. All the modifications which will be discussed have been operating successfully for several years.

  4. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

  5. Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites as anode electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengbin; Ren, Yanbiao; Liu, Guanrao; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Shichao

    2014-03-01

    Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries.Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05916b

  6. Study Finds Peanut Consumption in Infancy Prevents Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of peanut allergy in children who began early, continuous consumption of peanut compared to those who avoided ... for one year. These results will determine whether continuous peanut consumption is required to maintain a child’s ...

  7. Oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity and reusability for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daxiong; Fang, Linlin; Qin, Yanmin; Wu, Wenjuan; Mao, Changming; Zhu, Haitao

    2014-07-15

    A sorbent for oil spill cleanup was prepared through a novel strategy by treating polyurethane sponges with silica sol and gasoline successively. The oil sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, reusability and sorption mechanism of prepared sorbent were studied. The results showed that the prepared sorbent exhibited high sorption capacity and excellent oil/water selectivity. 1g of the prepared sorbent could adsorb more than 100 g of motor oil, while it only picks up less than 0.1 g of water from an oil-water interface under both static and dynamic conditions. More than 70% of the sorption capacity remained after 15 successive sorption-squeezing cycles, which suggests an extraordinary high reusability. The prepared sorbent is a better alternative of the commercial polypropylene sorbent which are being used nowadays. PMID:24856092

  8. Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.

    PubMed

    Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B

    2015-01-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) ?mol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts. PMID:25148966

  9. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ?6/?3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  10. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  11. Identification and Characterization of microRNAs from Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinyan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Mingna; Yang, Zhen; He, Yanan; Liang, Xuanqiang; Yu, Shanlin

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of approximately 21 nt that regulate gene expression in plants post-transcriptionally by endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play essential roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes and many of them are conserved across species. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been done in a few model plants; however, less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Results A library of small RNA from peanut was constructed for deep sequencing. In addition to 126 known miRNAs from 33 families, 25 novel peanut miRNAs were identified. The miRNA* sequences of four novel miRNAs were discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Twenty of the novel miRNAs were considered to be species-specific because no homolog has been found for other plant species. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of seven miRNAs in different tissues and in seed at different developmental stages and some showed tissue- and/or growth stage-specific expression. Furthermore, potential targets of these putative miRNAs were predicted on the basis of the sequence homology search. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library. This study of the identification and characterization of miRNAs in peanut can initiate further study on peanut miRNA regulation mechanisms, and help toward a greater understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in peanut. PMID:22110666

  12. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  13. Peanut Allergy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Peanut allergies have been increasing in prevalence in most industrialized countries. Onset is typically in early childhood, with a trend towards earlier ages of presentation. The allergy is lifelong in most affected children, although 15-22% will outgrow their peanut allergy, usually before their teenage years. Manifestations of peanut allergy range from mild to severe, and risk factors predisposing to severe reactions are discussed. However, even in the absence of risk factors, peanut allergic individuals may still experience life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Approaches to investigation and treatment, patterns of cross-reactivity and possible causes of rising prevalence are discussed. PMID:20525136

  14. Detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergen by Real-time PCR method with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Ju; Cai, Qin; Guan, Xiao; Chen, Qin

    2015-05-01

    Specific primer sets were designed based on the DNA sequence of Ara h 1, one of the major peanut (Arachis hypogaea) allergens, and a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was designed by compound primer technology. By choosing 314 copies/PCR as the IAC dosage, a Real-time PCR method with IAC was established for detecting peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA. The method showed high specificity with a detection limit of 0.005% peanut. A series of commercial food products with/without peanut components were tested. Among these products, the peanut allergen Ara h 1 DNA could be detected in 12 products labelled containing peanut ingredients, in two without a declaration of peanut and one labelled that was produced in a facility that produced peanut-containing foods. This indicates that the method is highly sensitive for the detection of peanut ingredients in foods. PMID:25529717

  15. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    1 Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance

  16. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Tate; J. K. Chavan; P. B. Patil; S. S. Kadam

    1990-01-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  18. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  19. International peanut yield gains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is grown in more than 100 countries, with China, India, the U.S., Nigeria, and Indonesia being the largest producers. Peanut production systems range from very primitive with only hand labor and few inputs of fertilizer or chemical controls for weeds or diseases to other systems that are h...

  20. REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

  1. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  2. Functional Components in Peanuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Leonora D. L. Francisco; A. V. A. Resurreccion

    2008-01-01

    Peanut is one of the most widely used legumes due to its nutrition and taste. The fact that is has been recognized recently as a functional food, its evaluation for its role in a heart-healthy diet has received tremendous attention. Functional compounds have been isolated, identified, quantified, and even enhanced to maximize the amount for adequate health benefits. The peanut

  3. Analyzing the major peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. Boiled, fried, and roasted peanut proteins wer...

  4. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500?L/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000?L/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000?L/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000?L/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500?L/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000?L/L) and clove oils (3000?L/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000?L/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

  5. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  6. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  7. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Photoinhibition of PSII by Improving the Xanthophyll Cycle in Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Leaves during Heat Stress under High Irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium (Ca) serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. The effect of exogenous calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (6 mM) on the dissipation of excess excitation energy in the photosystem II (PSII) antenna, especially on the level of D1 protein and the xanthophyll cycle in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1 200 µmol m?2 s?1) stress were investigated. Compared with the control plants [cultivated in 0 mM Ca(NO3)2 medium], the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slighter decrease after 5 h of stress, accompanied by higher non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), higher expression of antioxidative genes and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Meanwhile, higher content of D1 protein and higher ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) were also detected in Ca2+-treated plants under such stress. These results showed that Ca2+ could help protect the peanut photosynthetic system from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of D1 protein and improving the de-epoxidation ratio of the xanthophyll cycle. Furthermore, EGTA (a chelant of Ca ion), LaCl3 (a blocker of Ca2+ channel in cytoplasmic membrane), and CPZ [a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist] were used to analyze the effects of Ca2+/CaM on the variation of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) (%) and the expression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). The results indicated that CaM, an important component of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, mediated the expression of the VDE gene in the presence of Ca to improve the xanthophyll cycle. PMID:23940721

  8. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data Tidewater Agricultural Research; Wondi Mersie, Interim Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. PEANUT VARIETY from the following institutions and organizations: SC PEANUT GROWERSSC PEANUT GROWERS NC STATENC STATE

  9. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION Quality Data

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Quality Data Tidewater Agricultural Research, Virginia State, Petersburg. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2009 II. Quality Data Maria PEANUT GROWERSSC PEANUT GROWERS NC STATENC STATE UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY #12;ii TECHNICAL SUPPORT

  10. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

  11. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

  12. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

  13. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

  14. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut...

  15. Packing Peanut Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dori Hall

    2002-02-02

    Students work with various types of packing peanuts to investigate states of matter and chemical and physical changes. One of the activities involves making slime. The activities can easily be modified for students with learning disabilities.

  16. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly. PMID:12462617

  17. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  18. Effects of processing methods and extraction solvents on concentration and antioxidant activity of peanut skin phenolics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe

    2005-01-01

    Peanut skin is a by-product of the peanut industry that has low economic value despite its high content of antioxidants such as phenolics. The effects of three skin removal methods (direct peeling, blanching, and roasting) and extraction solvents (water, ethanol, and methanol) on total phenolics and total antioxidant activities (TAA) of peanut skin extracts were studied, and the composition of

  19. Detecting internal quality of peanuts during storage using electronic nose responses combined with physicochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Weilin

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the changes in the quality of unshelled peanuts and peanut kernels during storage were analyzed using an electronic nose (e-nose). The physicochemical indexes (acid and peroxide values) of peanut kernels were tested by traditional method as a reference. The storage time of peanut kernels increases from left to right in the cluster analysis plot based on the physicochemical indexes. The "maximum values", "area values", and "70th s values" methods were applied to extract the feature data from the e-nose responses. Principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated that the "70th s values" method produced the most accurate results, furthermore, unshelled peanut and peanut kernel samples presented similar characteristics in the PCA plots; the partial least squares regression (PLSR) results showed that the features of unshelled peanuts and peanut kernels are highly correlated with acid and peroxide values, respectively. PMID:25660862

  20. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  1. Annotation of stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amar; Kumari, Archana; Pandey, Dev Mani

    2014-09-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an internationally important crop for human consumption as a good source of protein and vegetable oil. Peanut is widely cultivated around the world in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate climate. Because of its huge genome size (2.8 Gb) and unsequenced genome, studies on genomics and genetic modification of peanut are less as compared to other model crops. As peanut can be cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions, and its growth is drastically affected by various stresses that reduces the yield. Therefore, study on stress responsive genes and its regulation are very much important. Here we report about the identification and annotation of some stress responsive candidate genes using peanut Expressed Sequences Tags (ESTs). The selection of genes was based on the publically available expression data. Due to good expression data and lack of available literature in peanut some of the stress responsive genes were screened. Individual EST of the said group were further searched in peanut ESTs (1, 78,490 whole EST sequences) using computational approach. Various tools like Vec-Screen, Repeat Masker, EST Trimmer, DNA Baser and WISE2 were being used for stress responsive gene identification and annotation. Research progress made towards contigs assembly, determination of biological function of genes, and prediction of domain as well as 3D structure for related protein are included. PMID:25183351

  2. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  3. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baifen; Han, Zheng; Cai, Zengxuan; Wu, Yongjiang; Ren, Yiping

    2010-03-01

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 in peanuts and their derivative products was developed. The sample was extracted by 84% of acetonitrile aqueous solution and the extract was purified by a reliable solid phase extraction-based clean-up method. Then, the analytes were separated on Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm particle size), and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of (A) water containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile/methanol (50/50, v/v). The separated compounds were detected with a Waters Micromass Quattro Ultima Pt tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electro-spray ionization using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9990), average recovery (74.7-86.8%) and precision (relative standard deviation < or = 10.9%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of the six aflatoxins in peanuts and their derivative products. Finally, a total of 73 samples randomly collected from different areas in Zhejiang province were screened for aflatoxins with the proposed method. The results showed that 31 samples of peanut butter, 14 samples of fresh peanut and 5 samples of musty peanut were contaminated with aflatoxins. Meanwhile, this was the first report on aflatoxins M1 and M2, which were found in unprocessed peanuts and their derivative products. PMID:20152266

  4. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  5. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanuts germplasm of Henan and detection of their elite allelic variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts i...

  6. Characterization of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important food legume crops grown worldwide, and is a major source for edible oil and protein. However, due to low genetic variation, peanut is very vulnerable to a variety of pathogens, such as early leaf spot, late leaf spot, rust and Toma...

  7. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut is an important source of protein and oil. However, low genetic diversity makes peanut vulnerable to many diseases. Several hundred of partial genomic DNA sequences targeting nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance (R) genes have been reported. Only a small...

  8. Peanut response to naturally-derived herbicides used in organic crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed-free irrigated trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to quantify phytotoxic effects of herbicides with the potential to be used in organic peanut production. Clove oil and citric plus acetic acid were each applied at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), two weeks after VE (2 wk), four weeks a...

  9. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  10. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 4 Georgia lines,...

  11. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 7 Georgia lines,...

  12. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  13. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence repeat (SSR) Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  14. Development of a Low-cost and High-throughput Polyacrylamide Gel System for Peanut Genotyping with Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, peanut cultivar development has been dominated by conventional breeding methods, which have greatly increased yield and will continue to play an important role in peanut genetic improvement. Applications of MAS (marker-assisted selection) in plant breeding have been shown to increase ...

  15. 78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...Document Number AMS-FV-13-0042] Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States and Adjustment of...adding the State of Arkansas as a primary peanut-producing State under the Peanut...

  16. Improving the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated vegetable oils by blending with high-oleic sunflower oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Frankel; S. W. Huang

    1994-01-01

    Mixing different proportions of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) with polyunsaturated vegetable oils provides a simple method\\u000a to prepare more stable edible oils with a wide range of desired fatty acid composition. Oxidative stability of soybean, canola\\u000a and corn oils, blended with different proportions of HOSO to lower the respective levels of linolenate and linoleate, was\\u000a evaluated at 60°C. Oxidation was

  17. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Todd, J W; Herzog, G A; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H; Bondari, Y

    1998-06-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  18. Preparation and use of partially defatted peanut flour in breakfast cereal flakes

    E-print Network

    Cheewapramong, Panjama

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated preparation of partially defatted peanut flours by extrusion, screw pressing, and use of the flours in breakfast cereal flakes. Release of oil by wet and dry extrusion was evaluated. Wet extrusion (using an Anderson...

  19. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Agronomic and Grade Data Tidewater Agricultural, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2009, Virginia Peanut Board Mr. B. Sutter, North Carolina Peanut Board Companies Mr. F. Garner, Birdsong Peanut

  20. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    #12;ii PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2013 II. Quality Data Maria Balota, Ph. Isleib, Ph.D. Peanut Breeder North Carolina State University Shyam Tallury, Ph.D. Peanut Breeder Clemson Station NC State University Virginia Carolina Peanut Association South Carolina Peanut Growers North

  1. Peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to limited hectares and production in comparison to field corn, soybean, and wheat, commercial research and development efforts by major manufacturers for potential new peanut herbicides are minimal. Field trials were conducted in Ty Ty and Plains Georgia in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the tolera...

