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  1. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ... reactions in people who are allergic to peanuts, soybeans, and other members of the Fabaceae plant family.

  2. Groundnut (Peanut) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil is valued worldwide, primarily as a cooking medium and food ingredient. This chapter provides timely summaries and discussions on the latest compositional, physical and nutritional data for peanut oil....

  3. Liquid to Semisolid Rheological Transition of Normal and High-Oleic Peanut Oils Upon Cooling to Refrigeration Temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rheological transitions of peanut oils cooled from 20 to 3ºC at 0.5ºC/min were monitored via small strain oscillatory measurements at 0.1 Hz and 1 Pa. Oils were from 9 different cultivars of peanut, and 3 oils were classified as high-oleic (approximately 80% oleic acid). High-oleic oils maintained...

  4. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characterizations of Normal and High-Oleic Oils from Nine Commercial Cultivars of Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density and viscosity data as a function of temperature (5 to 100°C) were collected for oils (normal and high-oleic) from 9 cultivars of peanut. Density decreased linearly (R squared, greater than or equal to 0.99) with increasing temperature for all oils, whereas viscosity (dynamic or kinematic) d...

  6. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  7. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  8. Evaluation of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The skins from peanuts are a low-value material from peanut processing and literature suggests it is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have any significant uses other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high anti...

  9. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  10. Minimal effects of high-pressure treatment on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated into peanut butter and peanut products.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Somerville, Jeremy A; Balasubramaniam, V M; Lee, Ken

    2010-10-01

    About 1.2 billion pounds of peanut butter are consumed annually in the United States. In 2008 to 2009, an outbreak involving Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter led to a recall of over 3900 products by over 200 companies. More than 700 people became sick, 100 were hospitalized, and 9 people died from this outbreak. This study examines the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) to decrease S. Typhimurium American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 53647 inoculated into peanut butter and model systems. The viability of S. Typhimurium in peanut butter stored at room temperature was investigated. A culture of S. Typhimurium (6.88 log CFU/g) was inoculated into peanut butter. Following 28 d at 20 °C there was a 1.23-log reduction. Approximately 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g S. Typhimurium were inoculated into 4 brands of peanut butter, 3 natural peanut butters and peanut flour slurries at 2, 5, and 10% peanut flour protein in peanut oil and in distilled water. All were treated at 600 MPa for 5 min at 45 °C. While significant differences were found between natural peanut butter and peanut protein mixtures, the reduction was <1.0 log. The peanut flour/oil mixtures had a 1.7, 1.6, and 1.0-log reduction from HPP (2, 5, and 10% protein, respectively) whereas peanut flour/water mixtures had a 6.7-log reduction for all protein levels. Oil had a protective effect indicating HPP may not help the microbial safety of water-in-oil food emulsions including peanut butter. Practical Application: There have been multiple outbreaks of foodborne illness involving peanut butter products. This study looks at the potential use of high-pressure processing to reduce the bacteria that may be in peanut butter. PMID:21535491

  11. Refractive Index and Density Measurements of Peanut Oil for Determining Oleic and Linoleic Acid Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 1.5-2.0; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L...

  12. Density and Refractive Index Measurements of Peanut Oil to Determine Oleic and Linoleic Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seed are approximately 50% oil of which > 80% is either oleic or linoleic acid. The oleic/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio largely influences oxidative stability and hence peanut shelf life. Traditional peanut seed have O/L ratios near 2.5; however, many new cultivars are “high oleic” with O/L rat...

  13. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  14. Characteristics and composition of peanut oil prepared by an aqueous extraction method.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Lu, J Y; Jones, G; Loretan, P A; Hill, W A

    1998-01-01

    Peanut is one of the crops being tested for NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for future long-duration human space missions. The ALS program is developing an integrated system for biomass (food, oxygen) production and resource recycling. Oil will be used mainly for cooking and its availability is important for food preparation. Peanut seeds contain 40-50% oil and hence are considered an excellent source of oil. In the ALS environment, a simple, compact, and energy-efficient system is needed. The feasibility of such a method, peanut oil preparation by water extraction, was investigated. The results indicated the important processing conditions to be: a peanut particle size of 0.02 cm or less, a pH of 4, simmering for 20 min plus churning at 65 degrees C for a few hours, and a centrifugation at 6000 x gn to separate the oil. The oil recovery yield was about 80%. The saponification value, specific gravity, refractive index, and viscosity were similar to that of commercial peanut oil except the color was lighter for the water-extracted oil. Gas and thin-layer chromatographic analyses showed that fatty acid and lipid profiles were similar to the commercial peanut oil. The only difference observed was that the oil prepared by the aqueous method had lower linoleic and higher oleic acids than the commercial peanut oil. The oil prepared by this aqueous method appeared to be of high quality. PMID:11541680

  15. RHEOLOGICAL AND DENSITY CHARACTERIZATION OF PEANUT OILS FOR BIODIESEL APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil may be used directly, or converted into methyl esters, i.e. biodiesel, for use as an alternative fuel source in conventional diesel engines. For biodiesel applications, oils with low viscosities are desirable to deliver superior cold flow performance. Accordingly, peanut oils were expre...

  16. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) genome contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  17. Mapping FAD2 genes on peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome and contribution to oil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  18. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  19. Assessment and Characterization of Oil from Roasted Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins are a low-value material from peanut processing and are a good source of phenolic compounds. Peanut skins do not have a significant use other than as a small component of animal feed. Studies indicate that the compounds in the skin have high antioxidant activity, while little is known s...

  20. Molecular breeding for introgression of fatty acid desaturase mutant alleles (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) enhances oil quality in high and low oil containing peanut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Pandey, Manish K; Shasidhar, Yaduru; Variath, Murali T; Sriswathi, Manda; Khera, Pawan; Manohar, Surendra S; Nagesh, Patne; Vishwakarma, Manish K; Mishra, Gyan P; Radhakrishnan, T; Manivannan, N; Dobariya, K L; Vasanthi, R P; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    High oleate peanuts have two marketable benefits, health benefits to consumers and extended shelf life of peanut products. Two mutant alleles present on linkage group a09 (ahFAD2A) and b09 (ahFAD2B) control composition of three major fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids which together determine peanut oil quality. In conventional breeding, selection for fatty acid composition is delayed to advanced generations. However by using DNA markers, breeders can reject large number of plants in early generations and therefore can optimize time and resources. Here, two approaches of molecular breeding namely marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) and marker-assisted selection (MAS) were employed to transfer two FAD2 mutant alleles from SunOleic 95R into the genetic background of ICGV 06110, ICGV 06142 and ICGV 06420. In summary, 82 MABC and 387 MAS derived introgression lines (ILs) were developed using DNA markers with elevated oleic acid varying from 62 to 83%. Oleic acid increased by 0.5-1.1 folds, with concomitant reduction of linoleic acid by 0.4-1.0 folds and palmitic acid by 0.1-0.6 folds among ILs compared to recurrent parents. Finally, high oleate ILs, 27 with high oil (53-58%), and 28 ILs with low oil content (42-50%) were selected that may be released for cultivation upon further evaluation. PMID:26566838

  1. Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

  2. Genomics of Peanut, a Major Source of Oil and Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is the second-most important grain legume cultivated, of importance for being a source of oil and protein. The perceived lack of variation in the cultivated species has resulted in a focus until recently on characterization and mapping of wild species, and on transformation of peanut with ge...

  3. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

  4. Nondestructive estimation of oil and moisture content using NIR spectroscopy in Valencia and Virginia peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method by which these parameters could be measured rapidly and nondestructively for peanut pods (in-shell peanuts) would be useful for the industry. In this work, an attempt was made to measure oil and moisture content of...

  5. Gene expression profiling in peanut using high density oligonucleotide microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Payton, Paxton; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Rowland, Diane; Faircloth, Wilson; Guo, Baozhu; Burow, Mark; Puppala, Naveen; Gallo, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background Transcriptome expression analysis in peanut to date has been limited to a relatively small set of genes and only recently has a significant number of ESTs been released into the public domain. Utilization of these ESTs for oligonucleotide microarrays provides a means to investigate large-scale transcript responses to a variety of developmental and environmental signals, ultimately improving our understanding of plant biology. Results We have developed a high-density oligonucleotide microarray for peanut using 49,205 publicly available ESTs and tested the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues. To identify putatively tissue-specific genes and demonstrate the utility of this array for expression profiling in a variety of peanut tissues, we compared transcript levels in pod, peg, leaf, stem, and root tissues. Results from this experiment showed 108 putatively pod-specific/abundant genes, as well as transcripts whose expression was low or undetected in pod compared to peg, leaf, stem, or root. The transcripts significantly over-represented in pod include genes responsible for seed storage proteins and desiccation (e.g., late-embryogenesis abundant proteins, aquaporins, legumin B), oil production, and cellular defense. Additionally, almost half of the pod-abundant genes represent unknown genes allowing for the possibility of associating putative function to these previously uncharacterized genes. Conclusion The peanut oligonucleotide array represents the majority of publicly available peanut ESTs and can be used as a tool for expression profiling studies in diverse tissues. PMID:19523230

  6. Long term testing of peanut oil in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

  7. Genetic mapping of FAD2 genes and their relative contribution towards oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality is the major research objective in peanut because of its high economic impact on growers/traders and several health benefits to consumers. Fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes are known to control quality traits but their position on the peanut genome and their relative contr...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  12. 40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N- . 721.10176... Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N- . (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil, N- (PMN P-04-144; CAS No....

  13. Antioxidant properties of extracts obtained from raw, dry-roasted, and oil-roasted US peanuts of commercial importance.

    PubMed

    Craft, Brian David; Kosińska, Agnieszka; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald Bruce

    2010-09-01

    Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial practices. Eighty percent (v/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A Spanish high-oleic peanut possessed the greatest naturally-occurring level of p-coumaric acid and its derivatives, followed by a high-oleic Runner, a normal Runner, and a Virginia peanut. Upon thermal processing, p-coumaric acid was liberated at the expense of its derivatives according to the relationship: oil roasting > dry roasting > raw. A high-oleic Runner exhibited the greatest increase (∼785%) in free p-coumaric acid levels after oil roasting. For many of the samples from the 2007 crop, processing increased the TPC and antioxidant capacities in the order of raw < dry roast < oil roast, but results were cultivar dependent. Oil-roasted peanuts were more effective at scavenging O2(.-) than their dry-roasted counterparts, as determined by a photochemiluminescence assay. Overall findings indicate that although thermal processing altered the composition of peanut kernel antioxidants, TPC values and radical-scavenging activities are preserved. Depending on peanut type, cultivar, and harvest date, enhanced antioxidant capacities can result. PMID:20198439

  14. Genotypic variability and genotype by environment interactions in oil and fatty acids in high, intermediate, and low oleic acid peanut genotypes.

    PubMed

    Singkham, Nattawut; Jogloy, Sanun; Kesmala, Thawan; Swatsitang, Prasan; Jaisil, Prasit; Puppala, Naveen

    2010-05-26

    Variability of genotype and genotype x environment (G x E) interactions for fatty acids are important to develop high-oleic types in peanut varietal improvement programs. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in fatty acid composition among peanut genotypes and G x E interactions of fatty acids in three groups of genotypes with high, intermediate, and low-oleic acid. Twenty-one genotypes were tested in three environments consisting of two rainy seasons and one dry season. The results indicated that G x E interactions were significant for biomass, pod yield, and harvest index and also for oleic, linoleic acids, and O/L ratio. G x E interactions were less important than genotypic main effect. For oleic acid, significant interactions were found in the intermediate and low-oleic groups only. Therefore, selection for high-oleic trait in peanut breeding programs should be effective. PMID:20438126

  15. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content and mapping FAD2 genes and their relative contribution to oil quality in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of oil quality traits in peanut is the second most important research goal other than yield because of high impact on market and consumers due to profitability and several health benefits. Although FAD genes are known to control some of these traits but their position on the peanut genom...

  16. Genetic enhancement of peanut oil quality and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this project were to develop recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from SunOleic 97R x NC94022 ) for genetic and genomic studies and enhancement of peanut oil quality and disease resistance. The major fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid) were 83.5%, 1.8%, an...

  17. Reducing peanut allergens by high pressure combined with polyphenol oxidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) has been shown to reduce major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Because high pressure (HP) can increase enzyme activity, we postulated that further reduction of peanut allergens can be achieved through HP combined with PPO. Peanut extracts were treated with each of th...

  18. The Effect of Moisture Content on Storage Quality and Sensory Attributes of Oil Roasted Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical characteristics of peanuts may interact with processing conditions to impact quality. This study, examined the effects of preroast moisture content on the chemical and sensory characteristics of oil roasted peanuts. Virginia type peanuts were sequentially dried in-shell to obtain extra la...

  19. Rheological properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Law, S.E.

    1982-07-01

    Basic physical properties of peanut oil-diesel fuel blends were experimentally determined to help establish suitability for use in compression-ignition engines. For volumetric proportions of peanut oil ranging in 20 percent increments from 0 percent to 100 percent, the continuously varying properties at 21/sup 0/C were found to range as follows: heating value - 45.8 to 40.3 MJ/kg; specific gravity - 0.848 to 0.915; surface tension - 28.3 to 35.6 mN/m; and kinematic viscosity - 3.8 to 7.0 cSt. Dynamic viscosity measured as a function of shear rate over a 0/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C temperature range indicated nonNewtonian flow properties at shear rates less than 3/s.

  20. EFFECT OF THE HIGH-OLEIC TRAIT AND PASTE STORAGE VARIABLES ON SENSORY ATTRIBUTE STABILITY OF ROASTED PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been much interest in the effect of the high-oleic acid trait of peanuts on various quality factors since discovery of high levels of oleic acid in a peanut mutant genotype. The trait provides greater oxidative stability for the high-oleic oil and seed. Several research groups have investi...

  1. Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, or groundnut, is a New World legume that is believed to be native to South America. Discovered in the 1500s by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers as an extensively cultivated crop of the Indians in the West Indian Islands, Mesoamerica and South America, peanut was disseminated throughou...

  2. Gene expression profiling during seed-filling process in peanut with emphasis on oil biosynthesis networks.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kapil; Kayam, Galya; Faigenboim-Doron, Adi; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Hovav, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Pod-filling is an important stage of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed development. It is partially controlled by genetic factors, as cultivars considerably vary in pod-filling potential. Here, a study was done to detect changes in mRNA levels that accompany pod-filling processes. Four seed developmental stages were sampled from two peanut genotypes differing in their oil content and pod-filling potential. Transcriptome data were generated by RNA-Seq and explored with respect to genic and subgenomic patterns of expression. Very dynamic transcriptomic changes occurred during seed development in both genotypes. Yet, general higher expression rates of transcripts and an enrichment in processes involved "energy generation" and "primary metabolites" were observed in the genotype with the better pod-filling ("Hanoch"). A dataset of 584 oil-related genes was assembled and analyzed, resulting in several lipid metabolic processes highly expressed in Hanoch, including oil storage and FA synthesis/elongation. Homoeolog-specific gene expression analysis revealed that both subgenomes contribute to the oil genes expression. Yet, biases were observed in particular parts of the pathway with possible biological meaning, presumably explaining the genotypic variation in oil biosynthesis and pod-filling. This study provides baseline information and a resource that may be used to understand development and oil biosynthesis in the peanut seeds. PMID:27181953

  3. Use of Pollen Solid-Phase Extraction for the Determination of trans-Resveratrol in Peanut Oils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhao, Qin; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-05-20

    In this study, a simple and convenient method for the determination of trans-resveratrol (TRA) in peanut oils based on pollen grain solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Pollen grains were used as normal-phase SPE sorbent to separate TRA from peanut oils for the first time. As a naturally occurring material, pollen grains exhibited an excellent adsorption capacity for polyphenolic compounds due to their particular functional structures such as hydroxyl groups, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic chains with aromatics. Their stable compositions as well as adequate particle size (30-40 μm) also make them suitable for SPE. Several parameters influencing extraction performance were investigated. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), a green purification method for fast determination of TRA in peanut oils using pollen grain cartridges as sorbents was established. The linearity range of the proposed method was 10-2500 ng · g(-1) with a satisfactory correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) for TRA in peanut oils was 2.7 ng · g(-1), and the recoveries in spiked oil samples were from 70.2% to 98.4% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4.9% (intraday) and 5.2% (interday). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of TRA in several peanut oils with different brands from local market as well as other kinds of vegetable oils. PMID:25915548

  4. Development of a Pilot Scale Process to Sequester Aflatoxin and Release Bioactive Peptides from Highly Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut oil. PM applications are limited because of typical high concentrations of aflatoxin. For the first time, pilot-scale extraction of protein and sequestration of aflatoxin from PM were evaluated. Aqueous...

  5. Oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, and resveratrol content variability in FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful bioactive phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemical compo...

  6. Interfacial Properties of Raw and Roasted Peanut Oils as Related to Emulsification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roasted peanut oil is a unique product that can impart a desirable roasted peanut flavor in various emulsified formulations. Emulsification properties are a function of the oil physical properties, which include interfacial tension, viscosity, and density among others. These physical properties ha...

  7. A modified PCR protocol for consistent amplification of fatty acid desaturase (FAD) alleles in marker-assisted backcross breeding for high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid, such as is found in olive oil, is desirable for the healthy cholesterol-lowering benefits. The oxidative stability of the oil with high oleic acid also gives longer “shelve life” for peanut products. These benefits drive the breeding effort toward developing high oleic peanuts worl...

  8. Quantifying Aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using fabricating fluorescence probes based on upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuicui; Li, Huanhuan; Koidis, Anastasios; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth doped upconversion nanoparticles convert near-infrared excitation light into visible emission light. Compared to organic fluorophores and semiconducting nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer high photochemical stability, sharp emission bandwidths, and large anti-Stokes shifts. Along with the significant light penetration depth and the absence of autofluorescence in biological samples under infrared excitation, these UCNPs have attracted more and more attention on toxin detection and biological labelling. Herein, the fluorescence probe based on UCNPs was developed for quantifying Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil. Based on a specific immunity format, the detection limit for AFB1 under optimal conditions was obtained as low as 0.2ng·ml(-1), and in the effective detection range 0.2 to 100ng·ml(-1), good relationship between fluorescence intensity and AFB1 concentration was achieved under the linear ratios up to 0.90. Moreover, to check the feasibility of these probes on AFB1 measurements in peanut oil, recovery tests have been carried out. A good accuracy rating (93.8%) was obtained in this study. Results showed that the nanoparticles can be successfully applied for sensing AFB1 in peanut oil. PMID:27124091

  9. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces. PMID:26743667

  10. Peanuts and their nutritional aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is a legume crop that belongs to the family of Fabaceae, genus Arachis, and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are consumed in many forms such as boiled peanuts, peanut oil, peanut butter, roasted peanuts, and added peanut meal in snack food, energy bars and candies. Peanuts are c...

  11. Application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy on Determination of Moisture, Total oil and Protein Contents of In-shell Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture, total oil and protein content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and protein ...

  12. Determination of In-shell Peanuts Moisture, Oil and Fatty Acids Composition Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil and moisture content of peanuts are important factors in peanut grading. A method that could rapidly and nondestructively measure these parameters for in-shell peanuts would be extremely useful. NIR reflectance spectroscopy was used to analyze the moisture, total oil and fatty acid content of V...

  13. Effect of peanut oil and randomized peanut oil on cholesterol and oleic acid absorption, transport, and distribution in the lymph of the rat.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, S; Flynn, T J; Calvert, R J; Kritchevsky, D

    1999-12-01

    Peanut oil was shown to be atherogenic in cholesterol-fed rats, rabbits, and monkeys. However, after randomization, a process in which the fatty acids in peanut oil are randomly rearranged, its atherogenicity was significantly reduced in cholesterol-fed rabbits and monkeys. The mechanism for this effect remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether the absorption, transport and distribution of dietary cholesterol and oleic acid in the lymph were altered in the presence of peanut oil or randomized peanut oil. Previous investigators collected lymph through the mesenteric duct for 6 h and analyzed lymph for cholesterol. In the present study, lymph fluids were collected at timed intervals for up to 8 h and then at 24 h via the thoracic duct. Cholesterol and oleic acid (fatty acid) were estimated not only in the whole lymph but also in lymph lipoprotein fractions and in major lipid fractions. A 24-h lymph collection will enhance accuracy as short-term fluctuations in lipid absorption will not affect the results. Thoracic duct lymph collection is quantitative compared to mesenteric duct lymph collection, which provides only a fraction of the total lymph. Rats were given a lipid emulsion containing either peanut oil or randomized peanut oil. The emulsion also contained cholesterol, oleic acid, and sodium taurocholate in saline and was given through a duodenal catheter. Results show that absorption, transport, and distribution of cholesterol and oleic acid in the lymph fluids were similar in both dietary groups. These results suggest that the atherogenicity of peanut oil may be due to other events taking place subsequent to the release of cholesterol-containing chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein by the small intestinal epithelial cells into the blood or may be due to the triglyceride structure itself. PMID:10652990

  14. The complex tale of the high oleic acid trait in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait wa...

  15. Soil moisture affects fatty acids and oil quality parameters in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought affects yield of peanut, but its effect on oleic and linoleic acids that influence its oil quality of peanut genotypes with different levels of drought resistance has not been clearly investigated. Therefore, the aims of this research were to determine whether soil water levels could affect...

  16. Allergenic Properties of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Peanut Flour Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is a high protein, low oil, powdered material prepared from roasted 21 peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the 22 active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a 23 processing strategy ...

  17. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. PMID:25872432

  18. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil. PMID:20629398

  19. The Relationship of Initial Moistrue Content to Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Oil Uptake in Virginia-Type Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical characteristics of peanuts may interact with processing conditions to impact quality. This study examined the effects of peanut pre-roast moisture content (MC) on chemical, physical and sensory characteristics developed in oil roasting. A large lot of Virginia type peanuts were dried in-s...

  20. DEVELOPING HIGH O/L PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) CULTIVARS FOR THE SOUTHWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agencies listed above and the Texas Peanut Producers Board and the Oklahoma Peanut Commission initiated a program in 1996 to develop high O/L ratio peanut cultivars for the Southwestern Peanut Production area. The source for the high O/L genes was UF435-1 and UF435-2 for the Spanish materials a...

  1. Quality characteristics of oil extracted from gamma irradiated peanut (Arachis hypogea L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation and storage on the characteristics of oil extracted from peanut seeds has been investigated in this study. Peanut seeds were undergone gamma irradiation process with the doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy. The changes in chemical and physical attributes were observed immediately after irradiation and after 12 months of storage. The data obtained from the experiments showed that irradiation process had no effect on the chemical and physical qualities such as, fatty acid composition, peroxide value, iodine value specification number, TBA value and color of oil extracted from peanut seeds. On the contrary, the peroxide, acidity and TBA values of the peanut oil were decreased due to storage time.

  2. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds. PMID:23104473

  3. Peanut Oil Stability and Physical Properties Across a Range of Industrially Relevant O/L Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1....

  4. Peanut Oil Stability and Physical Properties Across a Range of Industrially Relevant O/L Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic cultivars are becoming increasing prevalent in the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life compared to conventional cultivars. High oleic peanuts are typically defined as having oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratios = 9, whereas most traditional varieties have O/L ratios near 1...

  5. Development of Peanut Germplasm with a High Level of Resistance to Leaf Spot and the Peanut Root-knot Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals control for pathogens such as the peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum) can be expensive. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) producers can increase profitability if they can reduce input costs while maintaining high yield. Development of c...

  6. Assessment of Oil content and fatty acid composition variability in different peanut subspecies and botanical varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable and clean-burning fuel which can be produced by transesterification of plant oils. One hundred peanut accessions (landraces or cultivars) from two subspecies and six botanical varieties and two soybean accessions were selected and planted in 2008. The oil content and fatty a...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10174 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10174 Section 721.10174 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance...-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-peanut-oil acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN...

  12. Mutagenicity and identification of mutagenic compounds of fumes obtained from heating peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Wu, S C; Yen, G C; Sheu, F

    2001-02-01

    Since the fume of cooking oil has been reported to increase the risk of lung cancer, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the mutagenicity and to find the mutagens in the fumes of peanut oil heated to the smoke point. Peanut oil prepared from roasted peanut kernel showed a lower smoke point, less unsaturated fatty acids, more fume formation, and stronger mutagenicity than that from unroasted kernel. Further investigation of mutagenic compounds was performed by the Ames test and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Among the 12 compounds identified from the neutral fraction of methanol extract, four compounds at a dose of 10 microg per plate were mutagenic to Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the order of trans-trans-2,4-decadienal > trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal > trans-2-decenal > trans-2-undecenal. Results report the enal compounds formed as the mutagens in the fumes of peanut oil and indicate that inhaling cooking fumes might cause carcinogenic risk. PMID:11271774

  13. Comparisons of biodiesel produced from unrefined oils of different peanut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesels were prepared according to standard procedures from oils of eight commercially available peanut cultivars and compared for differences in physical properties important to fuel performance. Dynamic viscosity was measured from 100 to 15 ºC, and differences (P<0.05) among cultivars occurred...

  14. A review of the nutritional composition, organoleptic characteristics and biological effects of the high oleic peanut.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, E J

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of literature has been published on the health benefits of peanuts, but the potential biological effects of high-oleic (HO) peanuts, along with their organoleptic characteristics have not been reviewed to date. In this paper, examination of evidence showed that HO peanuts provide a spectrum of nutrients and have improved sensory properties and technological advances, such as enhanced shelf life, beyond that of conventional peanuts. This may be attributed to their oleic to linoleic ratio (OL ratio) which is substantially (around 10 times) higher than normal peanuts. In terms of their biological effects, HO peanuts appear to be no more allergenic, and could even be less allergenic than conventional peanuts. There is also emerging evidence that HO peanuts may improve lipid profile and markers of glycemic control. Further randomized controlled human trials are now needed to build on animal and in vitro studies. PMID:25017702

  15. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanut cultivars and breeding lines revealed by highly informative SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts e...

  16. Identification of inferior quality peanuts without shelling during peanut grading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts produced in United States are considered as high quality peanuts. To continue this quality, grading of farmers stock peanuts should be improved further. When the peanuts are picked from the farmers they are unshelled peanuts. There are some peanuts that contain kernels with damages, immature...

  17. Transcriptome sequencing of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis under desiccation and starvation stress in peanut oil.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangyu; Li, Zengxin; Zhang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    It is well recognized that Salmonella can survive long-term starvation and desiccation stresses and contaminate foods that have intermediate to low water activities; however, little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms underlying its survival and persistence in low water activity foods. In this study, we used the RNA-seq approach to compare the transcriptomes (27-33 million 36-bp reads per sample) of a Salmonella enterica subsp. enteric serovar Enteritidis strain ATCC BAA-1045 after inoculation in peanut oil (water activity 0.30) for 72 h, 216 h and 528 h to those grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth for 12 h and 312 h. Our results showed that desiccated Salmonella cells in peanut oil were in a physiologically dormant state with <5% of its genome being transcribed compared to 78% in LB broth. Among the few detected transcripts in peanut oil, genes involved in heat and cold shock response, DNA protection and regulatory functions likely play roles in cross protecting Salmonella from desiccation and starvation stresses. In addition, non-coding RNAs may also play roles in Salmonella desiccation stress response. This is the first report of using RNA-seq technology in characterizing bacterial transcriptomes in a food matrix. PMID:22265317

  18. Comparisons of Biodiesel Produced from Oils of Various Peanut Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean burning alternative fuel that can be used in standard diesel engines with no engine modification and no perceptible loss in engine performance. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a seed oil feedstock, with soybean oil being the primary...

  19. Production of aromatic green gasoline additives via catalytic pyrolysis of acidulated peanut oil soap stock.

    PubMed

    Hilten, R; Speir, R; Kastner, J; Das, K C

    2011-09-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis was used to generate gasoline-compatible fuel from peanut oil soap stock (PSS), a high free fatty acid feedstock, using a fixed-bed reactor at temperatures between 450 and 550°C with a zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5). PSS fed at 81 gh(-1) along with 100 mL min(-1) inert gas was passed across a 15 g catalyst bed (WHSV=5.4h(-1), gas phase residence time=34s). Results indicate that fuel properties of PSS including viscosity, heating value, and O:C ratio were improved significantly. For PSS processed at 500°C, viscosity was reduced from 59.6 to 0.9 mm(2)s(-1), heating value was increased from 35.8 to 39.3 MJL(-1), and the O:C ratio was reduced from 0.07 to 0.02. Aromatic gasoline components (e.g., BTEX), were formed in concentrations as high as 94% (v/v) in catalytically-cracked PSS with yields ranging from 22% to 35% (v/v of PSS feed). PMID:21741232

  20. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils. PMID:26604391

  1. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To address increasing problems with mixing of high oleic peanut seed lots with normal oleic seed, the development of the lipid fraction of a range of immature to mature seed in two virginia type peanut cultivars was examined. that large seeded, high-oleic vA very large seeded high-oleic cultivar (...

  2. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

  3. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  4. EFFECT OF THE HIGH OLEIC TRAIT ON ROASTED PEANUT FLAVOR IN BACKCROSS-DERIVED BREEDING LINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high-oleic trait of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has been suggested to have a positive impact on roasted peanut sensory attribute. A series of lines derived by backcrossing the high-oleic trait into several existing cultivars were compared with their parent cultivars at locations in Florida, Geo...

  5. Real-Time PCR Genotyping using Taqman Probes to Detect High Oleic Acid Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid is an important agronomic trait in peanut cultivars because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and a beneficial effect on human health. Currently, most high oleic peanuts confer limited resistance to ...

  6. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  7. Recovery and purification of spanish high oleate peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and re...

  8. Recovery and Purification of Spanish High Oleate Peanut ‘AT-9899’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “AT-9899” developed in Golden Peanut Company in 2002 is a Spanish market type peanut. It has spreading growth habit and mid maturity. Due to high level of oleate and small seed size, it is grown specifically for confectionery market in the USA and Mexico. However, from the time of development and ...

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIONS IN THE U.S. PEANUT MINI-CORE COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds contain not only a high percentage of oil (49%) with high oleate but also a high percentage of protein (25%) and nutritious phytochemicals (such as flavonoids and resveratrol). Therefore, peanut is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. The U.S. Peanut ger...

  10. Nutritional evaluation of experimental weaning foods prepared from green leaves, peanut oil, and legume flour.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, W E

    1989-12-01

    Experimental weaning foods were prepared from alfalfa leaves, peanut oil, and mung bean, chickpea or soy flour. The weaning foods were analyzed to determine their yield, proximate composition and amino acid content. Yields from starting materials ranged from 29 to 99%. Highest yields were obtained when 20% legume or oilseed flour was incorporated into leaf protein-peanut oil gels. The moisture content of the weaning foods ranged from 42 to 65%, protein from 3.4 to 6.5%, fat from 23 to 48%, and carbohydrate from 3 to 13%. Proteins in the experimental weaning foods were found to be deficient in the sulfur amino acids. Amino acid scores for weaning foods containing 20% legume or oilseed flour ranged from 50 for mung bean to 62 for soy. It was estimated that a four-ounce daily serving of one of the soy weaning foods would supply 40% of the energy and 35% of the protein needs of a one-year-old infant. PMID:2631093

  11. Combinations of corn glutel meal, clove oil, and sweep cultivation are ineffective for weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic peanut is difficult and lack of residual weed control complicates weed management efforts. Weed management systems using corn gluten meal in combination with clove oil and sweep cultivation were evaluated in a series of irrigated field trials. Corn gluten meal applied in a ...

  12. Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

  13. A pilot study of omalizumab to facilitate rapid oral desensitization in high-risk peanut allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Lynda C.; Rachid, Rima; LeBovidge, Jennifer; Blood, Emily; Mittal, Mudita; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is a major public health problem that affects 1% of the population and has no effective therapy. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of oraldesensitization in peanut allergic children in combination with a brief course of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab, Xolair). Methods We performed oral peanut desensitization in peanut allergic children at high risk for developing significant peanut-induced allergic reactions. Omalizumab was administered prior to and during oral peanut desensitization. Results We enrolled 13 children (median age, 10 years), with a median peanut-specific IgE of 229 kUA/L and a median total serum IgE of 621 kU/L, who failed an initial double-blind placebo controlled food challenge at doses 100 mg peanut flour. After pre-treatment with omalizumab, all subjects tolerated the initial 11 desensitization doses given on the first day, including the maximum dose of 500 mg peanut flour (cumulative dose, 992 mg, equivalent to >2 peanuts), requiring minimal or no rescue therapy. 12 subjects then reached the maximum maintenance dose of 4,000 mg peanut flour/day in a median time of 8 weeks, at which point omalizumab was discontinued. All 12 subjects continued on 4,000 mg peanut flour/day and subsequently tolerated a challenge with 8,000 mg peanut flour (equivalent to about 20 peanuts), or 160 to 400 times the dose tolerated before desensitization. During the study, 6 of the 13 subjects experienced mild or no allergic reactions; 6 subjects had Grade 2, and 2 subjects Grade 3 reactions, all of which responded rapidly to treatment. Conclusions Among children with high-risk peanut allergy, treatment with omalizumab may facilitate rapid oral desensitization, and qualitativelyimprove the desensitization process. PMID:24176117

  14. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source for edible oil and protein. It is important to identify genetic diversity of peanut for cultivar development. In this study, 111 SSR markers with high polymorphic information content (PIC) were used to assess the genetic variation of 79 peanut cult...

  16. Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Bahnson, Henry; Feeney, Mary; Hourihane, Jonathan; Spergel, Jonathan; Young, Michael; As'aad, Amal; Allen, Katrina; Prescott, Susan; Kapur, Sandeep; Saito, Hirohisa; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A; Arshad, Hasan; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; Fernandez-Rivas, Monserrat; Grimshaw, Kate; Hoffman-Sommergruber, Karin; Host, Arne; Lau, Susanne; O'Mahony, Liam; Mills, Clare; Papadopoulos, Nikolaus; Venter, Carina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kessel, Aaron; Antaya, Richard; Drolet, Beth; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence regarding potential benefits of supporting early rather than delayed peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. PMID:26354148

  17. Release of OLe peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  18. A novel process for preparing low-fat peanuts: Optimization of the oil extraction yield with limited structural and organoleptic damage.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joelle; Fawaz, Nada; Afif, Charbel; Louka, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to extract the maximum amount of oil from peanuts without causing major damage and preserving their organoleptic quality after defatting. Accordingly, a successful, healthy, eco-friendly and economic defatting process for peanuts was implemented using mechanical oil expression, which was optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology. The results demonstrated that maximum extraction yields were obtained at a low initial moisture content (5-7% d.b.). Defatting and deformation ratios were mostly affected by the pressure and water content with high correlation coefficients (98.4% and 97.5%, respectively), and overall acceptability decreased following higher oil extraction yields. It was concluded that the optimum values for the product moisture content, pressure, and pressing duration were 5% d.b., 9.7 MPa and 4 min, respectively, with a defatting ratio of 70.6%. This resulted in an insignificant irreversible deformation ratio (<1%) and an overall acceptability of 7.6 over 10. PMID:26675860

  19. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method. PMID:26471545

  20. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  1. High-oleic Virginia peanuts in the Southwestern US: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in t...

  2. Maturity Effects on Contamination of High-Oleic Peanut Lots with Normal-Oleic Seeds of a Large Seeded Virginia Type Peanut Variety.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need to segregate high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds has lead to investigations into potential sources of mixing. Previous work in our lab examined the development of in two lines of virginia type seeds, Bailey (normal-oleic) and Spain (high-oleic) for changes in the oleic to linoleic ratios (...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH YIELDING, TSWV RESISTANT ISOLINES WITH AND WITHOUT RESISTANCE TO THE PEANUT ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut cultivars are available that have high resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) or Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), however, no cultivars exist that have resistance to both pathogens. The objective of this research was to combine resistance to both pathogens in a s...

  4. Development of a rapid isolation assay of high quality RNA and DNA from several peanut tissues suitable for molecular analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation of high quality peanut RNA and DNA is a prerequisite for transcript analyses and genetic studies. The presence of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides in peanut tissue can decrease yield quantity and quality which may render the isolated nucleic acid products unsuitable for various mole...

  5. Protein Hydrolysis of Defatted Peanut Meal to Improve Nutritional and Functional Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Defatted peanut meal is a commercially available, high protein (50-60%) material remaining after oil extraction from peanut seed. Technologies are needed to improve the economic value of this commodity. The objectives of this work were to evaluate antioxidant activity and funct...

  6. Process development and characterization of spray dried protein/peptide concentrates derived from peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil from peanut kernels. Despite being an excellent source of protein (45-55%), the high levels of aflatoxin typically associated with this material currently limit applications to feed or fertilizer markets. Previously, ou...

  7. PERFORMANCE OF EQUIPMENT FOR IN-FIELD SHELLING OF PEANUT FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs of growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for oil extraction. A conventional two-row peanut combine normally used to thresh windrowed peanuts was modified to shell the peanuts as they were harvested. Peanuts...

  8. Heat resistance of Salmonella enterica is increased by pre-adaptation to peanut oil or sub-lethal heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-09-01

    Cross-protection represents a considerable challenge in the food industry where hurdled interventions are often employed to reduce Salmonella contamination. The heat resistance of Salmonella strains from five serotypes (i.e., Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Tennessee, Thompson and Hartford) at 70 °C was determined by measurement of viable cell populations before and after adaptation to two common stresses employed in low-water activity food processing, desiccation and sub-lethal heat treatment. Survival of Salmonella at 70 °C significantly increased (p < 0.05) following the six-day incubation in peanut oil (aw 0.52 ± 0.00) and/or the exposure to a sub-lethal heat treatment at 45 °C for 3 min. Quantitative PCR revealed upregulation of two desiccation stress-related genes, fadA and otsB, following the peanut oil incubation, whereas heat treatment induced upregulation of a heat-resistance gene, dnaK. Invasion gene invA and alternative sigma factor rpoE were downregulated following either of the treatments. Interestingly, different Salmonella strains yielded different transcriptional profiles. The strain-specific resistance phenotypes and transcriptional profiles provided further insights into the mechanisms employed to tolerate desiccation and heat stresses in the food industry. PMID:27217370

  9. Prevalence of peanut allergy in children of peanut farmers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High levels of environmental exposure to peanut during infancy appear to promote sensitization by the epicutaneous route. Children of peanut farmers are likely exposed to relatively high levels of peanut protein in their environment, increasing their risk of cutaneous sensitization. The purpose of...

  10. Development of a real-time PCR genotyping assay to identify high oleic acid peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid, a monounsaturated, omega-9 fatty acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil is an important seed quality trait because it provides increased shelf life, improved flavor, enhanced fatty acid composition, and has a beneficial effect on human health. Hence, a concentrated effort has be...

  11. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  12. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their ef...

  13. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs) are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD) was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop. PMID:22305491

  14. Pilot scale production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from aflatoxin contaminated peanut meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein (45-50%) by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil. Applications of PM are limited to feeds and fertilizers because it typically contains a high concentration of aflatoxin. Recently, our lab has developed a process to r...

  15. Registration of 'OLé' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OLé peanut (experimental designation ARSOK-S140-1OL) is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) that was cooperatively released by the USDA-ARS and the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2014. OLé is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435, the ori...

  16. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  17. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  18. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  19. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    PubMed

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. PMID:24211775

  20. Documentation for release of a high oleic runner peanut cultivar (tested as TX 994313)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the peanut acreage diminished in 2008 to 18,000 acres, the peanut crop remains a viable agricultural commodity in western and southwestern Oklahoma with an annual estimated value of $14 million. Production of peanut is adversely affected by soilborne pathogens, especially Sclerotinia minor...

  1. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran Kumar; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja

    2006-01-01

    Arachis hypogea (peanut, groundnut), an annual oil seed belonging to the Leguminosae family and the Papillionacea subfamily, is a legume native to South America but now grown in diverse environments in six continents between latitudes 40 degrees N and 40 degrees S. Arachis hypogea can grow in a wide range of climatic conditions. The low yields of this crop are mainly attributed to unreliable rainfall patterns with frequent droughts, lack of high-yielding adapted cultivars, damage by diseases and pests, poor agronomic practices, and limited use of inputs. Genetic engineering approaches have been shown to be comparatively fast, leading to better isolation and cloning of desired traits for combating the various biotic and abiotic stresses. This chapter describes an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol in peanut using the cotyledon system. The system described here is potentially applicable to a vast range of genotypes with a high transformation frequency of >70% based on the preliminary molecular data, indicating the production of a large number of independently transformed transgenic plants. The method reported here provides opportunities for crop improvement of this important legume crop via genetic transformation. PMID:16988358

  2. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9μgkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9μgkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0μgkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0μgkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils. PMID:25624257

  3. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Bahnson, Henry; Feeney, Mary; Hourihane, Jonathan; Spergel, Jonathan; Young, Michael; As'aad, Amal; Allen, Katrina; Prescott, Susan; Kapur, Sandeep; Saito, Hirohisa; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A; Arshad, Hasan; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; Fernandez-Rivas, Monserrat; Grimshaw, Kate; Hoffman-Sommergruber, Karin; Host, Arne; Lau, Susanne; O'Mahony, Liam; Mills, Clare; Papadopoulos, Nikolaus; Venter, Carina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kessel, Aaron; Antaya, Richard; Drolet, Beth; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. PMID:26100082

  4. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Bahnson, Henry; Feeney, Mary; Hourihane, Jonathan; Spergel, Jonathan; Young, Michael; As'aad, Amal; Allen, Katrina; Prescott, Susan; Kapur, Sandeep; Saito, Hirohisa; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A; Arshad, Hasan; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; Fernandez-Rivas, Monserrat; Grimshaw, Kate; Hoffman-Sommergruber, Karin; Host, Arne; Lau, Susanne; O'Mahony, Liam; Mills, Clare; Papadopoulos, Nikolaus; Venter, Carina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kessel, Aaron; Antaya, Richard; Drolet, Beth; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. PMID:26122934

  5. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond S; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. PMID:26312127

  6. Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond S; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. PMID:26300927

  7. Effect of 12 Weeks High Oleic Peanut Consumption on Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Jayne A.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Bryan, Janet; Coates, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates an inverse association between nut consumption and obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance. We investigated effects of high oleic peanut consumption vs. a nut free diet on adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk markers. In a randomised cross-over design, 61 healthy subjects (65 ± 7 years, body mass index (BMI) 31 ± 4 kg/m2) alternated either high oleic peanuts (15%–20% of energy) or a nut free diet for 12 weeks. Body composition and mass, waist circumference, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipids, glucose and insulin were assessed at baseline and after each phase. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) compared the two diets. Consistent with other nut studies, there were no differences in lipids, CRP, glucose and insulin with peanut consumption. In contrast, some reports have demonstrated benefits, likely due to differences in the study cohort. Energy intake was 10% higher (853 kJ, p < 0.05), following peanut consumption vs. control, attributed to a 30% increase in fat intake (p < 0.001), predominantly monounsaturated (increase 22 g, p < 0.05). Despite greater energy intake during the peanut phase, there were no differences in body composition, and less than predicted increase (0.5 kg) in body weight for this additional energy intake, possibly due to incomplete nutrient absorption and energy utilisation. PMID:26404365

  8. Proteomic analysis of differential protein expression and processing induced modifications in peanuts and peanut skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. Proteomics has become a powerful tool in plant research; however, studies involving legumes, and especially peanuts, are in their infancy. Furthermore, protein expression in the peanut seed coat (skin), which is...

  9. Extractable low mass proteins <30kDa from peanut display elevated antigenicity (IgG-binding) and allergenicity (IgE-binding) in vitro and are attenuated by thermal reactivity with non-peanut food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Lee, Alvin

    2016-03-01

    Human allergic reactions to peanut proteins and the associated risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis requires vigilant management of peanuts in food processing. Processed forms of peanuts with attenuated antigenicity and less severe immunogenic responses may lower the risk. Molecular subfractions of raw (UP), blanched (BP) and roasted (RP) peanuts were prepared including water-insoluble (P1), water-soluble high mass (>30kDa, P2) and water-soluble low mass (<30kDa, P3) fractions. Products were screened by measuring binding to IgG (polyclonal antibody against peanut allergen) and IgE (sera from peanut-allergic donors, RAST>3). The results showed that IgE titres were highest for total extracts of RP, particularly for P3 fractions of UP and RP, and were affected by further heating. Antigenicity was also modulated by heating in the presence of either peanut oil or non-peanut food ingredients (lactose, coconut oil). Results support several alternative methods for regulating peanut antigenicity using food processing approaches but require further substantiation in larger numbers of allergic and control donor sera. PMID:26471622

  10. Registration of ‘AU-1101’ peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AU-1101’ (Reg. No. CV-xxx, PI 661498) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with high yield and medium maturity, uniform pod size and shape, high grade, superior shelling characters, low oil content, normal oleic acid content, and good flavor. AU-...

  11. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal (PM) is the solid material remaining after commercial extraction of oil. Despite being an excellent source of high quality protein, applications of PM are limited to feed markets as this material typically contains high concentrations of aflatoxin. Our research group has developed a nov...

  12. Development of a Novel Strategy to Isolate Lipophilic Allergens (Oleosins) from Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Christian; Kull, Skadi; Krause, Susanne; Schocker, Frauke; Petersen, Arnd; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Jappe, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most severe class I food allergies with increasing prevalence. Especially lipophilic allergens, such as oleosins, were found to be associated with severe symptoms, but are usually underrepresented in diagnostic extracts. Therefore, this study focused on isolation, molecular characterization and assessment of the allergenicity of peanut oleosins. Methods and Results A comprehensive method adapted for the isolation of peanut oil bodies of high purity was developed comprising a stepwise removal of seed storage proteins from oil bodies. Further separation of the oil body constituents, including the allergens Ara h 10, Ara h 11, the presumed allergen oleosin 3 and additional oleosin variants was achieved by a single run on a preparative electrophoresis cell. Protein identification realized by N-terminal sequencing, peptide mass fingerprinting and homology search revealed the presence of oleosins, steroleosins and a caleosin. Immunoblot analysis with sera of peanut-allergic individuals illustrated the IgE-binding capacity of peanut-derived oleosins. Conclusion Our method is a novel way to isolate all known immunologically distinct peanut oleosins simultaneously. Moreover, we were able to provide evidence for the allergenicity of oleosins and thus identified peanut oleosins as probable candidates for component-resolved allergy diagnosis. PMID:25860789

  13. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C1...