  2. Yield Advances in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Average yields of peanut in the U.S. set an all time record of 4,695 kg ha-1 in 2012. This far exceeded the previous record yield of 3,837 kg ha-1 in 2008. Favorable weather conditions undoubtedly contributed to the record yields in 2012; however, these record yields would not have been achievable...

  3. Registration of "Sugg" Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

  4. Genetic variability of cultivated rhizoma perennial peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoma perennial peanut (RPP) (Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a vegetatively propagated tropical legume that combines high forage nutritive value and long-term persistence under a wide range of grazing and harvested hay systems. The objectives of this study were to measure the genetic relatedness amo...

  5. Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%. PMID:25310182

  6. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  7. Peanut sprouts extract (Arachis hypogaea L.) has anti-obesity effects by controlling the protein expressions of PPAR? and adiponectin of adipose tissue in rats fed high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam E; Ha, Ae Wha; Woo, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT element binding protein ? (C/EBP ?), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. RESULTS After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPAR? in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP ? and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPAR? which regulates the expression of adiponectin. PMID:24741399

  8. Distribution of Aflatoxin in Non-Irrigated Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B1 and total aflatoxin distribution in Georgia Greens peanuts has been measured. Sample distributions were measured in approximately 400 small samples each of Jumbo, Medium and small Oil Stock (OS) sublots, containing 20, 10, and 5 kernels, respectively. Results were converted to single kernel...

  9. Evaluation of Peanut Cultivars for Suitability in Biodiesel Production Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen currently and previously available peanut cultivars were field tested for oil production capability in a low-input production system designed for biodiesel use. This low input system was characterized by strip tillage into a rolled rye cover crop, no use of either insecticides or fungicid...

  10. The Composition of Peanuts and Peanut By-Products.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1917-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPEL BULLETIN NO. 222 DECEMBER, 19 1 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE COMPOSITION OF PEANUTS AND PEANUT BY-PRODUCTS - B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRE( COLLEGE BTATION, BRAZOS COUP W. B. BIZZELL, A. M., D. C. L., President TEXAS AGRICULTURAL... cooperat~on w~th A. and M. College of Texas. ***On leave. ****In cooperation with United States Department of Agriculture, . . CONTENTS . PAG Peanut Hag...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  16. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED... Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both...

  17. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Oil Margarine (stick) Cottonseed Oil Chicken Fat Lard Beef Tallow Bacon Grease Palm Oil Butter CoconutCooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats and oils, choose those with lessLessOfteneOftenChooseMor Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil Corn Oil Olive Oil Soybean Oil Margarine (tub) Peanut

  18. Plant Resistance to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol within Peanut Germplasm and Its Wild Relatives in the US Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  19. Cytosolic Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathway in Oilseeds. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Peanut Cytosolic Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase1[W

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Saikat; Enugutti, Balaji; Rajakumari, Sona; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. TAG biosynthetic activity was identified in the cytosolic fraction of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cotyledons. This activity was NaF insensitive and acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dependent. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step in TAG biosynthesis that acylates diacylglycerol to TAG. Soluble DGAT was identified from immature peanuts and purified by conventional column chromatographic procedures. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 41 ± 1.0 kD. Based on the partial peptide sequence, a degenerate probe was used to obtain the full-length cDNA. The isolated gene shared less than 10% identity with the previously identified DGAT1 and 2 families, but has 13% identity with the bacterial bifunctional wax ester/DGAT. To differentiate the unrelated families, we designate the peanut gene as AhDGAT. Expression of peanut cDNA in Escherichia coli resulted in the formation of labeled TAG and wax ester from [14C]acetate. The recombinant E. coli showed high levels of DGAT activity but no wax ester synthase activity. TAGs were localized in transformed cells with Nile blue A and oil red O staining. The recombinant and native DGAT was specific for 1,2-diacylglycerol and did not utilize hexadecanol, glycerol-3-phosphate, monoacylglycerol, lysophosphatidic acid, and lysophosphatidylcholine. Oleoyl-CoA was the preferred acyl donor as compared to palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoAs. These data suggest that the cytosol is one of the sites for TAG biosynthesis in oilseeds. The identified pathway may present opportunities of bioengineering oil-yielding plants for increased oil production. PMID:16798944

  20. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  1. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  2. Comparative effectiveness of different organic and industrial wastes on peanut: Plant growth, yield, oil content, protein content, mineral composition and hydration coefficient of kernels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Basu; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria; Subhas Chandra Mahapatra

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of different organic and industrial wastes, namely, farmyard manure (FYM), water hyacinth (WH) and paper factory sludge (PFS) in combination with chemical fertilizer (CF) along with or without soil amendments like lime or rice husk ash (RHA) on plant growth, yield, mineral composition, oil content, protein content and hydration coefficient of

  3. High-value oils from plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Dyer; Sten Stymne; Allan G. Green; Anders S. Carlsson

    2008-01-01

    Summary The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years there has been increasing use of these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of using fossil

  4. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  5. Global proteomic screening of protein allergens and advanced glycation endproducts in thermally processed peanuts.

    PubMed

    Hebling, Christine M; McFarland, Melinda A; Callahan, John H; Ross, Mark M

    2013-06-19

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) are the cause of one of the most prevalent food allergies worldwide. Thermal processing (e.g., roasting) of peanuts and peanut-containing foods results in complex chemical reactions that alter structural conformations of peanut proteins, preventing accurate detection of allergens by most immunochemical and targeted screening methodologies. To improve food allergen detection and support more accurate food labeling, traditional methods for peanut protein extraction were modified to include protein denaturants and solubilization agents. Qualitative characterization by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses of raw and variably roasted peanut extracts confirmed improvements in total protein recovery and provided evidence for the incorporation of Ara h 1, Ara h 3, and, to a lesser extent, Ara h 2 into high molecular weight protein complexes upon roasting. Relative quantification of allergens in peanut lysates was accomplished by label-free spectral feature (MS1) LC-MS/MS methodologies, by which peanut allergen peptides exhibiting a differential MS response in raw versus roasted peanuts were considered to be candidate targets of thermal modification. Identification of lysine-modified Maillard advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) by LC-MS/MS confirmed the formation of (carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), (carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and pyrraline (Pyr) protein modifications on Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 tryptic peptides in roasted peanut varieties. These results suggest that complex processed food matrices require initial analysis by an untargeted LC-MS/MS approach to determine optimum analytes for subsequent targeted allergen analyses. PMID:23039025

  6. Annual and perennial peanut forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut hay can be a valuable feed for livestock in the Southeast. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) cultivars have been developed and are grown on limited acres in Georgia and Florida. The cost and time for establishment of this vegetatively propagated crop can be prohibitive to some grow...

  7. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil), storage packets for seasonings or other ingredients and encapsulation for pharmaceutical use.

  8. USDA: National Peanut Research Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The National Peanut Research Laboratory's mission is to conduct basic and applied research to develop knowledge of the factors affecting the production, harvesting, storage, quality, and safety of peanuts." And, this exceptionally well-designed and informative site is a good example of all of the lab's work. Visitors can get a good appraisal of what's going on at the lab by checking out the Research site, where links such as Crop Production Technology, Prevention of Mycotoxins in Peanuts, Maintaining Peanut Quality During Postharvest Processing, and more, take the visitor to subpages that are full of information about the relative research program. Also available at the site are links to the lab's publications from the past several decades as well as information on how to order software to assist in management of peanut production and management. Also available at the On-line Tools link are helpful tools such as a Warehouse Ventilation Calculator, and free upgrades for previous software editions.

  9. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS Agronomic and Grade Data Tidewater Agricultural, Petersburg. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2010 I. Agronomic and Grade Data Maria Balota, Ph acknowledge financial support from the following institutions and organizations: SC PEANUT GROWERSSC PEANUT

  10. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

  11. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

  12. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the...

  13. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

  14. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

  15. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

  16. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

  17. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

  18. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the...

  19. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the...

  20. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

  1. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means...

  2. The natural history of peanut allergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen S. Skolnick; Mary Kay Conover-Walker; Celide Barnes Koerner; Hugh A. Sampson; Wesley Burks; Robert A. Wood

    2001-01-01

    Background: It has traditionally been assumed that peanut allergy is rarely outgrown. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the number of children with peanut allergy who become tolerant of peanut. Methods: Patients aged 4 to 20 years with a diagnosis of peanut allergy were evaluated by questionnaire, skin testing, and a quantitative antibody fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay. Patients who

  3. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the...

  4. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the...

  5. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. ?-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The ? tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD?=?2.65 %) for ? tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil. PMID:25892814

  6. Bioavailability and hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Williams, Leonard L; Yu, Jianmei

    2015-03-01

    Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins. Peanut skin proanthocyanidins mainly consist of a subgroup called procyanidins. Peanut-based procyanidins contain oligomers of both type A and type B procyanidins. Recent studies have shown that peanut skin extracts exert protection against hepatic steatosis induced on rats fed with a high-fat diet. Studies have shown that proanthocyanidins protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The mechanism of CVD protection and hypolipidemic effect of peanut skin procyanidins has been gradually revealed in recent years. Due to the high molecular weight of procyanidins, they are not readily absorbed through the gut barrier. It is hypothesized that procyanidins exert their effect by inhibiting the absorption of dietary lipid and chylomicron secretion by enterocytes. In this review, we aim to highlight the hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin polyphenols and discuss the various molecular mechanisms, with which the polyphenols may exert the lipid-lowering function observed by weighing the absorption characteristics as well as gene expression mechanism responsible for lipid homeostasis. PMID:25184693

  7. Formation process and electron-beam incident energy dependence of one-dimensional uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer studied using in situ high-resolution infrared spectroscopy and density-functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Akito; Nishii, Toshiaki; Onoe, Jun

    2012-12-01

    A 3 kV electron-beam irradiation of a C60 film gives rise to formation of one-dimensional (1D) uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer with a cross-linked structure close to that of the P08 C120 stable isomer obtained from the general Stone-Wales rearrangement. In this study, we examined the evolution of infrared (IR) spectra of C60 films with respect to electron beam (EB) irradiation time, using in situ high-resolution IR spectroscopy and first-principles density-functional calculations, and found semi-quantitatively that the 1D uneven peanut-shaped C60 polymer is formed via intermediate polymers with a cross-linkage close to that of P04 and P06 C120 isomers obtained from GWS rearrangement. In addition, we examined the dependence of EB-induced C60 polymerization on an incident energy of EB in the range 3-7 kV. IR spectra obtained for 5 and 7 kV EB irradiation of C60films showed the same product as for 3 kV EB irradiation. However, when 5 and 7 kV EBs continued to irradiate C60 films for a long time after the polymer formation, the 1D peanut-shaped polymer did not proceed to become 1D polymers with a more coalesced linkage than that of the P08 one but was destroyed to become amorphous carbons.

  8. Condition monitoring of high voltage transformer oils using optical chromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzagzoug, E.; Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    The motivation for the present contribution was to produce a cost effective, convenient system for the optical monitoring of degraded high voltage transformer oils using the chromaticity of polychromatic light transmitted through the oil. The technique uses readily available and portable instrumentation. Examples of results for typical oil samples have been obtained with the technique and comparisons made with the conventional technique of Colour Index. It is shown how the chromatic technique can supplement the Colour Index approach to provide additional information about changes in the transformer oil, such as the presence and extent of solid micro-particles.

  9. Effect of processing on the detectability of peanut protein by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjad; Ateeq, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Chicken IgY was used for the detection and quantification of peanut proteins by indirect competitive ELISA. The method was optimized by using a checker board approach to determine the optimal concentration of coating antigen, primary antibody and secondary antibody. Peanut protein could be detected in foods down to levels of 10 ppm. The effect of physical (heat treatment at 80 °C and 100 °C) and chemical (acid, alkali and reducing sugar) treatments on the IgY binding of peanut proteins was investigated. The optimized assay was relatively sensitive for the roasted peanut proteins. However, the binding ability of chicken IgYs to peanut proteins was found to be significantly altered by denaturation and hydrolysis of proteins. It was also observed that the effect of Millard chemistry on the detectability of peanut protein was less pronounced at high temperatures than at low temperatures. PMID:23870873

  10. Aflatoxin in respirable airborne peanut dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Sorenson; William Jones; Janet Simpson; James I. Davidson

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory shelling and pilot handling operations were conducted to determine If peanut dust generated by such operations contained significant amounts of aflatoxin. Air samples were collected from points of highest dust concentration. No aflatoxin B1 was detected in dust from uncontaminated lots. Aflatoxin B1 levels of 700 ppb and 7.6 ng\\/m were detected from highly contaminated lots. The contamination of

  11. Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.