  14. Seed chemical composition variability and FAD2A functional SNP genotypes in the U.S. peanut mini-core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut seeds are nutritious containing high amounts of oil and protein as well as some useful phytochemicals which can contribute to human health. The U.S. peanut mini-core collection is an important genetic resource for improving seed quality and developing new cultivars. Variability of seed chemic...

  15. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and pressure cycling on a pathogenic Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail inoculated into creamy peanut butter.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Salmonella enterica serovars to survive in high fat content, low water activity foods like peanut butter has been demonstrated by large foodborne illness outbreaks in recent years. This study investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing, including pressure cycling, to inactivate Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter. A cocktail of pathogenic strains of Salmonella Enteritidis PT30, Salmonella Tennessee, Salmonella Oranienburg, Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella Enteritidis PT 9c, and Salmonella Montevideo obtained from peanut butter- and nut-related outbreaks was inoculated (10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g) into creamy peanut butter and high pressure processed under five different sets of conditions, which varied from 400 to 600 MPa and from 4 to 18 min. The log CFU reductions achieved varied from 1.6 to 1.9. Control experiments in which Salmonella was inoculated (10(9) CFU/g) into 0.1% peptone buffer and high pressure processed at 600 MPa for 18 min showed inactivation to below the detection limit of 100 CFU/g, confirming that high pressure processing is effective at destroying Salmonella in high-moisture environments. Pressure cycling under three sets of conditions consisting of pressures from 400 to 600 MPa, 3 to 10 pressure cycles, and hold times of 6 min for each cycle showed reductions similar to those seen in noncycling experiments. The results of our experiments suggest that the peanut butter food matrix facilitates the survival of Salmonella when exposed to high hydrostatic pressure processing. PMID:22221373

  16. Peanut Performance and Weed Management in a High Residue Cover crop System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates conservation tillage is a viable option for successful peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, but more study is needed to help understand interactions between cover crop residues and peanut production. Specifically, additional information is needed about the effects o...

  17. Marker-assisted selection to pyramid nematode resistance and the high oleic trait in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dynamic challenges of peanut farming demand a quick response from breeders to develop new cultivars that can cope with new problems. Application of molecular markers in peanut breeding programs can greatly compress the cultivar development process from ten to fifteen years to less than three yea...

  18. Nutritional values and antioxidative activities of whole peanuts and peanut skins for ruminant feeds.

    PubMed

    Saito, Chihiro; Asano, Sanae; Kato, Chizuko; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Musha, Ayaka; Kuribayashi, Hirotaka; Moriguchi, Shouhei; Seto, Yuuki; Kawashima, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ishizaki, Shigenobu; Kajikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the nutritive values of two peanut by-products, nonstandardized whole peanuts and peanut skins, along with their effects on microbial growth and fermentation in the rumen, their roughage values, and their antioxidative activities by a digestion trial using four goats. The experimental rations were alfalfa haycube (basal ration), 85% alfalfa with 15% whole peanuts, and 70% alfalfa with 15% whole peanuts and 15% peanut skins. The ether extracts and crude protein in whole peanuts were 47% and 27% on a dry matter basis (DM) both with over 90% of digestibilities, resulting in total digestive nutrients (TDN) of 140%. Peanut skins also had a high energy value with 91% of TDN. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acetic acid decreased in the rations containing the peanut by-products, but the NDF digestibility and ruminal microbial protein estimated from urinary purines was not altered by feeding the peanut by-products. Plasma oxidative stress maker, malondialdehyde, tended to be lower when peanut skins were supplemented. Whole peanuts and peanut skins could be used as high-energy and high-protein diets for ruminants, and peanut skins would be expected as a feed having antioxidant functions. PMID:26249105

  19. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Peanut Seed and Seed Coat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown extensively worldwide for its edible seed and oil. In a peanut, within the hull and encasing the cotyledon is the seed coat, which is commonly referred to within the peanut industry as the skin. The seed coat is a distinct plant structure critical for seed deve...

  20. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  1. Process Induced Changes in Resveratrol in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is thought to have a variety of beneficial health effects. Fresh peanuts have been found to contain levels up to several ppm. Processing of peanuts for human consumption involves heat from roasting. Mechanical pressure and solvents are used to extract oil to prod...

  2. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  3. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  4. Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have em...

  5. Effect of oil and dry roasting of peanuts at various temperatures and times on survival of Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of outbreaks of salmonellosis since 2006 associated with the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter have increased concerns about this food and the associated processing methods. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the level of Salmonella reduction associated with o...

  6. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  7. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  8. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA...

  9. STORAGE WATER ACTIVITY EFFECT ON OXIDATION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-OLEIC PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts were stored under different water activities and maintained using saturated salt solutions, for 14 wks. Peroxide values, percent moisture, and sensory attributes were determined at 2 wk intervals. Peroxide values increased over time for all treatments. The highest oxidation values were obser...

  10. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy ... worse. previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might ...

  11. Survival of Salmonella in peanut butter and peanut butter spread.

    PubMed

    Burnett, S L; Gehm, E R; Weissinger, W R; Beuchat, L R

    2000-09-01

    In 1996, the first documented outbreak of salmonellosis associated with the consumption of peanut butter was reported. This study was undertaken to determine survival characteristics of high (5.68 log10 cfu g(-1)) and low (1.51 log10 cfu g(-1)) inocula of a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella in five commercial peanut butters and two commercial peanut butter spreads. Populations in samples inoculated with 5.68 log10 cfu g(-1) and stored for 24 weeks at 21 or 5 degrees C decreased 4.14-4.50 log10 cfu g(-1) and 2.86-4.28 log10 cfu g(-1), respectively, depending on the formulation. The order of retention of viability was: peanut butter spreads > traditional (regular) and reduced sugar, low-sodium peanut butters > natural peanut butter. Differences in rates of inactivation are attributed to variation in product composition as well as size and stability of water droplets in the colloidal matrix, which may influence nutrient availability. With the exception of natural peanut butter, products initially inoculated with 1.51 log10 cfu of Salmonella g(-1) (32 cfu g(-1)) were positive for the pathogen after storage for 24 weeks at 5 degrees C. At 21 degrees C, however, with the exception of one peanut butter spread, all products were negative for Salmonella after storage for 24 weeks. Post-process contamination of peanut butter and spreads with Salmonella may to result in survival in these products for the duration of their shelf life at 5 degrees C and possibly 21 degrees C, depending on the formulation. PMID:11021579

  12. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  13. Identification and Evaluation of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Allotetraploid Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Based on Amplicon Sequencing Combined with High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yanbin; Pandey, Manish K.; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Hong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Liang, Xuanqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid (AABB) species derived from the A-genome (Arachis duranensis) and B-genome (Arachis ipaensis) progenitors. Presence of two versions of a DNA sequence based on the two progenitor genomes poses a serious technical and analytical problem during single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker identification and analysis. In this context, we have analyzed 200 amplicons derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genome survey sequences (GSS) to identify SNPs in a panel of genotypes consisting of 12 cultivated peanut varieties and two diploid progenitors representing the ancestral genomes. A total of 18 EST-SNPs and 44 genomic-SNPs were identified in 12 peanut varieties by aligning the sequence of A. hypogaea with diploid progenitors. The average frequency of sequence polymorphism was higher for genomic-SNPs than the EST-SNPs with one genomic-SNP every 1011 bp as compared to one EST-SNP every 2557 bp. In order to estimate the potential and further applicability of these identified SNPs, 96 peanut varieties were genotyped using high resolution melting (HRM) method. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values for EST-SNPs ranged between 0.021 and 0.413 with a mean of 0.172 in the set of peanut varieties, while genomic-SNPs ranged between 0.080 and 0.478 with a mean of 0.249. Total 33 SNPs were used for polymorphism detection among the parents and 10 selected lines from mapping population Y13Zh (Zhenzhuhei × Yueyou13). Of the total 33 SNPs, nine SNPs showed polymorphism in the mapping population Y13Zh, and seven SNPs were successfully mapped into five linkage groups. Our results showed that SNPs can be identified in allotetraploid peanut with high accuracy through amplicon sequencing and HRM assay. The identified SNPs were very informative and can be used for different genetic and breeding applications in peanut. PMID:26697032

  14. Yield and Economic Responses of Peanut to Crop Rotation Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Peanut Research Laboratory, Dawson, GA 39842. Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses...

  15. Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in corn meal, copra meal and peanuts by chlorine gas treatment.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, U; Sen, A C; Fernando, S Y; Ahmed, E M; Wei, C I

    1991-01-01

    More than 75% degradation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was achieved after treatment of AFB1-spiked corn meal, spiked copra meal (the residue of the kiln-dried coconut kernels after mechanical expulsion of oil) and peanuts artificially infected with Aspergillus parasiticus, with 11, 16 and 35 mg chlorine gas per g meal or peanuts, respectively. At these chlorine gas treatment levels, extension of the exposure period of the corn meal and copra meal beyond 2.5 hr, and the peanuts beyond 1 day, did not increase the percentage degradation of AFB1. The mutagenicity of chlorine-treated copra meal and peanuts spiked with AFB1 was greatly reduced compared with untreated controls, as determined in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat liver S-9 mix; the reduction in mutagenicity was found to be highly correlated with the reduction in AFB1 levels. Reactions of chlorine with AFB1 or constituents of the meals or peanuts did not appear to generate new mutagenic compounds. The moisture content of the meals and peanuts appeared to be an important factor affecting the degradation of AFB1 by chlorine gas. PMID:1900253

  16. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented. PMID:26787930

  17. Management and prevention of mycotoxins in peanuts.

    PubMed

    Dorner, J W

    2008-02-01

    Contamination of peanuts with mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, is a worldwide problem that affects both food safety and agricultural economies. Most countries have adopted regulations that limit the quantity of aflatoxins in food and feed to 20 microg kg(-1) or less; however, environmental conditions in most of the world where peanuts are produced and stored often make it difficult or impossible to attain such low concentrations. In addition to aflatoxins, peanuts are often contaminated with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Both mycotoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus, a ubiquitous fungus that can infect and grow in peanuts under both pre- and post-harvest conditions. Management of mycotoxin contamination in peanuts generally involves removal of high-risk components from shelled lots or the removal of individual, highly contaminated nuts. This is accomplished by various processes such as screening, kernel sizing, electronic colour sorting, hand sorting, and blanching followed by electronic colour sorting. Recently, biological control technology has been developed that prevents much of the contamination that might otherwise occur. Biocontrol is based on competitive exclusion whereby a dominant population of a non-toxigenic strain of A. flavus is established in the soil before peanuts are subjected to conditions favouring contamination. The applied strain competes with toxigenic strains for infection sites, resulting in significantly reduced concentrations of aflatoxins in peanuts. Monitoring of the first commercial use of the technology showed that aflatoxins were reduced by an average of 85% in farmers' stock peanuts and by as much as 98% in shelled, edible grade peanuts. PMID:18286410

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  19. Dynamic succession of soil bacterial community during continuous cropping of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

  20. Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age. PMID:25010658

  1. Comparative mapping in intraspecific populations uncovers a high degree of macrosynteny between A- and B-genome diploid species of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. Results A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B-genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the homoeologous linkage groups between A (A. duranensis) and B (A. batizocoi) genomes. Comparison of the A- and B-genome genetic linkage maps also showed a total of five inversions and one major reciprocal translocation between two pairs of chromosomes under our current mapping resolution. Conclusions Our findings will contribute to understanding tetraploid peanut genome origin and evolution and eventually promote its genetic improvement. The newly developed EST-SSR markers will enrich current molecular marker resources in peanut. PMID:23140574

  2. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Liu, Andrew H.; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J.; Stephens, Alick C.; Irwin McLean, W.H.; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. Objective We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Methods Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ≥5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. Results There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P < .01). The effect of EPE on peanut SPT sensitization was augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P < .01) and augmented even further in children with a history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P < .01); the effect of EPE on PA was also augmented in children with a history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Conclusion Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. PMID:25457149

  3. Peanut disease evaluation research in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our peanut improvement efforts are focused on enhancing yield, quality, and disease resistance. Therefore, the major emphasis of this research project is to develop high oleic peanut cultivars possessing disease resistance, and high yield and grade. All the plot research reported here was performed...

  4. Peanut-Shell-like Porous Carbon from Nitrogen-Containing Poly-N-phenylethanolamine for High-Performance Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xianjun; Wan, Suige; Jiang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Zhe; Gao, Shuyan

    2015-10-14

    An efficient soft-template method is proposed for the synthesis of peanut shell-like porous carbon as high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The procedure is based on the pyrolysis and chemical activation processes using N-phenylethanolamine as precursor and KOH as activation agent. In a three-electrode system, the resultant carbon material has a specific capacitance of 356 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and a good stability over 1000 cycles. Besides, at a high current density of 30 A g(-1), it has a specific capacitance of 249 F g(-1) and maintains 96% after 10,000 cycles. In two-electrode cell configuration, it delivers about 21.53 Wh kg(-1) at a current density of 20 A g(-1), which is about 7 times higher than the commercial device (<3 Wh kg(-1)). Both high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stabilities guarantee its utilization in supercapacitors. PMID:26394705

  5. Manual sorting to eliminate aflatoxin from peanuts.

    PubMed

    Galvez, F C F; Francisco, M L D L; Villarino, B J; Lustre, A O; Resurreccion, A V A

    2003-10-01

    A manual sorting procedure was developed to eliminate aflatoxin contamination from peanuts. The efficiency of the sorting process in eliminating aflatoxin-contaminated kernels from lots of raw peanuts was verified. The blanching of 20 kg of peanuts at 140 degrees C for 25 min in preheated roasters facilitated the manual sorting of aflatoxin-contaminated kernels after deskinning. The manual sorting of raw materials with initially high aflatoxin contents (300 ppb) resulted in aflatoxin-free peanuts (i.e., peanuts in which no aflatoxin was detected). Verification procedures showed that the sorted sound peanuts contained no aflatoxin or contained low levels (<15 ppb) of aflatoxin. The results obtained confirmed that the sorting process was effective in separating contaminated peanuts whether or nor contamination was extensive. At the commercial level, when roasters were not preheated, the dry blanching of 50 kg of peanuts for 45 to 55 min facilitated the proper deskinning and subsequent manual sorting of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut kernels from sound kernels. PMID:14572227

  6. Registration of high-oleic peanut germplasm line ARSOK-S1 (TX996784) with enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight and pod rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) germplasm line ARSOK-S1 was developed cooperatively between the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and Oklahoma State University, and was released in 2013. ARSOK-S1 (tested early as TX99678...

  7. Peanut-induced acute oxalate nephropathy with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeoncheol; Eom, Minseob; Won Yang, Jae; Geun Han, Byoung; Ok Choi, Seung; Kim, Jae Seok

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is commonly caused by ethylene glycol, vitamin C, and foods like star fruit that contain a lot of oxalate. Peanuts also have high oxalate contents. However, case reports of peanut-induced oxalate nephropathy are not common. Here, we describe a case of peanut-induced acute oxalate nephropathy with acute kidney injury and intend to demonstrate the conditions under which peanut-induced oxalate nephropathy is likely to occur. PMID:26877960

  8. Utilization of SNP, SSR, and biochemical data to evaluate genetic and phenotypic diversity in the U.S. peanut germplasm collection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are nutritious because their seeds typically contain high amounts of oil, protein, phytochemicals such as resveratrol, and antioxidants such as tocopherol and folic acid; therefore, they are an important oil seed crop worldwide. The genetic diversity and population stru...

  9. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  10. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  11. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  12. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium and phosphorus uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  13. Development and evaluation of peanut germplasm with resistance to Aspergillus flavus from core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the main oil and cash crops in the world, is susceptible to Aspergillus flavus, resulting in loss in quality. Aspergillus flavus infection is a problem for peanut production and industry in China. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new peanut germplasm with ...

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  15. Use of modified BL21(DE3) Escherichia coli cells for high-level expression of recombinant peanut allergens affected by poor codon usage.

    PubMed

    Kleber-Janke, T; Becker, W M

    2000-08-01

    We previously cloned a panel of peanut allergens by phage display technology. Examination of the codons used in these sequences indicated that most of the cDNAs contain an excess of the least used codons in Escherichia coli, namely AGG/AGA, that correspond to a minor tRNA, the product of the dnaY gene. To achieve high-level expression of the peanut allergens, the cDNAs were subcloned into an expression vector of the pET series (Novagen) in order to produce (His)(10)-tagged fusion proteins in conventional E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. The peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 with an AGG/AGA codon content of 8-10% were only marginally expressed, whereas the peanut profilin Ara h 5, with an AGG/AGA codon content of only 0.8%, was efficiently expressed in these cells. Hence, by using modified BL21(DE3) E. coli cells, namely BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL cells (Stratagene) with extra copies of E. coli argU, ileY, and leuW tRNA genes, it was possible to attain high-level expression of the proteins affected by rare codon usage. IPTG-induced expression of several recombinant peanut allergens, such as Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6, was greatly increased in these special cells compared to the expression yield achieved by conventional E. coli hosts. The purification of the soluble and the insoluble fraction of Ara h 2 was performed by metal-affinity chromatography and yielded a total of about 30 mg (His)(10)-tagged recombinant protein per liter of culture of transformed BL21(DE3)CodonPlus-RIL cells. This is over 100 times more than achieved by production of Ara h 2 in conventional BL21(DE3) cells. PMID:10910733

  16. In-field Peanut Processing for Biodiesel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The costs and environmental impact for using petroleum-based fuels such as diesel, has triggered considerable interest in the development of sustainable, on-farm biodiesel production systems. Field studies have demonstrated that a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) can produce 1138 kg/ha of peanut oil at ...

  17. Formation and reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters in peanut oil during physical refining.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Li, Linyan; Jia, Hanbing; Wang, Yuting; Shen, Mingyue; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, lab-scale physical refining processes were investigated for their effects on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters. The potential precursors, partial acylglycerols and chlorines were determined before each refining step. 3-MCPD esters were not detected in degummed and bleached oil when the crude oils were extracted by solvent. While in the hot squeezed crude oils, 3-MCPD esters were detected with low amounts. 3-MCPD esters were generated with maximum values in 1-1.5h at a certain deodorizing temperature (220-260°C). Chlorine seemed to be more effective precursor than partial acylglycerol. By washing bleached oil before deodorization with ethanol solution, the precursors were removed partially and the content of 3-MCPD esters decreased to some extent accordingly. Diacetin was found to reduce 3-MCPD esters effectively. PMID:26776014

  18. PEANUT ALLERGENS AND PROCESSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolubl...

  19. Peanut Allergens and Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the fate of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. As opposed to previous work, both the soluble and insolu...

  20. [Research advances in cadmium pollution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-rong; Zhang, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oil-bearing crop in the world, and as well, an important resource of plant protein and a main raw material for food processing. With the increasing of its direct human consumption and food processing, the Cd concentration in peanut kernel has aroused great concern in recent years. China is a main country of the production and exportation of peanut, but the Cd enrichment in peanut kernel is the main obstacle for its peanut export trade. In this paper, the research advances in Cd pollution of peanut kernel were reviewed, based on the characteristics and mechanisms of Cd accumulation and distribution in peanut kernel, the intra-specific variation of kernel Cd content, and the measures in controlling kernel Cd content. Two strategies were put forward for controlling Cd pollution of peanut kernel, i.e., to reduce the Cd uptake by main root system of peanut plant, and to control the transference of Cd from root to fruit (kernel). In order to applying the strategies effectively, researches on the mechanisms of Cd accumulation in peanut kernel should be enhanced in three aspects, i.e., root vitality and its relationship with Cd accumulation in kernel, mechanism of fruit Cd absorption and its contribution to kernel Cd content, and mechanism of Cd transference in plants and its effects on kernel Cd content. PMID:19288735

  1. Genotypic effect of ahFAD2 on fatty acid seed profiles in six segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition from the oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds is an important quality trait because it may affect the flavor and length of storage of any resulting food products. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L = 10) ...

  2. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is grown throughout the world as a source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for the genetic improvement of cultivars with quality traits through breeding. In this study, a total of 111 SSR markers with high polymorphic information content (PIC...

  3. Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Toit, George Du; Roberts, Graham; Sayre, Peter H.; Bahnson, Henry T.; Radulovic, Suzana; Santos, Alexandra F.; Brough, Helen A.; Phippard, Deborah; Basting, Monica; Feeney, Mary; Turcanu, Victor; Sever, Michelle L.; Lorenzo, Margarita Gomez; Plaut, Marshall; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of peanut allergy among children in Western countries has doubled in the past 10 years, and peanut allergy is becoming apparent in Africa and Asia. We evaluated strategies of peanut consumption and avoidance to determine which strategy is most effective in preventing the development of peanut allergy in infants at high risk for the allergy. Methods We randomly assigned 640 infants with severe eczema, egg allergy, or both to consume or avoid peanuts until 60 months of age. Participants, who were at least 4 months but younger than 11 months of age at randomization, were assigned to separate study cohorts on the basis of preexisting sensitivity to peanut extract, which was determined with the use of a skin-prick test — one consisting of participants with no measurable wheal after testing and the other consisting of those with a wheal measuring 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The primary outcome, which was assessed independently in each cohort, was the proportion of participants with peanut allergy at 60 months of age. Results Among the 530 infants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had negative results on the skin-prick test, the prevalence of peanut allergy at 60 months of age was 13.7% in the avoidance group and 1.9% in the consumption group (P<0.001). Among the 98 participants in the intention-to-treat population who initially had positive test results, the prevalence of peanut allergy was 35.3% in the avoidance group and 10.6% in the consumption group (P = 0.004). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of serious adverse events. Increases in levels of peanut-specific IgG4 antibody occurred predominantly in the consumption group; a greater percentage of participants in the avoidance group had elevated titers of peanut-specific IgE antibody. A larger wheal on the skin-prick test and a lower ratio of peanut-specific IgG4:IgE were associated with peanut allergy. Conclusions The early introduction of peanuts significantly decreased the frequency of the development of peanut allergy among children at high risk for this allergy and modulated immune responses to peanuts. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00329784.) PMID:25705822

  4. Cloning and characterization of SPL-family genes in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Li, M; Zhao, S Z; Zhao, C Z; Zhang, Y; Xia, H; Lopez-Baltazar, J; Wan, S B; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) proteins play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and responses to environmental stressors. The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a globally important oil crop. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of 15 SPLs in the peanut by transcriptome sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and analyzed their genomic DNA sequences. cDNA lengths varied significantly, from 369 to 3102 bp. The SBP domain of the peanut SPL proteins was highly conserved compared to SPLs in other plant species. Based on their sequence similarity to SPLs from other plant species, the peanut SPLs could be grouped into five subgroups. In each subgroup, lengths of individual genes, conserved motif numbers, and distribution patterns were similar. Seven of the SPLs were predicted to be targets of miR156. The SPLs were ubiquitously expressed in the roots, leaves, flowers, gynophores, and seeds, with different expression levels and accumulation patterns. Significant differences in the expression of most of the SPLs were observed between juvenile and adult leaves, suggesting that they are involved in developmental regulation. Dynamic changes occurred in transcript levels at stage 1 (aerial grown green gynophores), stage 2 (gynophores buried in soil for about three days), and stage 3 (gynophores buried in soil for about nine days with enlarged pods). Possible roles that these genes play in peanut pod initiation are discussed. PMID:26909986

  5. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops. PMID:25626474

  6. Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites as anode electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengbin; Ren, Yanbiao; Liu, Guanrao; Xing, Yalan; Zhang, Shichao

    2014-03-01

    Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries.Peanut-like MnO@C core-shell composites with an internal carbon network (P-MnO@C) were prepared via an in situ synchronous graphitization and reduction process. These P-MnO@C composites exhibit high specific capacity and rate capability, good stability and excellent long-term cycling life for application in lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05916b

  7. Allergenicity attributes of different peanut market types.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Stef J; Jayasena, Shyamali; Luykx, Dion; Schepens, Erik; Apostolovic, Danijela; de Jong, Govardus A H; Isleib, Thomas G; Nordlee, Julie; Baumert, Joe; Taylor, Steve L; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2016-05-01

    Four different market classes of peanut (Runner, Virginia Spanish, and Valencia) are commonly consumed in Western countries, but for some consumers peanuts are a main cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. Limited information is available on the comparative allergenicity of these distinct market classes. The aim of this study was to compare allergenicity attributes of different peanut cultivars. The protein content and protein profiles were highly comparable for all tested cultivars. All cultivar samples contained the major allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3 and Ara h 6, as assessed by SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC, although some minor differences in major allergen content were found between samples. All samples were reactive in commercial ELISAs for detection and quantification of peanut protein. IgE-binding potency differed between samples with a maximum factor of 2, indicating a highly comparable allergenicity. Based on our observations, we conclude that peanuts from the main market types consumed in Western countries are highly comparable in their allergenicity attributes, indicating that safety considerations with regard to peanut allergy are not dependent on the peanut cultivar in question. PMID:26921497

  8. [Determination of aflatoxins in peanut by high performance liquid chromatography using immunoaffinity column clean-up and on-line electrochemical derivatization].

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Zhang, Y B; Zhao, W D; Li, Y B

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanut by high performance liquid chromatography using immunoaffinity column clean-up and on-line electrochemical derivatization was developed. Sample was extracted with 80% methanol and the extract was passed through the IAC. Aflatoxins were retained by the monoclonal in the IAC and eluted with actonitrile. AFT B1 and G1 were derivatized with on-line electrochemical equipment Kobra Cell. The four toxins can be separated in 13 minutes and the detection limit was 0.1 microgram/kg for each toxin. The method has been applied to the determination of peanut sample. The relative standard deviation was 9.2%-15% and the average recovery of AFT spiked at 0.5-9.0 micrograms/kg levels was in the range of 74.8%-97.3%. PMID:12541466

  9. Calcium contributes to photoprotection and repair of photosystem II in peanut leaves during heat and high irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sha; Wang, Fang; Guo, Feng; Meng, Jing-Jing; Li, Xin-Guo; Wan, Shu-Bo

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous calcium nitrate on photoinhibition and thylakoid protein level in peanut plants under heat (40°C) and high irradiance (HI) (1,200 µmol/m(2) per s) stress. Compared with control seedlings (cultivated in 0 mmol/L Ca(NO3 )2 medium), the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in Ca(2+) -treated plants showed a slight decrease after 5 h stress, accompanied by lower degree of PSII closure (1-qP), higher non-photochemical quenching, and lower level of membrane damage. Ca(2+) inhibitors were used to analyze the varieties of antioxidant enzymes activity and PSII proteins. These results indicated that Ca(2+) could protect the subunits of PSII reaction centers from photoinhibition by reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the presence of both ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-tetraacetic acid and ascorbic acid (AsA), the net degradation of the damaged D1 protein was faster than that only treated with AsA. Our previous study showed that either the transcriptional or the translational level of calmodulin was obviously higher in Ca(2+) -treated plants. These results suggested that, under heat and HI stress, the Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway can alleviate the photoinhibition through regulating the protein repair process besides an enhanced capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species. PMID:25103557

  10. Flavor and Antioxidant Capacity of Peanut Paste and Peanut Butter Supplemented with Peanut Skins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut skins (PS) are a good source of phenolic compounds. This study evaluated antioxidant properties and flavor of peanut paste and peanut butter enhanced with peanut skins. PS were added to peanut paste and peanut butter in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 % (w/w). PS, ...

  11. High value oils from plants.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed oils of domesticated oilseed crops are major agricultural commodities that are used primarily for nutritional applications, but in recent years, there is increasing opportunity to use these oils for production of biofuels and chemical feedstocks. This is being driven in part by the rapidly ...

  12. Effect of broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum on yield, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc uptake by peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hyogaea) is an important oil seed crop that is grown as a principle source of edible oil and vegetable protein. Over 1.6 million acres of peanuts were planted in the United States during 2012. Peanuts require large amounts of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). In 2010, over 10 milli...

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) controlling important fatty acids in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acids play important role in controlling oil quality of peanut. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80%, there are several minor fatty acids accounting for about 20% in peanut oil, such as palmitic acid (PA, C16:0), stearic (S...

  14. International peanut yield gains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is grown in more than 100 countries, with China, India, the U.S., Nigeria, and Indonesia being the largest producers. Peanut production systems range from very primitive with only hand labor and few inputs of fertilizer or chemical controls for weeds or diseases to other systems that are h...

  15. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  16. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  17. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  18. REGISTRATION OF 'CHAMPS' PEANUT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut growers in the Virginia-North Carolina area need new cultivars with enhanced grade characteristics such as brighter pod color, earlier maturity, higher value, and increased disease resistance in order to meet market demands. ‘CHAMPS’ is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L....

  19. Analyzing the major peanut allergens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts leads to less allergenic products than roasting. In this study, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting. Boiled, fried, and roasted peanut proteins wer...

  20. Progress on genetic linkage maps, traits/QTLs, and utilization in two recombinant inbred line populations of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut, a highly nutritional crop, is used in edible products or crushed for cooking oil, and is susceptible to a range of diseases, including Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), early and late leaf spot (ELS and LLS). Losses in productivity and quality are also attributable to environmental stresses ...

  1. Variation of iron, copper, free fatty acid content and lipoxygenase activity in peanut kernels subjected to various pretreatments and roasting.

    PubMed

    Chen, M J; Chiou, R Y

    1995-05-01

    Peanut kernels subjected to pretreatment including rehydration, blanching and dehydration, and untreated kernels were roasted at 160 degrees C for times ranging from 0 to 90 min. For both peanuts, the iron content in oil and specific lipoxygenase activity in defatted peanut flour decreased, free fatty acid content increased and copper content changed insignificantly with roasting time. Changes of iron content, lipoxygenase activity and free fatty acid content were more significant in untreated peanuts than in pretreated peanuts. At each roasting time, iron, copper and free fatty acid contents in the oils and lipoxygenase activities in the defatted flours prepared from untreated peanuts were higher than in the oils and flours prepared from pretreated peanuts. PMID:7621086

  2. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics. PMID:19000610

  3. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  4. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  5. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  6. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure as effective non-toxic biopreservatives against OTA contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23107498

  7. Resveratrol in peanuts.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jocelyn M; Resurreccion, Anna V A

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts are important dietary food source of resveratrol with potent antioxidant properties implicated in reducing risk of cancer, cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease, and delaying aging. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper is a review of trans-resveratrol and related stilbenes from peanuts--their chemical structures, mechanisms for their biosynthesis, and concentrations in comparison with other major food sources. It will also discuss trans-resveratrol's absorption, bioavailability, and major health benefits; processes to enhance their biosynthesis in peanuts by biotic and abiotic stresses; process optimization for enhanced levels in peanuts and their potential food applications; and methods used for its extraction and analysis. PMID:24345046

  8. Plant Response to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  9. Yield and Plant Growth Response of Peanut to Mid-Season Forage Harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defoliating peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) during mid-season may increase on-farm revenue through the sale of high quality peanut hay. It is unknown how the peanut plant will respond to defoliation with respect to plant characteristics, pod yield, farmer stock grade, and economic revenue. This experi...

  10. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  11. HIGH MOISTURE PEANUT GRADING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the farmer stock grade, lot weight, and value could be accurately determined at kernel moisture contents greater that 10.5% without negative impact on either the producer or purchaser. In the 1998 and 1999 crop years, 686 farmer stock lots consisting of runner, virg...

  12. TEXTURE PROFILES OF PEANUT PASTES ENHANCED WITH PEANUT SEED COATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut paste is commonly used by food manufacturers because it provides a unique flavor, good nutrient content and a smooth, creamy texture. Nutritional properties of peanut paste can be improved by the addition of peanut seed coats which are currently of little value. The objective of this research...

  13. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs (RGA.) from peanut expressed sequence tage (EST.) and development of RGA-SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and oil crop grown in more than 100 countries for providing edible oil and protein. A wide variety of pathogens including fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes severely constrain peanut yield and quality. Therefore, it is very imp...

  14. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  15. Molecular genetic variation in cultivated peanuts germplasm of Henan and detection of their elite allelic variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important crop worldwide as a source of protein and cooking oil, particularly in developing countries. Because of its narrow genetic background and shortage of polymorphic genetic markers, molecular characterization of cultivated peanuts i...

  16. An overview on peanut germplasm collection, evaluation, and utilization in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source of vegetable oil and protein worldwide, with China being the largest producer during the past two decades. Genetic enhancement has been crucial in peanut industry development in China and many other countries. Systematic collection and preservation...

  17. Peanut response to naturally-derived herbicides used in organic crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed-free irrigated trials were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to quantify phytotoxic effects of herbicides with the potential to be used in organic peanut production. Clove oil and citric plus acetic acid were each applied at vegetative emergence of peanut (VE), two weeks after VE (2 wk), four weeks a...

  18. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated peanut is an important source of protein and oil. However, low genetic diversity makes peanut vulnerable to many diseases. Several hundred of partial genomic DNA sequences targeting nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance (R) genes have been reported. Only a small...

  19. Assessment of Taste Attributes of Peanut Meal Enzymatic-Hydrolysis Hydrolysates Using an Electronic Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali; Chen, Shengsheng

    2015-01-01

    Peanut meal is the byproduct of high-temperature peanut oil extraction; it is mainly composed of proteins, which have complex tastes after enzymatic hydrolysis to free amino acids and small peptides. The enzymatic hydrolysis method was adopted by using two compound proteases of trypsin and flavorzyme to hydrolyze peanut meal aiming to provide a flavor base. Hence, it is necessary to assess the taste attributes and assign definite taste scores of peanut meal double enzymatic hydrolysis hydrolysates (DEH). Conventionally, sensory analysis is used to assess taste intensity in DEH. However, it has disadvantages because it is expensive and laborious. Hence, in this study, both taste attributes and taste scores of peanut meal DEH were evaluated using an electronic tongue. In this regard, the response characteristics of the electronic tongue to the DEH samples and standard five taste samples were researched to qualitatively assess the taste attributes using PCA and DFA. PLS and RBF neural network (RBFNN) quantitative prediction models were employed to compare predictive abilities and to correlate results obtained from the electronic tongue and sensory analysis, respectively. The results showed that all prediction models had good correlations between the predicted scores from electronic tongue and those obtained from sensory analysis. The PLS and RBFNN prediction models constructed using the voltage response values from the sensors exhibited higher correlation and prediction ability than that of principal components. As compared with the taste performance by PLS model, that of RBFNN models was better. This study exhibits potential advantages and a concise objective taste assessment tool using the electronic tongue in the assessment of DEH taste attributes in the food industry. PMID:25985162

  20. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  1. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 7 Georgia lines,...

  2. Structural biology of peanut allergens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cause of one of the most common food allergies. Allergy to peanuts not only affects a significant fraction of the population, but it is relatively often associated with strong reactions in sensitized individuals. Peanut and tree nut allergies, which start in childhood, are often persi...

  3. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 3 Georgia lines,...

  4. Uniform peanut performance test 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, 2 controls and 13 entries were evaluated at 9 locations....

  5. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 6 Georgia lines,...

  6. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) are designed to evaluate the commercial potential of advanced breeding peanut lines not formally released. The tests are performed in ten locations across the peanut production belt. In this study, there were 2 controls, 3 Florida lines, 4 Georgia lines,...

  7. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mantripragada, Vijaya; Ezeoke, Ifeoma; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rates of thermal inactivation of three Salmonella Tennessee strains in peanut butter associated with an outbreak and to compare them to the rates of inactivation of Salmonella strains of other serotypes (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg) (SSOS) and of clinical isolates of Salmonella Tennessee from sporadic cases (STSC). Commercial peanut butter was inoculated with Salmonella isolates and heated at 71, 77, 83, and 90 degrees C. The thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (20 min) of heating followed by lower death rates thereafter. The first-order kinetics approach and nonlinear Weibull model were used to fit the inactivation curves and describe the rates of thermal inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter. The calculated minimum times needed to obtain a 7-log reduction at 90 degrees C for the composited three outbreak-associated strains were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those of SSOS and STSC. Approximately 120 min were needed to reduce the outbreak strains of Salmonella Tennessee by 7 log, whereas 86 and 55 min were needed for SSOS and STSC, respectively. These results indicate that the outbreak-associated Salmonella strains were more thermotolerant than the other Salmonella strains tested, and this greater thermal resistance was not serotype specific. Thermal treatments of peanut butter at 90 degrees C for less than 30 min are not sufficient to kill large populations (5 log CFU/g) of Salmonella in highly contaminated peanut butter. PMID:19722389

  8. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022') and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20') were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  9. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly. PMID:12462617

  10. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Todd, J W; Herzog, G A; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H; Bondari, Y

    1998-06-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  11. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled...

  12. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  13. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  14. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled...

  15. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  16. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  17. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  18. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  19. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  20. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  1. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  2. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  3. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  4. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  5. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  6. 7 CFR 996.9 - Inshell peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inshell peanuts. 996.9 Section 996.9 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.9 Inshell peanuts. Inshell peanuts means peanuts, the kernels or edible portions of which are contained in the shell....

  7. 7 CFR 996.13 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 996.13 Section 996.13 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.13 Peanuts. Peanuts means the seeds of the legume Arachis hypogaea and includes both inshell and shelled peanuts produced in...

  8. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut Products § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled...

  9. Determining the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed: a comparison of two methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  10. Comparing three methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in a single peanut seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut varieties with high oleic/linoleic acid ratios have become preferred by the peanut industry due to their increased shelf life and improved health benefits. Many peanut breeding programs are trying to incorporate the high oleic trait into new and improved varieties and are in need of diagnost...

  11. Registration of "Sugg" Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Sugg’ (Reg. no. CV- , PI ) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with partial resistance to four diseases that occur commonly in the Virginia-Carolina production area: early leafspot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Cylindroc...

  12. Peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to limited hectares and production in comparison to field corn, soybean, and wheat, commercial research and development efforts by major manufacturers for potential new peanut herbicides are minimal. Field trials were conducted in Ty Ty and Plains Georgia in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the tolera...

  13. Biology, speciation, and utilization of peanut species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Arachis has a large number of highly diverse species. Large collections of cultivated peanut exist at multiple locations and several hundreds of wild species are maintained in germplasm banks. Many of the species have been characterized for agronomic traits, but much of the germplasm colle...

  14. Abundant microsatellite diversity and oil content in wild Arachis species.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Jiang, Huifang; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Xinyan; Tang, Mei; Huang, Jiaquan; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Liao, Boshou

    2012-01-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great potential to increase the oil content in A. hypogaea by using the wild Arachis germplasm. PMID:23185514

  15. Abundant Microsatellite Diversity and Oil Content in Wild Arachis Species

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Xiao, Yingjie; Zhao, Xinyan; Tang, Mei; Huang, Jiaquan; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Liao, Boshou

    2012-01-01

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important oil crop. Breeding for high oil content is becoming increasingly important. Wild Arachis species have been reported to harbor genes for many valuable traits that may enable the improvement of cultivated Arachis hypogaea, such as resistance to pests and disease. However, only limited information is available on variation in oil content. In the present study, a collection of 72 wild Arachis accessions representing 19 species and 3 cultivated peanut accessions were genotyped using 136 genome-wide SSR markers and phenotyped for oil content over three growing seasons. The wild Arachis accessions showed abundant diversity across the 19 species. A. duranensis exhibited the highest diversity, with a Shannon-Weaver diversity index of 0.35. A total of 129 unique alleles were detected in the species studied. A. rigonii exhibited the largest number of unique alleles (75), indicating that this species is highly differentiated. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation between the wild Arachis species. The majority of SSR alleles were detected exclusively in the wild species and not in A. hypogaea, indicating that directional selection or the hitchhiking effect has played an important role in the domestication of the cultivated peanut. The 75 accessions were grouped into three clusters based on population structure and phylogenic analysis, consistent with their taxonomic sections, species and genome types. A. villosa and A. batizocoi were grouped with A. hypogaea, suggesting the close relationship between these two diploid wild species and the cultivated peanut. Considerable phenotypic variation in oil content was observed among different sections and species. Nine alleles were identified as associated with oil content based on association analysis, of these, three alleles were associated with higher oil content but were absent in the cultivated peanut. The results demonstrated that there is great potential to increase the oil content in A. hypogaea by using the wild Arachis germplasm. PMID:23185514

  16. Plant Resistance to TSWV and Seed Accumulation of Resveratrol within Peanut Germplasm and Its Wild Relatives in the US Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotic and abiotic stress may induce peanut plants to produce a high amount of resveratrol. The relationship of plant response to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and seed accumulation of resveratrol was investigated. Twenty peanut accessions and six wild relatives were selected from the US peanut g...

  17. Evaluation of Peanut Cultivars for Suitability in Biodiesel Production Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen currently and previously available peanut cultivars were field tested for oil production capability in a low-input production system designed for biodiesel use. This low input system was characterized by strip tillage into a rolled rye cover crop, no use of either insecticides or fungicid...

  18. Distribution of Aflatoxin in Non-Irrigated Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B1 and total aflatoxin distribution in Georgia Greens peanuts has been measured. Sample distributions were measured in approximately 400 small samples each of Jumbo, Medium and small Oil Stock (OS) sublots, containing 20, 10, and 5 kernels, respectively. Results were converted to single kernel...

  19. Peanut sprouts extract (Arachis hypogaea L.) has anti-obesity effects by controlling the protein expressions of PPARγ and adiponectin of adipose tissue in rats fed high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam E; Ha, Ae Wha; Woo, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP α), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. RESULTS After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPARγ in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP α and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPARγ which regulates the expression of adiponectin. PMID:24741399

  20. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched and poor allergic protein peanut sprout from ultrasound treated peanut seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Hongzhi; Shi, Aimin; Liu, Li; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Peanut sprout is a kind of high quality natural food which has important effect on health-care. It contains abundant bioactive substances such as resveratrol and lower fat. Naturally, resveratrol occurs in stilbene phytoalexin phenolic compound produced in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the resveratrol accumulate in germinant peanut prepared from three varieties (FH12, FH18, and BS1016) in the dry state before steeping were investigated. All experiments were performed using an ultrasonic cleaner bath operating at three frequencies (28, 45 and 100 kHz) for 20 min at constant temperature 30C. The resulted amounts of resveratrol in peanut sprout were increasing by 2.25, 3.34, and 1.71 times compared with the control group of peanut germinated from FH12, FH18, and BS1016, respectively, after 3d with decreasing the amounts of allergic protein. After ultrasound, the germination rate and total sugar content increased slightly while the crude fat decreased and protein remained unchanged. Overall, the study results indicated that ultrasound treatment combined with germination can be an effective method for producing enriched-resveratrol and poor allergic protein peanut sprout as a functional vegetable. PMID:26384916

  1. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  2. High consumption of peanuts or tree nuts by non-allergic mothers around the time of pregnancy reduces the risk of nut allergy in the child.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2015-04-01

    Implications for practice and research: Peanut or tree nut avoidance during pregnancy is not recommended for non-allergic mothers. Maternal nut consumption does not appear to increase the risk of nut allergy in offspring and may even be protective. Further research is required to clarify the role of maternal nut consumption during pregnancy and lactation; research should consider potential differential effects of the genetic risk of peanut allergy in children. PMID:24986044

  3. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. PMID:25683560

  4. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip E.; Adel-Patient, Karine; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Salt, Louise J.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Madsen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    Background IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. Objectives The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. Conclusions Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose. PMID:24805813

  5. A comparison of methods used to determine the oleic/linoleic acid ratio in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are a cheap source of protein compared to cheese and red meat and a good source of essential vitamins and minerals and are thus a common component of many oil and food products. The fatty acid composition of peanuts has become increasingly important with the realization that the onset of ra...

  6. An Apparent Anomaly in Peanut Leaf Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Pallas, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Conductance to gaseous transfer is normally considered to be greater from the abaxial than from the adaxial side of a leaf. Measurements of the conductance to water vapor of peanut leaves (Arachis hypogaea L.) under well watered and stress conditions in a controlled environment, however, indicated a 2-fold higher conductance from the adaxial side of the leaf than from the abaxial. Studies of conductance as light level was varied showed an increase in conductance from either surface with increasing light level, but conductance was always greater from the adaxial surface at any given light level. In contrast, measurements of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaf conductance showed an approximate 2-fold greater conductance from the abaxial surface than from the adaxial. Approximately the same number of stomata were present on both peanut leaf surfaces and stomatal size was similar. Electron microscopic examination of peanut leaves did not reveal any major structural differences between stomata on the two surfaces that would account for the differences in conductance. Light microscope studies of leaf sections revealed an extensive network of bundle sheaths with achloraplastic bundle sheath extensions; the lower epidermis was lined with a single layer of large achloraplastic parenchyma cells. Measurements of net photosynthesis made on upper and lower leaf surfaces collectively and individually indicated that two-thirds of the peanut leaf's total net photosynthesis can be attributed to diffusion of CO2 through the adaxial leaf surface. Possibly the high photosynthetic efficiency of peanut cultivars as compared with certain other C3 species is associated with the greater conductance of CO2 through their upper leaf surfaces. Images PMID:16661294

  7. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  8. Uniform Peanut Performance Tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were established in 1973 through an informal arrangement among cooperating scientists involving seven major peanut-producing states. In 1995, plant material transfer agreements were also accepted among all cooperators in the UPPT. The year 2012 completed...

  9. Sclerotinia blight resistance in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut acreage in Oklahoma has declined in recent years; however, peanuts remain an important economic crop for certain growers. Yield limiting factors such as diseases, adverse weather conditions, weeds, and insects can decrease yield. Managing irrigation, chemical applications, and tillage pract...

  10. Characterization of Folate in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The folate levels in a group of raw and roasted samples selected from the 2007 and the 2008 Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) and from a set of raw samples from the Core of the Core of the Peanut Germplasm collection grown in 2006 and 2008 were determined. The samples were digested in protea...

  11. High risk groups in oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  12. High-Temperature Natural Antioxidant Improves Soy Oil for Frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5%...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  14. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  15. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  16. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  17. 7 CFR 1216.18 - Peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanuts. 1216.18 Section 1216.18 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.18 Peanuts....

  18. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil), storage packets for seasonings or other ingredients and encapsulation for pharmaceutical use.