    PubMed

    de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface. PMID:24020650

  12. Catalytic production of high-grade fuel (gasoline) from biomass compounds by shape-selective catalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Weisz; W. O. Haag; P. G. Rodeweld

    1979-01-01

    Shape-selective hydrocarbon catalysis, such as the conversion capability of zeolite catalysts of the ZSM-5 type to produce high-grade gasoline from methanol, can be extended to produce a similar gasoline or aromatics from plant extracts. Examples are rubber latex, corn oil, and peanut oil. Novel mechanisms for shape-selective reaction sequences are demonstrated. 2 figures.

  13. Epidemiology of childhood peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Ashley A; Rivkina, Victoria; Perumal, Dhivya; Smeltzer, Brandon M; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-01-01

    Although peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies, no study has comprehensively described the epidemiology of the condition among the general pediatric population. Our objective was to better characterize peanut allergy prevalence, diagnosis trends, and reaction history among affected children identified from a representative sample of United States households with children. A randomized, cross sectional survey was administered to parents from June 2009 to February 2010. Data from 38,480 parents were collected and analyzed in regard to demographics, allergic symptoms associated with food ingestion, and methods of food allergy diagnosis. Adjusted models were estimated to examine association of these characteristics with odds of peanut allergy. Of the 3218 children identified with food allergy, 754 (24.8%) were reported to have a peanut allergy. Peanut allergy was reported most often among 6- to 10-year-old children (25.5%), white children (47.7%), and children from households with an annual income of $50,000-$99,999 (41.7%). Although peanut allergy was diagnosed by a physician in 76% of cases, significantly more peanut allergy reactions were severe as compared with reactions to other foods (53.7% versus 41.0%, p < 0.001). Parents were significantly less likely to report tolerance to peanut as compared with the odds of tolerance reported for other foods (odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9). Childhood peanut allergy, which represents nearly a quarter of all food allergy, presents more severe reactions and is least likely to be outgrown. Although it is diagnosed by a physician in nearly three-fourths of all cases, socioeconomic disparities in regard to diagnosis persist. PMID:25562557

  14. Association of nitrogen fixation to water use efficiency and yield traits of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of N2 fixation might be an effective strategy in peanut breeding for high yield under drought stress conditions. However, under water limited conditions peanut varieties having high water-use efficiency (WUE) are favorable. A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at ...

  15. High Levels of Field Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut Breeding Lines Derived from hypogaea and hirsuta Botanical Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is a major problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas of the southeastern U.S. The integrated program used to manage spotted wilt relies heavily on cultivars with field resistance to TSWV, and developing cultivars wit...

  16. HIGH OLEIC VEGETABLE OIL BASED LUBRICANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emphasis on environmentally friendly lubricants is largely due to the rapid depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and increasing concern for environmental pollution from excessive mineral oil use and their disposal especially in loss lubrication, military applications, and in outdoor activitie...

  17. Dielectric properties of highly concentrated water-in-oil microemulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bordi; C. Cametti; P. Codastefano; F. Sciortino; P. Tartaglia; J. Rouch

    The high-frequency dielectric relaxations of highly concentrated water-in-oil microemulsions have been investigated in the\\u000a frequency range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz, at different temperatures, in the interval from 5 ?C to 60 ?C. In the region of the phase\\u000a diagram studied, the system undergoes a progressive change of its structure, passing from water droplets dispersed in an oil\\u000a matrix

  18. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balaji Venkatesagowda; Ebenezer Ponugupaty; Aneli M. Barbosa; Robert F. H. Dekker

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places\\u000a in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal\\u000a diversity. High Shannon-Index H? was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated\\u000a mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%)

  19. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  20. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy....

  1. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy....

  2. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy....

  3. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy....

  4. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section...Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy....

  5. CDNA CLONING OF A PUTATIVE PEANUT TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WITH HOMOLOGY TO PEANUT ALLERGENS ARA H 3 AND ARA H 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Peanut allergens and peanut trypsin inhibitors are seed storage proteins. Peanut allergens are known to trigger allergic reactions with symptoms ranging from cutaneous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, systemic to sometimes death. Peanut trypsin inhibitors are pathogenesis-related (PR) pr...

  6. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  7. The management of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Clark, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies such as egg and milk. Measures aiming to reduce its prevalence via maternal avoidance during pregnancy and lactation, or delayed introduction into the diet, have failed to show any benefit. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication. Families find avoidance challenging as peanut is hidden in various food products. Despite the fact that food labelling has improved, with a legal obligation to declare certain food allergens (including nuts) in prepacked products, it still causes confusion and does not extend to cross-contamination. In an effort to address issues of safety at school, a lot of work has been undertaken to better care for peanut-allergic children in that environment. This includes training of school staff on how to recognise and treat allergic reactions promptly. Recent developments in the management of peanut allergy, such as immunotherapy, have shown some promise as an active form of treatment, but larger studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. PMID:25157179

  8. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame. PMID:24576357

  9. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  10. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  11. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffi Paramawati; Puji Widodo

    As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temper- ature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic sub- stance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches

  12. Heritability and genetic relationships for drought-related traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reduced productivity in peanut. Cultivars that have high water-use efficiency have the potential to enhance crop yield. Water-use efficiency (WUE) is often correlated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotopic composition (d13C) in peanut. A good knowledge...

  13. QTL for Fatty Acid Composition of Maize Kernel Oil in Illinois High Oil × B73 Backcross-Derived Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Wassom; Venugopal Mikkelineni; Martin O. Bohn; Torbert R. Rocheford

    2008-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) produces high-quality oil valued for oxidative stability and low con- centrations of saturated fatty acids. The nutri- tional value of maize oil could be improved by increasing the concentration of oleic acid, a \\

  14. Integrated processing of peanut for the separation of major constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Subrahmanyan; D. S. Bhatia; S. S. Kalbag; N. Subramanian

    1959-01-01

    Summary  Bench-scale experiments were carried out on the processing of peanut by a new method. The decuticled kernels were pasted,\\u000a and the paste was subjected to the Skipin process to recover approximately 30% oil; the residual paste was made into a dispersion\\u000a at 10.0 pH and clarified to get a carbohydrate meal (15.7% moisture-free); the clarified dispersion was centrifuged to obtain

  15. Analysis of olive oil and seed oil triglycerides by capillary gas chromatography as a tool for the detection of the adulteration of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, N K; Giannakis, I G; Tzamtzis, V

    2001-04-01

    Individual triglyceride (TG) species of olive oil and several seed oils (corn, cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean, and sunflower) are baseline separated on a WCOT TAP CB fused-silica capillary column by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a flame-ionization detector (FID) and either cold on-column or split injection. An adulteration of olive oil with a low content (< 5%) of these seed oils (except peanut oil) can be verified by the detection of the increasing levels of trilinolein or tripalmitin in olive oil in which these TG species are normally absent or present at very low levels (< 0.5%). An adulteration with over 20% peanut oil can be detected by the increasing levels of palmitodilinolein. TG species that can be coeluted with trilinolein in the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) mode are baseline separated by the CGC technique, and their structures are identified by selective ion monitoring mass spectrometry. The following comparisons--the CGC-FID and RP-HPLC methods for detection of adulteration, cold on-column and split-injection modes for CGC-FID, and silylation or thin-layer chromatography pretreatment and simple dilution of one or more of the oil samples--are also presented. The normalized percentage area of the TG species is sufficient for the method limits used in this study. Mixtures of virgin olive oil with refined or residue olive oil could not be distinguished from the virgin type by the method used in this study. PMID:11318065

  16. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  17. Almost complete dehulling of high oil sunflower seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tranchino; F. Melle; G. Sodini

    1984-01-01

    An almost complete dehulling (hull residue lower than 3%) of sunflower seeds, before oil extraction, reduces to a minimum\\u000a both the transfer of pigments from hulls to the flour and the content of fiber in the finished product. In this paper some\\u000a results of our work on the dehulling of high-oil seeds with an air-jet impact huller are presented. The

  18. The high pressure rheology of polymer-oil solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bair; F. Qureshi

    2003-01-01

    We present perhaps the most comprehensive work on the high-pressure shear-thinning of polymer-blended mineral oil. Three solutions of commercial polymer VI improver in mineral oil are characterized for the effect of pressure and shear rate on viscosity. We show that the film thinning measured in concentrated contact can be explained by ordinary shear-thinning of the power-law type. We present extended

  19. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of the high oleic peanut Cultivar OLin and Identification of SNPs between cultivars.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total RNA was extracted from leaf, root and immature pod (yellow stage of development) tissue of greenhouse grown plants of the high oleic Texas AgriLife cultivar OLin and analyzed by next generation DNA sequencing. Illumina (Solexa) sequencing of the complete transcriptome of OLin provided 28.8 mi...

  20. Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

  1. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  2. The influence of diets containing either conventional corn, conventional corn with choice white grease, high oil corn, or high oil high oleic corn on belly\\/bacon quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Rentfrow; T. E Sauber; G. L Allee; E. P Berg

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate diets possessing different fatty acid profiles (as influenced by corn type) with regard to fatty acid profile and firmness of pork bellies. Crossbred barrows (n=196) were fed one of four corn-based diets consisting of conventional corn (CONV), CONV with choice white grease (CWG), high oil corn (HOC), or high oleic, high oil

  3. Phenotypic evaluation of the Chinese mini-mini core collection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and assessment for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to utilize the germplasm more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions was developed previously from a collection of 6,839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Resear...

  4. Bahiagrass, corn, cotton rotations, and pesticides for managing nematodes, diseases, and insects on peanut.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Burton, G W; Culbreath, A K; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H

    1999-06-01

    Florunner peanut was grown after 1 and 2 years of Tifton 9 bahiagrass, corn, cotton, and continuous peanut as whole-plots. Pesticide treatments aldicarb (3.4 kg a.i./ha), flutolanil (1.7 kg a.i./ha), aldicarb + flutolanil, and untreated (control) were sub-plots. Numbers of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices of peanut at harvest were consistently lower in plots treated with aldicarb and aldicarb + flutolanil than in flutolanil-treated and untreated plots. Percentages of peanut leaflets damaged by thrips and leafhoppers were consistently greater in flutolaniltreated and untreated plots than in plots treated with aldicarb or aldicarb + flutolanil but not affected by cropping sequences. Incidence of southern stem rot was moderate to high for all chemical treatments except those that included flutolanil. Stem rot loci were low in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, intermediate following 2 years of corn or cotton, and highest in continuous peanut. Rhizoctonia limb rot was more severe in the peanut monoculture than in peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, or cotton. Flutolanil alone or combined with aldicarb suppressed limb rot compared with aldicarb-treated and untreated plots. Peanut pod yields were 4,186 kg/ha from aldicarb + flutolanil-treated plots, 3,627 kg/ha from aldicarb-treated plots, 3,426 kg/ha from flutolanil-treated plots, and 3,056 kg/ha from untreated plots. Yields of peanut following 2 years of bahiagrass, corn, and cotton were 29% to 33% higher than yield of monocultured peanut. PMID:19270889

  5. Roast effects on the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of peanut flours, blanched peanut seed and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (H&L-ORAC) of peanut flours, blanched peanut seed, and peanut skins were characterized across a range of roast intensities. H-ORAC ranged from 5910-7990, 3040-3700 and 152,290-209,710 'moles Trolox/100g for the flours, seed, and skins, ...

  6. Enhanced Oil Recovery in High Salinity High Temperature Reservoir by Chemical Flooding

    E-print Network

    Bataweel, Mohammed Abdullah

    2012-02-14

    for chemical flooding operating in high temperatures tend to precipitate when exposed to high concentrations of divalent cations and will partition to the oil phase at high salinities. In this study amphoteric surfactant was used to replace the traditionally...

  7. Mining tissue-specific contigs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for promoter cloning by deep transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lili; Duan, Xiaohong; Liang, Chun; Shu, Changlong; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the most important oil legumes in the world, is heavily damaged by white grubs. Tissue-specific promoters are needed to incorporate insect resistance genes into peanut by genetic transformation to control the subterranean pests. Transcriptome sequencing is the most effective way to analyze differential gene expression in this non-model species and contribute to promoter cloning. The transcriptomes of the roots, seeds and leaves of peanut were sequenced using Illumina technology. A simple digital expression profile was established based on number of transcripts per million clean tags (TPM) from different tissues. Subsequently, 584 root-specific candidate transcript assembly contigs (TACs) and 316 seed-specific candidate TACs were identified. Among these candidate TACs, 55.3% were root-specific and 64.6% were seed-specific by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the consistency of semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the simple digital expression profile was correlated with the length and TPM value of TACs. The results of gene ontology showed that some root-specific TACs are involved in stress resistance and respond to auxin stimulus, whereas, seed-specific candidate TACs are involved in embryo development, lipid storage and long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. One root-specific promoter was cloned and characterized. We developed a high-yield screening system in peanut by establishing a simple digital expression profile based on Illumina sequencing. The feasible and rapid method presented by this study can be used for other non-model crops to explore tissue-specific or spatially specific promoters. PMID:25231965

  8. Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.