  19. Bioavailability and hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Rishipal R; Randolph, Priscilla; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Williams, Leonard L; Yu, Jianmei

    2015-03-01

    Peanut skin is a rich source of polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins. Peanut skin proanthocyanidins mainly consist of a subgroup called procyanidins. Peanut-based procyanidins contain oligomers of both type A and type B procyanidins. Recent studies have shown that peanut skin extracts exert protection against hepatic steatosis induced on rats fed with a high-fat diet. Studies have shown that proanthocyanidins protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The mechanism of CVD protection and hypolipidemic effect of peanut skin procyanidins has been gradually revealed in recent years. Due to the high molecular weight of procyanidins, they are not readily absorbed through the gut barrier. It is hypothesized that procyanidins exert their effect by inhibiting the absorption of dietary lipid and chylomicron secretion by enterocytes. In this review, we aim to highlight the hypolipidemic effects of peanut skin polyphenols and discuss the various molecular mechanisms, with which the polyphenols may exert the lipid-lowering function observed by weighing the absorption characteristics as well as gene expression mechanism responsible for lipid homeostasis. PMID:25184693

  20. Peanut milk and peanut milk based products production: a review.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Kouane; Nong, Zhang Guo; Jie, Chen

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, numerous reports have been published suggesting that peanut milk and peanut milk based products can be prepared in a wide variety of ways. Emphasis has shifted from preparing inexpensive milk like beverages, very nutritious but somewhat lacking consumers appeal, to using the peanut milk or peanut protein isolates as an animal milk extender without changing flavor, to develop more attractive fermented products, and to precipitate proteins from the milk in order to get a curd called "tofu," and to produce cheese analogs. Great attention has been paid to the improvement of the stability, sensory properties, and shelf-life of the milk, using physical and chemical treatments. Many efforts have been deployed for supplementing the products. Thanks to recent advances, the removal of aflatoxin from peanut milk can be achieved using Flavobacterium aurantiacum as a biodegradater. It has also found application as liquid coffee whitener. However, despite all these developments and publications, there is still a need for much more diversified studies in order to definitely overcome the stability, the nutty flavor, and sensory problems always encountered when producing peanut milk and some peanut milk based products. PMID:16130416

  1. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Do Kim, Kyung; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut. PMID:26901068

  2. Effect of processing on the detectability of peanut protein by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjad; Ateeq, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Chicken IgY was used for the detection and quantification of peanut proteins by indirect competitive ELISA. The method was optimized by using a checker board approach to determine the optimal concentration of coating antigen, primary antibody and secondary antibody. Peanut protein could be detected in foods down to levels of 10 ppm. The effect of physical (heat treatment at 80 °C and 100 °C) and chemical (acid, alkali and reducing sugar) treatments on the IgY binding of peanut proteins was investigated. The optimized assay was relatively sensitive for the roasted peanut proteins. However, the binding ability of chicken IgYs to peanut proteins was found to be significantly altered by denaturation and hydrolysis of proteins. It was also observed that the effect of Millard chemistry on the detectability of peanut protein was less pronounced at high temperatures than at low temperatures. PMID:23870873

  3. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23 Food and... § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not..., shall consist of the term “peanut spread” and a statement of the percentage by weight of peanuts in...

  4. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23 Food and... § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not..., shall consist of the term “peanut spread” and a statement of the percentage by weight of peanuts in...

  5. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23 Food and... § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not..., shall consist of the term “peanut spread” and a statement of the percentage by weight of peanuts in...

  6. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23 Food and... § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not..., shall consist of the term “peanut spread” and a statement of the percentage by weight of peanuts in...

  7. 21 CFR 102.23 - Peanut spreads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Peanut spreads. 102.23 Section 102.23 Food and... § 102.23 Peanut spreads. (a) The common or usual name of a spreadable peanut product that does not..., shall consist of the term “peanut spread” and a statement of the percentage by weight of peanuts in...

  8. Benefits of Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Persist After One-Year Peanut Avoidance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Release Friday, March 4, 2016 Benefits of peanut allergy prevention strategy persist after one-year peanut avoidance ... that Israeli children have lower rates of peanut allergy than Jewish children of similar ancestry residing in ...

  9. Belonolaimus longicaudatus: An Emerging Pathogen of Peanut in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kutsuwa, Kanan; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Jeyaprakash, A.; Drew, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is an economically important ectoparasitic nematode that is highly pathogenic on a wide range of agricultural crops in sandy soils of the southeastern United States. Although this species is commonly found in Florida in hardwood forests and as a soilborne pathogen on turfgrasses and numerous agronomic and horticultural crops, it has not been reported infecting peanut. In the summers of 2012 and 2013, sting nematode was found infecting three different peanut cultivars being grown on two separate peanut farms in Levy County, FL. The damage consisted of large irregular patches of stunted, chlorotic plants at both farms. The root systems were severely abbreviated and there were numerous punctate-like isolated lesions observed on pegs and pods of infected plants. Sting nematodes were extracted from soil collected around the roots of diseased peanut over the course of the peanut season at both farm sites. Peanut yield from one of these nematode-infested sites was 64% less than that observed in areas free from sting nematodes. The morphological characters of the nematode populations in these fields were congruous with those of the original and other published descriptions of B. longicaudatus. Moreover, the molecular analyses based on the sequences of D2/D3 expansion fragments of 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA genes from the nematodes further collaborates the identification of the sting nematode isolates as B. longicaudatus. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF963097, KF963098 for ITS, and KF96399, KF963100 for D2-D3). The results of the phylogenetic analysis using the sequences of these isolates from peanut compared with those of other isolates from Florida suggests that the sting nematode from both peanut farms are genetically close to B. longicaudatus populations occurring in the state. Peanut plants inoculated with both nematode isolates showed punctate-like isolated lesions on pods and pegs, and an abbreviation of their root systems, whereas those symptoms were not observed on noninoculated peanut plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of large-scale field damage caused by sting nematode infecting peanut grown under field conditions in Florida. PMID:26170470

  10. The Complexities of Early Peanut Introduction for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M; Atkins, Dan; Chan, Edmond S

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the timing of introducing major food allergens, such as peanut, into the diet of at-risk infants have undergone major changes in the past decade. The most substantial modification has been a shift toward advice that delaying beyond 4 to 6 months does not prevent and might actually increase the risk of food allergy. The Learning Early About Peanut (LEAP) study published last year provided strong evidence that early peanut introduction with regular ingestion has a potentially dramatic benefit. Although there is little current doubt of the effectiveness of early peanut introduction, many unanswered questions remain. Previous guidelines defined infants at risk as those with a first-degree relative with allergic disease, whereas the LEAP study defined high risk as severe eczema or egg allergy. The LEAP study chose to screen infants but did not have a comparison group randomized without screening. In the following case-based discussion, we explore the complexities of LEAP implementation for the practicing allergist. These include nonuniformity in the literature for defining at-risk infants, difficulties in assessing eczema severity objectively, variable adherence to current guidelines, proposed peanut screening methods contrasting with existing food allergy guidelines to not routinely screen before ingestion, unclear interpretation of positive test results if screened, risks of screening extending to foods not studied in the LEAP study, and uncertainties about the optimal dose and duration of peanut once introduced. PMID:26968960

  11. Purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of peanut major allergen Ara h 3

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-10-01

    The crystallization of peanut allergen Ara h 3 is reported. The peanut is a significant food source, but is responsible for many cases of anaphylaxis. The peanut 11S legumin-like seed storage protein Ara h 3 is one of the best characterized allergens. In this study, Ara h 3 was extracted from peanut kernels and purified by sequential anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and gel-filtration chromatography to very high purity to facilitate crystallization and structural studies. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained and refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  12. Increased Water Activity Reduces the Thermal Resistance of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Butter

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K.; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90°C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126°C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  13. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  14. Association of nitrogen fixation to water use efficiency and yield traits of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of N2 fixation might be an effective strategy in peanut breeding for high yield under drought stress conditions. However, under water limited conditions peanut varieties having high water-use efficiency (WUE) are favorable. A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at ...

  15. Evaluation of disease reaction and agronomic traits of selected peanut entries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our peanut improvement efforts are focused on enhancing yield, quality and disease resistance. Therefore, the major emphasis of this research project is to develop high oleic peanut cultivars possessing disease resistance, and high yield and grade. All the plot research reported here was performed...

  16. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  17. A Simple Allele-Specific PCR Assay for Detecting FAD2 Alleles in Both A and B Genomes of the Cultivated Peanut for High Oleate Trait Selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cultivated tetraploid peanut (2n = 4x = 40, AABB), the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid is mainly catalyzed by the '12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD). Two homoeologous genes (FAD2A and FAD2B) encoding for the desaturase are located on the A and B genome, respectively. Abolishing or reducing...

  18. High Levels of Field Resistance to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut Breeding Lines Derived from hypogaea and hirsuta Botanical Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is a major problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas of the southeastern U.S. The integrated program used to manage spotted wilt relies heavily on cultivars with field resistance to TSWV, and developing cultivars wit...

  19. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique. PMID:24492256

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and the US using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Khera, Pawan; Huang, Bingyan; Yuan, Mei; Katam, Ramesh; Zhuang, Weijian; Harris-Shultz, Karen; Moore, Kim M; Culbreath, Albert K; Zhang, Xinyou; Varshney, Rajeev K; Xie, Lianhui; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-05-01

    Cultivated peanut is grown worldwide as rich-source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for cultivar improvement. The objectives of this study were to develop highly informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from different breeding programs in China, India and the US. A total of 111 SSR markers were selected for this study, resulting in a total of 472 alleles. The mean values of gene diversity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.480 and 0.429, respectively. Country-wise analysis revealed that alleles per locus in three countries were similar. The mean gene diversity in the US, China and India was 0.363, 0.489 and 0.47 with an average PIC of 0.323, 0.43 and 0.412, respectively. Genetic analysis using the STRUCTURE divided these peanut lines into two populations (P1, P2), which was consistent with the dendrogram based on genetic distance (G1, G2) and the clustering of principal component analysis. The groupings were related to peanut market types and the geographic origin with a few admixtures. The results could be used by breeding programs to assess the genetic diversity of breeding materials to broaden the genetic base and for molecular genetics studies. PMID:26178804

  1. CDNA CLONING OF A PUTATIVE PEANUT TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WITH HOMOLOGY TO PEANUT ALLERGENS ARA H 3 AND ARA H 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Peanut allergens and peanut trypsin inhibitors are seed storage proteins. Peanut allergens are known to trigger allergic reactions with symptoms ranging from cutaneous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, systemic to sometimes death. Peanut trypsin inhibitors are pathogenesis-related (PR) pr...

  2. Peanut Allergies, Children and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... serious (such as difficulty breathing and loss of consciousness) or even fatal reaction if they eat peanuts. ... blood pressure drops suddenly and the individual loses consciousness. This condition requires emergency medical treatment. How is ...

  3. The management of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Clark, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies such as egg and milk. Measures aiming to reduce its prevalence via maternal avoidance during pregnancy and lactation, or delayed introduction into the diet, have failed to show any benefit. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication. Families find avoidance challenging as peanut is hidden in various food products. Despite the fact that food labelling has improved, with a legal obligation to declare certain food allergens (including nuts) in prepacked products, it still causes confusion and does not extend to cross-contamination. In an effort to address issues of safety at school, a lot of work has been undertaken to better care for peanut-allergic children in that environment. This includes training of school staff on how to recognise and treat allergic reactions promptly. Recent developments in the management of peanut allergy, such as immunotherapy, have shown some promise as an active form of treatment, but larger studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy. PMID:25157179

  4. Contribution of root-knot nematodes to aflatoxin contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut kernels are susceptible to colonization by Aspergillus spp. which, under conditions of drought and high temperatures, can produce aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our primary objective was to determine the mechanism by which the peanut root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) increases aflatoxi...

  5. Broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum effects on peanut yield and uptake of nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop that requires large amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) and super phosphate (SP) have been used for calcium and phosphorus fertilizer for peanut. Broiler litter ash (BLA), a high phosphorus byproduct pr...

  6. Improving fatty acid composition in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) by SNP genotyping and traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid composition is an important seed quality trait in cultivated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Monounsaturated fats, such as oleic acid (C18:1), an omega-9 fatty acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. In addition, peanuts bred to produce high levels of oleic acid ...

  7. YIELD RESPONSE OF VALENCIA PEANUT WITH DIFFERENT ROW ORIENTATIONS, NITROGEN RATES AND RHIZOBIUM INOCULUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut grown in the southeast with twin row orientation has shown an increase in yield and grade over conventional single row. Peanut farmers in New Mexico do not use rhizobium inoculum at the time of planting, but do apply high rates of nitrogen fertilizer (300 to 350 kg ha-1). A study was conduct...

  8. The Effects of Transglutaminase on the Functional Properties of Peanut Flour Dispersions Containing Casein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light roast-12% fat peanut flour (PF) is a high protein food ingredient. Recently, we observed that microbial transglutaminase (TGase) crosslinked peanut proteins and changed the functional characteristics of the final product. Therefore, in this study, we determined the effects of TGase polymeriz...

  9. Heritability and genetic relationships for drought-related traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is a major factor in reduced productivity in peanut. Cultivars that have high water-use efficiency have the potential to enhance crop yield. Water-use efficiency (WUE) is often correlated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotopic composition (d13C) in peanut. A good knowledge...

  10. UNCERTAINTY ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING PEANUTS TO DETERMINE FRUITY-FERMENTED OFF FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual peanut kernels may develop a fruity fermented (FF) off-flavor if exposed to elevated temperatures soon after digging. Typically, high moisture, immature peanuts exposed to temperatures above 35ºC either in the windrow or during artificial curing may develop the FF off-flavor. Because of t...

  11. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  12. Removing Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 from Peanut Extracts Using p-Aminobenzamidine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Ara h 1 is one of 3 major allergens in peanut. Removing Ara h 1 from a peanut extract may produce a hypoallergenic peanut extract for immunotherapy and other purposes. Methods: Peanut extracts were treated overnight with and without 10 mM p-aminobenzamidine (pABA, a protease inhibitor) i...

  13. Proteomic analysis of peanut seed storage proteins and genetic variation in a potential peanut allergen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is one of the most severe food allergies. One effort to alleviate this problem is to identify peanut germplasm with lower levels of allergens which could be used in conventional breeding to produce a less allergenic peanut cultivar. In this study, we identified one peanut line, GT-C9,...

  14. Highly recyclable superhydrophobic sponge suitable for the selective sorption of high viscosity oil from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Geng, Guihong

    2015-08-15

    Inspired by the adhesion of marine mussels, a kind of superhydrophobic oil sorbent was successfully fabricated by robustly immobilizing the micro/nanostructure layer onto the sponge skeleton. The as-prepared sponges possess excellent hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 154°, which enables the sponge to selectively absorb various oils floating on water surface. The oil sorption capacities of as-prepared sponge for a series of oils can reach 18.3-46.8g/g. The absorbed oil can be recovered by mechanical squeezing and the resulting sponge can be recycled more than 70 cycles while still keeping high oil sorption capability. More importantly, the obtained sponge has excellent affinity to the high viscosity oils. Therefore, the as-prepared sponge might find practical applications in the large-scale removal of oils especially high viscosity oils from water surface. PMID:26092604

  15. IgE cross-reactivity between the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    de Leon, M P; Drew, A C; Glaspole, I N; Suphioglu, C; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2007-01-01

    Allergy to peanut and tree nuts is characterised by a high frequency of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and typically lifelong persistence. Although peanut is the most common cause of nut allergy, peanut allergic patients are frequently also sensitive to tree nuts. It is not known if this is due to cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nut allergens. In this study, the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 was cloned from peanut cDNA, expressed in E. coli cells as a His-tag fusion protein and purified using a Ni-NTA column. Immunoblotting, ELISA and basophil activation indicated by CD63 expression all confirmed the IgE reactivity and biological activity of rAra h 2. To determine whether or not this allergen plays a role in IgE cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nuts, inhibition ELISA was performed. Pre-incubation of serum from peanut allergic patients with increasing concentrations of almond or Brazil nut extract inhibited IgE binding to rAra h 2. Purified rAra h 2-specific serum IgE antibodies also bound to proteins present in almond and Brazil nut extracts by immunoblotting. This indicates that the major peanut allergen, Ara h 2, shares common IgE-binding epitopes with almond and Brazil nut allergens, which may contribute to the high incidence of tree nut sensitisation in peanut allergic individuals. PMID:16580071

  16. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. ?-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290nm and emission wavelength is set at 330nm. The ? tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD?=?2.65%) for ? tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5% sunflower oil in olive oil. PMID:25892814

  17. Phenotypic evaluation of the Chinese mini-mini core collection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and assessment for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to utilize the germplasm more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions was developed previously from a collection of 6,839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Resear...

  18. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of the high oleic peanut Cultivar OLin and Identification of SNPs between cultivars.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total RNA was extracted from leaf, root and immature pod (yellow stage of development) tissue of greenhouse grown plants of the high oleic Texas AgriLife cultivar OLin and analyzed by next generation DNA sequencing. Illumina (Solexa) sequencing of the complete transcriptome of OLin provided 28.8 mi...

  19. Heat and storage effects on the flavour of peanuts.

    PubMed

    el-Kayati, S M; Fadel, H H; Abdel Mageed, M; Farghal, S A

    1998-12-01

    Two peanut varieties, Giza 4 and Giza 5 were subjected to different heat treatments such as drying in solar drier at air speed 0.5 and 2 m/sec with average temperature 45 and 60 degrees C and heating in oven at 120 and 150 degrees C. The sensory evaluation of the two varieties showed insignificant differences among varieties and heating processes. A correlation between the sensory and instrumental data was found. The high sensory scores of samples heated at 150 degrees C were attributed to the presence of high concentration of pyrazines which were thought to contribute to flavour and aroma of fresh roasted peanut. A comparative study between the main chemical classes retained in peanut samples after storage for 3 months at room temperature showed that the aldehydes derived lipids increased significantly in the solar dried samples. The antioxidative components produced via Maillard reaction resulted in oxidative stability of the samples heated in oven. PMID:9881373

  20. Genetic Mapping of QTLs Controlling Fatty Acids Provided Insights into the Genetic Control of Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A.; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line ‘SunOleic 97R’ × low oleic line ‘NC94022’) and T-population (normal oleic line ‘Tifrunner’ × low oleic line ‘GT-C20’) were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition. PMID:25849082

  1. Storing Peanuts in Flexible Hermetically Sealed Containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-shell peanuts stored in large bulk warehouses lose approximately 1.5-2% of their value. However, peanuts stored as long as nine months may lose as much as 5% of their value due to excessive moisture loss, a reduction of peanut kernel size and damage due to insects or microbial growth. Research h...

  2. 76 FR 31574 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  3. 78 FR 37200 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  4. 77 FR 56178 - Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Bill) requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  5. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  6. Transcript profiling of developing peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate regulatory processes and mechanisms underlying the development of peanut seeds, 8 x 15k microarrays were used to monitor changes in the transcriptome of a runner peanut genotype. Developing peanut pods from six development stages corresponding R2 through R8 stages were profiled. Sever...

  7. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN PEANUT PLANT PARTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 60% of peanut plant biomass remains after peanut pods are harvested. This biomass includes leaves, roots and testa. Freeze dried peanut plant leaves and roots, as well as oven blanched skins were analyzed for total phenolic compound concentation by the Folin Ciocalteu method and reported...

  8. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut...

  9. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION TREE NUT AND PEANUT PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Tree Nut and Peanut...

  10. Registration of 'Tamrun OL07' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productivity and quality of peanut are adversely affected by the fungus Sclerotinia minor which causes Sclerotinia blight disease. This paper reports on the release of a Sclerotinia-resistant runner peanut cultivar named 'Tamrun OL07'. This peanut cultivar possesses desirable agronomic traits such...

  11. COMPOSITION AND DECOMPOSITION OF PEANUT RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the mineralizable nitrogen (N) content of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residue. The objective of this study was to determine the N contribution of pre- and post harvest peanut residue on two soil types. Aboveground peanut residue (cv. Georgia Green) was collected prio...

  12. Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

  13. Resistance to Ditylenchus africanus present in peanut breeding lines

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald, Alexander H.; de Waele, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Peanut is an important cash crop both for commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa. The effect of Ditylenchus africanus on peanut is mainly qualitative, leading to downgrading of consignments. This nematode is difficult to control because of its high reproductive and damage potential. The objective of this study was to identify peanut genotypes with resistance to D. africanus that would also be sustainable under field conditions. Selected peanut genotypes were evaluated against D. africanus in microplot and field trials. The inbred lines PC254K1 and CG7 were confirmed to be resistant to D. africanus. The resistance expressed by these two genotypes was sustainable under field conditions. The breeding line PC287K5 maintained low nematode numbers in some trials, but its level of resistance was not as strong or as sustainable as that of PC254K1 or CG7. However, PC287K5 could still play an important role in the peanut industry where lower D. africanus populations occur. PMID:22736852

  14. Resistance to Ditylenchus africanus present in peanut breeding lines.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Sonia; Mc Donald, Alexander H; de Waele, Dirk

    2010-06-01

    Peanut is an important cash crop both for commercial and small-scale farmers in South Africa. The effect of Ditylenchus africanus on peanut is mainly qualitative, leading to downgrading of consignments. This nematode is difficult to control because of its high reproductive and damage potential. The objective of this study was to identify peanut genotypes with resistance to D. africanus that would also be sustainable under field conditions. Selected peanut genotypes were evaluated against D. africanus in microplot and field trials. The inbred lines PC254K1 and CG7 were confirmed to be resistant to D. africanus. The resistance expressed by these two genotypes was sustainable under field conditions. The breeding line PC287K5 maintained low nematode numbers in some trials, but its level of resistance was not as strong or as sustainable as that of PC254K1 or CG7. However, PC287K5 could still play an important role in the peanut industry where lower D. africanus populations occur. PMID:22736852

  15. Immunogenicity of Peanut Proteins Containing Poly(Anhydride) Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    De S. Rebouças, Juliana; Irache, Juan M.; Camacho, Ana I.; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Sanz, María L.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, peanut allergy has increased substantially. Significant differences in the prevalence among different countries are attributed to the type of thermal processing. In spite of the high prevalence and the severe reaction induced by peanuts, there is no immunotherapy available. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential application of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) as immunoadjuvants for peanut oral immunotherapy. NPs loaded with raw or roasted peanut proteins were prepared by a solvent displacement method and dried by either lyophilization or spray-drying. After physicochemical characterization, their adjuvant capacity was evaluated after oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice. All nanoparticle formulations induced a balanced TH1 and TH2 antibody response, accompanied by low specific IgE induction. In addition, oral immunization with spray-dried NPs loaded with peanut proteins was associated with a significant decrease in splenic TH2 cytokines (interleukin 4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-6) and enhancement of both TH1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines. In conclusion, oral immunization with poly(anhydride) NPs, particularly spray-dried formulations, led to a pro-TH1 immune response. PMID:24899075

  16. Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Fangjie; Zou Changling; Sun Fangwen; Xiao Yunfeng

    2011-05-15

    Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5 deg. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

  17. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    PubMed

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter. PMID:26787989

  18. Phylogenetic analyses of peanut resistance gene candidates and screening of different genotypes for polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Osman E; Ahmed, Talaat A; Knapp, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich-repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding gene family has attracted much research interest because approximately 75% of the plant disease resistance genes that have been cloned to date are from this gene family. Here, we describe a collection of peanut NBS-LRR resistance gene candidates (RGCs) isolated from peanut (Arachis) species by mining Gene Bank data base. NBS-LRR sequences assembled into TIR-NBS-LRR (75.4%) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (24.6%) subfamilies. Total of 20 distinct clades were identified and showed a high level of sequence divergence within TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS subfamilies. Thirty-four primer pairs were designed from these RGC sequences and used for screening different genotypes belonging to wild and cultivated peanuts. Therefore, peanut RGC identified in this study will provide useful tools for developing DNA markers and cloning the genes for resistance to different pathogens in peanut. PMID:23961057

  19. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  20. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    The working peanut pasta formulation range determined from a previous study was used to determine the effects of varying ingredient quantities and processing conditions on the pasta's quality and consumer acceptance. The variables studied were percent peanut flour substituted for durum wheat flour (30%, 40%, and 50%), amount of carrageenan (2.4%, 2.65%, and 2.9%), and drying temperature (60, 74, and 88 °C) on the final cooked pasta quality. Properties measured include color, texture, moisture content, and cooking loss. A home-use sensory test was conducted to determine consumer preferences and the optimum range for variables studied. Color lightness values ranged from 43.53 to 65.02, decreasing (becoming darker) with increased peanut flour level and increased drying temperature. Maximum cutting force for cooked pasta ranged from 1.59 N to 3.22 N, with higher values only for pasta dried at 88 °C. Moisture content ranged from 57.35% to 69.38%, and values decreased as drying temperature increased. Cooking loss ranged from 5.14% to 7.99%, increasing with higher levels of peanut flour and decreasing with higher levels of carrageenan. When prepared with 30% peanut flour and dried at 60 °C, the pasta was lighter in color, higher in moisture, and softer in texture than the varieties dried at higher temperatures and made with higher levels of peanut flour. Response surface analysis of consumer test data revealed that the optimum peanut pasta should contain between 35% and 45% peanut flour and should be dried between 60 and 71 °C; however, the pasta with 30% peanut flour was also a popular sample in the "favorite" categories. Practical Application: Most non-gluten protein fortification studies in durum wheat pasta found decreased firmness of dry and cooked pasta, increased cooking loss, increased stickiness, and darker product color when compared to traditional pasta. Partially defatted peanut flour is a versatile food ingredient and has high protein content. Since the lysine content of peanuts is higher than wheat, peanuts can be used to supplement wheat flour in food preparation. This study found by partially replacing wheat flour with peanut flour and with incorporation of hydrocolloid emulsifier, such as carrageenan or xanthan gum, dough viscosity, and pasta firmness significantly improved. Peanut pasta with high protein content and balanced amino acid profile can help support consumers with a healthy lifestyle. PMID:21535674

  1. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk. PMID:26567193

  2. Temperature effects on hydroponically-grown peanut carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most years, peanuts from the south-central US have excellent soluble sugar levels for the food industry; however, in some growing seasons high sugar contents are a significant problem associated with roasted color variation. To test the hypothesis that high sugar content was related to low tempe...