    PubMed

    el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

    1998-12-01

    Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

  9. LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

  10. Marker assisted selection (MAS) for breeding high oleic Tifguard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tifguard, a peanut cultivar released in 2007, has near immunity to root-knot nematode and high resistance to TSWV. However, its oil composition is within the normal O/L range. Pyramiding the disease resistant traits of ‘Tifguard’ and the high O/L trait using MAS is our current goal for breeding. ...

  11. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (? 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (? 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ? 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  12. Immunogenicity of peanut proteins containing poly(anhydride) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    De S Rebouças, Juliana; Irache, Juan M; Camacho, Ana I; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Sanz, María L; Ferrer, Marta; Gamazo, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced T(H)1 and T(H)2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic T(H)2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both T(H)1 (gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-T(H)1 immune response. PMID:24899075

  13. Socioeconomic factors and epinephrine prescription in children with peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Robin; Simons, Elinor; Foty, Richard G; Stieb, David M; Dell, Sharon D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epinephrine autoinjectors provide life-saving therapy for individuals with peanut allergies. OJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and epinephrine prescription among urban Canadian children with peanut allergy. METHODS: Population-based survey data from school children in grades 1 and 2 participating in the Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire were used. Children with peanut allergy, their epinephrine autoinjector prescription status and their SES were identified by parental report. RESULTS: Between January and April 2006, 5619 completed questionnaires from 231 Toronto, Ontario, schools were returned. A total of 153 (2.83%) children were identified as having a peanut allergy, 68.6% of whom reported being prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector. Children from upper-middle and high-income homes (OR 8.35 [95% CI 2.72 to 25.61]) and with asthma (OR 4.74 [95% CI 1.56 to 14.47]) were more likely to report having an epinephrine prescription. CONCLUSION: A significant health disparity exists in the prescribing pattern of epinephrine autoinjectors for peanut-allergic children from families of differing SES. PMID:22654545

  14. Immunogenicity of Peanut Proteins Containing Poly(Anhydride) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    De S. Rebouças, Juliana; Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana I.; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced TH1 and TH2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic TH2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both TH1 (gamma interferon [IFN-?]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-TH1 immune response. PMID:24899075

  15. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not conform to §...

  16. Peanut shaped structures edgeon galaxies Giuseppe Aronica

    E-print Network

    Bureau, Martin

    Peanut shaped structures edge­on galaxies Giuseppe Aronica AIRUB, Germany E­mail: aronica@astro.rub.de photometric analysis sample of edge­on galaxies harboring peanut shaped structure presented. structure a peanut shaped structure. rearrangement material in vertical direction through presence a is evidenced

  17. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ...AMS-FV-12-0036; FV12-996-1] Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

  18. PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    #12;ii PEANUT VARIETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION RESULTS 2011 II. Quality Data Maria Balota, Ph from the following institutions and organizations: SC PEANUT GROWERS NC STATE UNIVERSITY #12;ii Co., NC Mr. C. Fountain, Duplin Co., NC Commodity Groups Mr. D. Cotton, Virginia Peanut Board Mr. B

  19. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not conform to §...

  20. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not conform to §...

  1. Whole Grains Recipes Peanut Butter Cookies

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Whole Grains Recipes Peanut Butter Cookies 1 cup margarine, softened 1 cup white sugar 1 cup brown sugar 1 cup peanut butter 2 eggs 2 tsp. baking soda 1 tsp. salt 2 ¾ cup flour (substitute with ½ whole wheat flour) 2/3 cup ground flax 2 tsp. vanilla extract Mix margarine and peanut butter, add sugars

  2. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not conform to §...

  3. 76 FR 31574 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...AMS-FV-11-0044; FV11-996-1] Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

  4. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23...Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not conform to §...

  5. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  6. 78 FR 37200 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...AMS-FV-13-0035; FV13-996-1] Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural...Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the purpose...for domestically produced and imported peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by...

  7. Transcript profiling of developing peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate regulatory processes and mechanisms underlying the development of peanut seeds, 8 x 15k microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of a runner peanut genotype. Developing peanut pods from six development stages corresponding R2 through R8 stages were profiled. Sever...

  8. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  9. Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

  10. Registration of 'Tamrun OL07' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity and quality of peanut are adversely affected by the fungus Sclerotinia minor which causes Sclerotinia blight disease. This paper reports on the release of a Sclerotinia-resistant runner peanut cultivar named 'Tamrun OL07'. This peanut cultivar possesses desirable agronomic traits such...

  11. An economic study of the peanut industry

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, Charlie Smith

    1949-01-01

    AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF THE PEANUT INDUSTRY A NECOMO IS TEUDYMC FHMPE RMYpMrO Approved aa to style and content lay A A N E Chairman of Committee AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF rJ?HE PEANUT IIOTSTRY By Charlie Smith Wilkins C Thesis Submitted... . . . . . . . . .............................. . . . . . . 1 I. Historical Sketch . . . . .......................................................... 7 II. Characteristics of the Peanut Industry . . . . . . . . . . 15 III . 1/Iarketirig Practices...

  12. The Kinematic Signature of Face-On Peanut-Shaped Bulges

    E-print Network

    Victor P. Debattista; C. Marcella Carollo; Lucio Mayer; Ben Moore

    2005-04-24

    We present a kinematic diagnostic for peanut-shaped bulges in nearly face-on galaxies. The face-on view provides a novel perspective on peanuts which would allow study of their relation to bars and disks in greater detail than hitherto possible. The diagnostic is based on the fact that peanut shapes are associated with a flat density distribution in the vertical direction. We show that the kinematic signature corresponding to such a distribution is a minimum in the fourth-order Gauss-Hermite moment $s_4$. We demonstrate our method on $N$-body simulations of varying peanut strength, showing that strong peanuts can be recognized to inclinations $i \\simeq 30\\degrees$, regardless of the strength of the bar. We also consider compound systems in which a bulge is present in the initial conditions as may happen if bulges form at high redshift through mergers. We show that in this case, because the vertical structure of the bulge is not derived from that of the disk, that the signature of a peanut in $s_4$ is weakened. Thus the same kinematic signature of peanuts can be used to explore bulge formation mechanisms. The observational requirements for identifying peanuts with this method are challenging, but feasible.

  13. Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

  14. Dynamical behavior of rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambuleac, Dumitru

    2012-04-01

    Fuels' physical properties such as density, viscosity, speed of sound and bulk modulus have and important influence on the engine performance. This work will study the behavior of the rapeseed oil and methyl ester of rapeseed oil during high-pressure injection. Several aspects of the injection and combustion process will be analyzed in order to try to find out in what manner these aspects are influenced by the above-mentioned fuels' characteristics and also by different operating regimes. In such a way, some features of the technical efficiency of the two non-conventional diesel fuels will be determined. As a reference, it will serve the results from testing classical diesel.

  15. Comparison of Aspergillus ear rot and aflatoxin contamination in grain of high-oil and normal-oil corn hybrids.

    PubMed

    Severns, Dina E; Clements, Michael J; Lambert, Robert J; White, Donald G

    2003-04-01

    High-oil corn (Zea mays L.) grain is a valuable component of feed for monogastric livestock. One method of increasing the concentration of oil in corn grain is the TopCross method. With TopCross, ears of a cytoplasmic male-sterile, normal-oil hybrid are pollinated by a male-fertile, high-oil synthetic hybrid. The concentration of oil in the resulting grain is increased because of xenia effects. Kernels of high-oil corn typically have a larger germ and a smaller endosperm than kernels of comparable normal hybrids. The growth of Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr within germ tissue has been reported to be more extensive than that on the whole corn kernel; therefore, the severity of Aspergillus ear rot could be more extensive and aflatoxin concentrations could be higher in high-oil grain produced by TopCross than in grain with a lower concentration of oil. The objective of this study was to compare Aspergillus ear rot severity levels and aflatoxin concentrations in the grains of hybrids crossed with high-oil or normal-oil pollinators. Fifteen hybrids were evaluated in 1998 and 1999 in Urbana, Ill. Primary ears were inoculated with A. flavus and evaluated for susceptibility to Aspergillus ear rot and aflatoxin production in grain. Concentrations of aflatoxin and oil in corn kernels were significantly higher for high-oil hybrids than for normal-oil hybrids; however, ear rot severity was unaffected by the type of pollinator. These results suggest that grain from high-oil hybrids is at greater risk for aflatoxin contamination during some growing seasons. PMID:12696688

  16. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the lysine content of peanuts is higher than wheat, peanuts can be used to supplement wheat flour in food preparation. This study found by partially replacing wheat flour with peanut flour and with incorporation of hydrocolloid emulsifier, such as carrageenan or xanthan gum, dough viscosity, and pasta firmness significantly improved. Peanut pasta with high protein content and balanced amino acid profile can help support consumers with a healthy lifestyle. PMID:21535674

  17. Survey of peanut levels in selected Irish food products bearing peanut allergen advisory labels.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Orla N; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Remington, Benjamin C; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2013-01-01

    Peanut allergy affects up to 2% of consumers and is responsible for the majority of fatalities caused by food-induced anaphylaxis. Peanut-containing products must be clearly labelled. Manufacturers are not legally required to label peanut if its inclusion resulted from unintentional cross contact with foods manufactured in the same facility. However, the use of allergen advisory statements alerting consumers of the potential presence of peanut allergen has increased in recent years. In previous studies, the vast majority of foods with precautionary allergen statements did not contain detectable levels of peanut, but no data are available on Irish food products. Thirty-eight food products bearing peanut/nut allergen-related statements were purchased from multiple locations in the Republic of Ireland and analysed for the presence of peanut. Peanut was detected in at least one lot in 5.3% (2 of 38) of the products tested. The doses of peanut detected ranged from 0.14 mg to 0.52 mg per suggested serving size (0.035-0.13 mg peanut protein). No detectable levels of peanut were found in the products that indicated peanut/nuts as a minor ingredient. Quantitative risk assessment, based on the known distribution of individual threshold doses for peanut, indicates that only a very small percentage of the peanut-allergic population would be likely to experience an allergic reaction to those products while the majority of products with advisory labels appear safe for the peanut-allergic population. Food manufacturers should be encouraged to analyse products manufactured in shared facilities and even on shared equipment with peanuts for peanut residues to determine whether sufficient risk exists to warrant the use of advisory labelling. Although it appears that the majority of food products bearing advisory nut statements are in fact free of peanut contamination, advice to peanut allergy sufferers to avoid said foods should continue in Ireland and therefore in the wider European Union. PMID:23802714

  18. Peanut peg strength and post harvest pod scavenging for full phenotypic yield over digging date and variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New peanut cultivars are available with very high yield potential and high levels of disease resistance. With rising input costs and shrinking return margins, all efforts must be made to harvest the full yield produced. Peanut crops are susceptible to high levels of pod loss during digging from a ...

  19. Purification, identification, and characterization of peanut isocitrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shing-Fei; Ong, Ping-Lin; Jhou, Chun-Ru; Chiou, Robin Y Y

    2008-03-26

    Isocitrate lyase (ICL, EC 4.1.3.1) is commonly present in oil-rich seeds in catalyzing the cleavage of isocitrate to glyoxylate and succinate and plays an essential role in lipid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. When peanut kernels (Tainan 14) were germinated at 30 degrees C, the cotyledon ICL activities increased substantially in the initial 4 days, and the 4-day-germinated cotyledons were subjected to ICL purification by Tris-HCl buffer extraction, heat treatment at 55 degrees C for 1 h, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation at 25-35% saturation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration. A single 64 kDa SDS-PAGE protein band was obtained with 7.7% recovery and 37.5-fold purity. It was identified as ICL by LC-MS/MS analyses and Mascot Search with 494 as the highest Probability Based Mowse Score (PBMS). On the basis of the sequence of the homologous ICL of Glycine max, 26% of the peptide sequences of the peanut ICL were identified. During gel filtration, separation of peanut catalase (identified by LC-MS/MS and Mascot Search with 405 as the highest PBMS) from peanut ICL was achieved. The highest measured peanut ICL enzymatic activities were obtained at 45 degrees C and pH 7.0-7.8, respectively. The enzyme activities were stable (>80%) as stored for 8 h at 30 degrees C, 15 days at 4 degrees C, or 60 days at -25 degrees C. As affected by the supplements in the reactants for activity determinations, ICL activity was not affected by glucose up to 4%, sucrose up to 5%, or ethanol up to 8.33%. PMID:18271541

  20. Peanut agglutinin appearance in the blood circulation after peanut ingestion mimics the action of endogenous galectin-3 to promote metastasis by interaction with cancer-associated MUC1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qicheng; Duckworth, Carrie A; Wang, Weikun; Guo, Xiuli; Barrow, Hannah; Pritchard, D Mark; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Yu, Lu-Gang

    2014-12-01

    Peanut agglutinin (PNA), which accounts for ~0.15% of the weight of the common peanut, is a carbohydrate-binding protein that binds the oncofoetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) disaccharide (galactose?1,3N-acetylgalactosamine?-) that is overexpressed by ~90% of human cancers. Previous studies have shown that PNA is highly resistant to cooking and digestion and rapidly enters the human blood circulation after peanut ingestion. This study investigates the hypothesis that PNA appearance in the circulation after peanut ingestion may mimic the actions of endogenous TF-binding human galectin-3 in metastasis promotion. It shows that PNA at concentrations similar to those found in blood circulation after peanut ingestion increases cancer cell heterotypic adhesion to the blood vascular endothelium and enhances the formation of tumour cell homotypic aggregates, two important steps in the metastasis cascade, and enhances metastasis in a mouse metastasis model. These effects of PNA are shown to result from its interaction with the cancer-associated TF disaccharide on the transmembrane mucin protein MUC1, causing MUC1 cell surface polarization that reveals underlying cell surface adhesion molecules. Thus, PNA appearance in the blood circulation after peanut ingestion mimics the actions of endogenous galectin-3 and promotes cancer cell metastatic spread by interaction with cancer-associated TF/MUC1. As metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-associated fatality, regular consumption of peanuts by cancer patients would therefore be expected to have an adverse effect on cancer survival. PMID:25326505

  1. Drying Spanish peanuts with intermittent heating, aerating and tempering processes

    E-print Network

    Farouk, Shah Muhammad

    1967-01-01

    section and this was equivalent to 25. 6 c. f. m. / 3 ft. of peanuts in the aeration bin. The aeration system was housed in a controlled environment chamber 6. 25 ft. high, 5. 25 ft. wide and 5. 25 ft. long (inside measurements). The chamber... are given in Table 3. The moisture content of peanuts corresponding to the minimum relative humidity condition was the minimum moisture content which a drying system could produce. These values of minimum possible moisture content were used as estimates...