  3. Peanut and tree nut allergy.

    PubMed

    Cox, Amanda; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Allergy to peanut and tree nuts is a major worldwide health concern. The prevalence of these allergies may be increasing, but the reasons for these increases remain unclear. This group of foods accounts for a large proportion of severe and fatal food-allergic reactions. These allergies present most often during childhood but can occur at any age. Resolution is possible but uncommon, and frequent lifetime reactions caused by accidental ingestion are a serious problem. The major allergens of peanut and most tree nuts have been identified, allowing for insights into patient diagnoses, clinical outcomes, and potential future immunotherapies. PMID:26022873

  4. Combining molecular fingerprints with multidimensional scaling analyses to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiyu; Chen, Changshu; Ye, Jianjun; Shen, Wenjie; Xiong, Xiaofei; Hu, Ping; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Sun, Yongge

    2015-04-15

    Oil fingerprints have been a powerful tool widely used for determining the source of spilled oil. In most cases, this tool works well. However, it is usually difficult to identify the source if the oil spill accident occurs during offshore petroleum exploration due to the highly similar physiochemical characteristics of suspected oils from the same drilling platform. In this report, a case study from the waters of the South China Sea is presented, and multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) is introduced to demonstrate how oil fingerprints can be combined with mathematical methods to identify the source of spilled oil from highly similar suspected sources. The results suggest that the MDS calculation based on oil fingerprints and subsequently integrated with specific biomarkers in spilled oils is the most effective method with a great potential for determining the source in terms of highly similar suspected oils. PMID:25765488

  5. Peanut peg strength and post harvest pod scavenging for full phenotypic yield over digging date and variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New peanut cultivars are available with very high yield potential and high levels of disease resistance. With rising input costs and shrinking return margins, all efforts must be made to harvest the full yield produced. Peanut crops are susceptible to high levels of pod loss during digging from a ...

  6. Cloning and characterization of chromosomal markers from a Cot-1 library of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Xu, C; Yu, W

    2012-01-01

    The cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea (AABB, 2n = 40), is an allotetraploid which was probably originated from a hybridization event between 2 ancestors, A. duranensis (A genome) and A. ipaensis (B genome) followed by chromosome doubling. The wild species in the Arachis section are useful genetic resources for genes that confer biotic and abiotic stress resistance for peanut breeding. However, the resource is not well exploited because little information on the genetic, cytogenetic, and phylogenetic relationships between cultivated peanut and its wild relatives is known. Characterization of its chromosome components will benefit the understanding of these issues. But the paucity of information on the DNA sequence and the presence of morphologically similar chromosomes impede the construction of a detailed karyotype for peanut chromosome identification. In our study, a peanut Cot-1 library was constructed to isolate highly and moderately repetitive sequences from the cultivated peanut, and the chromosomal distributions of these repeats were investigated. Both genome and chromosome specific markers were identified that allowed the distinguishing of A and B genomes in tetraploid peanut and a possible karyotyping of peanut chromosomes by FISH. In particular, a 115-bp tandem repetitive sequence was identified to be a possible centromere repetitive DNA, mainly localized in the centromeres of B chromosomes, and a partial retrotransposable element was also identified in the centromeres of B chromosomes. The cloning and characterization of various chromosomal markers is a major step for FISH-based karyotyping of peanut. The FISH markers are expected to provide a reference tool for sequence assembly, phylogenetic studies of peanut and its wild species, and breeding. PMID:22797674

  7. High stress actuation by dielectric elastomer with oil capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Tan, Adrian W. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Though capable of generating a large strain, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) generate only a moderate actuation stress not more than 200kPa, which seriously limits its use as artificial muscles for robotic arm. Enhancement of dielectric strength (greater than 500MV/m) by dielectric oil immersion could possibly enable it a larger force generation. Previously, the immersion was done in an oil bath, which limits portability together with DEAs. In this study, we developed portable capsules to enclose oil over the DEA substrate (VHB 4905). The capsules is made of a thinner soft acrylic membrane and they seals dielectric liquid oil (Dow Corning Fluid 200 50cSt). The DEA substrate is a graphiteclad VHB membrane, which is pre-stretched with pure-shear boundary condition for axial actuation. When activated under isotonic condition, the oil-capsule DEA can sustain a very high dielectric field up to 903 MV/m and does not fail; whereas, the dry DEA breaks down at a lower electric field at 570 MV/m. Furthermore, the oil-capsule DEA can produces higher isometric stress change up to 1.05MPa, which is 70% more than the maximum produced by the dry DEA. This study confirmed that oil capping helps DEA achieve very high dielectric strength and generate more stress change for work.

  8. PEANUT POD LIGHTNESS MEASURED USING COMPUTERIZED IMAGE PROCESSING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant share of the peanut market is represented by bulk, in-shell peanuts. These peanuts are graded based on pod discoloration, since peanuts with an ideal buff color are preferred by consumers. This study was performed to evaluate the pod discoloration of in-shell virginia-type peanuts usin...

  9. Genome sequencing of the high oil crop sesame provides insight into oil biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored. Results Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame. Conclusions As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame. PMID:24576357

  10. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  11. CONTROL OF AFLATOXINS IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, methods to control aflatoxins in peanuts have focused on postharvest measures to reduce existing contamination. Recently, a biopesticide was developed and shown in plot studies to prevent much of the preharvest contamination that normally occurs under late-season drought conditions. Th...

  12. PEANUT AND OTHER FOOD ALLERGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past decade, there has been an increase in allergic reactions to peanut and other food proteins, often resulting in fatal reactions. The development of improved methods for both diagnosis and treatment of all allergies requires a better understanding of the allergenic proteins and the immune...

  13. Resveratrol Content in Seeds of Peanut Germlasm Quantified by HPLC.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic compound uniquely identified in plants greatly contributes to human health. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds of 20 germplasm accessions were harvested from the same field and used for resveratrol analysis by high performance liqui...

  14. Towards deploying genomic selection for improving complex traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) is an effective approach for improving qualitative traits and has been successfully used to develop improved lines for rust resistance and high oleate trait in peanut. Further efforts are underway to pyramid genomic regions for multiple qualitative traits (rust re...

  15. Yield and Economic Responses of Peanut to Crop Rotation Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper crop rotation is essential to maintaining high peanut yield and quality. However, the economic considerations of maintaining or altering crop rotation sequences must incorporate the commodity prices, production costs, and yield responses of all crops in, or potentially in, the crop rotation ...

  16. Considerations for Marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. These ...

  17. Effects of deficit irrigation and temperature stress on peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particularly in the Ogallala Region of Texas and New Mexico, efficient production relies upon the peanut crop’s ability to yield under decreased water availability and oftentimes critical heat stress. The dry climate (approximately 450 mm rainfall per annum) necessitates high expenditures on irriga...

  18. Considerations for marker-assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers considerable promise but requires careful planning. Among the first DNA markers used for peanut improvement were wild species-derived alleles for nematode resistance, now being combined with the high-oleic trait. These are screened as qualitative traits. Thes...

  19. RNAi control of aflatoxins in peanut plants, a multifactorial system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA-interference (RNAi)-mediated control of aflatoxin contamination in peanut plants is a multifactorial and hyper variable system. The use of RNAi biotechnology to silence single genes in plants has inherently high-variability among transgenic events. Also the level of expression of small interfe...

  20. Analysis of peanut leaf proteome.

    PubMed

    Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Pechan, Tibor

    2010-05-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important sources of plant protein. Current selection of genotypes requires molecular characterization of available populations. Peanut genome database has several EST cDNAs which can be used to analyze gene expression. Analysis of proteins is a direct approach to define function of their associated genes. Proteome analysis linked to genome sequence information is critical for functional genomics. However, the available protein expression data is extremely inadequate. Proteome analysis of peanut leaf was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with sequence identification using MALDI/TOF to determine their identity and function related to growth, development and responses to stresses. Peanut leaf proteins were resolved into 300 polypeptides with pI values between 3.5 and 8.0 and relative molecular masses from 12 to 100 kDa. A master leaf polypeptide profile was generated based on the consistently expressed protein pattern. Proteins present in 205 spots were identified using GPS software and Viridiplantae database (NCBI). Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, oxygen evolving enhancer protein and tubulin. Bioinformatical analyses showed that there are 133 unique protein identities. They were categorized into 10 and 8 groups according to their cellular compartmentalization and biological functionality, respectively. Enzymes necessary for carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis dominated in the set of identified proteins. The reference map derived from a drought-tolerant cv.Vemana should serve as the basis for further investigations of peanut physiology such as detection of expressed changes due to biotic and abiotic stresses, plant development. Furthermore, the leaf proteome map will lead to development of protein markers for cultivar identification at seedling stage of the plant. Overall, this study will contribute to improve our understanding of plant genetics and metabolism, and overall assist in the selection and breeding programs geared toward crop improvement. PMID:20345176

  1. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Silong; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xian; Huang, Jiaquan; Jiang, Huifang; Wang, Jin; Cheng, Zengshu; Zhang, Jianan; Song, Yahui; Liao, Boshou; Li, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT), which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA), catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA) content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2) and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1) were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts. PMID:26302041

  2. Benefits of Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Persist After One-Year Peanut Avoidance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Into Health ® Reference G du Toit et al . Effect of avoidance on peanut allergy after early peanut consumption. New England Journal of Medicine DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1514209 (2016). ### ... Footer NIH Home En ...

  3. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Cao, Shengbin; Xu, Guangbiao

    2016-03-15

    Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6min when the water ran at 60.35ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates. PMID:26642440

  4. LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

  5. Genotypic effect of ahFAD2 on fatty acid profiles in six segregating peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid composition of oil extracted from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed is an important quality trait because it may affect the flavor and shelf life of resulting food products. In particular, a high ratio of oleic (C18:1) relative to linoleic (C18:2) fatty acid (O/L ? 10) results in a longer shelf life. Previous reports suggest that the high oleic (~80%) trait was controlled by recessive alleles of ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B, the former of which is thought to have a high frequency in US runner- and virginia-type cultivars. Functional mutations, G448A in ahFAD2A and 442insA in ahFAD2B eliminate or knock down desaturase activity and have been demonstrated to produce peanut oil with high O/L ratios. In order to employ marker assisted selection (MAS) to select a high oleic disease resistant peanut and to evaluate genotypic and phenotypic variation, crosses were made between high oleic (~80%) and normal oleic (~50%) peanuts to produce segregating populations. Results A total of 539 F2 progenies were randomly selected to empirically determine each ahFAD2 genotype and the resulting fatty acid composition. Five of the six crosses segregated for the high oleic trait in a digenic fashion. The remaining cross was consistent with monogenic segregation because both parental genotypes were fixed for the ahFAD2A mutation. Segregation distortion was significant in ahFAD2A in one cross; however, the remaining crosses showed no distortion. Quantitative analyses revealed that dominance was incomplete for the wild type allele of ahFAD2, and both loci showed significant additive effects. Oleic and linoleic acid displayed five unique phenotypes, based on the number of ahFAD2 mutant alleles. Further, the ahFAD2 loci did exhibit pleiotropic interactions with palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) acids and the O/L ratio. Fatty acid levels in these progeny were affected by the parental genotype suggesting that other genes also influence fatty acid composition in peanut. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first study in which all of the nine possible ahFAD2 genotypes were quantitatively measured. Conclusions The inheritance of the high oleic trait initially was suggested to be controlled by dominant gene action from two homoeologous genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B) exhibiting complete recessivity. Analyzing the ahFAD2 genotypes and fatty acid compositions of these segregating peanut populations clearly demonstrated that the fatty acid contents are quantitative in nature although much of the variability in the predominant fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and palmitic) is controlled by only two loci. PMID:23866023

  6. ISOFLAVONE CONJUGATES AND MINOR GLYCOSIDES EXTRACTED FROM PEANUT HEARTS USING HPLC-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI) was used to characterize isoflavone glycosidic conjugates and minor glycosides extracted from peanut meal. The selected extraction method combined the removal of isoflavones and their conjugates with an alcoholic solvent...

  7. Massively parallel read mapping on GPUs with the q-group index and PEANUT

    PubMed Central

    Rahmann, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We present the q-group index, a novel data structure for read mapping tailored towards graphics processing units (GPUs) with a small memory footprint and efficient parallel algorithms for querying and building. On top of the q-group index we introduce PEANUT, a highly parallel GPU-based read mapper. PEANUT provides the possibility to output both the best hits or all hits of a read. Our benchmarks show that PEANUT outperforms other state-of-the-art read mappers in terms of speed while maintaining or slightly increasing precision, recall and sensitivity. PMID:25289191

  8. Shotgun label-free quantitative proteomics of developing peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legume seeds and peanuts, in particular, are an inexpensive source of plant proteins and edible oil. Owing to their importance in global food security, it is necessary to understand the genetic, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms controlling seed quality and nutritive attributes. A comprehens...

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of WRKY Gene Family in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Wang, Pengfei; Lin, Jer-Young; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Bi, Yuping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    WRKY, an important transcription factor family, is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many reports focused on analysis of phylogenetic relationship and biological function of WRKY protein at the whole genome level in different plant species. However, little is known about WRKY proteins in the genome of Arachis species and their response to salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. In this study, we identified 77 and 75 WRKY proteins from the two wild ancestral diploid genomes of cultivated tetraploid peanut, Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaënsis, using bioinformatics approaches. Most peanut WRKY coding genes were located on A. duranensis chromosome A6 and A. ipaënsis chromosome B3, while the least number of WRKY genes was found in chromosome 9. The WRKY orthologous gene pairs in A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis chromosomes were highly syntenic. Our analysis indicated that segmental duplication events played a major role in AdWRKY and AiWRKY genes, and strong purifying selection was observed in gene duplication pairs. Furthermore, we translate the knowledge gained from the genome-wide analysis result of wild ancestral peanut to cultivated peanut to reveal that gene activities of specific cultivated peanut WRKY gene were changed due to SA and JA treatment. Peanut WRKY7, 8 and 13 genes were down-regulated, whereas WRKY1 and 12 genes were up-regulated with SA and JA treatment. These results could provide valuable information for peanut improvement. PMID:27200012

  10. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed. PMID:25442612

  11. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  12. The Peanut Plant and Light: Spermidines from Peanut Flowers and Studies of their Photoisomerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early history and significance of the peanut crop is discussed. Annual world production of peanuts at 30 million tons makes this crop one of the most important agricultural commodities. Unusual physiology, inflorescence, and infructescence of the peanut plant make it an attractive object for scienti...

  13. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite guidelines recommending avoidance of peanuts during infancy in the U.K. and North America, peanut allergy (PA) continues to rise in these countries. PA is reported to be a rare occurrence in countries where peanuts are introduced early in infancy. To determine the prevalence of PA among Isr...

  14. High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kathleen; Gehring, Marta Meta

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5% EPT-OILShield and an untreated control SBO were used for intermittent batch frying of tortilla chips at 180 degrees C for up to 65 h. Oil frying stability was measured by free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC). Chips were aged for up to 4 mo at 25 degrees C and evaluated for rancid flavor by a 15-member, trained, experienced analytical sensory panel and for hexanal content as an indicator of oxidation. Oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield had significantly less FFA and TPC than the control. The effect of EPT-OILShield was apparently retained in aged chips because hexanal levels were significantly lower in chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in chips fried in the control. Tortilla chips fried in the control were rancid after 2 mo at 25 degrees C at sampling times evaluated from 25 to 65 h; however, chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield and used for 65 h were described as only slightly rancid after 4 mo. Gamma tocopherol levels were significantly higher in the chips fried in the oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in the control, helping to inhibit oxidation in the tortilla chips during storage. PMID:19723188

  15. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  16. Decreased aortic early atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed a high- or mid-oleic acid oil compared to a high-linoleic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Wilson, Thomas A; Scollin, Patrick; Handelman, Garry; Fisher, Robert

    2004-09-01

    Currently, diets higher in polyunsaturated fat are believed to lower blood cholesterol concentrations, and thus reduce atherosclerosis, greater than diets containing high amounts of saturated or possibly even monounsaturated fat. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of diets containing mid- or high-linoleic oil versus the typical high-linoleic sunflower oil on LDL oxidation and the development of early atherosclerosis in a hypercholesterolemic hamster model. Animals were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 10% mid-oleic sunflower oil, high-oleic olive oil, or high-linoleic sunflower oil (wt/wt) plus 0.4% cholesterol (wt/wt) for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks of dietary treatment, only the animals fed the mid-oleic sunflower oil had significant reductions in plasma LDL-C levels (-17%) compared to the high-linoleic sunflower oil group. The high-oleic olive oil-fed hamsters had significantly higher plasma triglyceride levels (+41%) compared to the high-linoleic sunflower oil-fed hamsters. The tocopherol levels in plasma LDL were significantly higher in hamsters fed the mid-oleic sunflower oil (+77%) compared to hamsters fed either the high-linoleic sunflower or high-oleic olive oil. Measurements of LDL oxidation parameters, indicated that hamsters fed the mid-oleic sunflower oil and high-oleic olive oil diets had significantly longer lag phase (+66% and +145%, respectively) and significantly lower propagation rates (-26% and -44%, respectively) and conjugated dienes formed (-17% and -25%, respectively) compared to the hamsters fed the high-linoleic sunflower oil. Relative to the high-linoleic sunflower oil, aortic cholesterol ester was reduced by -14% and -34% in the mid-oleic sunflower oil and high-oleic olive oil groups, respectively, with the latter reaching statistical significance. Although there were no significant associations between plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol with aortic total cholesterol and cholesterol esters for any of the groups, the lag phase of conjugated diene formation was inversely associated with both aortic total and esterified cholesterol in the high-oleic olive oil-fed hamsters (r = -0.69, P < 0.05). The present study suggests that mid-oleic sunflower oil reduces risk factors such as lipoprotein cholesterol and oxidative stress associated with early atherosclerosis greater than the typical high-linoleic sunflower oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The high-oleic olive oil not only significantly reduced oxidative stress but also reduced aortic cholesterol ester, a hallmark of early aortic atherosclerosis greater than the typical high-linoleic sunflower oil. PMID:15350986

  17. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity,Total Phenolics,and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  18. Proteomic screening points to the potential importance of Ara h 3 basic subunit in allergenicity of peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are complex with high protein contents and have been identified as one of the most allergenic foods. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent discoveries on the potential importance of peanut allergen Ara h 3 basic subunit, which has been overlooked in early literature, including recent...

  19. Survival and heat resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter.

    PubMed

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  20. Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the survival rates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  1. A multi-component approach to screening F1 hybrid peanut seed for disease resistance and oleic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of cultivated peanut, an important agronomic crop throughout the United States and the world, is consistently threatened by various diseases and pests. Furthermore, the peanut industry in the Southwestern U.S. currently demands varieties with high oleic acid content. In order to acc...

  2. Value-Added Processing of Peanut Skins: Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Procyanidin Content of Spray Dried Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore a potential use for peanut skins as a functional food ingredient, milled skins were extracted with 70% ethanol, separated into a soluble extract and insoluble material by filtration, and spray dried with or without the addition of maltodextrin. Peanut skin extracts had high levels of proc...

  3. Performance of sampling plans to determine aflatoxin in farmers' stock peanut lots by measuring aflatoxin in high-risk-grade components.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, T B; Hagler, W M; Giesbrecht, F G

    1999-01-01

    Five 2 kg test samples were taken from each of 120 farmers' stock peanut lots contaminated with aflatoxin. Kernels from each 2 kg sample were divided into the following U.S. Department of Agriculture grade components: sound mature kernels plus sound splits (SMKSS), other kernels (OK), loose shelled kernels (LSK), and damaged kernels (DAM). The kernel mass (g), aflatoxin mass (ng), and aflatoxin concentration (ng of aflatoxin/g of peanuts) were measured for each of the 2400 component samples. The variabilities associated with measuring aflatoxin mass (ng) in OK + LSK + DAM, or A(OLD)ng, and in LSK + DAM, or A(LD)ng, and aflatoxin concentration (ng/g) in OK + LSK + DAM, or A(OLD)ng/g, and in LSK + DAM, or A(LD)ng/g, were determined. The variance associated with measuring aflatoxin in each of the 4 combinations of components increased with aflatoxin, and functional relationships were developed from regression analysis. The variability associated with estimating the lot concentration from each of the 4 combinations of components was also determined. The coefficients of variation (CV) associated with estimating the aflatoxin for a lot with aflatoxin at 100 ng/g were 90, 86, 94 and 96% for aflatoxin masses A(OLD)ng and A(LD)ng and aflatoxin concentrations A(OLD)ng/g and A(LD)ng/g, respectively. The performance of aflatoxin sampling plans using the combination of aflatoxin masses in OK + LD + DAM and LD + DAM components was evaluated with a 2 kg test sample and a 50 ng/g accept/reject limit. PMID:10191533

  4. Synthesis of a Novel Highly Oleophilic and Highly Hydrophobic Sponge for Rapid Oil Spill Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Maryam; Azizian, Saeid

    2015-11-18

    A highly hydrophobic and highly oleophilic sponge was synthesized by simple vapor-phase deposition followed by polymerization of polypyrrole followed by modification with palmitic acid. The prepared sponge shows high absorption capacity in the field of separation and removal of different oil spills from water surface and was able to emulsify oil/water mixtures. The sponge can be compressed repeatedly without collapsing. Therefore, absorbed oils can be readily collected by simple mechanical squeezing of the sponge. The prepared hydrophobic sponge can collect oil from water in both static and turbulent conditions. The proposed method is simple and low cost for the manufacture of highly oleophilic and highly hydrophobic sponges, which can be successfully used for effective oil-spill cleanup and water filtration. PMID:26496649

  5. Genomewide association studies for 50 agronomic traits in peanut using the 'reference set' comprising 300 genotypes from 48 countries of the semi-arid tropics of the world.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manish K; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M S; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M V C; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S; Khan, Aamir W; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H L; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the 'reference set' of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15-20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (p value > 2.1 × 10-6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81-90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  6. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  7. Effects of stir-fry cooking with different edible oils on the phytochemical composition of broccoli.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Diego A; López-Berenguer, Carmen; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general and broccoli in particular protect humans against cancer; they are rich sources of glucosinolates and possess a high content on flavonoids, vitamins, and mineral nutrients. The contents of total intact glucosinolates, total phenolics, vitamin C, and minerals (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) in the edible portions of freshly harvested broccoli (florets), which was subjected to stir-frying treatments, were evaluated. In the present work, the stir-fry cooking experiments were carried out using different edible oils from plant origin (refined olive oil, extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soyabean oil, and safflower oil) known and used worldwide. Results showed that during stir-frying, phenolics and vitamin C were more affected than glucosinolates and minerals. Stir-fry cooking with extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut, or safflower oil did not reduce the total glucosinolate content of the cooked broccoli compared with that of the uncooked sample. The vitamin C content of broccoli stir-fried with extra virgin olive or sunflower oil was similar to that of the uncooked sample, but greater than those samples stir-fried with other oils. PMID:17995900

  8. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and Its Lipation Product 2-Pentylpyrrole Lysine (2-PPL) in Peanuts.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Martin; Kaden, Diana; Henle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    After synthesis of a deuterated 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) standard, the formation of 4-HNE during heating of peanut oil and whole peanuts, respectively, was measured by GC-MS. Whereas a significant increase in 4-HNE levels was observed for peanut oil, the amount of 4-HNE decreased when whole peanuts were roasted due to lipation reactions with amino acid side chains of the proteins. The ε-amino group of lysine was identified as the favored reaction partner of 4-HNE. After heating N(α)-acetyl-l-lysine and 4-HNE, a Schiff base, a novel pyridinium derivative, a 2-pentylpyrrol derivative and, following reduction and hydrolysis, a reduced, cyclized Michael adduct were identified. 2-Amino-6-(2-pentyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexanoic acid (2-PPL) was synthesized and quantitated in peanut proteins, which had been incubated with various amounts of 4-HNE by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysis. At low 4-HNE concentrations the modification of lysine could be entirely explained by the formation of 2-PPL. Additionally, 2-PPL was quantified for the first time in peanut samples, and an increase depending on the roasting time was observed. 2-PPL represents a suitable marker to evaluate the extent of food protein lipation by 4-HNE. PMID:25945920

  9. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  10. In vitro antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao Bing

    2016-07-01

    The antithrombotic activities of peanut protein hydrolysates were investigated using a microplates assay. When peanut proteins were hydrolyzed to a limited extent by various enzymes, their thrombin inhibitory abilities were significantly enhanced. However, the resultant hydrolysates showed significantly different activities even at the same degrees of hydrolysis. The hydrolysates generated by Alcalase 2.4L displayed the best antithrombotic activities and the hydrolysis process was further optimized by response surface methodology. The antithrombotic activities were increased to 86% based on a protein concentration of 50mg/ml under the optimal conditions: pH 8.5, enzyme concentration of 5000IU/g of peanut proteins, and 2h hydrolysis time at 50°C. The Alcalase 2.4L crude hydrolysates were then fractionated successively by preparative and semi-preparative reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide fraction collected inhibited thrombin-catalyzed coagulation of fibrinogen completely at a concentration of 0.4mg/ml, with an antithrombotic activity close to that of heparin at quite a low concentration (0.2mg/ml). This peptide fraction was further analyzed by online reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and three new peptides were identified as Ser-Trp-Ala-Gln-Leu, Gly-Asn-His-Glu-Ala-Gly-Glu and Cys-Phe-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Glu, respectively. This research provided an effective way to produce antithrombotic peptides from peanut proteins, and also helped to elucidate the structure-function relationships of peanut peptides. PMID:26920259

  11. An Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Oil Biosynthesis in High- and Low-Oil Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Shi-Bo; Li, Qi-Gang; Song, Jian; Hao, Yu-Qi; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Huan-Quan; Dunwell, Jim M.; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Seed oils provide a renewable source of food, biofuel and industrial raw materials that is important for humans. Although many genes and pathways for acyl-lipid metabolism have been identified, little is known about whether there is a specific mechanism for high-oil content in high-oil plants. Based on the distinct differences in seed oil content between four high-oil dicots (20~50%) and three low-oil grasses (<3%), comparative genome, transcriptome and differential expression analyses were used to investigate this mechanism. Among 4,051 dicot-specific soybean genes identified from 252,443 genes in the seven species, 54 genes were shown to directly participate in acyl-lipid metabolism, and 93 genes were found to be associated with acyl-lipid metabolism. Among the 93 dicot-specific genes, 42 and 27 genes, including CBM20-like SBDs and GPT2, participate in carbohydrate degradation and transport, respectively. 40 genes highly up-regulated during seed oil rapid accumulation period are mainly involved in initial fatty acid synthesis, triacylglyceride assembly and oil-body formation, for example, ACCase, PP, DGAT1, PDAT1, OLEs and STEROs, which were also found to be differentially expressed between high- and low-oil soybean accessions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct differences of oleosin in patterns of gene duplication and loss between high-oil dicots and low-oil grasses. In addition, seed-specific GmGRF5, ABI5 and GmTZF4 were predicted to be candidate regulators in seed oil accumulation. This study facilitates future research on lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of seed oil content. PMID:27159078

  12. Oil pollution abatement: onshore, offshore, on the high seas

    SciTech Connect

    Shaheen, E.I.; Al- Rashid, N.

    1984-08-01

    Overview of typical sources of oil pollution is presented in this study. Arabian Gulf oil spills and other major oil spill accidents; persistent oils on seawater, their properties and physical changes; sorbents, dispersion with detergents, treating agents in typical processes, booms, skimming, recovery of oil; and the clean-up of oil contaminated beaches are considered.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde, Carvacrol, and Lauric Arginate against Salmonella Tennessee in a Glycerol-Sucrose Model and Peanut Paste at Different Fat Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Golden, David A; Critzer, Faith J; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and lauric arginate (LAE) against Salmonella in a low water activity (aw ) glycerol-sucrose model and in peanut paste with different fat concentrations. Salmonella Tennessee was inoculated into the model and the low fat (<5%) and high fat (50%) peanut paste adjusted to aw 1.0, 0.7, 0.5, and 0.3 and with or without cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, or LAE. The survival of the bacterium over 3 or 5 days at 25°C was evaluated. Reduced aw alone decreased the viable population over time, with the highest reduction at the lowest aw. In the glycerol-sucrose model, all antimicrobial agents significantly reduced the population over time (P < 0.05) compared with the controls. LAE was more lethal than the essential oil components, reducing the population to undetectable levels by day 2 for all aw. Cinnamaldehyde was more effective than carvacrol at aw 0.5 and 0.3 (2.7- to 2.9-log versus 0.39- to 1.97-log reductions on day 3). In low-fat peanut paste, none of the antimicrobial agents inhibited growth of the pathogen at aw 1.0. However, inactivation was enhanced at reduced aw. Cinnamaldehyde and LAE both reduced the pathogen population to undetectable levels on day 5 at the highest concentration tested (ca. 10 times higher than that in the glycerol-sucrose model). Inactivation efficacy of all antimicrobial agents was greatly decreased but not eliminated in 50% fat peanut paste. Results suggest that the test antimicrobial agents were effective under low aw conditions, but significantly higher concentrations are needed for potential food applications, and fat concentration can negatively impact the efficacy of these antimicrobial agents. PMID:26219362

  14. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  15. SIMULATION OF PEANUT GROWTH IN OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, Gerald D.; Elliott, Ronald L.; Young, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Two peanut growth models of varying complexity were calibrated for Oklahoma varieties and growing conditions. Both models predicted pod growth quite well. The models were then used to simulate the effects of various soil moisture levels on peanut growth. The more complex model has potential as a management tool.

  16. REGISTRATION OF 'TAMRUN OL 02' PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia blight, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia minor, is a major disease of peanut in Oklahoma, Texas, North Carolina, and Virginia. The disease causes reduction in yield and quality of peanut, as well as increasing production costs. Therefore, our main interest and research goal is to enhan...

  17. Peanut Roaster Temperatures Relative to Salmonella Kill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ARS, Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, Raleigh NC 27695 In response to the limited peanut butter contamination incident of 2006/7, studies were initiated to examine the effect of various time and temperature protocols on log kill levels for Salmonella on peanuts. The objective of the work ...

  18. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut genomics is very challenging due to its inherent problem of genetic architecture. Blockage of gene flow from diploid wild relatives to tetraploid cultivated peanut, recent polyploidization combined with self pollination and narrow genetic base of primary gene pool resulted in low genetic dive...

  19. Genomics of peanut-Aspergillus flavus interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus fungi is a great concern in peanut production worldwide. Pre-harvest Aspergillii infection and aflatoxin contamination are usually severe in peanuts that are grown under drought stressed conditions. Genomic research can provide new tools and resources to...

  20. Dome Storage of Farmer Stock Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small-scale farmer stock storage research facility at the National Peanut Research Laboratory in Dawson, GA consisting of four warehouses and four monolithic domes was used to conduct a 3-yr study looking at the effects of storing peanuts through the summer months following harvest. The study wa...

  1. Flavor attributes of Oklahoma grown peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flavor of peanut seed is an important characteristic influencing consumer acceptance. Although there have been recent efforts to characterize variations in flavor/sensory attributes in the overall U.S. peanut breeding population, the information is scarce. To the best of our knowledge there is...

  2. PLANTING PATTERNS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN PEANUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is typically sown in single or twin rows centered on 91 cm beds. A planter capable of sowing 8 rows of peanuts on a 182 cm bed was developed at NPRL. This planter spaces seed evenly in a diamond pattern in order to optimize plant spatial relationships. A diamond-pattern seed placement usua...

  3. Use of marker assisted selection in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Close cooperation between conventional plant breeders and molecular geneticist will be needed to efficiently and effectively utilize modern genetic tools in the development of peanut cultivars. We have used this approach at Tifton to develop molecular markers for resistance to the peanut root-knot ...

  4. Control and prevention of mycotoxins in peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins that contaminate peanuts are essentially restricted to the aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), produced by A. flavus. Most methods currently in use to control mycotoxins in peanuts seek to remove individually contaminated kernels fr...

  5. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  6. Approaches for updating the peanut core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A core collection should be dynamic. Since the initial peanut core collection was selected, 821 accessions have been added to the U.S. germplasm collection of peanut. The objective of this work was to evaluate various selection methods that could be used to select representative genotypes from the...

  7. Peanut proteins in periodate specific anion sensing: An ensuing reduction in allergic response.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Sen, Souvik; Majumdar, Dipanwita; Singha, Achintya; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-04-15

    Peanut proteins conarachin II, conarachin I and arachin were found to behave as highly selective fluorescence sensors for periodate amongst a set of different anions. The interactions of the proteins with periodate were also confirmed by other spectral methods and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicate a selective interaction of peanut proteins with periodate amongst chloride, sulphate, iodide, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, bromide, fluoride, persulphate, acetate, thiosulphate, arsenite, arsenate, sulphite, and iodide. Periodate sensing using different synthesized organic molecules are already reported in the literature. In this article we report the efficiency of peanut proteins as anion sensor which are bioactive and inexpensive too. The protein periodate interactions have also resulted in a simultaneous reduction in allergenicity of the peanut proteins. A change in the secondary structure of the protein was found responsible for this change which was further established with the help of circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26675870

  8. Leaf photosynthesis and Rubisco activity and kinetics of soybean, peanut, and rice grown under elevated atmospheric CO2, supraoptimal air temperature, and soil water deficit.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, peanut and rice were grown at 350 and 700 (high) ppm CO2, and under varying day/night temperature (T) regimes ranging from 28/18 to 48/38C for soybean and peanut, or soil water deficit for rice, (a) to determine the interactive impacts of high CO2-high T, or high CO2-drought, on midday leaf...

  9. Identification and annotation of abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kumar, Ashutosh; Wany, Aakanksha; Prajapati, Gopal Kumar; Pandey, Dev Mani

    2012-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ranks fifth among the world oil crops and is widely grown in India and neighbouring countries. Due to its large and unknown genome size, studies on genomics and genetic modification of peanut are still scanty as compared to other model crops like Arabidopsis, rice, cotton and soybean. Because of its favourable cultivation in semi-arid regions, study on abiotic stress responsive genes and its regulation in peanut is very much important. Therefore, we aim to identify and annotate the abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in peanut ESTs. Expression data of drought stress responsive corresponding genes and EST sequences were screened from dot blot experiments shown as heat maps and supplementary tables, respectively as reported by Govind et al. (2009). Some of the screened genes having no information about their ESTs in above mentioned supplementary tables were retrieved from NCBI. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to find a group of utmost similar ESTs for each selected gene. Individual EST of the said group were further searched in peanut ESTs (1,78,490 whole EST sequences) using stand alone BLAST. For the prediction as well as annotation of abiotic stress responsive selected genes, various tools (like Vec-Screen, Repeat Masker, EST-Trimmer, DNA Baser, WISE2 and I-TASSER) were used. Here we report the predicted result of Contigs, domain as well as 3D structure for HSP 17.3KDa protein, DnaJ protein and Type 2 Metallothionein protein. PMID:23275722

  10. Chemistry and Biochemstry of Peanut Skins. Implications of Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut shelling plants in the US produce thousands of tons of peanut skins each year. Currently, this material is considered a waste product with limited end uses and no real monetary value. Peanut skins were obtained from a regional peanut processor and subjected to a several types of solvent ext...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  14. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.14 - Obtaining peanut loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining peanut loans. 1421.14 Section 1421.14... peanut loans. (a) Peanuts loans to individual producers may be obtained through: (1) County offices; or... presented for disbursement unless the peanuts pledged as collateral for the marketing assistance loan...

  20. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.19 - Peanut producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peanut producer organization. 1216.19 Section 1216.19... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.19 Peanut...

  3. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  4. Using magnetic beads to reduce reanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferric irons (Fe3+) and phenolic compounds have been shown to bind to peanut allergens. An easy way to isolate peanut allergens is by use of magnetic beads attached with or without phenolics to capture peanut allergens or allergen-Fe3+ complexes, thus, achieving the goal of producing peanut extracts...

  5. Analysis of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut seed testa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins w...

  6. Performance of Equipment for In-field Peanut Shelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drying, cleaning, and shelling peanuts represents approximately one-third of the costs included in growing, harvesting, and processing peanuts for the edible market. These processes are cost-prohibitive when producing peanuts for biodiesel. Shelling peanuts during harvest would significantly reduc...

  7. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  8. Storage protein profiles in Spanish and runner market type peanuts and potential markers

    PubMed Central

    Liang, XQ; Luo, M; Holbrook, CC; Guo, BZ

    2006-01-01

    Background Proteomic analysis has proven to be the most powerful method for describing plant species and lines, and for identification of proteins in complex mixtures. The strength of this method resides in high resolving power of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), coupled with highly sensitive mass spectrometry (MS), and sequence homology search. By using this method, we might find polymorphic markers to differentiate peanut subspecies. Results Total proteins extracted from seeds of 12 different genotypes of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), comprised of runner market (A. hypogaea ssp. hypogaea) and Spanish-bunch market type (A. hypogaea ssp. fastigiata), were separated by electrophoresis on both one- and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels. The protein profiles were similar on one-dimensional gels for all tested peanut genotypes. However, peanut genotype A13 lacked one major band with a molecular weight of about 35 kDa. There was one minor band with a molecular weight of 27 kDa that was present in all runner peanut genotypes and the Spanish-derivatives (GT-YY7, GT-YY20, and GT-YY79). The Spanish-derivatives have a runner-type peanut in their pedigrees. The 35 kDa protein in A13 and the 27 kDa protein in runner-type peanut genotypes were confirmed on the 2-D SDS-PAGE gels. Among more than 150 main protein spots on the 2-D gels, four protein spots that were individually marked as spots 1–4 showed polymorphic patterns between runner-type and Spanish-bunch peanuts. Spot 1 (ca. 22.5 kDa, pI 3.9) and spot 2 (ca. 23.5 kDa, pI 5.7) were observed in all Spanish-bunch genotypes, but were not found in runner types. In contrast, spot 3 (ca. 23 kDa, pI 6.6) and spot 4 (ca. 22 kDa, pI 6.8) were present in all runner peanut genotypes but not in Spanish-bunch genotypes. These four protein spots were sequenced. Based on the internal and N-terminal amino acid sequences, these proteins are isoforms (iso-Ara h3) of each other, are iso-allergens and may be modified by post-translational cleavage. Conclusion These results suggest that there may be an association between these polymorphic storage protein isoforms and peanut subspecies fastigiata (Spanish type) and hypogaea (runner type). The polymorphic protein peptides distinguished by 2-D PAGE could be used as markers for identification of runner and Spanish peanuts. PMID:17038167

  9. Population structure and marker-trait association analysis of the US peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mini-core collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Sukumaran, Sivakumar; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Chen, Charles Y; Guo, Baozhu; Pittman, Roy N; Stalker, H Thomas; Holbrook, C Corley; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

    2011-12-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. To efficiently utilize the germplasm collection, a peanut mini-core containing 112 accessions was established in the United States. To determine the population structure and its impact on marker-trait association, this mini-core collection was assessed by genotyping 94 accessions with 81 SSR markers and two functional SNP markers from fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2). Seed quality traits (including oil content, fatty acid composition, flavonoids, and resveratrol) were obtained through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis identified four major subpopulations that are related to four botanical varieties. Model comparison with different levels of population structure and kinship control was conducted for each trait and association analyses with the selected models verified that the functional SNP from the FAD2A gene is significantly associated with oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio across this diverse collection. Even though the allele distribution of FAD2A was structured among the four subpopulations, the effect of FAD2A gene remained significant after controlling population structure and had a likelihood-ratio-based R ( 2 ) (R ( LR ) ( 2 ) ) value of 0.05 (oleic acid), 0.09 (linoleic acid), and 0.07 (O/L ratio) because the FAD2A alleles were not completely fixed within subpopulations. Our genetic analysis demonstrated that this peanut mini-core panel is suitable for association mapping. Phenotypic characterization for seed quality traits and association testing of the functional SNP from FAD2A gene provided information for further breeding and genetic research. PMID:21822942

  10. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  11. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  12. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  13. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  14. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy. 180.123a Section 180.123a Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut...

  15. Comparison of the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in thermally processed peanuts and in pure form

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been suggested that boiling or frying of peanuts lead to less allergenic products than roasting. Here, we have compared the digestibility of the major peanut allergens in the context of peanuts subjected to boiling, frying, or roasting, and in purified form. The soluble peanut extracts and ...

  16. Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related) sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes involved in responses to biological processes such as fungal diseases and water limited stress. Moreover, it will also facilitate basic and applied research on the genetics of peanut through the development of new molecular markers and the study of adaptive variation across the genus. PMID:22888963

  17. Functional Genomic Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Interacting with Resistant and Susceptible Peanut.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houmiao; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Silong; Dai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Huifang; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus)-peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one (T1), three (T2) and seven (T3) days post-inoculation. The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. Comparison of expression levels both af_R vs. af_S and T2 vs. T3 uncovered 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus-R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops. PMID:26891328

  18. Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants. PMID:19019105

  19. Effects of different extraction buffers on peanut protein detectability and lateral flow device (LFD) performance.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, J; Ansari, P; Kern, C; Ludwig, T; Baumgartner, S

    2012-01-01

    The accidental uptake of peanuts can cause severe health reactions in allergic individuals. Reliable determination of traces of peanuts in food products is required to support correct labelling and therefore minimise consumers' risk. The immunoanalytical detectability of potentially allergenic peanut proteins is dependent on previous heat treatment, the extraction capacity of the applied buffer and the specificity of the antibody. In this study a lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of peanut protein was developed and the capacity of 30 different buffers to extract proteins from mildly and strongly roasted peanut samples as well as their influence on the test strip performance were investigated. Most of the tested buffers showed good extraction capacity for putative Ara h 1 from mildly roasted peanuts. Protein extraction from dark-roasted samples required denaturing additives, which were proven to be incompatible with LFD performance. High-pH buffers increased the protein yield but inhibited signal generation on the test strip. Overall, the best results were achieved using neutral phosphate buffers but equal detectability of differently altered proteins due to food processing cannot be assured yet for immunoanalytical methods. PMID:22043826

  20. Functional Genomic Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Interacting with Resistant and Susceptible Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Houmiao; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Wan, Liyun; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Silong; Dai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Huifang; Liao, Boshou

    2016-01-01

    In the Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus)–peanut pathosystem, development and metabolism of the fungus directly influence aflatoxin contamination. To comprehensively understand the molecular mechanism of A. flavus interaction with peanut, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of A. flavus during interaction with resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes. In total, 67.46 Gb of high-quality bases were generated for A. flavus-resistant (af_R) and -susceptible peanut (af_S) at one (T1), three (T2) and seven (T3) days post-inoculation. The uniquely mapped reads to A. flavus reference genome in the libraries of af_R and af_S at T2 and T3 were subjected to further analysis, with more than 72% of all obtained genes expressed in the eight libraries. Comparison of expression levels both af_R vs. af_S and T2 vs. T3 uncovered 1926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs associated with mycelial growth, conidial development and aflatoxin biosynthesis were up-regulated in af_S compared with af_R, implying that A. flavus mycelia more easily penetrate and produce much more aflatoxin in susceptible than in resistant peanut. Our results serve as a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms of aflatoxin production differences between A. flavus-R and -S peanut, and offer new clues to manage aflatoxin contamination in crops. PMID:26891328

  1. Gamma Radiation Induced Oxidation and Tocopherols Decrease in In-Shell, Peeled and Blanched Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    In-shell, peeled and blanched peanut samples were characterized in relation to proximate composition and fatty acid profile. No difference was found in relation to its proximate composition. The three major fatty acids were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. In order to investigate irradiation and storage effects, peanut samples were submitted to doses of 0.0, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0 kGy, stored for six months at room temperature and monitored every three months. Peanuts responded differently to irradiation, particularly with regards to tocopherol contents, primary and secondary oxidation products and oil stability index. Induction periods and tocopherol contents were negatively correlated with irradiation doses and decreased moderately during storage. α-Tocopherol was the most gamma radiation sensitive and peeled samples were the most affected. A positive correlation was found among tocopherol contents and the induction period of the oils extracted from irradiated samples. Gamma radiation and storage time increased oxidation compounds production. If gamma radiation is considered an alternative for industrial scale peanut conservation, in-shell samples are the best feedstock. For the best of our knowledge this is the first article with such results; this way it may be helpful as basis for future studies on gamma radiation of in-shell crops. PMID:22489128