  2. Peanut oil press for developing countries

    E-print Network

    Jain, Neera, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Despite the problems with obesity that the United States is facing today, malnutrition, caused in part by severely low dietary fat consumption, remains a problem among many people living in Sub-Saharan Africa. According ...

  3. [Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Jedra, Ma?gorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

  4. Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Mick Jagger Explains High Crude Oil Prices How can Mick Jagger of The Rolling Stones help explain the current high crude oil price? It does not relate to Mick' short stint at the London School of Economics, the oil industry operates on the same principle, at least in the short run. The industry relies on proven

  5. Immunochemical analytical methods for the determination of peanut proteins in foods.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Williams, Kristina M; Trucksess, Mary W; Slate, Andrew B

    2005-01-01

    Peanut proteins can cause allergenic reactions that can result in respiratory and circulatory effects in the body sometimes leading to shock and death. The determination of peanut proteins in foods by analytical methods can reduce the risk of serious reactions in the highly sensitized individual by allowing for the detection of these proteins in a food at various stages of the manufacturing process. The method performance of 4 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits was evaluated for the detection of peanut proteins in milk chocolate, ice cream, cookies, and breakfast cereals: ELISA-TEK Peanut Protein Assay, now known as "Bio-Kit" for peanut proteins, from ELISA Technologies Inc.; Veratox for Peanut Allergens from Neogen Corp.; RIDASCREEN Peanut Kit from R-Biopharm GmbH; and ProLisa from Canadian Food Technology Ltd. The 4 test kits were evaluated for accuracy (recovery) and precision using known concentrations of peanut or peanut proteins in the 4 food matrixes. Two different techniques, incurred and spiked, were used to prepare samples with 4 known concentrations of peanut protein. Defatted peanut flour was added in the incurred samples, and water-soluble peanut proteins were added in the spiked samples. The incurred levels were 0.0, 10, 20, and 100 microg whole peanut per g food; the spiked levels were 0.0, 5, 10, and 20 microg peanut protein per g food. Performance varied by test kit, protein concentration, and food matrix. The Veratox kit had the best accuracy or lowest percent difference between measured and incurred levels of 15.7% when averaged across all incurred levels and food matrixes. Recoveries associated with the Veratox kit varied from 93 to 115% for all food matrixes except cookies. Recoveries for all kits were about 50% for cookies. The analytical precision, as measured by the variance, increased with an increase in protein concentration. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) was stable across the 4 incurred protein levels and was 7.0% when averaged across the 4 food matrixes and analytical kits. The R-Biopharm test kit had the best precision or a CV of 4.2% when averaged across all incurred levels and food matrixes. Because measured protein values varied by test kit and food matrix, a method was developed to normalize or transform measured protein concentrations to an adjusted protein value that was equal to the known protein concentration. The normalization method adjusts measured protein values to equal the true protein value regardless of the type test kit or type food matrix. PMID:15759738

  6. FIRST REPORT OF PEANUT MOTTLE VIRUS (PMV) IN RHIZOMA PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant material of rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata) of an unknown accession, obtained from the Arachis species collection nursery planted and maintained at the Coastal Plain Research Station, Tifton, GA was recently brought into the greenhouse where ring spots were identified on immature leaves. Ti...

  7. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. PMID:24491744

  8. Effects of ?-Tocopherol on Oxidative Stability and Phytosterol Oxidation During Heating in Some Regular and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elham Tabee; Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi; Margaretha Jägerstad; Paresh C. Dutta

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study evaluated oxidative stability in high-oleic rapeseed oil, palm olein, refined olive oil, low\\u000a erucic acid rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. The results showed oxidative stability in the order: palm olein > high-oleic rapeseed\\u000a oil > refined olive oil > low erucic acid rapeseed oil > sunflower oil, as determined by the Rancimat method. Addition of\\u000a ?-tocopherol at high levels of up to

  9. Evaluation of electrospun polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene fibers as sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Qiu, Shanshan; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Daxiong; Zhang, Canying

    2011-05-15

    A novel, high-capacity oil sorbent consisting of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polystyrene (PS) fiber was prepared by an electrospinning process. The sorption capacity, oil/water selectivity, and sorption mechanism of the PVC/PS sorbent were studied. The results showed that the sorption capacities of the PVC/PS sorbent for motor oil, peanut oil, diesel, and ethylene glycol were 146, 119, 38, and 81 g/g, respectively. It was about 5-9 times that of a commercial polypropylene (PP) sorbent. The PVC/PS sorbent also had excellent oil/water selectivity (about 1000 times) and high buoyancy in the cleanup of oil over water. The SEM analysis indicated that voids among fibers were the key for the high capacity. The electrospun PVC/PS sorbent is a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbent for oil spill cleanup. PMID:21513310

  10. Major and minor QTL and epistasis contribute to fatty acid compositions and oil concentration in high-oil maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohong Yang; Yuqiu Guo; Jianbing Yan; Jun Zhang; Tongming Song; Torbert Rocheford; Jian-Sheng Li

    2010-01-01

    High-oil maize is a useful genetic resource for genomic investigation in plants. To determine the genetic basis of oil concentration\\u000a and composition in maize grain, a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between normal line B73 and high-oil\\u000a line By804 was phenotyped using gas chromatography, and genotyped with 228 molecular markers. A total of 42 individual QTL,\\u000a associated with

  11. PEANUT POD LIGHTNESS MEASURED USING COMPUTERIZED IMAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant share of the peanut market is represented by bulk, in-shell peanuts. These peanuts are graded based on pod discoloration, since peanuts with an ideal buff color are preferred by consumers. This study was performed to evaluate the pod discoloration of in-shell virginia-type peanuts usin...

  12. The effect of cooking methods on the allergenicity of peanut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Jun Cong; Fei Lou; Wen-Tong Xue; Lin-Feng Li; Jing Wang; Hui Zhang

    2007-01-01

    It has been rarely studied why the prevalence of peanut allergy is relative low in China. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the major peanut allergens in China, (ii) the effect of buffer composition on peanut allergens extraction efficiency, and (iii) the effect of cooking methods on peanut allergenicity. The allergenic property of peanut protein extracts was

  13. EXPLAINING PRICE TRANSMISSION ASYMMETRY IN THE US PEANUT MARKETING CHAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha; Denis A. Nadolnyak; Stanley M. Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    n the paper, we study price transmission from wholesale peanut prices to retail peanut butter prices. Using monthly data since 1984, we show that, while an increase in peanut prices is almost immediately transferred to peanut butter prices, it takes several months for a price decrease to be reflected in the peanut butter prices. Besides, the long term price transmission

  14. PEANUT AND OTHER FOOD ALLERGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past decade, there has been an increase in allergic reactions to peanut and other food proteins, often resulting in fatal reactions. The development of improved methods for both diagnosis and treatment of all allergies requires a better understanding of the allergenic proteins and the immune...

  15. CONTROL OF AFLATOXINS IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, methods to control aflatoxins in peanuts have focused on postharvest measures to reduce existing contamination. Recently, a biopesticide was developed and shown in plot studies to prevent much of the preharvest contamination that normally occurs under late-season drought conditions. Th...

  16. NITROGEN RELEASE FROM PEANUT RESIDUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residue management is an important aspect of crop production systems. Availability of plant residue nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops is dependent on N mineralization rates and therefore on rates of N release during decomposition. Much of the information available on N release rates from peanut res...

  17. TRANSFERABILITY OF SOYBEAN SSR MARKERS IN PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are useful DNA markers in plant genetic research. However, they are not fully exploited in peanut because of the high cost and labor intensity involved in their development. Many studies have showed that DNA markers could be transferable among related species due to th...

  18. Development of Peanut Germplasm with Improved Drought Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed significant reductions in preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) in peanut genotypes with drought tolerance. These sources of resistance to drought and PAC have been entered into a hybridization program. They have been crossed with cultivars and breeding lines that have high yie...

  19. Effects of deficit irrigation and temperature stress on peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particularly in the Ogallala Region of Texas and New Mexico, efficient production relies upon the peanut crop’s ability to yield under decreased water availability and oftentimes critical heat stress. The dry climate (approximately 450 mm rainfall per annum) necessitates high expenditures on irriga...

  20. YIELD AND ECONOMIC RESPONSES OF PEANUT TO CROP ROTATION SEQUENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  1. Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

  2. Considerations for marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. Thes...

  3. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  4. Frying quality and oxidative stability of high-oleic corn oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Warner; S. Knowlton

    1997-01-01

    To determine the frying stability of corn oils that are genetically modified to contain 65% oleic acid, high-oleic corn oil\\u000a was evaluated in room odor tests and by total polar compound analysis. Flavor characteristics of french-fried potatoes, prepared\\u000a in the oil, were also evaluated by trained analytical sensory panelists. In comparison to normal corn oil, hydrogenated corn\\u000a oil and high-oleic

  5. Superhydrophobic silanized melamine sponges as high efficiency oil absorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Pham, Viet Hung; Dickerson, James H

    2014-08-27

    Superhydrophobic sponges and sponge-like materials have attracted great attention recently as potential sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup due to their excellent sorption capacity and high selectivity. A major challenge to their broad use is the fabrication of superhydrophobic sponges with superior recyclability, good mechanical strength, low cost, and manufacture scalability. In this study, we demonstrate a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method to fabricate robust, superhydrophobic sponges through the silanization of commercial melamine sponges via a solution-immersion process. The silanization was achieved through secondary amine groups on the surface of the sponge skeletons with alkylsilane compounds, forming self-assembled monolayers on the surface of sponge skeletons. This resulted in our ability to tune the surface properties of the sponges from being hydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 151.0°. The superhydrophobic silanized melamine sponge exhibited excellent sorption capacity for a wide range of organic solvents and oils, from 82 to 163 times its own weight, depending on the polarity and density of the employed organic solvents and oils, and high selectivity and outstanding recyclability with an absorption capacity retention greater than 90% after 1000 cycles. These findings offer an effective approach for oil spill containment and environmental remediation. PMID:25039789

  6. High cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil but not olive oil stimulates lipid peroxidation in plasma, liver, and aorta of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin Bulur; Gül Özdemirler; Büge Öz; Gülçin Toker; Muzaffer Öztürk; Müjdat Uysal

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effect of a high cholesterol diet supplemented with sunflower seed oil or olive oil on plasma, liver, and aorta lipid peroxidation, rats were fed a basal diet, a high cholesterol diet (basal diet containing 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid), or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 10% (wtwt) sunflower seed oil or 10% (wtwt) olive oil

  7. DATES TO REMEMBER July 7 Perennial Peanut Field Day -Moultrie, GA

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    AGRONOMY NOTES June, 2003 DATES TO REMEMBER July 7 Perennial Peanut Field Day - Moultrie, GA July 8 Peanut Tour - Macon, GA Sept. 5 Row Crop Field Day - Jay Research Farm Aug. 28 Peanut Field Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PEANUTS Gypsum for Peanuts

  8. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  9. BREEDING PEANUT WITH RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT AND PREHARVEST AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts become contaminated with aflatoxin when subjected to prolonged periods of heat and drought stress. The resulting aflatoxin contamination costs the peanut industry over $20 million annually. The development of peanut cultivars with resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) woul...

  10. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  12. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

  13. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  15. 7 CFR 457.134 - Peanut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut crop insurance provisions. 457.134 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.134 Peanut crop insurance provisions. The Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2007...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  20. 7 CFR 457.134 - Peanut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut crop insurance provisions. 457.134 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.134 Peanut crop insurance provisions. The Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2007...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

  3. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

  4. 7 CFR 457.134 - Peanut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut crop insurance provisions. 457.134 Section...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.134 Peanut crop insurance provisions. The Peanut Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2007...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  6. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  9. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

  10. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  11. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60 Section 996.60 Agriculture...HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...60 Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. (a) Prior to, or upon,...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14 Agriculture...THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.14 Obtaining peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  20. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information...

  3. Peanut allergy: Effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Simpson, Angela; Makinson, Kerry; Hankinson, Jenny; Brown, Sara; Douiri, Abdel; Belgrave, Danielle C.M.; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Turcanu, Victor; Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Custovic, Adnan; Lack, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations lead to an impaired skin barrier associated with peanut allergy. Household peanut consumption is associated with peanut allergy, and peanut allergen in household dust correlates with household peanut consumption. Objective We sought to determine whether environmental peanut exposure increases the odds of peanut allergy and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. Methods Exposure to peanut antigen in dust within the first year of life was measured in a population-based birth cohort. Peanut sensitization and peanut allergy (defined by using oral food challenges or component-resolved diagnostics [CRD]) were assessed at 8 and 11 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. Results After adjustment for infantile atopic dermatitis and preceding egg skin prick test (SPT) sensitization, we found a strong and significant interaction between natural log (ln [loge]) peanut dust levels and FLG mutations on peanut sensitization and peanut allergy. Among children with FLG mutations, for each ln unit increase in the house dust peanut protein level, there was a more than 6-fold increased odds of peanut SPT sensitization, CRD sensitization, or both in children at ages 8 years, 11 years, or both and a greater than 3-fold increased odds of peanut allergy compared with odds seen in children with wild-type FLG. There was no significant effect of exposure in children without FLG mutations. In children carrying an FLG mutation, the threshold level for peanut SPT sensitization was 0.92 ?g of peanut protein per gram (95% CI, 0.70-1.22 ?g/g), that for CRD sensitization was 1.03 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.90-1.82 ?g/g), and that for peanut allergy was 1.17 ?g/g (95% CI, 0.01-163.83 ?g/g). Conclusion Early-life environmental peanut exposure is associated with an increased risk of peanut sensitization and allergy in children who carry an FLG mutation. These data support the hypothesis that peanut allergy develops through transcutaneous sensitization in children with an impaired skin barrier. PMID:25282568

  4. Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT

    PubMed Central

    Rahmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

  5. Determination of aflatoxins in individual peanuts and peanut sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alva F. Cucullu; Louise S. Lee; Ruth Y. Mayne; L. A. Goldblatt

    1966-01-01

    Subsamples of a given lot of peanuts may vary greatly in aflatoxin content due to extreme variability in the degree of contamination\\u000a of individual kernels. A micro method, adapted from the aqueous acetone procedure recently proposed by Pons and Goldblatt\\u000a for the determination of aflatoxins in cottonseed products, was developed to permit accurate determination of aflatoxins in\\u000a individual kernels and

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis for assessment of the ecological significance of maize and peanut intercropping.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongchun; Shen, Hongyun; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Yanxiang; Guo, Xiaotong; Wang, Pengfei; Duan, Penggen; Ji, Chunqiao; Zhong, Lina; Zhang, Fusuo; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2013-01-14

    Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Peanut/maize intercropping is known to improve the iron (Fe) content of peanuts in calcareous soils. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to uncover the ecological significance of peanut/maize intercropping at the molecular level. We demonstrate that photosynthesis-related proteins accumulated in intercropped peanut leaves, suggesting that the intercropped peanuts had a stronger photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, stress-response proteins displayed elevated expression levels in both peanut and maize in a monocropping system. This indicated that intercropping contributes to resistance to stress conditions. Allene oxide synthase and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase, two key enzymes in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, increased in abundance in the maize roots of the intercropping system, consistent with the upregulation of JA-induced proteins shown by microarray analysis. These results imply that JA may act as a signaling molecule, playing an important role in intercropping through rhizosphere interaction. This study suggests that peanut/maize intercropping results in high Fe availability in the rhizosphere, leading to variation in the proteins related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The advantages of intercropping systems may improve the ecological adaptation of plants to environmental stress. PMID:23103225

  7. Teaching Case: Peanut Policy in the United States, 1996

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ann Velenchik

    The text of this case is a transcript of a story broadcast on NPR's All Things Considered on January 22, 1996. The story concerns Congressional debate about agricultural programs, particularly the price support program for peanuts. The story includes statements from a member of Congress as well as representatives of peanut growers and peanut processors. The peanut program includes import restrictions, a price floor and peanut growing licenses, and this case describes those and includes statements from peanut growers, processors and consumers.

  8. The Peanut Plant and Light: Spermidines from Peanut Flowers and Studies of their Photoisomerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  9. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  10. Yield Performance and Stability Evaluation of Peanut Breeding Lines with the CSM-CROPGRO-Peanut Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Suriharn; A. Patanothai; K. Pannangpetch; S. Jogloy; G. Hoogenboom

    2008-01-01

    Multienvironment trials of crop breeding lines consume many resources. Crop models have a potential to assist in this process. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of the CSM- CROPGRO-Peanut model in assisting with yield performance and stability evaluation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding lines. Seventeen peanut lines were tested in 11 environments in Thailand during

  11. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  12. Peanut protein: A versatile food ingredient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ayres; B. L. Davenport

    1977-01-01

    Peanut flour has been evaluated for use in a variety of food products as a replacement for animal source proteins. In breakfast\\u000a cereals and snack foods, peanut flour blends well with cereal flours to yield products with excellent flavor, texture, and\\u000a color. Peanut flour can be used to produce textured vegetable protein or can be used directly in ground meats

  13. Processing of edible peanut flour and grits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ayres; L. L. Branscomb; G. M. Rogers

    1974-01-01

    Edible peanut flour and grits have been produced by a commercial prepress solvent extraction method. The finished flour exhibits\\u000a excellent extrusion-expansion characteristics for use in both cereal and snack food items. Soluble carbohydrate profile indicates\\u000a peanut flour is lower in raffinose and stachyose than commercial soy flour. The bland flavor and light tan color facilitates\\u000a incorporation of peanut flour and

  14. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K?=?3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  15. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Fair, W.T. [Long Shot, Inc., Seminole, TX (United States); Butts, C. [National Peanut Research Lab., Dawson, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  16. The natural history of peanut allergy in young children and its association with serum peanut-specific IgE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy K. Vander Leek; Andrew H. Liu; Kay Stefanski; Betty Blacker; S. Allan Bock

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the nature and frequency of adverse reactions caused by accidental peanut exposure in young children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity and to determine the value of serum peanut-specific IgE levels during follow-up. Study design: Eighty-three children with clinical peanut hypersensitivity diagnosed before their fourth birthdays were contacted yearly to track adverse peanut reactions. Serum peanut-specific IgE levels were

  17. The present and future role of peanuts in meeting the world’s need for food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coyt T. Wilson

    1972-01-01

    Peanuts have a potential for supplying a significant portion of the world’s needs for edible vegetable oils and the protein\\u000a portion of human diets. Africa, India and Mainland China account for ca. 75% of the world’s production. In these countries\\u000a yields are low, markets are not well developed, and most of the crop is crushed for oil with the cake

  18. Decreased aortic early atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed a high- or mid-oleic acid oil compared to a high-linoleic acid oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Nicolosi; Benjamin Woolfrey; Thomas A. Wilson; Patrick Scollin; Garry Handelman; Robert Fisher

    2004-01-01

    Currently, diets higher in polyunsaturated fat are believed to lower blood cholesterol concentrations, and thus reduce atherosclerosis, greater than diets containing high amounts of saturated or possibly even monounsaturated fat. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of diets containing mid- or high-linoleic oil versus the typical high-linoleic sunflower oil on LDL oxidation and the development of early

  19. Peanuts, Pecans, and Peas, Please

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This EconEdLink lesson plan from the National Council on Economic Education focuses on how George Washington Carver helped save agriculture in the South by creating a national demand for peanut products. While the discussion questions that accompany the lesson focus mainly on economic concepts, the lesson as a whole provides an excellent, interdisciplinary way to learn about nitrogen fixation and crop rotation. The site provides student and teacher versions of the lesson plan, the teacher version offering more background information.

  20. Heater decomposes oil backstreaming from high-vacuum pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, H.

    1965-01-01

    Heater placed between an oil diffusion pump and a vacuum chamber prevents backstreaming of oil molecules into the work area of the chamber. It breaks the oil molecules into basic constituents that can be pumped away.

  1. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  2. High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

  3. Moringa oleifera oil: A possible source of biodiesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umer Rashid; Farooq Anwar; Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the

  4. Submicron emulsions processed by ultra-high pressure homogenization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chevalier-Lucia; M. Cortes-Munoz; L. Picart-Palmade; E. Dumay

    2009-01-01

    Model oil\\/water (O\\/W) emulsions containing (w\\/w) 15–45% peanut oil plus 4.3% whey proteins or raw whole milk (?4%, w\\/w, fat) were processed by ultra-high pressure (HP) homogenization at an inlet temperature of 24 °C using an HP homogenizer with an HP valve, immediately followed by cooling heat exchangers. Mechanical and thermal energies involved in the process were calculated using pressure and

  5. Processing biomass in conventional oil refineries: Production of high quality diesel by hydrotreating vegetable oils in heavy vacuum oil mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Huber; Paul O’Connor; Avelino Corma

    2007-01-01

    Renewable liquid alkanes can be produced by hydrotreating of vegetable oils and vegetable oil–heavy vacuum oil (HVO) mixtures at standard hydrotreating conditions (i.e. 300–450°C) with conventional hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided NiMo\\/Al2O3). The reaction pathway involves hydrogenation of the CC bonds of the vegetable oils followed by alkane production by three different pathways: decarbonylation, decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. The straight chain alkanes can

  6. Costs and Returns of Irrigated Peanut Production, West Cross Timbers, 1953-57.

    E-print Network

    Magee, A. C.; Hughes, Wm. F.

    1958-01-01

    county, near Camp San a in McCulloch county, near DeLeon in Co- lche and Erath counties and near Grapeland kockett county. This study was undertaken to obtain infor- ion on peanut irrigation practices, costs and ,ms. Because irrigation of peanuts... economically feasible for I-scale irrigation. Five farms in the High- Is Community of Comanche and Erath coun- were selected for study. (See cover.) Rec- ; covering irrigation development costs, water iagement and crop production practices and lomic...

  7. Leaf photosynthesis and Rubisco activity and kinetics of soybean, peanut, and rice grown under elevated atmospheric CO2, supraoptimal air temperature, and soil water deficit.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, peanut and rice were grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and under varying day/night temperature (T) regimes ranging from 28/18 to 48/38C for soybean and peanut, or soil water deficit for rice, (a) to determine the interactive impacts of high CO2-high T, or high CO2-drought, on midday leaf...

  8. Preparation of high hydroxyl equivalent weight polyols from vegetable oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pim-pahn Kiatsimkul; Galen J. Suppes; Fu-hung Hsieh; Zuleica Lozada; Yuan-Chan Tu

    2008-01-01

    Multiple novel vegetable oil-based polyols were synthesized from the reaction-addition to epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) by a series of acid acyl moieties derived from vegetable oils. The acid acyl moieties were linoleic acid (LA), ricinoleic acid (RC), ricinoleic acid estolide (RC estolide) and hydrolyzed bodied soybean oil (HBSBO). LA and RC were commercially available but RC estolide and HBSBO were

  9. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  10. SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

  11. [Competent treatment also in "surgical peanuts"!].

    PubMed

    Heim, Dominik; Gujer, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Ankle sprains, burns, cuts and lacerated wounds, ingrowing toenail - topics, that are common in the general practitioner's office. Just peanuts? If they are correctly treated, yes, maybe. But if poorly diagnosed and badly treated they turn out to be troublesome for the patient and the doctor - a real "pain in the neck"! Therefore competent treatment is mandatory, also for these "peanuts"! PMID:25533256

  12. Genetics of peanut allergy: A twin study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott H. Sicherer; Terence J. Furlong; Hermine H. Maes; Robert J. Desnick; Hugh A. Sampson; Bruce D. Gelb

    2000-01-01

    Background: The role of genetics in the etiology of peanut allergy is unknown. For complex genetic traits, twin studies can provide information on the relative contribution of genetic factors to a disease, as the relative confounding effects of environmental factors are markedly decreased. Objective: This study was performed to search for evidence that genetic factors influence peanut allergy by comparing

  13. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  14. PLANTING PATTERNS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at NPRL. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relationships. A diamond-pattern seed placement usua...

  15. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry P. Leftin; David S. Newsome

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900°C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear

  16. Oil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

  17. Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus falvus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G J; Garren, K H

    1976-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group colonization of deep-plowed, decomposing rye green manure cover crops in peanut field soils was studied in four fields during 1972 and 1973; colonization of decomposing peanut fruits was studied in 1972 in two fields. A. flavus colonization of rye and peanut fruits was greater in soils of heavy texture, and an A. flavus population as high as 165 propagules per g of soil was observed in soil adjacent to rye, whereas A. flavus populations in soils not associated with rye were 18 propagules per g of soil or lower. Highest A. flavus populations in soil adjacent to decomposing peanut fruits were usually comparable to populations associated with rye. Little decomposing rye or peanut fruit colonization was generally observed by the A. flavus competitor, A. niger group. A. flavus may maintain or increase its inoculum potential by colonization of these and other moribund plant tissues. PMID:823865

  18. Screening natural antioxidants in peanut shell using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS methods.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiying; Chen, Leilei; Zhu, Qingjun; Wang, Daijie; Wang, Wenliang; Sun, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Du, Fangling

    2012-12-15

    Peanut shell, a byproduct in oil production, is rich in natural antioxidants. Here, a rapid and efficient method using DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS was used for the first time to screen antioxidants in peanut shell. The method is based on the hypothesis that upon reaction with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the peak areas of compounds with potential antioxidant activities in the HPLC chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappeared, and the identity confirmation could be achieved by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS technique. With this method, three compounds possessing potential antioxidant activities were found abundantly in the methanolic extract of peanut shell. They were identified as 5,7-dihydroxychromone, eriodictyol, and luteolin. The contents of these compounds were 0.59, 0.92, and 2.36 mg/g, respectively, and luteolin possessed the strongest radical scavenging capacity. DPPH-HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS assay facilitated rapid identification and determination of natural antioxidants in peanut shell, which may be helpful for value-added utilization of peanut processing byproducts. PMID:22980814

  19. Oxidative stability of high-oleic sunflower oil in a porous starch carrier.

    PubMed

    Belingheri, Claudia; Giussani, Barbara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferrillo, Antonio; Vittadini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the oxidation level of high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) plated onto porous starch as an alternative to spray drying. Encapsulated oils were subjected to accelerated oxidation by heat and light exposure, and peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured. Bulk oil was the control. PV increased in all samples with increased light exposure, with similar values being reached by oil carried on porous starch and spray dried oil. The encapsulation processes determined a reduced effect of light on the increase of CD in the oil, as compared to bulk oil. Spray dried oil presented the highest CD in the experimental domain considered. Since similar levels of PV and lower levels of CD were shown in the HOSO carried on porous starch compared to the spray dried HOSO, plating flavour oils on porous starch could be a suitable technological alternative to spray drying, for flavour encapsulation. PMID:25053066

  20. Registration of ‘NC- Miller’ soybean with high yield and high seed oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘NC-Miller’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was developed and released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2011 as a high yielding and high oil late maturity group V, conventional cultivar. NC-Miller is an F5 selection from the cross of cultivars ‘Santee’ and ‘Holladay’. In the North Car...

  1. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  2. Peanut Variety and Quality eValuation results

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Peanut Variety and Quality eValuation results 2005 i. aGronoMiC and Grade data #12;#12;2005 Peanut, to David Jordan and Josh Gaddy for their help in coordinating summer and fall tours of Peanut Variety Valent USA Corporation ­ Herbicide and Insecticide Virginia Peanut Growers Association ­ Grant Virginia

  3. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianmei Yu; Mohamed Ahmedna; Ipek Goktepe; Hsiaopo Cheng; Soheila Maleki

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions.

  4. Chemistry and Biochemstry of Peanut Skins. Implications of Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut shelling plants in the US produce thousands of tons of peanut skins each year. Currently, this material is considered a waste product with limited end uses and no real monetary value. Peanut skins were obtained from a regional peanut processor and subjected to a several types of solvent ext...

  5. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  6. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

  7. Oxidative stability measurement of high-stability oils by pressure differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC).

    PubMed

    Kodali, Dharma R

    2005-10-01

    High-stability oils are used as coatings on food products that require long shelf life. The high stability oils produced from high-oleic oils require less processing and bring additional nutritional benefits such as lower trans and saturated fat contents. Accurate and reproducible oxidative stability measurement of these oils is necessary to assess the performance. The accelerated oxidative stability measurement method often used in the fats and oils industry, the oxidative stability index (OSI, AOCS Cd 12b-92) is unreliable for higher stability oils due to poor reproducibility. This study presents a pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method, which is highly reproducible and versatile and applies to oils from low to very high oxidative stability. PDSC has been used in industrial applications such as lubricants (ASTM D 6186-98) and measures the oxidative induction time (OIT) of oils under high temperature and pressure in the presence of pure oxygen. The OITs of a number of hydrogenated oils with different unsaturation and oxidative stability are measured. Unlike OSI data, the PDSC OIT measurement is highly reproducible and precise and requires only a small sample and a couple of hours. The regression analysis of the PDSC data indicated the natural log OIT of all samples linearly correlated with the temperature. The equation derived from this relationship helps to compare the oxidative stabilities of the same or different oils determined at different temperatures. The development of this method into an approved method will benefit the fats/oils and food industry. PMID:16190611

  8. Effects of feeding high-oil corn to beef steers on carcass characteristics and meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Andrae; S. K. Duckett; C. W. Hunt; G. T. Pritchard; F. N. Owens

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effects of feeding high-oil corn on carcass characteristics and meat quality, 60 yearling steers were fed high concentrate diets con- taining either control corn (82% of diet), high-oil corn (82% of diet), or high-oil corn at a concentration that was isocaloric with the control diet (74% of diet). After being fed for 84 d, steers were slaughtered.

  9. Oxidative Stability of Conventional and High-Oleic Vegetable Oils with Added Antioxidants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilon I. Merrill; Oscar A. Pike; Lynn V. Ogden; Michael L. Dunn

    2008-01-01

    The oxidative stability of conventional and high-oleic varieties of commercial vegetable oils, with and without added antioxidants,\\u000a was evaluated using the oil stability index (OSI). Oil varieties studied were soybean (SOY), partially-hydrogenated soybean\\u000a (PHSOY), corn (CORN), sunflower (SUN), canola (CAN), high-oleic canola (HOCAN), very high-oleic canola (VHOCAN), oleic safflower\\u000a (SAF) and high-oleic sunflower (HOSUN). One or more commercial antioxidants were

  10. Novel seed oil types of Ethiopian mustard with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelghani Nabloussi; Angustias Márquez-Lema; José M. Fernández-Martínez; Leonardo Velasco

    2008-01-01

    Oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and linolenic acid have important industrial applications, both as drying oils in the manufacture of paints and coatings as well as in formulation of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. However, no oil types with high levels of polyunsaturation have been developed so far in Brassica oilseed crops. The objective of the present research was

  11. High-temperature hydrocarbon degradation by Bacillus stearothermophilus from oil-polluted Kuwaiti desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Sorkhoh; A. S. Ibrahim; M. A. Ghannoum; S. S. Radwan

    1993-01-01

    Kuwaiti desert samples contaminated with crude oil contained Bacillus stearothermophilus strains capable of growth on crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy, obligately at high temperature. No thermophilic oil utilizers were present in water samples collected from the Arabian Gulf. Most of the desert strains had an optimum temperature of 60°C and grew best on pentadecane (C15),

  12. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  13. High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: Differential effects of dietary oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Ikemoto; Mayumi Takahashi; Nobuyo Tsunoda; Kayo Maruyama; Hiroshige Itakura; Osamu Ezaki

    1996-01-01

    Mice fed a high-fat diet develop hyperglycemia and obesity. Using non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model mice, we investigated the effects of seven different dietary oils on glucose metabolism: palm oil, which contains mainly 45% palmitic acid (16:0) and 40% oleic acid (18:1); lard oil, 24% palmitic and 44% oleic acid; rapeseed oil, 59% oleic and 20% linoleic acid (18:2); soybean

  14. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

  15. Effects of different extraction buffers on peanut protein detectability and lateral flow device (LFD) performance.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, J; Ansari, P; Kern, C; Ludwig, T; Baumgartner, S

    2012-01-01

    The accidental uptake of peanuts can cause severe health reactions in allergic individuals. Reliable determination of traces of peanuts in food products is required to support correct labelling and therefore minimise consumers' risk. The immunoanalytical detectability of potentially allergenic peanut proteins is dependent on previous heat treatment, the extraction capacity of the applied buffer and the specificity of the antibody. In this study a lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of peanut protein was developed and the capacity of 30 different buffers to extract proteins from mildly and strongly roasted peanut samples as well as their influence on the test strip performance were investigated. Most of the tested buffers showed good extraction capacity for putative Ara h 1 from mildly roasted peanuts. Protein extraction from dark-roasted samples required denaturing additives, which were proven to be incompatible with LFD performance. High-pH buffers increased the protein yield but inhibited signal generation on the test strip. Overall, the best results were achieved using neutral phosphate buffers but equal detectability of differently altered proteins due to food processing cannot be assured yet for immunoanalytical methods. PMID:22043826

  16. Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidation and Tocopherols Decrease in In-Shell, Peeled and Blanched Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. ?-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops. PMID:22489128

  17. The origin of virgin argan oil's high oxidative stability unraveled.

    PubMed

    Gharby, Saïd; Harhar, Hicham; Guillaume, Dominique; Haddad, Aziza; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2012-05-01

    To prepare either virgin edible or beauty argan oil, roasted or unroasted argan kernels are cold-pressed, respectively. Comparing the physicochemical parameters of edible and beauty argan oil immediately after preparation and after a two-year delay has led to the suggestion that phospholipids are a new and essential type of oil component participating in the excellent oxidative stability of edible argan oil, in addition to the already suggested Maillard-reaction products, phenols, and tocopherols. PMID:22799092

  18. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:18474424

  19. Low sulfur products from high sulfur crude oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skamser

    1981-01-01

    Four refining process schemes compared are similar except for the handling of the atmospheric resid. In this aspect, the following variations are used: (1) atmospheric resid hydrodesulfurization (HDS), vacuum distillation, delayed coking, and gas oil fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); (2) vacuum distillation, fluxcoking, FCC feed HDS, and gas oil FCC; (3) atmospheric resid HDS, and heavy oil catalytic cracking; and

  20. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Freidin

    1998-01-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaOfree and SO3 in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash

  1. Design of New Genome- and Gene-Sourced Primers and Identification of QTL for Seed Oil Content in a Specially High-Oil Brassica napus Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of most important oilseed crops in the world. There are now various rapeseed cultivars in nature that differ in their seed oil content because they vary in oil-content alleles and there are high-oil alleles among the high-oil rapeseed cultivars. For these experiments, we generated doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross between the specially high-oil cultivar zy036 whose seed oil content is approximately 50% and the specially low-oil cultivar 51070 whose seed oil content is approximately 36%. First, to address the deficiency in polymorphic markers, we designed 5944 pairs of newly developed genome-sourced primers and 443 pairs of newly developed primers related to oil-content genes to complement the 2244 pairs of publicly available primers. Second, we constructed a new DH genetic linkage map using 527 molecular markers, consisting of 181 publicly available markers, 298 newly developed genome-sourced markers and 48 newly developed markers related to oil-content genes. The map contained 19 linkage groups, covering a total length of 2,265.54 cM with an average distance between markers of 4.30 cM. Third, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed oil content using field data collected at three sites over 3 years, and found a total of 12 QTL. Of the 12 QTL associated with seed oil content identified, 9 were high-oil QTL which derived from the specially high-oil cultivar zy036. Two high-oil QTL on chromosomes A2 and C9 co-localized in two out of three trials. By QTL mapping for seed oil content, we found four candidate genes for seed oil content related to four gene markers: GSNP39, GSSR161, GIFLP106 and GIFLP046. This information will be useful for cloning functional genes correlated with seed oil content in the future. PMID:23077542

  2. Oil stability prediction by high-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Gómez, Gemma; Navarro, José L; Zamora, Rosario

    2002-10-01

    (13)C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 66 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the potential use of those fractions in predicting oil stabilities and to compare those results with oil stability prediction by using chemical determinations. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north Africa; "lampante" olive, refined olive, refined olive pomace, low-erucic rapeseed, high-oleic sunflower, corn, grapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils. Oils were analyzed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, as well as for phenol and tocopherol contents. By using stepwise linear regression analysis (SLRA), the chemical determinations and the (13)C NMR data that better explained the oil stability determined by the Rancimat were selected. These selected variables were related to both the susceptibility of the oil to be oxidized and the content of minor components that most contributed to oil stability. Because (13)C NMR considered many more variables than those determined by chemical analysis, the predicted stabilities calculated by using NMR data were always better than those obtained by using chemical determinations. All these results suggest that (13)C NMR may be a powerful tool to predict oil stabilities when applied to chromatographically enriched oil fractions. PMID:12358445

  3. Recurrent Peanut Allergy May Not Be Prevented by Continued Peanut Ingestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Boyle; Mimi L.-K. Tang

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent peanut allergy has been described in patients who have previously passed an oral food challenge [N Engl J Med 2002;347:1535–1536]. It has been suggested that recurrent peanut allergy might be prevented by regular ingestion of peanut subsequent to passing an oral food challenge [J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:1195–1201]. We present a case that challenges this thinking by demonstrating that

  4. An improved rapid physicochemical assay method for aflatoxin in peanuts and peanut products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur E. Waltking; George Bleffert; Mary Kiernan

    1968-01-01

    A practical, short cut, sensitive method for more rapidly determining aflatoxin in peanuts and peanut products has been developed.\\u000a This was in response to the need to reduce the time required for analyses of peanut products in process. Through reductions\\u000a in solvent volumes, utilization of pressure filtration for clarification, and substitution of liquid:liquid extraction for\\u000a a lengthy column clean up,

  5. Boxy/Peanut bulges and stellar bars

    E-print Network

    Martinez-Valpuesta, I

    2008-01-01

    Boxy/peanut bulges in disc galaxies have been associated to stellar bars. We analyse their properties in a large sample of $N$-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

  6. Boxy/Peanut bulges and stellar bars

    E-print Network

    Martinez-Valpuesta; I.; Athanassoula; E.

    2008-01-21

    Boxy/peanut bulges in disc galaxies have been associated to stellar bars. We analyse their properties in a large sample of $N$-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

  7. Formulation and nutritional evaluation of weaning food processed from cooking banana, supplemented with cowpea and peanut

    PubMed Central

    Bassey, Francisca I; Mcwatters, Kay H; Edem, Christopher A; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of processing a ready-to-eat nutrient-rich weaning food (WF) for infants within the age group of 0.5–0.9 years from cooking banana fortified with popular and affordable legumes (cowpea and peanut) was investigated with the aid of computer software and available technology in Nigeria. A composite of 47% cowpea, 40% ripe banana, and 13% peanut was processed, analyzed to compare the actual nutrient composition to that predicted by the software and that of two popular commercial WFs produced by Gerber Products Company: rice with banana (RB) and oats with banana (OB). Proximate composition was determined by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, in vitro digestibility by the pH drop method, and amino acid was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Essential amino acid values were comparable to the predicted values. Protein and oil contents had values of 16.89% and 8.38%, 6.9% and 1.10%, and 12.03% and 3.16% for WF, RB, and OB, respectively. Octadecenoic (oleic) acid had the highest value of 3.65% followed by octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid with a value of 2.64% amounting to 76.69% of the total fatty acid. Total sugar content of WF was recorded as 15.96 g/100 g, with fructose having the highest value of 8.07 g/100 g, followed by dextrose with a value of 7.66 g/100 g. In vitro-digestibility was in the order OB>WF>RB. The results show that it is feasible to produce precooked WF which has the potential to meet the nutritional needs of an infant, from local staples using computer-assisted technique and inexpensive technology available in Nigeria. PMID:24804045

  8. Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of palm oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. Khor; N. H. Tan; C. L. Chua

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolysis of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin, soybean oil, corn oil and peanut oil by the commercial lipase fromCandida rugosa (formerly known asC. cylindracea) was studied. The optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of palm oil by the lipase were established. The lipase fromC. rugosa exhibits an optimal activity at 37 C and at pH 7.5. The optimal

  9. DATES TO REMEMBER Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day -Moultrie, GA June 11th

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    AGRONOMY NOTES June, 2005 DATES TO REMEMBER 5th Annual Perennial Peanut Field Day - Moultrie, GA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PEANUTS Calcium Nutrition of Peanut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Control of Hairy Indigo in Peanuts

  10. Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Weaver, C F; Robertson, D G; Ivey, H

    1988-10-01

    Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut. PMID:19290315

  11. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  12. The molecular basis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Maleki, Soheila J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that similar short peptide sequences among unrelated peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  13. The Case of the Disappearing "Peanuts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail

    1994-01-01

    Presents a series of investigations focusing on the biodegradable packing materials ("peanuts"), which provide a method for exploring science through experimentation. These activities can help fourth through sixth graders sharpen their critical thinking and science process skills. (PR)

  14. PEANUT SHELL FUEL FOR THE GAMBIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will develop a household-scale human-powered briquette maker that will convert peanut shells into an efficient cooking fuel. The briquette maker will be designed such that it can be manufactured and used in The Gambia. ...

  15. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  16. Sustained unresponsiveness to peanut in subjects who have completed peanut oral immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Kulis, Michael; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Berglund, Jelena P.; Burk, Caitlin; Hiegel, Anne; Carlisle, Suzanna; Christie, Lynn; Perry, Tamara T.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Sheikh, Saira; Virkud, Yamini; Smith, P. Brian; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Durham, Stephen R.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Background Although peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been conclusively shown to cause desensitization, it is currently unknown whether clinical protection persists after stopping therapy. Objective Our primary objective was to determine whether peanut OIT can induce sustained unresponsiveness following withdrawal of OIT. Methods We conducted a pilot clinical trial of peanut OIT at two U.S. centers. Subjects aged 1–16 were recruited and treated for up to five years with peanut OIT. The protocol was modified over time to permit dose increases to a maximum of 4000 mg peanut protein/day. Blood was collected at multiple time points. Clinical endpoints were measured with 5000 mg double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges once specific criteria were met. Results Of the 39 subjects originally enrolled, 24 completed the protocol and had evaluable outcomes. 12/24 (50%) successfully passed a challenge one month after stopping OIT and achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Peanut was added to the diet. At baseline and the time of challenge, such subjects had smaller skin tests as well as lower IgE levels specific for peanut, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2, and lower ratios of peanut-specific:total IgE, compared to subjects not passing. There were no differences in peanut IgG4 levels or functional activity at end-of-study. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of sustained unresponsiveness after peanut OIT, occurring in half of subjects treated up to five years. OIT favorably modified the peanut-specific immune response in all subjects completing the protocol. Smaller skin tests and lower allergen-specific IgE levels were predictive of successful outcome. PMID:24361082

  17. Testing Falling Peanut Butter Sandwich Myth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    In this activity related to rotational inertia (page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a bit of scientific experimenting to test if open-faced peanut butter sandwiches really do always land peanut butter side down. Learners will also test other variables, such as drop height, size of bread slice, and whatever else learners can think of, to arrive at some sound conclusions. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Microgravity.

  18. Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Ramadhas; S. Jayaraj; C. Muraleedharan

    2005-01-01

    Currently, most of the biodiesel is produced from the refined\\/edible type oils using methanol and an alkaline catalyst. However, large amount of non-edible type oils and fats are available. The difficulty with alkaline-esterification of these oils is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids (FFA). These free fatty acids quickly react with the alkaline catalyst to produce

  19. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  20. Facile removal of oils from water surfaces through highly hydrophobic and magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fenghe; Chen, Mudan; Mao, Jianyu; Xie, Tan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, magnetic polymer nanocomposites were investigated as highly selective absorbent materials for removing oils from water surfaces. The nanocomposites with highly hydrophobic and superoleophilic surface were synthesized through a low-cost emulsion polymerization, and exhibited some practical properties including unsinkability, thermal stability and corrosive-resistance for real applications. These as-prepared nanoparticles could effectively absorb three kinds of oils up to above 3.63 times of the particles' weight while completely repelling water. It is very easy to collect the oil-absorbed nanoparticles by applying an external magnetic field. Besides, the oil could be readily removed from the surfaces of nanoparticles by a simple ultrasonic treatment, and the nanocomposites still kept highly hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics after repeatedly removing oils from water surface for many cycles. The findings of this study might provide a convenient method for fast and selective removal of oils from the surface of water.

  1. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review. PMID:25102573

  2. Items Containing Peanuts & Other Nuts Note: Each of us must ultimately be responsible

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    Items Containing Peanuts & Other Nuts Note: Each of us must ultimately be responsible for what we inthe itemwasprocessedina factorythat makesnutproducts Peanuts/PeanutButter Acorn Squashw/Peanut Splitsw/Nuts* Broccoli and TofuwithPeanutSauce Café Mocha Cake* CajunPeanutRice Chicken

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  5. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. PMID:25442530

  6. The peanut genome consortium and peanut genome sequence: Creating a better future through global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. The U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) was launched in 2004, and expanded to a gl...

  7. Basophil response to peanut allergens in Mediterranean peanut-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, C; Gomez, F; Aranda, A; Koppelman, S J; Diaz-Perales, A; Blanca-López, N; Blazquez, A B; Blanca, M; Torres, M J

    2014-07-01

    Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 are important sensitizers in peanut allergy. Ara h 9 has also been shown to be relevant in the Mediterranean area. We evaluated the basophil response to peanut allergens and Pru p 3 in Mediterranean patients: Group 1, peanut and peach allergy; Group 2, peanut allergy and tolerance to peach; Group 3, peach allergy and tolerance to peanut; Group 4, nonallergic subjects that tolerate both peanut and peach. Compared to controls (Group 4), there was an increased basophil activation with Ara h 2 (P = 0.031) and Pru p 3 (P = 0.009) in Group 1 and with Ara h 1 (P = 0.016), Ara h 2 (P = 0.001), and Ara h 9 (P = 0.016) in Group 2. Importantly, only Ara h 2 showed an increased activation (P = 0.009) in Group 2 compared to Group 3. Ara h 2 is the best discriminating allergen for peanut allergy diagnosis in a Mediterranean population showing two patterns: patients also allergic to peach, responding to Ara h 2 and Pru p 3, and patients allergic only to peanut, responding to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 9. PMID:24816395

  8. Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  9. Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

  10. Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

  11. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  12. A RIGID, PERFORATED PLATE OIL BOOM FOR HIGH CURRENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A boom capable of diverting oil spills toward shore in a 3-knot (1.5 m/s) river or tidal current has been developed. Loss of No. 2 and No. 4 Fuel Oil at this velocity is typically less than 15 percent when the angle of the boom is 45 degrees to the shoreline. In contrast, convent...

  13. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions. For instance, treatment of roasted peanut kernels with ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 1-3h significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein while reducing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut kernel extracts by 100% and 98%, respectively, based on ELISA readings. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels in peanut protein extracts were inversely correlated with protein solubility in roasted peanut. Blanching of kernels enhanced the effectiveness of enzyme treatment in roasted peanuts but not in raw peanuts. The optimal concentration of enzyme was determined by response surface to be in the range of 0.1-0.2%. No consistent results were obtained for raw peanut kernels since Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 increased in peanut protein extracts under some treatment conditions and decreased in others. PMID:25214091

  14. Oral and sublingual peanut immunotherapy is not ready for general use.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an investigational peanut allergy treatment aimed to achieve specific oral tolerance induction. Allergic children are given titrated oral (or sublingual) doses of their allergen on a daily basis, unlike in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). OIT is theorized to cause a shift from a Th2 to a Th1 regulatory environment, reflected by increases in food-specific IgG4/IgE, and the production of FoxP3. Peanut OIT holds special promise because peanut allergy has an unfavorable natural history and is rarely outgrown. A high percentage of the participants experience symptoms during peanut OIT, including anaphylaxis, warranting epinephrine and/or discontinuation of therapy. This is a concerning fact given that the studies have mostly targeted only older children, with less historical reactivity for enrollment. The handful of peanut OIT studies have shown that some participants can be desensitized to peanut, but none have shown that long-term tolerance can be reestablished. Factors predictive of which patients are most likely to succeed and become desensitized through OIT are unknown. Some private practices have begun offering peanut OIT as a therapy. Such practice is potentially dangerous given the safety and efficacy of OIT in randomized controlled clinical trials is still not well established. Therefore, until further investigation emerges that conclusively demonstrates OIT is safe, intermediate and long-term outcomes are better established, the number of participants that experience symptoms is reduced, and proof of concept established in patients of all ages, (irrespective of past reaction severity), OIT is not ready for use in the general allergy practice. PMID:23676568

  15. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  16. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for efficient FA production in E. coli. PMID:23593473

  17. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  18. Emulsion stability of cosmetic creams based on water-in-oil high internal phase emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan Ik Park; Wan-Gu Cho; Seong Jae Lee

    2003-01-01

    The emulsion stability of cosmetic creams based on the water-in-oil (W\\/O) high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) containing water, squalane oil and cetyl dimethicone copolyol was investigated with various com- positional changes, such as electrolyte concentration, oil polarity and water phase volume fraction. The rheological consistency was mainly destroyed by the coalescence of the deformed water droplets. The slope change of

  19. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  20. Chlorophyll and ?-carotene pigments in moroccan virgin olive oils measured by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rahmani; A. Saari Csallany

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll and ?-carotene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in virgin olive\\u000a oils, which were press-extracted from green and semi-black olives. Pheophytin A was found to be the major chlorophyll isomer\\u000a in all oil samples. The occurrence of this pigment at higher concentrations in oil extracted from green olives is a possible\\u000a indication of its time-related destruction during