  2. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  3. Antimutagenic and antiproliferative effects of roasted and defatted peanut dregs on human leukemic U937 and HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jean-Yu; Wang, Yuh Tai; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2008-03-01

    The antimutagenic effects on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains and antiproliferative effects on leukemia cell lines (U937 and HL-60) of peanut protein isolate (PPI), peanut protein isolate enzyme hydrolysate (PPIEH), roasted and defatted peanut dregs (RDPD), and roasted and defatted peanut dregs enzyme hydrolysate (RDPDEH) were investigated. The antimutagenic effects on B(a)P and 4-NQO toward the TA98 and TA100 strains were found to follow a diminishing order: RDPD > RDPDEH > PPI = PPIEH with dose-dependency. Antiproliferative effects on leukemia cells U937 and HL-60 were also detected. RDPD was found to be the most effective of all the peanut preparations. At 100 microg/mL concentration, RDPD inhibited the proliferation of U937 and HL-60 cells by 56% and 52%, respectively. We propose to consider RDPD and RDPDEH in the development of natural chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive dietary supplements against leukemia and to upgrade the utilization of these by-products in peanut oil production. PMID:17926334

  4. Energy concentration of high-oil corn varieties for pigs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Bajjalieh, N L

    1997-02-01

    Growth performance and utilization of nutrients and energy in three high-oil corn varieties (5.4 to 9.7% ether extract) and regular corn (4.2% ether extract) were compared in three experiments using growing pigs. Twenty-four 25-kg crossbred barrows were used in Exp. 1 to evaluate nutrient and energy digestibility in the three high-oil corn varieties and regular corn. Four diets were formulated to contain 97% of one of four varieties of corn (Control, TC1, TC2, and X122 varieties) and 3% minerals and vitamins. Digestibilities of nitrogen and ether extract were similar (P > .05) for regular corn and all three varieties of high-oil corn. The digestible energy concentrations (kcal/g; as-fed basis) for control, TC1, TC2, and X122 corn varieties were 3.29, 3.57, 3.4, and 3.41, respectively, with control lower (P < .05) than TC2 or X122 and TC1 higher (P < .05) than TC2 or X122. Metabolizable energy concentrations averaged 98.4% of digestible energy concentrations. In Exp. 2, four diets formulated to contain 79% of one of the four corn varieties, 18.25% 48% CP soybean meal, 2.45% vitamins and minerals, and .3% lysine.HCl were fed to 24 crossbred barrows (six pigs per diet) in a nutrient and energy balance study similar to the Exp. 1. Results were similar to those obtained in Exp. 1. The same four diets that were used in Exp. 2 were fed to 40 (10/diet) 20-kg crossbred pigs (20 barrows and 20 gilts) in a 28-d growth performance study (Exp. 3). Gain:feed ratios were .39, .43, .42, and .42 and growth rates (kg/d) were .68, .74, .70, and .72 for diets containing control, TC1, TC2, and X122 corn varieties, respectively. These translate to 8 to 10% improvement in feed efficiency and a numerical improvement in weight gain (3 to 9%) when high-oil corn was fed as compared with control corn. The results of nitrogen, ether extract, and energy balance and feeding experiments with growing pigs indicate efficient utilization of nutrients in diets containing high-oil corn. PMID:9051466

  5. The Case of the Disappearing "Peanuts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail

    1994-01-01

    Presents a series of investigations focusing on the biodegradable packing materials ("peanuts"), which provide a method for exploring science through experimentation. These activities can help fourth through sixth graders sharpen their critical thinking and science process skills. (PR)

  6. Simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic mapping, forward genetic analyses, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) have been intractable in intraspecific populations of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), primarily because domestication and breeding bottlenecks have narrowed genetic diversity and depleted DNA polymorphisms. The DNA...

  7. The Molecular Basis of Peanut Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Maleki, Soheila J.; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that related short peptide sequences among peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  8. Sustained unresponsiveness to peanut in subjects who have completed peanut oral immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Kulis, Michael; Steele, Pamela H.; Kamilaris, Janet; Berglund, Jelena P.; Burk, Caitlin; Hiegel, Anne; Carlisle, Suzanna; Christie, Lynn; Perry, Tamara T.; Pesek, Robbie D.; Sheikh, Saira; Virkud, Yamini; Smith, P. Brian; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Durham, Stephen R.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Background Although peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been conclusively shown to cause desensitization, it is currently unknown whether clinical protection persists after stopping therapy. Objective Our primary objective was to determine whether peanut OIT can induce sustained unresponsiveness following withdrawal of OIT. Methods We conducted a pilot clinical trial of peanut OIT at two U.S. centers. Subjects aged 1–16 were recruited and treated for up to five years with peanut OIT. The protocol was modified over time to permit dose increases to a maximum of 4000 mg peanut protein/day. Blood was collected at multiple time points. Clinical endpoints were measured with 5000 mg double-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenges once specific criteria were met. Results Of the 39 subjects originally enrolled, 24 completed the protocol and had evaluable outcomes. 12/24 (50%) successfully passed a challenge one month after stopping OIT and achieved sustained unresponsiveness. Peanut was added to the diet. At baseline and the time of challenge, such subjects had smaller skin tests as well as lower IgE levels specific for peanut, Ara h 1, and Ara h 2, and lower ratios of peanut-specific:total IgE, compared to subjects not passing. There were no differences in peanut IgG4 levels or functional activity at end-of-study. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of sustained unresponsiveness after peanut OIT, occurring in half of subjects treated up to five years. OIT favorably modified the peanut-specific immune response in all subjects completing the protocol. Smaller skin tests and lower allergen-specific IgE levels were predictive of successful outcome. PMID:24361082

  9. Circuits and signal conditioning for a peanut-drying monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Post-harvest processes at peanut buying points and other peanut grading facilities have a direct impact on the quality of the product. Peanut drying is an essential task for safe peanut storage. The rate at which peanuts are dried can also affect the flavor and milling qualities. Current peanut dryi...

  10. Relationship between Meloidogyne arenaria and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Wilson, D. M.; Holbrook, C. C.; Maw, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Damaged and developing kernels of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) are susceptible to colonization by fungi in the Aspergillus flavus group which, under certain conditions, produces aflatoxins prior to harvest. Our objective was to determine whether infection of peanut roots and pods by Meloidogyne arenaria increases aflatoxin contamination of the kernels when peanut is subjected to drought stress. The experiment was a completely randomized 2-x-2 factorial with 6 replicates/treatment. The treatment factors were nematodes (plus and minus M. arenaria) and fungus (plus and minus A. flavus inoculum). The experiment was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in microplots under an automatic rain-out shelter. In treatments where A. flavus inoculum was added, aflatoxin concentrations were high (> 1,000 ppb) and not affected by nematode infection; in treatments without added fungal inoculum, aflatoxin concentrations were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in kernels from nematode-infected plants (1,190 ppb) than in kernels from uninfected plants (79 ppb). There was also an increase in aflatoxin contamination of kernels with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.83 in 2001, r² = 0.43 in 2002; P ≤ 0.04). Colonization of kernels by A. flavus increased with increasing pod galling (r² = 0.18; P = 0.04) in 2001 but not in 2002. Root-knot nematodes may have a greater role in enhancing aflatoxin contamination of peanut when conditions are not optimal for growth and aflatoxin production by fungi in the A. flavus group. PMID:19262803

  11. Diagnosing and managing peanut allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tibbott, Rebecca; Clark, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy is thought to be rising with 1 in 70 children affected in the UK. Accidental exposures are frequent and nut allergies are the leading cause of fatal food allergic reactions. Allergic reactions to peanuts are nearly always an immediate, type 1-mediated hypersensitivity response. The typical physiological response associated with such a reaction includes smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and vasodilatation. These responses are typically rapid in onset and can lead to systemic effects i.e. anaphylaxis. Peanut allergy most commonly presents in the first five years of life. More than 90% of nut allergic children will have a history of eczema, asthma, rhinitis or another food allergy. The clinical diagnosis of peanut allergy is made from a typical history in combination with clinical evidence of sensitisation i.e. the presence of peanut-specific IgE or positive skin prick tests. There are several predictors of future severe reactions, including: poorly controlled asthma, multiple allergies and previous severe reactions. The amount of peanut consumed is likely to be the major determinant of severity. Management includes a comprehensive package of allergen avoidance advice, provision of emergency medication, family and school/nursery training. The mainstay of management is advice on allergen avoidance. Verbal and written advice should be given. Fast-acting antihistamines as well as adrenaline autoinjectors should be provided as appropriate. Undertreated asthma is a known risk factor for severe reactions and therefore patients with co-existent asthma should undergo regular review. PMID:25102573

  12. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  13. Enhanced Approaches for Identifying Amadori Products: Application to Peanut Allergens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katina L; Williams, Jason G; Maleki, Soheila J; Hurlburt, Barry K; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2016-02-17

    The dry roasting of peanuts is suggested to influence allergic sensitization as a result of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on peanut proteins. Identifying AGEs is technically challenging. The AGEs of a peanut allergen were probed with nano-scale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Amadori product ions matched to expected peptides and yielded fragments that included a loss of three waters and HCHO. As a result of the paucity of b and y ions in the MS/MS spectrum, standard search algorithms do not perform well. Reactions with isotopically labeled sugars confirmed that the peptides contained Amadori products. An algorithm was developed on the basis of information content (Shannon entropy) and the loss of water and HCHO. Results with test data show that the algorithm finds the correct spectra with high precision, reducing the time needed to manually inspect data. Computational and technical improvements allowed for better identification of the chemical differences between modified and unmodified proteins. PMID:26811263

  14. WATER-USE EFFICIENCY OF PEANUT VARIETIES: VARIATION ACROSS PEANUT PRODUCTION REGIONS AND IRRIGATION TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picture of water availability across most of the US peanut producing areas is bleak and becoming worse every year. Years of drought and increasing urban drains on water resources are forcing producers to make do with diminishing irrigation stores. The ability of a peanut variety to use water e...

  15. Identification and characterization of peanut oxalate genes and development of peanut cultivars resistant to stem rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern U.S., stem rot (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a common and destructive disease of peanut. Research has suggested the enhancement of resistance to Sclerotinia minor in peanut by expressing a barley oxalate oxidase gene. Oxalate oxidase belongs to the germin family of proteins and acts ...

  16. Attempt to remove peanut allergens from peanut extracts, using IgE-attached magnetic beads.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies from sera of peanut-allergic individuals are known to bind specifically to major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) attached with IgE antibodies in the removal of major pea...

  17. Comparison of different immobilized systems in the removal of peanut allergens from peanut extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine which of the magnetic-bead systems (Ca2+, Fe3+, caffeic acid, hydrophobic) would bind and separate peanut allergens from other proteins in a peanut extract more efficiently. Commercial Ca2+ and hydrophobic magnetic beads, and caffeic-beads (prepared by at...

  18. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  19. The peanut genome consortium and peanut genome sequence: Creating a better future through global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitiveness of peanuts in domestic and global markets has been threatened by losses in productivity and quality that are attributed to diseases, pests, environmental stresses and allergy or food safety issues. The U.S. Peanut Genome Initiative (PGI) was launched in 2004, and expanded to a gl...

  20. 78 FR 77368 - Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... FR 39214; July 9, 2008). However, the Order does not require that a State produce 10,000 tons per... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1216 Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Amendment to Primary Peanut-Producing States and Adjustment of Membership AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  1. Registration of ‘NC- Miller’ soybean with high yield and high seed oil content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘NC-Miller’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was developed and released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service in 2011 as a high yielding and high oil late maturity group V, conventional cultivar. NC-Miller is an F5 selection from the cross of cultivars ‘Santee’ and ‘Holladay’. In the North Car...

  2. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions. For instance, treatment of roasted peanut kernels with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 1-3h significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein while reducing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut kernel extracts by 100% and 98%, respectively, based on ELISA readings. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels in peanut protein extracts were inversely correlated with protein solubility in roasted peanut. Blanching of kernels enhanced the effectiveness of enzyme treatment in roasted peanuts but not in raw peanuts. The optimal concentration of enzyme was determined by response surface to be in the range of 0.1-0.2%. No consistent results were obtained for raw peanut kernels since Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 increased in peanut protein extracts under some treatment conditions and decreased in others. PMID:25214091

  3. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:20362044

  4. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  5. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  6. Peanut-specific IgE antibodies in asymptomatic Ghanaian children possibly caused by carbohydrate determinant cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Abena S.; Obeng, Benedicta B.; Larbi, Irene A.; Versteeg, Serge A.; Aryeetey, Yvonne; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Lidholm, Jonas; Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Hartgers, Franca C.; Boakye, Daniel A.; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of peanut allergy has increased in developed countries, but little is known about developing countries with high peanut consumption and widespread parasitic infections. Objective We sought to investigate peanut allergy in Ghana. Methods In a cross-sectional survey among Ghanaian schoolchildren (n = 1604), data were collected on reported adverse reactions to peanut, peanut sensitization (serum specific IgE and skin reactivity), consumption patterns, and parasitic infections. In a subset (n = 43) IgE against Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 9 as well as cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was measured by using ImmunoCAP. Cross-reactivity and biological activity were investigated by means of ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release, respectively. Results Adverse reactions to peanut were reported in 1.5%, skin prick test reactivity in 2.0%, and IgE sensitization (≥0.35 kU/L) in 17.5% of participants. Moreover, 92.4% of those IgE sensitized to peanut (≥0.35 kU/L) had negative peanut skin prick test responses. Schistosoma haematobium infection was positively associated with IgE sensitization (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.37-3.86). In the subset IgE titers to Ara h 1, 2, 3, and 9 were low (<1.3 kU/L), except for 6 moderately strong reactions to Ara h 9. IgE against peanut was strongly correlated with IgE against CCDs (r = 0.89, P < .0001) and could be almost completely inhibited by CCDs, as well as S haematobium soluble egg antigen. Moreover, IgE to peanut showed poor biological activity. Conclusions Parasite-induced IgE against CCDs might account largely for high IgE levels to peanut in our study population of Ghanaian schoolchildren. No evidence of IgE-mediated peanut allergy was found. PMID:23763976

  7. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  8. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:18474424

  9. Genomewide Association Studies for 50 Agronomic Traits in Peanut Using the ‘Reference Set’ Comprising 300 Genotypes from 48 Countries of the Semi-Arid Tropics of the World

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Rathore, Abhishek; Vadez, Vincent; Sheshshayee, M. S.; Sriswathi, Manda; Govil, Mansee; Kumar, Ashish; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sharma, Shivali; Hamidou, Falalou; Kumar, V. Anil; Khera, Pawan; Bhat, Ramesh S.; Khan, Aamir W.; Singh, Sube; Li, Hongjie; Monyo, Emmanuel; Nadaf, H. L.; Mukri, Ganapati; Jackson, Scott A.; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut is an important and nutritious agricultural commodity and a livelihood of many small-holder farmers in the semi-arid tropics (SAT) of world which are facing serious production threats. Integration of genomics tools with on-going genetic improvement approaches is expected to facilitate accelerated development of improved cultivars. Therefore, high-resolution genotyping and multiple season phenotyping data for 50 important agronomic, disease and quality traits were generated on the ‘reference set’ of peanut. This study reports comprehensive analyses of allelic diversity, population structure, linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay and marker-trait association (MTA) in peanut. Distinctness of all the genotypes can be established by using either an unique allele detected by a single SSR or a combination of unique alleles by two or more than two SSR markers. As expected, DArT features (2.0 alleles/locus, 0.125 PIC) showed lower allele frequency and polymorphic information content (PIC) than SSRs (22.21 alleles /locus, 0.715 PIC). Both marker types clearly differentiated the genotypes of diploids from tetraploids. Multi-allelic SSRs identified three sub-groups (K = 3) while the LD simulation trend line based on squared-allele frequency correlations (r2) predicted LD decay of 15–20 cM in peanut genome. Detailed analysis identified a total of 524 highly significant MTAs (pvalue >2.1×10–6) with wide phenotypic variance (PV) range (5.81–90.09%) for 36 traits. These MTAs after validation may be deployed in improving biotic resistance, oil/ seed/ nutritional quality, drought tolerance related traits, and yield/ yield components. PMID:25140620

  10. Film-forming properties of blends of high-oleic sunflower oil with polyalkyl glycol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic film thicknesses of oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (PAG), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO), and their 50/50 (wt.) blends were investigated. The viscosity and density of the blends were found to be predictable from the corresponding neat oil properties us...

  11. In silico polymorphism analysis for the development of simple sequence repeat and transposon markers and construction of linkage map in cultivated peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an autogamous allotetraploid legume (2n = 4x = 40) that is widely cultivated as a food and oil crop. More than 6,000 DNA markers have been developed in Arachis spp., but high-density linkage maps useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding have not been constructed due to extremely low genetic diversity. Polymorphic marker loci are useful for the construction of such high-density linkage maps. The present study used in silico analysis to develop simple sequence repeat-based and transposon-based markers. Results The use of in silico analysis increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development by more than 3-fold. In total, 926 (34.2%) of 2,702 markers showed polymorphisms between parental lines of the mapping population. Linkage analysis of the 926 markers along with 253 polymorphic markers selected from 4,449 published markers generated 21 linkage groups covering 2,166.4 cM with 1,114 loci. Based on the map thus produced, 23 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 15 agronomical traits were detected. Another linkage map with 326 loci was also constructed and revealed a relationship between the genotypes of the FAD2 genes and the ratio of oleic/linoleic acid in peanut seed. Conclusions In silico analysis of polymorphisms increased the efficiency of polymorphic marker development, and contributed to the construction of high-density linkage maps in cultivated peanut. The resultant maps were applicable to QTL analysis. Marker subsets and linkage maps developed in this study should be useful for genetics, genomics, and breeding in Arachis. The data are available at the Kazusa DNA Marker Database (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). PMID:22672714

  12. Nutritional value and acceptability of homemade maize/sorghum-based weaning mixtures supplemented with rojo bean flour, ground sardines and peanut paste.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Theobald C E; Vicent, Mary M

    2004-06-01

    Low nutrient density in weaning foods is the major cause of under-nutrition among infants and young children in developing countries. Ten types of composite weaning diets (namely, maize-rojo beans-peanut, maize-peanut-sardines, maize-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, maize-peanut-soaked rojo beans, maize-peanut-germinated rojo beans, sorghum-rojo beans-peanut, sorghum-peanut-sardines, sorghum-peanut-sardine-rojo beans, sorghum-peanut-soaked rojo beans, and sorghum-peanut-germinated rojo beans) were formulated and assayed for proximate composition, energy, mineral density, tannin content and residual urease activity. The diets were also evaluated for storage stability under ambient conditions, sensory quality and overall acceptability. Results of the study indicated that, concentrations of protein, fat, ash, calcium, iron, zinc and copper were significantly (P<0.05) increased when plain maize and sorghum gruels were enriched with rojo beans, peanut paste and/or ground sardines. Soaking and germinating the rojo beans and dehulling the sorghum reduced the concentration of tannins in the gruels significantly (P<0.05). Residual urease activity ranged between 0.00 and 0.07 units, about 10-fold lower than the maximum level (0.8 units) allowed in weaning foods. Both maize and sorghum-based composite gruels had a short shelf-life under ambient conditions (26.4 degrees C) ranging between 4 and 6 h, with gruels containing ground sardines showing a tendency to spoil faster. All composite gruels except those containing germinated rojo beans were highly liked and accepted by consumers (P<0.05), similar to the plain maize and sorghum gruels. The maize and sorghum-based composite products therefore have a potential for use as weaning and/or supplementary foods for older infants and young children. Further investigations are suggested to extend the shelf-life of the composite products and improve the organoleptic quality of the diets containing germinated rojo beans. PMID:15369984

  13. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was efficient in the quantification of mixtures of up to three types of oils and fats, with RMSEP being obtained between 0.08 and 0.27% (v/v), mean precision between 0.07 and 0.32% (v/v) and minimum detectable concentration between 0.23 and 0.81% (v/v) depending on the type of oil or fat in the mixture determined. PMID:22257926

  14. High risk groups in an oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Marine, W.M.; Perry, B.W.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosis, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, Jos A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community. PMID:16416919

  16. Oil stability prediction by high-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Gómez, Gemma; Navarro, José L; Zamora, Rosario

    2002-10-01

    (13)C NMR spectra of oil fractions obtained chromatographically from 66 vegetable oils were obtained and analyzed to evaluate the potential use of those fractions in predicting oil stabilities and to compare those results with oil stability prediction by using chemical determinations. The oils included the following: virgin olive oils from different cultivars and regions of Europe and north Africa; "lampante" olive, refined olive, refined olive pomace, low-erucic rapeseed, high-oleic sunflower, corn, grapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils. Oils were analyzed for fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, as well as for phenol and tocopherol contents. By using stepwise linear regression analysis (SLRA), the chemical determinations and the (13)C NMR data that better explained the oil stability determined by the Rancimat were selected. These selected variables were related to both the susceptibility of the oil to be oxidized and the content of minor components that most contributed to oil stability. Because (13)C NMR considered many more variables than those determined by chemical analysis, the predicted stabilities calculated by using NMR data were always better than those obtained by using chemical determinations. All these results suggest that (13)C NMR may be a powerful tool to predict oil stabilities when applied to chromatographically enriched oil fractions. PMID:12358445

  17. A Novel Method for Moisture Determination in Peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate determination of moisture content of the peanuts is an important factor for preserving the quality and prevention of spoilage in peanuts. Hence, it is very important to devise rapid methods for determining moisture during harvesting, storage, marketing, and processing of peanuts. This paper...

  18. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  19. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  20. Dielectric Properties of Peanut-hull Pellets at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut-hull pellets are obtained from a waste product, peanut-hulls, which after pelleting can have several uses, namely as a renewable fuel. Rapid and nondestructive characterization of peanut-hull pellets is important for industrial utilization of this resource. Properties such as water content an...

  1. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  3. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  4. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  5. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  6. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  7. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  8. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  9. 75 FR 38771 - Notice of the Peanut Standards Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of the Peanut Standards Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... 2002 requires the Secretary of Agriculture to establish a Peanut Standards Board (Board) for the... peanuts. The initial Board was appointed by the Secretary and announced on December 5, 2002. USDA...

  10. 7 CFR 407.14 - Group risk plan for peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for peanuts. 407.14 Section 407.14..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.14 Group risk plan for peanuts. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Peanuts for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  11. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  12. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.15 - Minor peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minor peanut-producing states. 1216.15 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  16. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.9 - Farmers stock peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farmers stock peanuts. 1216.9 Section 1216.9... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.9 Farmers stock...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.21 - Primary peanut-producing states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Primary peanut-producing states. 1216.21 Section 1216... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order...

  19. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...

  20. 7 CFR 996.60 - Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 141.113 and 141.20: And provided further, That such peanuts must be certified and reported to USDA... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for imported peanuts. 996.60... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality...