Science.gov

Sample records for pears grism survey

  1. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  2. Results from Stacking Grism Spectra of Galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2 in the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhavin; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Windhorst, Rogier A.; PEARS team, FIGS team

    2016-06-01

    We present results from median stacking of low-resolution grism spectra for ~1700 galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2. The data are from the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS) which is a 200 orbit HST ACS G800L grism survey in GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The visible and near-IR coverage of the grism, 6000A to 9500A, provides rest-frame visible wavelength coverage from ~3000A to ~6000A for the redshift range of our sample. We median stack galaxies of similar rest-frame u-r color and stellar mass by selecting them based on their location in our u-r color vs stellar mass diagram. The grism spectra are stacked in bins of 0.3 in u-r color and 0.5 dex in stellar mass over a range of 0.0 < u-r < 3.0 and 7.0 < log(M) [M_sol] < 11.5 with an average of ~30 galaxies per bin. We find that blue cloud galaxies typically show bluer continua, Balmer breaks and also show H-beta and [OIII] emission lines that are blended together due to the low-resolution of the grism. Red sequence galaxies typically show strong 4000A breaks and redder continua and, at lower significance, also the G-band and Mgb absorption features characteristic of late type stars. We also observe that green valley galaxies, which form ~6% of the total sample, typically show weaker 4000A breaks and relatively flatter continua at wavelengths redder than 4000A.

  3. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber N.

    2013-07-20

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  4. GLASS: The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space. HST Grism Spectroscopy of the Frontier Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borello Schmidt, Kasper

    2015-08-01

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space (GLASS) is a 140 orbit spectroscopic survey of 10 massive galaxy clusters, including the six Hubble Frontier Fields. GLASS has observed the cluster cores in the HST-WFC3 G102 and G141 grisms providing a wide wavelength coverage in the near-infrared from roughly 0.8 - 1.7 μm. The parallel fields were observed through the optical ACS G800L grism. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification of the clusters, GLASS reaches excellent spectroscopic limits of ˜10-18 erg/s/cm2 and improved spatial resolution for lensed sources behind the clusters. These features are particularly useful for the three main science drivers of GLASS, which are: I) Use the hundreds of spectra of galaxies at z>6 to shed light on the epoch of reionization, the role galaxies play in reionizing the universe, and the Lyα escape fraction at the cosmic dawn. II) Study gas accretion, star formation, and outflows by spatially mapping resolved star formation and determine metallicity gradients from emission lines at z˜2. III) Explore the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution using the first comprehensive census of spatially resolved star formation in dense environments, i.e., the cluster cores as well as the cluster infall regions. The former two benefit highly from the improved depth and increased resolution provided by the cluster lensing. Apart from the main science drivers, a slew of ancillary science has been enabled by the survey. One particularly interesting example is the search for supernovae in the more than 40 GLASS visits, which resulted in the detection of the first multiple imaged supernova, SN Refsdal. I will present the survey, give an update on the current science results, in particular on the GLASS galaxies at the epoch of reionization, and provide a status report on the GLASS data releases, which are continuously being made available to the community.

  5. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ∼1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  6. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Cohen, Seth; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Meurer, Gernhardt; Straughn, Amber N.

    2013-01-01

    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  7. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc; Bunker, Andrew; Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  8. Predicting Future Space Near-IR Grism Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, Harry; Atek, Hakim; Bunker, Andrew; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Martin, Crystal L.; Masters, Dan; McCarthy, Patrick; Siana, Brian

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg2) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg-2 above an Hα flux of 2 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution in both the Hα luminosity function from z = 0.3-1.5 and the [O III] luminosity function from z = 0.7-2.3 is

  9. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). I. Survey Overview and First Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Wang, X.; Bradač, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Henry, A. L.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Jones, T. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Mason, C.; Pentericci, L.; Poggianti, B.; Stiavelli, M.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.

    2015-10-01

    We give an overview of the Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at obtaining grism spectroscopy of the fields of 10 massive clusters of galaxies at redshift z = 0.308-0.686, including the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) yields near-infrared spectra of the cluster cores covering the wavelength range 0.81-1.69 μm through grisms G102 and G141, while the Advanced Camera for Surveys in parallel mode provides G800L spectra of the infall regions of the clusters. The WFC3 spectra are taken at two almost orthogonal position angles in order to minimize the effects of confusion. After summarizing the scientific drivers of GLASS, we describe the sample selection as well as the observing strategy and data processing pipeline. We then utilize MACS J0717.5+3745, a HFF cluster and the first one observed by GLASS, to illustrate the data quality and the high-level data products. Each spectrum brighter than {H}{{AB}}=23 is visually inspected by at least two co-authors and a redshift is measured when sufficient information is present in the spectra. Furthermore, we conducted a thorough search for emission lines through all of the GLASS WFC3 spectra with the aim of measuring redshifts for sources with continuum fainter than {H}{{AB}}=23. We provide a catalog of 139 emission-line-based spectroscopic redshifts for extragalactic sources, including three new redshifts of multiple image systems (one probable, two tentative). In addition to the data itself, we also release software tools that are helpful to navigate the data.

  10. Spectroscopic CCD surveys for quasars at large redshift. 3: The Palomar Transit Grism Survey catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the initial results of the Palomar Transit Grism Survey (PTGS). The PTGS was designed to produce a sample of z greater than 2.7 quasars that were identified by well-defined selection criteria. The survey consists of six narrow (approximately equal to 8.5 min wide) strips of sky; the total effective area is 61.47 sq deg. Low-resolution slitless spectra, covering the wavelength range from 4400 to 7500 A, were obtained for approximately 600 000 objects. The wavelength- and flux-calibrated spectra were searched for emission lines with an automatic software algorithm. A total to 1655 emission features in the grism data satisfied our signal-to-noise ratio and equivalent width selection criteria; subsequent slit spectroscopy of the candidates confirmed the existence of 1052 lines (928 different objects). Six groups of emission lines were detected in the survey: Lyman alpha + N V, C IV, C III1, Mg II, H Beta + (O III), and H alpha + (S II). More than two-thirds of the candidates are low-redshift (z less than 0.45) emission-line galaxies; ninety objects are high-redshift quasars (z greater than 2.7) detected via their Lyman alpha + N V emission lines. The survey contains three previously unknown quasars brighter than 17th magnitude; all three have redshifts of approximately equal to 1.3. In this paper we present the observational properties of the survey, the algorithms used to select the emission-line candidates, and the catalog of emission-line objects.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). I. (Treu+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Wang, X.; Bradac, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Henry, A. L.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Jones, T. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Mason, C.; Pentericci, L.; Poggianti, B.; Stiavelli, M.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we give an overview of Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS; PI Treu; GO 13459) and we present the first release of the data for MACS J0717.5+3745, the first cluster targeted by the survey. Spectra for 1151 galaxies down to magnitude HAB=24 (F140W) have been visually inspected by members of our team to ensure quality control. GLASS is a cycle-21 large program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), targeting 10 massive clusters, including the 6 Frontier Fields, using the WFC3 and ACS grisms. The program consists of 140 primary orbits (with the G102 and G141 grisms; range 0.81-1.69μm) and 140 parallel orbits (with the G800L grism). (2 data files).

  12. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of {approx}7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when {approx}60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin{sup 2}) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}5 per resolution element at H{sub 140} {approx} 23.1 and a 5{sigma} emission-line sensitivity of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for typical objects, improving by a factor of {approx}2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 {mu}m at a spatial resolution of {approx}0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of {sigma}(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or {sigma}(v) Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1}. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z {approx} 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will

  13. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE PEARS SURVEY: PROBING THE STELLAR POPULATIONS AT MODERATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Pirzkal, Nor; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Panagia, Nino; Lisker, Thorsten; Daddi, Emanuele; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2009-11-20

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) slitless grism spectra from the PEARS program, we study the stellar populations of morphologically selected early-type galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. The sample-extracted from a visual classification of the (v2.0) HST/ACS images and restricted to redshifts z > 0.4-comprises 228 galaxies (i {sub F775W} < 24 mag, AB) out to z approx< 1.3 over 320 arcmin{sup 2}, with a median redshift z {sub M} = 0.75. This work significantly increases our previous sample from the GRAPES survey in the HUDF (18 galaxies over approx11 arcmin{sup 2}). The grism data allow us to separate the sample into 'red' and 'blue' spectra, with the latter comprising 15% of the total. Three different grids of models parameterizing the star formation history are used to fit the low-resolution spectra. Over the redshift range of the sample-corresponding to a cosmic age between 5 and 10 Gyr-we find a strong correlation between stellar mass and average age, whereas the spread of ages (defined by the root mean square of the distribution) is roughly approx1 Gyr and independent of stellar mass. The best-fit parameters suggest that it is the formation epoch and not the formation timescale that best correlates with mass in early-type galaxies. This result-along with the recently observed lack of evolution of the number density of massive galaxies-motivates the need for a channel of (massive) galaxy formation bypassing any phase in the blue cloud, as suggested by the simulations of Dekel et al.

  14. METALLICITIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM HST ACS PEARS AND HST WFC3 ERS GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AT 0.6 < z < 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; O'Connell, Robert

    2012-07-15

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission-line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3. Using a sample of 11 emission-line galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -19 which have [O II], H{beta}, and [O III] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo ({pi}MC{sup 2}) fitting of their spectral energy distribution, and span the mass range 8.1 < log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} ) < 10.1. These galaxies show mass-metallicity (M-Z) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations, which are offset by -0.6 dex in metallicity at given absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, as well as continuum-selected DEEP2 samples at similar redshifts. The emission-line-selected galaxies most resemble the local 'green peas' galaxies and Ly{alpha} galaxies at z {approx_equal} 0.3 and z {approx_equal} 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M{sub 20} morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-line Galaxies from Infrared Grism Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E.; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; Mutchler, Max; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Young, Erick T.; Xu, Chun

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 <~ z <~ 1.4, 1.2 <~ z <~ 2.2, and 2.0 <~ z <~ 3.3, respectively, in the G102 (0.8-1.1 μm R ~= 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 μm R ~= 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 48 ELGs to m AB(F098M) ~= 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ~= 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M)= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z >~ 2.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-15

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 {mu}m from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 {mu}m grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the H{alpha}, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.4, 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.2, and 2.0 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.3, respectively, in the G102 (0.8-1.1 {mu}m; R {approx_equal} 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 {mu}m; R {approx_equal} 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 48 ELGs to m A{sub B(F098M)} {approx_equal} 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts ({Delta}z {approx_equal} 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m{sub AB(F098M)}= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the

  17. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  18. Emission-Line Galaxies from the NICMOS/Hubble Space Telescope Grism Parallel Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Patrick J.; Yan, Lin; Freudling, Wolfram; Teplitz, Harry I.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Weymann, Ray J.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Fosbury, Robert A. E.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; Williams, Robert E.; Heap, Sara R.

    1999-08-01

    We present the first results of a survey of random fields with the slitless G141 (λc=1.5 μm, Δλ=0.8 μm) grism on the near-IR camera and multiobject spectrometer (NICMOS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Approximately 64 arcmin2 have been observed at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes. The 3 σ limiting line and continuum fluxes in each field vary from 7.5×10-17 to 1×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1, and from H=20 to 22, respectively. Our median and area-weighted 3 σ limiting line fluxes within a 4 pixel aperture are nearly identical at 4.1×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1 and are 60% deeper than the deepest narrowband imaging surveys from the ground. We have identified 33 emission-line objects and derive their observed wavelengths, fluxes, and equivalent widths. We argue that the most likely line identification is Hα and that the redshift range probed is from 0.75 to 1.9. The 2 σ rest-frame equivalent width limits range from 9 to 130 Å, with an average of 40 Å. The survey probes an effective comoving volume of 105 h-350 Mpc3 for q0=0.5. Our derived comoving number density of emission-line galaxies in the range 0.7

  19. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS): Dissecting reionization, z~2 galaxies, and dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, Tommaso; GLASS Team

    2016-01-01

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) is a large HST cycle-21 program targeting 10 massive galaxy clusters with extensive HST imaging from CLASH and the Frontier Field Initiative. The program consists of 140 primary and 140 parallel orbits of near-infrared WCF3 and optical ACS grism observations, which result in spatially resolved spectroscopy of thousands of galaxies. GLASS has three primary science drivers although a wide variety of other science investigations are possible with the public GLASS data (e.g. SN 'Refsdal'). The key science goals of GLASS are to: 1) shed light on the epoch of reionization, by measuring the lyman alpha optical depth at z>6 2) Study gas accretion, star formation, and outflows by spatially mapping resolved star formation and determine metallicity gradients from emission lines of galaxies at 1.3

  20. Emission Line Science in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS) Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark David; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Pharo, John; Rhoads, James E.; FIGS Team

    2016-01-01

    Emission lines can reveal a bounty of information about the processes occurring within a galaxy. Physical properties such as star formation rate and metallicity can be determined from ratios of emission line fluxes. The study of emission line galaxies (ELGs) through cosmic time gives insight into the processes by which galaxies evolve. Extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs), typified by strong nebular emission lines which dominate their spectra, are of interest because they are well known to be galaxies undergoing periods of intense star formation. Slitless grism spectroscopy offers a significant advantage to the study of ELGs and EELGs, allowing for measurement of the spectra of a large number of galaxies within a field. This allows for detection of ELGs and EELGs with few selection biases. Optical follow-up of FIGS-selected sources allows for analysis of star formation rate (SFR) through H-alpha measurements over the redshift range 0.3

  1. Metallicities of Emission-Line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 is less than z is less than 2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Lifang; Malhotra, Sangetta; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert; Kuemmel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission line strength. show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low resolution grism spectra in the optiCa.i with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using a sample of 11 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 approx < MB approx -19 which have [OII], H-Beta, and [OIII] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 <12+log(0/H)<8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (pi MC(exp 2)) fitting of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and span the mass range 8.1 < log(M(stellar)/M(solar)) < 10.1. These galaxies show a mass-metal1icity (M-L) and Luminosity-Metallicity (LZ) relation, which is offset by -

  2. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  3. Mapping the spatial distribution of star formation in cluster galaxies at z ~0.5 with the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, B.; Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Bradač, M.; Brammer, G. B.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.; Malkan, M.; Pentericci, L.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.; Abramson, L.; He, J.; Morris, G.

    2016-06-01

    What physical processes regulate star formation in dense environments? Understanding why galaxy evolution is environment dependent is one of the key questions of current astrophysics. I will present the first characterization of the spatial distribution of star formation in cluster galaxies at z~0.5, and compare to a field control sample, in order to quantify the role of different physical processes that are believed to be responsible for shutting down star formation (Vulcani et al. 2015, Vulcani et al. in prep). The analysis makes use of data from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large HST cycle-21 program targeting 10 massive galaxy clusters with extensive HST imaging from CLASH and the Frontier Field Initiative. The program consists of 140 primary and 140 parallel orbits of near-infrared WCF3 and optical ACS slitless grism observations, which result in 3D spectroscopy of hundreds of galaxies. The grism data are used to produce spatially resolved maps of the star formation density, while the stellar mass density and optical surface brightness are obtained from multiband imaging. I will describe quantitative measures of the spatial location and extent of the star formation rate. I will show that both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside out growth. The Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. I will also correlate the properties of the Hα maps to the cluster global properties, such as the hot gas density, and the surface mass density. The characterization of the spatial distribution of Halpha provides a new window, yet poorly exploited, on the mechanisms that regulate star formation and morphological

  4. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya; Stern, Daniel; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Hathi, Nimish; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Kuemmel, Martin; Meurer, Gerhardt; and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  5. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). III. A Census of Lyα Emission at z ≳ 7 from HST Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Vulcani, B.; Huang, K.-H.; Hoag, A.; Maseda, M.; Guaita, L.; Pentericci, L.; Brammer, G. B.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Henry, A. L.; Jones, T. A.; Mason, C.; Trenti, M.; Wang, X.

    2016-02-01

    We present a census of Lyα emission at z≳ 7, utilizing deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy from the first six completed clusters of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). In 24/159 photometrically selected galaxies we detect emission lines consistent with Lyα in the GLASS spectra. Based on the distribution of signal-to-noise ratios and on simulations, we expect the completeness and the purity of the sample to be 40%-100% and 60%-90%, respectively. For the objects without detected emission lines we show that the observed (not corrected for lensing magnification) 1σ flux limits reach 5 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 per position angle over the full wavelength range of GLASS (0.8-1.7 μm). Based on the conditional probability of Lyα emission measured from the ground at z˜ 7, we would have expected 12-18 Lyα emitters. This is consistent with the number of detections, within the uncertainties, confirming the drop in Lyα emission with respect to z˜ 6. Deeper follow-up spectroscopy, here exemplified by Keck spectroscopy, is necessary to improve our estimates of completeness and purity and to confirm individual candidates as true Lyα emitters. These candidates include a promising source at z = 8.1. The spatial extent of Lyα in a deep stack of the most convincing Lyα emitters with < z> = 7.2 is consistent with that of the rest-frame UV continuum. Extended Lyα emission, if present, has a surface brightness below our detection limit, consistent with the properties of lower-redshift comparison samples. From the stack we estimate upper limits on rest-frame UV emission line ratios and find {f}{{C}{{IV}}}/{f}{Lyα }≲ 0.32 and {f}{{C}{{III}}]}/{f}{Lyα }≲ 0.23, in good agreement with other values published in the literature.

  6. First Results from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS): First Simultaneous Detection of Lyα Emission and Lyman Break from a Galaxy at z = 7.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; Christensen, L.; Hathi, N.; Pharo, J.; Joshi, B.; Yang, H.; Gronwall, C.; Cimatti, A.; Walsh, J.; O’Connell, R.; Straughn, A.; Ostlin, G.; Rothberg, B.; Livermore, R. C.; Hibon, P.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2016-08-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts are a valuable tool for studying cosmic dawn, therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyα emission and the Lyman break from a z=7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6σ ) in two observational position angles (PAs), with Lyα line flux of 1.06+/- 0.19× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2. The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than that in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations, implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates the total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyα measurements. A 4σ detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed, would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found. These observations from HST thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy for studying the epoch of reionization.

  7. Star formation, extinction and metallicity at 0.7grism survey of GOODS-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    The global star formation rate {SFR} is 10x higher at z=1 than today. This could be due to drastically elevated SFR in some fraction of galaxies, such as mergers with central bursts, or a higher SFR across the board. Either means that the conditions in z=1 star forming galaxies could be quite different from local objects. The next step beyond measuring the global SFR is to determine the dependence of SFR, obscuration, metallicity, and size of the star-forming region on galaxy mass and redshift. However, SFR indicators at z=1 typically apply local calibrations for UV, [O II] and far-IR, and do not agree with each other on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis. Extinction, metallicity, and dust properties cause uncontrolled offsets in SFR calibrations. The great missing link is Balmer H-alpha, the most sensitive probe of SFR. We propose a slitless WFC3/G141 IR grism survey of GOODS-N, at 2 orbits/pointing. It will detect Ha+[N II] emission from 0.7 600 galaxies, and a small number of higher-redshift emitters. This will produce: an emission-line redshift survey unbiased by magnitude and color selection; star formation rates as a function of galaxy properties, e.g. stellar mass and morphology/mergers measured by ACS; comparisons of SFRs from H-alpha to UV and far-IR indicators; calibrations of line ratios of H-alpha to important nebular lines such as [O II] and H-beta, measuring variations in metallicity and extinction and their effect on SFR estimates; and the first measurement of scale lengths of the H-alpha emitting, star-forming region in a large sample of z 1 sources.

  8. The 3D-HST Survey: Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/G141 Grism Spectra, Redshifts, and Emission Line Measurements for ~ 100,000 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica J.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickey, Claire; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Illingworth, Garth; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Ulf Lange, Johannes; Lundgren, Britt F.; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Oesch, Pascal; Pacifici, Camilla; Patel, Shannon G.; Price, Sedona; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A.; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2016-08-01

    We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 H 140 imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel I 814 imaging. In a previous paper, we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N (PI: B. Weiner). We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxies explicitly into account. The resulting catalog has redshifts and line strengths (where available) for 22,548 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 (79,609 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 26). Of these, 5459 galaxies are at z\\gt 1.5 and 9621 are at 0.7\\lt z\\lt 1.5, where Hα falls in the G141 wavelength coverage. The typical redshift error for {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 galaxies is {σ }z≈ 0.003× (1+z), i.e., one native WFC3 pixel. The 3σ limit for emission line fluxes of point sources is 2.1× {10}-17 erg s‑1 cm‑2. All 2D and 1D spectra, as well as redshifts, line fluxes, and other derived parameters, are publicly available.18

  9. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). II. Gas-Phase Metallicity and Radial Gradients in an Interacting System At Z ≃ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G. B.; Bradač, M.; Dressler, A.; Henry, A. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Pentericci, L.; Trenti, M.

    2015-03-01

    We present spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity for a system of three galaxies at z = 1.85 detected in the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST’s) diffraction limit and strong gravitational lensing by the cluster MACS J0717+3745 results in a spatial resolution of ≃200-300 pc, enabling good spatial sampling despite the intrinsically small galaxy sizes. The galaxies in this system are separated by ≃50-200 kpc in projection and are likely in an early stage of interaction, evidenced by relatively high specific star formation rates. Their gas-phase metallicities are consistent with larger samples at similar redshift, star formation rate (SFR), and stellar mass. We obtain a precise measurement of the metallicity gradient for one galaxy and find a shallow slope compared to isolated galaxies at high redshift, consistent with a flattening of the gradient due to gravitational interaction. An alternative explanation for the shallow metallicity gradient and elevated SFR is rapid recycling of metal-enriched gas, but we find no evidence for enhanced gas-phase metallicities which should result from this effect. Notably, the measured stellar masses log {{M}*}/{{M}} = 7.2-9.1 probe to an order of magnitude below previous mass-metallicity studies at this redshift. The lowest mass galaxy has properties similar to those expected for Fornax at this redshift, indicating that GLASS is able to directly study the progenitors of local group dwarf galaxies on spatially resolved scales. Larger samples from the full GLASS survey will be ideal for studying the effects of feedback, and the time evolution of metallicity gradients. These initial results demonstrate the utility of HST spectroscopy combined with gravitational lensing for characterizing resolved physical properties of galaxies at high redshift.

  10. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (Glass). V. Extent and Spatial Distribution of Star Formation in Z ˜ 0.5 Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Dressler, Alan; Fontana, Adriano; Bradač, Marusa; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; Malkan, Matthew; Pentericci, Laura; Trenti, Michele; von der Linden, Anja; Abramson, Louis; He, Julie; Morris, Glenn

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ˜ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 108-1011 M⊙ and star formation rates in the range 1-20 M⊙ yr-1. Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ˜20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set.

  11. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  12. Cryogenic VPH grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Murata, Chihiro; Taniguchi, Yuichiro; Okura, Tsutomu; Harashima, Masakazu; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Maruyama, Miyoko; Iye, Masanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    We present the development and first astronomical applications of VPH grisms which are now operated at cryogenic temperature in MOIRCS, a Cassegrain near-infrared instrument of the Subaru Telescope. We designed and fabricated the VPH grisms with a resolving power ~3000 for the use in near-infrared bands. The VPH grating, encapsulated in BK7 glass, is glued between two ZnSe prisms with vertex angle of 20 deg. After repeating several thermal cycles down to ~100 K carefully enough not to cause irreparable damage on the grism during cooling, we evaluated the performance at cryogenic temperature in the laboratory and found no deterioration and no large difference in the performance from that measured in room temperature. Based on commissioning observations with MOIRCS, we have confirmed the high efficiency (~0.8) and the resolving power of the original design. Common use of the grisms is due to start in the second semester of 2008.

  13. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  14. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-Line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straughn, A. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; Balick, B.; Bond, H. E.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimlbe, R. A.; Trauger, J. T.; Young, E. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6-1.6 microns from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L (0.6-0.95 micron) grism data in GOODS South, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The ERS grism field was observed at a depth of 2 orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which are presented here. ELGs are studied via the Ha, [O III ], and [OII] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.6, 1.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 2.4 and 2.0 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 3.6 respectively in the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R approximately 210) and C141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R approximately 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 25 ELGs to M(sub AB)(F098M) approximately 25 mag. The faintest source in our sample with a strong but unidentified emission line--is MAB(F098M)=26.9 mag. We also detect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample, indicative of downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes.

  15. Survey of susceptibility to abamectin of pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Civolani, S; Cassanelli, S; Rivi, M; Manicardi, G C; Peretto, R; Chicca, M; Pasqualini, E; Leis, M

    2010-06-01

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a relevant pest of pear, Pyrus communis L., trees in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). The susceptibility to the insecticide abamectin was evaluated at different times of the year on C. pyri populations undergoing different control strategies within conventional, integrated, and organic farms. The tests performed were the egg spray and the topic and dip bioassay on adults. The larval mortality was evaluated by dip bioassay on treated leaves. The activity of P450-dependent monooxygenases, a relevant enzyme system involved in insecticide resistance of C. pyri, was also determined in adults by 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD assay). Tests on treated eggs and on larvae showed no significant differences in LC50 and LC90, although these values were always lower in individuals collected from organic farms in comparison with all other farms. Tests on overwintering adults revealed differences among populations, probably more related to collection time than to field pest control strategies. Unexpectedly, the ECOD assay on adults showed a slightly higher cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity in the population undergoing organic control in comparison to others. Our results indicate that egg spray is the most reliable bioassay to verify data of open-field applications. Apparently, no resistance to abamectin has yet been developed by C. pyri in Emilia-Romagna. PMID:20568628

  16. Low temperature GRISM direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkowski, Gerhard; Harnisch, Gerd; Grabowski, Kevin; Benkenstein, Tino; Ehrhardt, Sascha; Zeitner, Uwe; Risse, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    For spectroscopy in space, GRISM elements -obtained by patterning gratings on a prism surface - are gaining increasing interest. Originally developed as dispersive elements for insertion into an imaging light path without deflecting the beam, they are progressively found in sophisticated multi stage dispersion optics. We report on GRISM manufacturing by joining the individual functional elements -prisms and gratings - to suitable components. Fused silica was used as glass material and the gratings were realized by e-beam lithography und dry etching. Alignment of the grating dispersion direction to the prism angle was realized by passive adjustment. Materials adapted bonds of high transmission, stiffness and strength were obtained at temperatures of about 200°C in vacuum by hydrophilic direct bonding. Examples for bonding uncoated as well as coated fused silica surfaces are given. The results illustrate the great potential of hydrophilic glass direct bonding for manufacturing transmission optics to be used under highly demanding environmental conditions, as typical in space.

  17. 'Sunrise' pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sunrise' is a new pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. It combines a high degree of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. The sources of resistance in the pedigree are the old American cultivar, 'Seckel'...

  18. Machine Learning: Quality Control of HST Grism Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Lombardi, M.; Nilsson, K.; Rosa, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Pipeline for Hubble Legacy Archive Grism data (PHLAG) had been used to extract more than 70000 wavelength and flux calibrated 1D spectra. They were obtained from 153 fields observed in G800L grism spectroscopy mode with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This number of spectra is far too large to allow detailed visual inspection for quality control on reasonable time-scales. As a solution, we use machine learning techniques to classify spectra into "good" and "bad" based on a careful visual inspection of only about 3% of the full sample. A final visual skim through the set of "good" spectra was made to remove catastrophic failures. The remaining 47919 spectra form the largest set of slitless high-level spectroscopic data products publicly released to date.

  19. Design, Fabrication and Test of WFIRST-AFTA GRISM Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Kruk, Jeffrey; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Smith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is designed to perform wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopic survey of the sky. A compound Grism assembly is selected as its slitless dispersing element. Compared to the grisms in several instruments installed on the Hubble space telescope, the challenge of this grism is the much wider Field Of View (FOV), larger dispersion, and smaller f. The image quality of the slitless spectrometer is directly related to how deep of the sky the spectrometer is able to see. This paper discusses how to use a diffractive lens surface to compensate the wavelength dependent aberration created by the grating in non-collimated space to make the spectrometer diffraction limited, as well as how to intelligently combine the two diffractive surfaces (lens and grating) to reduce the unwanted diffraction orders from the grating. The paper also discusses how to improve the diffraction efficiency of the diffractive surfaces, as well as how to align and assemble the optics.

  20. Pyrus L. Pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed properties for the genus Pyrus (Pears) are described. This genus of the family Rosacea probably originated in the mountain regions of western and southwestern China and spread to the east and west. Cultivation of pears was first mentioned about 3000 years ago. About 24 species and subspecies...

  1. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Aaron M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) imaging and G141 grism observations from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1≤slant λ ≤slant 1.7 μm with a resolving power of R∼ 130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z∼ 3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H ≤slant 24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift {{z}phot}≥slant 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines, and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of {{σ }NMAD}=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin2 and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677≤slant z≤slant 3.456 and have a median redshift of z = 1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z\\gt 1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z∼ 2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.

  2. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; diSeregoAlighieri, Sperello

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  3. GRISM Spectophotometry of the Uranus Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bradford

    1997-07-01

    Details of the near-infrared spectral reflectance of the Uranus rings are poorly known, because of problems associated with the scattered light from the planet. Grism spectroscopy of the brightest part of the Epsilon ring will be made with the planet just outside the field of view. To minimize the glare from Uranus, the observations should made when the widest part of the Epsilon ring is at a position angle of approximately 174 degrees. This is one in a series of observations designed to intercompare the near-infrared spectral reflectivity of dark objects in the solar system. Some record of processes that occurred within the Uranus subnebula may be left on the surfaces of the ring particles or the surface coatings of the associated dark inner satellites.

  4. ACS grism spectra in the HDF-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, G. R.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Gronwall, C.; Benitez, N.; Franx, M.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Cross, N.; Ford, H. C.; Martel, A. R.; Tran, H. D.; Illingworth, G. D.; Clampin, M.; Postman, M.; Allen, T.; Anderson, K.; Ardila, D. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; McCann, Wm. J.; Menanteau, F.; Sirianni, M.; Zheng, W.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C.; Hartig, G.; Krist, J.; Sparks, W. B.; White, R. L.; Cheng, E.; Kimble, R. A.; Campbell, D.; Sullivan, P.; Bouwens, R.; Magee, D.; Bartko, F.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Infante, L.; Lesser, M.; Miley, G.; Rosati, P.; Volmer, P.; Rafal, M.; Woodruff, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    We present slitless spectra of sources in the Hubble Deep Field North obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. The Wide Field Camera was used to obtain dithered observations with a total exposure of 6700s (3 orbits) with the G800L grism. We concentrate on objects with published redshifts obtained spectroscopically and photometrically. In addition, we use a semi-automated technique to identify sources with emission line spectra, and those with broad stellar features. Sources with emission lines having a peak S/N > 4, have a median mF775W = 24.6 ABmag. This is 1.5 mag fainter than the median mF775W of objects in the Cohen et al. (2000, ApJ, 538, 29) spectroscopic redshift survey, illustrating that the G800L is a potentially useful tool for obtaining spectroscopic data of faint compact sources. ACS was developed under NASA contract NAS 5-32865, and this research is supported by NASA grant NAG5-7697. We are grateful for an equipment grant from the Sun Microsystems, Inc.

  5. Control of Spectral Phase of Ultrafast Optical Pulses with Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Charles; Field, Jeff; Squier, Jeff; Kane, Steve

    2008-10-01

    High-quality dispersion management is critical for ultrafast optics. Grisms are a combination of diffraction gratings and prisms. We can use grisms for high-fidelity control of the spectral phase of ultrafast pulses, making systems much more compact and easy to adjust. While the spectral phase of a given system can be obtained with ray-tracing, analytic expressions are desirable for exploring and optimizing new designs. We show that we can analytically calculate the spectral phase of a range of grism-like structures by making a superposition of basic tilted window modules. For example, a prism pair can be described by starting with a tilted slab of glass, which defines the outer edges of the prism pair. The inner edges of the prism pair are then created by superposing a tilted slab of air, which removes glass between the prisms. We will discuss the applications of these grism designs to ultrafast amplifiers and pulse shapers.

  6. Spatially Resolved WFC3/Grism Spectral Line Imaging of Gravitational Lensed Herschel-selected Luminous Dusty Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2013-10-01

    We propose WFC3 G102 and G141 grism spectral imaging of two gravitationally lensed dusty, starburst galaxies found with the 600 square degree Herschel-ATLAS survey. One galaxy is the brightest {both in far-IR at 250 micron and in near-IR in J/K-band}, while the second is the largest {11 arcsec on the sky} of the lensed sub-mm galaxies in a sample of 200 imaged with WFC3/F110W. The two galaxies are at redshifts that are optimal for grism observations with HST/WFC3. The lensing flux magnification and spatial enhancement makes them very unique for the study proposed hereand will increase the number of lensed galaxies imaged in spectral lines with WFC3 grisms to three from existing single serendipitous lens studied in HST-3D survey. With WFC3 grism spectra taken in a specific orientation to minimize foreground and lensing galaxy confusion we can map each of these galaxies in a variety of spatially-resolved spectral lines in the rest-frame optical, including impostant Balmer lines for studies on the interstellar medium. The grism spectra will allow us to determine the gas-phase metallicities of these two galaxies and to study the extinction of optically-thin regions compared to direct sub-mm emission seen in interferometric continuum images of optically thick dust in starbursting knots and clumps. With spatial resolution provided by gravitational lensing combined with HST/WFC3 resolution, we will be able to study the dependence of line ratios in high density/SFR regions to low dense diffuse environments.

  7. Fragrant pear sexuality recognition with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Benxue; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    In this research, a method to identify Kuler fragrant pear's sexuality with machine vision was developed. Kuler fragrant pear has male pear and female pear. They have an obvious difference in favor. To detect the sexuality of Kuler fragrant pear, images of fragrant pear were acquired by CCD color camera. Before feature extraction, some preprocessing is conducted on the acquired images to remove noise and unnecessary contents. Color feature, perimeter feature and area feature of fragrant pear bottom image were extracted by digital image processing technique. And the fragrant pear sexuality was determined by complexity obtained from perimeter and area. In this research, using 128 Kurle fragrant pears as samples, good recognition rate between the male pear and the female pear was obtained for Kurle pear's sexuality detection (82.8%). Result shows this method could detect male pear and female pear with a good accuracy.

  8. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...

  9. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  10. Updated Calibration and Backgrounds for the WFC3 IR Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Brammer, Gabriel; Ryan, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    We present new and improved calibration of the WFC IR (G102 and G141) grism mode. These new calibrations were generated by combining data obtained over six observing cycles and include a better sampling of the field of view. The result is a calibration of the spectral trace that has been improved to better than 0.1 detector pixel. A new fiducial wavelength reference spectrum is now used to calibrate the wavelength dispersion of the grisms and we show that the rms of the solution has been reduced to approximately 7 and 14 Angstrom for the G102 and G141 grisms, over the entire field of view. Overall, both the trace and wavelength calibration have been improved by about a factor of two and the G102 and G141 solutions are in better agreement at wavelengths where the two grisms overlap. We demonstrate that the grism calibration can be extrapolated for objects that are outside of the field of view but still result in dispersed spectra on the WFC3 detector.We also present new master sky images that can be used to improve the sky background subtraction from grism exposures. The individual components of the new background model include the zodiacal continuum and a strong He I emission line at 1.083 microns from the upper atmosphere. We find that fitting science exposures with a linear combination of these two background components enables modeling of the WFC3/IR grism background with an accuracy that is better than ~0.01 electrons/s/pix across the detector.

  11. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order....

  12. The Hubble Legacy Archive NICMOS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.

    2008-11-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) aims to create calibrated science data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive and make them accessible via user-friendly and Virtual Observatory (VO) compatible interfaces. It is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) and the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF). Data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instruments with slitless spectroscopy modes are among the most difficult to extract and exploit. As part of the HLA project, the ST-ECF aims to provide calibrated spectra for objects observed with these HST slitless modes. In this paper, we present the HLA NICMOS G141 grism spectra. We describe in detail the calibration, data reduction and spectrum extraction methods used to produce the extracted spectra. The quality of the extracted spectra and associated direct images is demonstrated through comparison with near-IR imaging catalogues and existing near-IR spectroscopy. The output data products and their associated metadata are publicly available (http://hla.stecf.org/) through a web form, as well as a VO-compatible interface that enables flexible querying of the archive of the 2470 NICMOS G141 spectra. In total, spectra of 1923  unique targets are included.

  13. Grism cryogenic mount for the Euclid-NISP mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, Ch.; Grange, R.; Sanchez, P.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Laurent, P.; Dessaux, F.; Ceria, W.

    2014-07-01

    The spectroscopic channel of the Euclid Near Infrared SpectroPhotometer (NISP) relies on four grisms mounted on a wheel via Invar mounts. The mount design was studied to maintain the optical performances and alignment at cryogenic operating temperature (120K), and to survive launch vibrations. We designed two stages of radially compliant blades: one set of 9 blades is bonded to the Silica grism and the second set of 3 blades is located at interface points with the wheel. Severe packaging and mass constraints yielded us to design a ring mount with strong weight relief. In fall 2013 we proceeded to thermal cycling (323K-105K), vibration tests (10.7 g rms) to successfully qualify the grism mount in the Euclid environment. Thanks to detailed finite element analyses, we correlated simulations and tests.

  14. Design of a 3-bounce grism compressor for ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Amanda; Field, Jeffrey; Kane, Steve; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles

    2010-03-01

    A standard procedure to resolve material dispersion involves pulse compression with two passes through diffraction gratings. Grisms, which are prisms written directly on to diffraction gratings, allow for 3rd order dispersion compensation, which diffraction gratings alone do not allow for. We describe our progress toward a 3-bounce grism compressor design with passive 2nd and 3rd order dispersion compensation. The 3-bounce design is potentially more efficient because of one less bounce than in existing 4-bounce grism compressors. The grism compressor is composed of a mismatched grism pair, comprised of a 600 lines/mm grating and a 1200 lines/mm grating, to eliminate spatial chirp. Compressed pulses are to be characterized using frequency resolved optical gating. This grism design for femtosecond laser pulse dispersion compensation is both more compact and easier to align than other grism compressor systems used in commercial instruments.

  15. Evaluation of Likelihood of Co-occurrence of Erwinia amylovora with Mature Fruit of Winter Pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary concerns about fire blight prohibit export of U.S.-grown pears to some countries without this disease. To examine these concerns, we evaluated the potential for co-occurrence of E. amylovora with mature symptomless winter pear fruit by inoculation experiments and by survey of commercia...

  16. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  17. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  18. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  19. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  20. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  1. A Low Cost Grism Spectrometer for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and built a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer for the University of Iowa's robotic observatory. Grism spectrometers differ from simple transmission grating systems by partially compensating for the curved focal plane using a wedge prism. The spectrometer has five optical elements, and was designed using a ray tracing program. The collimating and focusing optics are easily modified for other telescope optics. The optics are mounted in an enclosure made with a 3-d printer. The spectrometer was installed in a modified (extended) filter wheel and has been in routine operation since January 2016. I will show sample spectra using this system and discuss spectral calibration, and optical design considerations for other telescopes. I will also discuss how low-resolution spectrometers can be used in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  2. Analytical calculation of spectral phase of grism pairs by the geometrical ray tracing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, L.; Askari, A. A.; Saghafifar, H.

    2016-07-01

    The most optimum operation of a grism pair is practically approachable when an analytical expression of its spectral phase is in hand. In this paper, we have employed the accurate geometrical ray tracing method to calculate the analytical phase shift of a grism pair, at transmission and reflection configurations. As shown by the results, for a great variety of complicated configurations, the spectral phase of a grism pair is in the same form of that of a prism pair. The only exception is when the light enters into and exits from different facets of a reflection grism. The analytical result has been used to calculate the second-order dispersions of several examples of grism pairs in various possible configurations. All results are in complete agreement with those from ray tracing method. The result of this work can be very helpful in the optimal design and application of grism pairs at various configurations.

  3. Systematic Review of Pears and Health

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Holly; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties. Pears contain antioxidants and provide between 27 and 41 mg of phenolics per 100 g. Animal studies with pears suggest that pears may regulate alcohol metabolism, protect against ulcers, and lower plasma lipids. Human feeding studies with pears have not been conducted. In epidemiological studies, pears are combined with all fresh fruits or with apples, because they are most similar in composition. The high content of dietary fiber in pears and their effects on gut health set pears apart from other fruit and deserves study. PMID:26663955

  4. Grism based stretcher/compressor system for amplified, femtosecond kilohertz lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiosi, David M.; Gibson, Emily A.; Kane, Steve; Huff, Rachael; Murnane, Margaret; Kaptyen, Henry C.; Durfee, Charles G.; Squier, Jeff; Jimenez, Ralph

    We demonstrate a simple and efficient grism based stretcher/compression system. 36 fs, ˜300 µJ pulses are generated at 5-15 kHz by using this unique grism stretcher/material compressor in a Ti:sapphire amplifier system based on downchirped pulse amplification.

  5. Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and dispersion compensation of femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Emily A.; Gaudiosi, David M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Jimenez, Ralph; Kane, Steve; Huff, Rachel; Durfee, Charles; Squier, Jeff

    2006-11-01

    Efficient reflection grisms for pulse-compression and material-dispersion compensation have been designed and demonstrated in a 40 fs, 300 μJ, 5 kHz downchirped pulse amplification system for the first time to our knowledge. A grism design for 800nm femtosecond laser pulse dispersion compensation applications is realized by using standard, commercial diffraction gratings.

  6. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp.).

    PubMed

    Reed, Barbara M; Denoma, Jeanine; Wada, Sugae; Postman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elements of micropropagation include establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. The wide genetic variation in Pyrus makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced dormant shoots or from scions grafted onto seedling rootstocks to impose juvenility. Clean shoots are recovered after testing for contaminants at the initiation stage on ½ strength Murashige and Skoog 1962 medium (MS), at pH 6.9 for 1 week or by streaking on nutrient agar. Although pear species and cultivars are cultured on several well-known media, MS is the most commonly used. Our studies showed that multiplication and growth of shoots are best on Pear Medium with higher concentrations of calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate than MS medium and 4.4 μM N(6) benzyladenine. Pear shoots are often recalcitrant to rooting; however, a 5 s dip in 10 mM indole-3-butyric acid or naphthalene acetic acid before planting on basal medium without plant growth regulators is effective for many genotypes. Pear shoots store well at 1-4°C, and can hold for as long as 4 years without reculture. Cryopreservation protocols are available for long-term storage of pear shoot tips. Acclimation of in vitro-rooted or micrografted shoots in a mist bed follows standard procedures. PMID:23179686

  7. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets are all elements of micropropagation. The great genetic variation in Pyrus (pear)makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced do...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  13. Survey of Enrolled Students. Summary Report as Part of the Planning, Evaluation, and Assessment Review (PEAR) System. Research Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Petersburg Junior Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    As part of a college-wide assessment effort, St. Petersburg Junior College (Florida) conducted a survey of enrolled students in October 1995 to determine their perceptions of the quality of the college's academic and student support services. Questionnaires were distributed to 6,197 students, asking them to rate 28 college services on a 5-point…

  14. Design and Fabrication of Efficient Reflection Grisms for Pulse Compression and Dispersion Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Steve; Tortajada, Fred; Dinger, Herb; Touzet, Bruno; Huff, Rachel; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles; Gibson, Emily; Jimenez, Ralph; Gaudiosi, David; Kapteyn, Henry

    Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and material-dispersion compensation have been designed and demonstrated in a CPA system. Designs for 800-nm and 1030-nm ultrafast applications are characterized using off-the-shelf diffraction gratings.

  15. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $7.73 to $7.00 per ton of summer/fall processed...

  16. 76 FR 53811 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $8.41 to $7.73 per ton of summer/fall processed...

  17. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  19. Grism Performance for Mid-IR (5-40 microns) Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Mar, D. J.; Jaffe, D. T.; Marsh, J. P.; Keller, L. D.; Herter, T. L.; Greene, T. P.; Adams, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Grisms provide a straightforward method to transform an imager into a spectrometer with little change to the original imaging optics. This paper addresses the performance of a suite of grisms as part of an Astrobiology Science and Instrument Development (ASTID) Program to implement a moderate resolution spectroscopic capability to the mid/far-IR facility instrument FORCAST for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) [see accompanying abstract by Adams et al.]. A moderate resolution mid-IR spectrometer on SOFIA will offer advantages not available to either ground or space-based instruments after the Spitzer Space Telescope ceases operation in approx. 2007. SOFIA will begin operations in 2007 and will have an operational lifetime of approx. 20 years. From aircraft altitudes, it will be possible to cover a range of wavelengths, particularly in the critical 5-9 micron band, where detection of astrobiologically interesting molecules have key spectral signatures, that are not accessible from the ground. This grism suite consists of six grisms: four monolithic Si grisms [see accompanying abstract by Mar et al.] and two KRS-5 grisms. These devices will allow long slit low-resolution and short slit, cross-dispersed high-resolution spectroscopic modes selectable by simply moving the camera filter wheels. This configuration will enable observing programs to gather images and spectra in a single SOFIA flight. The four silicon grisms, whose performance is highlighted in this paper, will operate in the following wavelength ranges: 5-8, 17-28, and 28-37 microns. In the 5-8 micron range, R=1200 is achievable for a 2 arcsecond slit using the grism as a cross-disperser. For the 17-28 and 28-37 micron ranges, the resolving powers are R approx. 130, 250 when used in low orders with a slit of 3 arcseconds. The silicon grisms demonstrate a new family of dispersive elements with good optical performance for spectroscopy from 1.2-8 micron and beyond 18 microns

  20. Analytical expressions for group-delay dispersion and third-order dispersion of a reflection grism-pair compressor.

    PubMed

    Su, Juan; Feng, Guoying

    2012-05-10

    We provide a detailed analytical expression of group-delay dispersion (GDD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) for a reflection grism-pair compressor without the first-order approximation of grating diffraction. The analytical expressions can be used to design a grism-pair compressor for compensating the dispersive material without ray tracing. Furthermore, the dispersion performance of the grism pair compressor, depending on compressor parameters, is comprehensively analyzed. Results are shown that we can adjust several parameters to obtain a certain GDD and TOD, such as the incidence angle of the beam, refractive index of the prism, grating constant, and the separation of the grism pair. PMID:22614499

  1. TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

  2. Pear psylla resistance in breeders' selections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty pear cultivars and breeders’ selections with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis and P. pyrifolia crossed with P. communis were assessed for resistance to pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) using a nymphal feeding antixenosis assay. Four P. ussuriensis x P. communis h...

  3. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears. 917.176 Section 917.176 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears. 917.176 Section 917.176 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears. 917.176 Section 917.176 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  6. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  7. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  8. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  9. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  10. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  11. New GRISMs for AFOSC based on volume phase holographic gratings in photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Landoni, Marco; Tomasella, Lina; Benetti, Stefano; Giro, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHG) can provide an improvement of diffraction efficiency and function- ality in already available astronomical instrumentation. Here, we present the design, manufacturing and testing of two GRISMs mounted on the AFOSC camera (at the 1.8 m Asiago telescope) based on VPHGs. Such diffrac- tion gratings have been written on a new solid and green sensitive photopolymer material produced by Bayer MaterialScience AG that show interesting performances (refractive index modulation, homogeneity, stability). The GRISMs have been designed according to the specific requests of astronomers. One GRISM consists in a very low dispersion VPHG (285 l/mm) that covers the range 500 - 1000 nm and suitable for observations of supernovae. The second one is a 600 l/mm VPHG for the Ha region. Both gratings show peak efficiency close to 90% and same diffraction efficiency is shown by the corresponding GRISMs. This high device's performances means that the coupling losses are very low, also thanks to the matching of the refractive index between sub- strates and prisms. Some observations have been finally carried out and the gain in terms of efficiency and signal to noise ratio have been calculated in order to compare the photopolymeric VPHGs with the classic GRISMs already mounted and used in the AFOSC spectrometer.

  12. GALEX Grism Spectroscopy of the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweigart, Allen

    We propose to obtain GALEX FUV-only grism spectroscopy of the hot stars in omega Centauri, the most massive globular cluster in our Galaxy. Previous UIT imagery of omega Cen showed that it contains about 2000 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars, and we estimate that GALEX spectra can be obtained for about 500 of these stars in the outer regions of the cluster, including about 50 of the hot ``blue hook'' stars discovered with UIT. The blue hook stars appear to be both hotter (35,000 K) and less luminous in the UIT color-magnitude diagram than predicted by canonical HB models and, indeed, are unexplained by standard evolutionary theory. Brown et al. (2001) have suggested that the blue hook stars are the progeny of stars which mixed their surface hydrogen into their hot He-burning interior during a delayed helium flash subsequent to leaving the red giant branch. This ``flash-mixing'' results in a hot hydrogen-deficient star with a typical surface abundance of 96% He and 4% C by mass. The GALEX spectral region includes the strong lines of C III 1426, 1578 A, C IV 1550 A, and He II 1640 A which will allow this predicted carbon and helium enrichment to be detected. These observations will therefore provide a crucial test of the Brown et al. flash-mixing hypothesis and will determine if flash mixing represents a new evolutionary channel for populating the hot HB. The GALEX spectra will also address other questions concerning the hot HB in omega Cen including (1) the metallicity distribution of HB stars with 9,000 K < Teff < 11,000 K, (2) the effect of radiative levitation on the UV spectra of stars with Teff > 11,000 K, and (3) the origin of the subluminous HB stars found in the UIT photometry with 15,000K < Teff < 30,000 K.

  13. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J.; Cohen, S.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; SOC, WFC3

    2011-01-01

    The Early Release Science II program for HST WFC3 includes one pointing observed with the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R 130) infrared grisms at a depth of 2 orbits/grism. From this data we detect 48 actively star-forming emission-line galaxies and measure the galaxies' redshifts, line fluxes, star-formation rates, and masses. In particular, the prominent emission lines Ha, [OII], and [OIII] fall into the two infrared grism bandpasses over a redshift range z=0.2-3.6, and the majority of galaxies have at least two lines in the observable wavelength range resulting in secure line identification and redshift determination. We detect galaxies with line fluxes to 3 x 10-17 erg/s/cm2 as well as several sources with very high EW lines. The higher spectral resolution and sensitivity of the WFC3 grisms over previous instrumentation also allows detection of other emission lines in some galaxies. The average magnitude of the emission-line galaxy sample is mAB(F098M)=23.6 mag with more than 20% of the sample fainter than mAB(F098M)=25 mag, demonstrating the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and intermediate redshifts. Our results point to the promising potential for future science with WFC3 grism spectroscopy, as well as upcoming missions such as JWST and WFIRST. This paper is based on Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. This research was supported in part by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA (ANS).

  14. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles. PMID:26988479

  15. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  16. A CANDELS WFC3 GRISM STUDY OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: A MIX OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Yesuf, Hassen; Scarlata, Claudia; Bell, Eric F.; Laird, Elise S.; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan Renbin; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dunlop, James S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2011-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >1{sigma} detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically {approx}7 times less massive (median M{sub *} = 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) than previously studied z {approx} 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O III]/H{beta} ratios which are very similar to previously studied z {approx} 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H{beta} emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L{sub [OIII]}/L{sub 0.5-10keV} ratio is intermediate between typical z {approx} 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  17. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  18. Leveraging 3D-HST Grism Redshifts to Quantify Photometric Redshift Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Wake, David A.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of photometric redshift accuracy in the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using 3D-HST grism redshifts to quantify and dissect trends in redshift accuracy for galaxies brighter than JH IR > 24 with an unprecedented and representative high-redshift galaxy sample. We find an average scatter of 0.0197 ± 0.0003(1 + z) in the Skelton et al. photometric redshifts. Photometric redshift accuracy decreases with magnitude and redshift, but does not vary monotonically with color or stellar mass. The 1σ scatter lies between 0.01 and 0.03 (1 + z) for galaxies of all masses and colors below z < 2.5 (for JH IR < 24), with the exception of a population of very red (U ‑ V > 2), dusty star-forming galaxies for which the scatter increases to ∼0.1 (1 + z). We find that photometric redshifts depend significantly on galaxy size; the largest galaxies at fixed magnitude have photo-zs with up to ∼30% more scatter and ∼5 times the outlier rate. Although the overall photometric redshift accuracy for quiescent galaxies is better than that for star-forming galaxies, scatter depends more strongly on magnitude and redshift than on galaxy type. We verify these trends using the redshift distributions of close pairs and extend the analysis to fainter objects, where photometric redshift errors further increase to ∼0.046 (1 + z) at {H}F160W=26. We demonstrate that photometric redshift accuracy is strongly filter dependent and quantify the contribution of multiple filter combinations. We evaluate the widths of redshift probability distribution functions and find that error estimates are underestimated by a factor of ∼1.1–1.6, but that uniformly broadening the distribution does not adequately account for fitting outliers. Finally, we suggest possible applications of these data in planning for current and future surveys and simulate photometric redshift performance in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Dark Energy Survey (DES), and combined DES and Vista Hemisphere

  19. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  20. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for... under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674),...

  1. Relative attractiveness of colour traps to pear psylla in relation to seasonal changes in pear phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents temporal color trap preference of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) over a 24 month duration. Black, blue, brown, clear, green, orange, red, white, and yellow traps were assayed against wild psylla populations. While pear psylla had a strong prefe...

  2. Inheritance of resistance to pear psylla nymphal feeding in pear (Pyrus communis L.) of European origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla is a serious pest of pear throughout North America and Europe. Inhibition of nymphal feeding has been identified as a key component of resistance, being correlated with mortality, delayed development of egg-laying. Breeding for resistance would be aided by knowledge of the inherita...

  3. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Federal Register on December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72245). The Committee made copies of the proposed rule... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  4. Polyphenolic Profile of Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri).

    PubMed

    Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Gašić, Uroš M; Zec, Gordan N; Vulić, Todor B; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2015-09-01

    The European pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of pear. Since proper control of this pest is essential, better understanding of the complex plant-pest relationship is mandatory. This research deals with constitutive polyphenolic profiles in leaves of 22 pear cultivars of diverse origin (P. communis, P. pyrifolia, and P. pyrifolia × P. communis) and different resistance to psylla. The study was designed to show which differences in the polyphenolic profile of leaves from resistant and susceptible pear cultivars could be utilized as information in subsequent breeding programs. The results demonstrated that the leaves of Oriental pear cultivars contained much higher amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, aesculin, and naringin, that, together with detected 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-hexoside, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, and hispidulin, indicated a clear difference between the species and might represent phenolics responsible for psylla resistance. PMID:26278376

  5. Current status of pear rootstock research: progress and priorities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As of 2010, there were 57,000 acres of commercially-grown pears in the United States with a total crop value of $382 million. The industry has been stagnating due to a declining consumption of processed pears and competition from imported pears and other fruits, as reflected in the loss of 10,000 a...

  6. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduous-calyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and tex...

  7. Plains Prickly Pear Cactus Response to Fire and Fuel Loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of prickly pear on rangelands has lead to numerous studies aimed at understanding prickly pear response to various natural and human induced treatments. Information is lacking on Plains prickly pear response to varied fuel loads. Pads of clones from three soil types (claypan, gravel, si...

  8. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  9. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  10. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  11. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  12. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  13. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  14. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  15. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  16. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pear crop insurance provisions. 457.111 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.111 Pear crop insurance provisions. The Pear Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  18. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  19. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  20. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  1. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pear crop insurance provisions. 457.111 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.111 Pear crop insurance provisions. The Pear Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  3. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  4. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  5. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  6. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  7. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  8. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  9. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  10. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  11. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  12. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  13. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  14. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  15. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  16. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  17. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pear crop insurance provisions. 457.111 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.111 Pear crop insurance provisions. The Pear Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  19. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  20. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  1. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  2. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  3. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  4. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear Psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear plants were transformed with D5C1a construct containing a gene that produces lytic peptide which is excreted into the intercellular spaces of pear leaves to impart resistance to fireblight, Erwinia amylovora (Burrill). The biology and behavior of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) was ...

  5. 78 FR 24033 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 34). The Committee made copies of the proposed rule available to all pear handlers... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases...

  6. Grism-based pulse shaper for line-by-line control of more than 600 optical frequency comb lines.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, M S; Diddams, S A

    2010-10-01

    We construct a line-by-line pulse shaper using a grism (grating plus prism) dispersive element, which provides constant angular dispersion over 13.4 THz centered at ~311 THz (965 nm). When combined with a dual-mask liquid crystal modulator, this grism-based shaper is capable of line-by-line amplitude and phase control of over 600 modes of a 21 GHz stabilized optical frequency comb. PMID:20890354

  7. Grism compressor for carrier-envelope phase-stable millijoule-energy chirped pulse amplifier lasers featuring bulk material stretcher.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Jullien, A; Forget, N; Crozatier, V; Tournois, P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate compression of amplified carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-stable laser pulses using paired transmission gratings and high-index prisms, or grisms, with chromatic dispersion matching that of a bulk material pulse stretcher. Grisms enable the use of larger bulk stretching factors and thereby higher energy pulses with lower B-integral in a compact amplifier design suitable for long-term CEP control. PMID:22466193

  8. Revised wavelength and spectral response calibrations for AKARI near-infrared grism spectroscopy: Cryogenic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Shunsuke; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Isobe, Naoki; Usui, Fumihiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Onaka, Takashi; Yano, Kenichi; Kochi, Chihiro

    2016-04-01

    We perform revised spectral calibrations for the AKARI near-infrared grism to correct quantitatively for the effect of the wavelength-dependent refractive index. The near-infrared grism covering the wavelength range of 2.5-5.0 μm, with a spectral resolving power of 120 at 3.6 μm, is found to be contaminated by second-order light at wavelengths longer than 4.9 μm, which is especially serious for red objects. First, we present the wavelength calibration considering the refractive index of the grism as a function of the wavelength for the first time. We find that the previous solution is positively shifted by up to 0.01 μm compared with the revised wavelengths at 2.5-5.0 μm. In addition, we demonstrate that second-order contamination occurs even with a perfect order-sorting filter owing to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. Secondly, the spectral responses of the system from the first- and second-order light are simultaneously obtained from two types of standard objects with different colors. The response from the second-order light suggests leakage of the order-sorting filter below 2.5 μm. The relations between the output of the detector and the intensities of the first- and second-order light are formalized by a matrix equation that combines the two orders. The removal of the contaminating second-order light can be achieved by solving the matrix equation. The new calibration extends the available spectral coverage of the grism mode from 4.9 μm up to 5.0 μm. The revision can be used to study spectral features falling in these extended wavelengths, e.g., the carbon monoxide fundamental ro-vibrational absorption within nearby active galactic nuclei.

  9. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  10. Improved Mineral Nutrition for Pear Shoot Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository has over 200 pear accessions in culture, encompassing 18 species. Plant growth response on standard tissue culture medium varies widely due to the wide horticultural diversity of this collection. We used a systematic response-surface approach to eva...

  11. SWIFT-UVOT GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF COMETS: A FIRST APPLICATION TO C/2007 N3 (LULIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, D.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Landsman, W. B.; Carter, J. A.; Read, A. M.

    2011-01-15

    We observed comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin) twice on UT 2009 January 28, using the UV grism of the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope on board the Swift gamma-ray burst space observatory. Grism spectroscopy provides spatially resolved spectroscopy over large apertures for faint objects. We developed a novel methodology to analyze grism observations of comets, and applied a Haser comet model to extract production rates of OH, CS, NH, CN, C{sub 3}, C{sub 2}, and dust. The water production rates retrieved from two visits on this date were 6.7 {+-} 0.7 and 7.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup -1}, respectively. Jets were sought (but not found) in the white-light and 'OH' images reported here, suggesting that the jets reported by Knight and Schleicher are unique to CN. Based on the abundances of its carbon-bearing species, comet Lulin is 'typical' (i.e., not 'depleted') in its composition.

  12. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Ying, Yibin; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduouscalyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and texture attributes. Chinese packaging standards require that packed cases of fragrant pears contain 5% or less of the persistent-calyx type. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential means for automated sorting of pears according to calyx type. Hyperspectral images spanning the 992-1681 nm region were acquired using an EMCCD-based laboratory line-scan imaging system. Analysis of the hyperspectral images was performed to select wavebands useful for identifying persistent-calyx fruits and for identifying deciduous-calyx fruits. Based on the selected wavebands, an image-processing algorithm was developed that targets automated classification of Korla fragrant pears into the two categories for packaging purposes.

  13. 3D-HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED, LOW-METALLICITY STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 1.847

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Erb, Dawn K.; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-10-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] {lambda}5007 and H{beta} emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 {+-} 100 and 520 {+-} 40 A, respectively. The source has a stellar mass {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, sSFR {approx} 100 Gyr{sup -1}, and detection of [O III] {lambda}4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size r{sub e} {approx}300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey.

  14. Infrared Grism Confirmation of a Strongly Lensed z ~ 11 Candidate: MACS0647-JD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Dan

    2013-10-01

    The first galaxies are the frontier of extragalactic astronomy. How and when did they form, and how did they contribute to reionization? Gravitational lensing has enabled efficient discovery of high-redshift galaxies including MACS0647-JD at z ~ 10.8 (420 Myr after the Big Bang), a strong candidate for the most distant galaxy yet known. This discovery by the CLASH Multi-Cycle Treasury program is consistent with expectations extrapolated from lower redshifts (4 < z < 8). The evolving luminosity function fit to these data includes sufficient numbers of faint galaxies at early times to reionize the universe. However, the discovery of MACS0647-JD is in tension with lower number densities of z > 9 candidates identified in deep field observations including the UDF. These field studies suggest z > 9 galaxies were building up in numbers much more rapidly than observed at later times. Confirmation of the z ~ 10.8 candidate is therefore paramount to our understanding of early galaxy evolution and reionization. All three strongly lensed images of MACS0647-JD are significantly detected in two HST filters (F140W and F160W). Lower redshift objects have been ruled out with high confidence, and the redshift is corroborated by our lens modeling. The strong lensing magnification provides us with a rare opportunity to confirm such a high redshift. We propose to do so with ten orbits of WFC3/IR G141 grism observations. Two orbits of F140W imaging are also required for calibration. As the first ever HST IR grism observations of a z < 1 cluster, this program will serve as an important pathfinder for future IR grism observations of lensed fields with HST and with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at z=11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, P. A.; Brammer, G.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Illingworth, G. D.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M.; Momcheva, I.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Gonzalez, V.; Holden, B.; Magee, D.; Skelton, R. E.; Smit, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Trenti, M.; Willner, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    We present Hubble WFC3/IR slitless grism spectra of a remarkably bright z ≳ 10 galaxy candidate, GN-z11, identified initially from CANDELS/GOODS-N imaging data. A significant spectroscopic continuum break is detected at λ =1.47+/- 0.01 μ {{m}}. The new grism data, combined with the photometric data, rule out all plausible lower redshift solutions for this source. The only viable solution is that this continuum break is the Lyα break redshifted to {z}{grism}={11.09}-0.12+0.08, just ˜400 Myr after the Big Bang. This observation extends the current spectroscopic frontier by 150 Myr to well before the Planck (instantaneous) cosmic reionization peak at z ˜ 8.8, demonstrating that galaxy build-up was well underway early in the reionization epoch at z > 10. GN-z11 is remarkably, and unexpectedly, luminous for a galaxy at such an early time: its UV luminosity is 3× larger than {L}* measured at z ˜ 6-8. The Spitzer IRAC detections up to 4.5 μm of this galaxy are consistent with a stellar mass of ˜109 M⊙. This spectroscopic redshift measurement suggests that James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to similarly and easily confirm such sources at z > 10 and characterize their physical properties through detailed spectroscopy. Furthermore, WFIRST, with its wide-field near-IR imaging, would find large numbers of similar galaxies and contribute greatly to JWST's spectroscopy, if it is launched early enough to overlap with JWST.

  16. A modular approach to the analytic calculation of spectral phase for grisms and other refractive/diffractive structures.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Charles G; Squier, Jeff A; Kane, Steve

    2008-10-27

    Analytic expressions for spectral phase for optical systems are very important for the design of wide-bandwidth optical systems. We describe a general formalism for analytically calculating the spectral phase for arbitrary optical structure made up of nested pairs of plane-parallel interfaces that can be diffractive or refractive. Our primary application is the calculation of the spectral phase of a grism pair, which is then used to analyze the behavior of higher-order phase terms. The analytic expressions for the grism spectral phase provide insight into the tunability of the third-order phase of grisms as well as the fourth-order limits. Our exact and approximate expressions are compared with a raytracing model. PMID:18958079

  17. Fruit quality of pear psylla-resistant parental germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen interspecific backcross hybrid selections from various breeding programs have been selected as prospective parents for breeding for resistance of European-type pears to the pear psyllids (Cacopsylla spp.). The Pyrus communis x P. pyrifolia (n equal 6) backcross selections are derived mostly...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis, Oriental fruit fly; Caleptrimerus... future infestations are taken. (4) The pears must be treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 and the... introduction of the following quarantine pests: Acrobasis pyrivorella, pear fruit moth; Alternaria...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis, Oriental fruit fly; Caleptrimerus... future infestations are taken. (4) The pears must be treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 and the... introduction of the following quarantine pests: Acrobasis pyrivorella, pear fruit moth; Alternaria...

  20. Metabolic Profiles of Anjou Pears Stored in Low Oxygen Atmospheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low oxygen storage atmospheres can slow ripening and prevent development of the peel disorder superficial scald on Anjou pear fruit; however, development of peel speckling can be exacerbated by low oxygen storage. To better understand how Anjou pear fruit respond to low oxygen atmospheres, a metabo...

  1. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  2. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  3. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  4. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  5. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  6. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  7. First report of Gymnosporangium sabinae, European pear rust, on Bradford pear in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bradford pear, Pyrus calleryana Decne., is well known as an ornamental plant for its flowers, leaf color in fall, and disease resistance, making it desirable as a street tree. In August and October 2008, the aecial stage of Gymnosporangium sabinae (Dicks.) G. Winter was collected on leaves of P. cal...

  8. First report of European pear rust (pear trellis rust) caused by Gymnosporangium sabinae in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In November 2014, leaves of ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana, cultivar unknown) with bright orange to reddish spots typical of infection by a rust fungus were submitted to the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic from a landscape in Frederick County, VA, for diagnosis. Brown aecia with bulbous bases ...

  9. NIRCam Long Wavelength Channel grisms as the Dispersed Fringe Sensor for JWST segment mirror coarse phasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fang; King, Brian M.; Sigrist, Norbert; Basinger, Scott A.

    2008-07-01

    The baseline wavefront sensing and control for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes the Dispersed Hartmann Sensors (DHS) for segment mirror coarse phasing. The two DHS devices, residing on the pupil wheel of the JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Short Wavelength Channel (SWC), can sense the JWST segment mirror pistons by measuring the heights of 20 inter-segment edges from the dispersed fringes. JWST also incorporates two identical grisms in the NIRCam's Long Wavelength Channel (LWC). The two grisms, designed as the Dispersed Fringe Sensor (DFS), are used as the backup sensor for JWST segment mirror coarse phasing. The versatility of DFS enables a very flexible JWST segment coarse phasing process and the DFS is designed to have larger piston capture range than that of DHS, making the coarse phasing more robust. The DFS can also be a useful tool during JWST ground integration and test (I&T). In this paper we describe the DFS design details and use the JWST optical model to demonstrate the DFS coarse phasing process during flight and ground I&T.

  10. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed. PMID:22978211

  11. Needs assessment for future US pear rootstock directions based on the current state of pear production and rootstock research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear acreage in the United States (U.S.) is declining due to lack of precocity and high cost of production. The U.S. pear industry currently lacks “modern” orchard systems characterized by compact trees that produce early, high yields of large, high quality fruit. Tall, shaded canopies are not eco...

  12. Effect of resistant and susceptible East European pears on development and mortality of the pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla (Cacopsylla spp.) is a major pest of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. In breeding resistant cultivars, a thorough understanding of the nature of host resistance and susceptibility is essential for designing efficient and accurate methods to identify res...

  13. 78 FR 34 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Fresh...

  14. The Importance of Pear Ester in Codling Moth Monitoring and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the discovery of the attractiveness of pear ester for adult and larvae of codling moth research has developed this ripe pear volatile to improve the monitoring and management of this key pest of apple, pear, and walnut. A lure loaded with pear ester and codlemone has become the most widely...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  16. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  17. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  18. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  19. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  1. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  4. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  6. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  7. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  8. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  9. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  10. Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye anti-reflection structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Anti-reflection (AR) is very important for high-throughput optical elements. The durability against cooling is required for the AR structure in the cryogenic optics used for mid-infrared astronomical instruments. Moth-eye structure is a promising AR technique strong against cooling. The silicon lens and grism with the moth-eye structure are being developed to make high-throughput elements for long-wavelength mid-infrared instruments. A double-sided moth-eye plano-convex lens (Effective diameter: 33 mm, Focal length: 188 mm) was fabricated. By the transmittance measurement, it was confirmed that its total throughput is 1.7+/- 0.1 times higher than bare silicon lenses in a wide wavelength range of 20{45 μm. It suggests that the lens can achieve 83+/-5% throughput in the cryogenic temperature. It was also confirmed that the moth-eye processing on the lens does not modify the focal length. As for the grism, the homogeneous moth-eye processing on blaze pattern was realized by employing spray coating for the resist coating in EB lithography. The silicon grism with good surface roughness was also developed. The required techniques for completing moth-eye grisms have been established.

  11. Comparing Apples and Pears: Women's Perceptions of Their Body Size and Shape

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Croughan, Mary S.; Chen, Zhen; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a growing public health problem among reproductive-aged women, with consequences for chronic disease risk and reproductive and obstetric morbidities. Evidence also suggests that body shape (i.e., regional fat distribution) may be independently associated with risk, yet it is not known if women adequately perceive their shape. This study aimed to assess the validity of self-reported body size and shape figure drawings when compared to anthropometric measures among reproductive-aged women. Methods Self-reported body size was ascertained using the Stunkard nine-level figures and self-reported body shape using stylized pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple figures. Anthropometry was performed by trained researchers. Body size and body mass index (BMI) were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Fat distribution indicators were compared across body shapes for nonobese and obese women using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Percent agreement and kappa statistics were computed for apple and pear body shapes. Results The 131 women studied were primarily Caucasian (81%), aged 32 years, with a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m2 (range 16.6–52.8 kg/m2). The correlation between body size and BMI was 0.85 (p<0.001). Among nonobese women, waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were 0.75, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.82 for pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple, respectively (p<0.001). Comparing apples and pears, the percent agreement (kappa) for WHR≥0.80 was 83% (0.55). Conclusions Self-reported size and shape were consistent with anthropometric measures commonly used to assess obesity and fat distribution, respectively. Self-reported body shape may be a useful proxy measure in addition to body size in large-scale surveys. PMID:22873752

  12. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  13. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  14. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  15. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  16. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  17. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  18. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses. PMID:25145248

  19. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin; Zhang, Shu; Ming, Ray; Zhu, Shilin; Khan, M. Awais; Tao, Shutian; Korban, Schuyler S.; Wang, Hao; Chen, Nancy J.; Nishio, Takeshi; Xu, Xun; Cong, Lin; Qi, Kaijie; Huang, Xiaosan; Wang, Yingtao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Juyou; Deng, Cao; Gou, Caiyun; Zhou, Weili; Yin, Hao; Qin, Gaihua; Sha, Yuhui; Tao, Ye; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yanan; Song, Yue; Zhan, Dongliang; Wang, Juan; Li, Leiting; Dai, Meisong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Yuezhi; Shi, Daihu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huping; Zeng, Liang; Zheng, Danman; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Maoshan; Wang, Guangbiao; Xie, Lin; Sovero, Valpuri; Sha, Shoufeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Jiangmei; Xu, Linlin; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xing; Li, Qingsong; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Junyi; Paull, Robert E.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. The pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ∼28.5% encode multiple isoforms. Repetitive sequences of 271.9 Mb in length, accounting for 53.1% of the pear genome, are identified. Simulation of eudicots to the ancestor of Rosaceae has reconstructed nine ancestral chromosomes. Pear and apple diverged from each other ∼5.4–21.5 million years ago, and a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event must have occurred 30–45 MYA prior to their divergence, but following divergence from strawberry. When compared with the apple genome sequence, size differences between the apple and pear genomes are confirmed mainly due to the presence of repetitive sequences predominantly contributed by transposable elements (TEs), while genic regions are similar in both species. Genes critical for self-incompatibility, lignified stone cells (a unique feature of pear fruit), sorbitol metabolism, and volatile compounds of fruit have also been identified. Multiple candidate SFB genes appear as tandem repeats in the S-locus region of pear; while lignin synthesis-related gene family expansion and highly expressed gene families of HCT, C3′H, and CCOMT contribute to high accumulation of both G-lignin and S-lignin. Moreover, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism is a key pathway for aroma in pear fruit. PMID:23149293

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data (Kuemmel+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuemmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-09-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00um, with a dispersion of 40Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2-4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects possible

  1. Optical gratings and grisms: developments on straylight and polarization sensitivity improved microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Torsten; Triebel, Peter; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission, reflection gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular distribution. Focusing

  2. Jonker pear analysis of oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M.Y.; Eisbernd, C.E.; Mason, T.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    Data for the normal state of the superconducting oxide systems YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}}, and the nonsuperconducting system La{sub 3}Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}O{sub 12.5 + {ital y}}, when plotted as thermoelectric coefficient versus logarithm of conductivity, exhibit Jonker pear behavior, confirming the semiconducting character of these materials. The symmetry of the plots indicates similar conduction parameters (density-of-states (DOS), transport constants, and mobilities) for {ital p}- and {ital n}-type mechanisms. Band gaps on the order of 0.5 eV are obtained. DOS-mobility products for the above-mentioned systems and La{sub 2 {minus} {ital x}}Ba{sub {ital x}}CuO{sub 4} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} scale roughly according to the density of copper ions in these materials and fall in the range 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 21} (cm {center dot} V {center dot} s){sup {minus} 1}. Assuming DOS equal to copper content results in mobilities on the order of 0.15 cm{sup 2} {center dot} V{sup {minus} 1} {center dot} s{sup 1}. These results are discussed in terms of possible semiconduction mechanisms.

  3. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  4. Improved Results in the Development of Large Silicon Grisms using New Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDavitt, D.; Ge, J.; Bernecker, J.; Miller, S.

    2001-12-01

    We present new results in the development of large silicon grisms ( ~ 25x25 mm2). Using photolithography, new etching techniques and post-processing steps we have obtained greatly improved results. Experiments were performed adding ammonium persulfate to the TMAH etching solution. This new method reduced the surface roughness up to ~30% (from rms 32 nm to 22 nm), eliminated all hillock formations and helped maintain constant etch rates. This combined with improved lithography processes has reduced the large-scale defects to less than a few per square inch. Other experiments in post-processing were also carried out. Thin layers of dry silicon dioxide were repeatedly added to and removed from the grating surface producing an additional improvement of ~20% to the surface roughness (from rms roughness of 22 nm to 16 nm) or a ~50% total improvement over previous results. Optical testing of a grating with rms roughness of 16 nm shows less than 1% integrated scattered light at 0.6328 um. We are applying the new techniques in etching an 80x40 mm2 grating on a ~ 30 mm thick substrate to make an anamorphic silicon immersion grating, which can provide a diffraction-limited spectral resolution (R = 200,000) at 2.2 micron.

  5. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ˜ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ˜40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ˜ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  6. Effect of harvest maturity on quality of fresh-cut pear salad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture of an unripe pear is firm and crisp, similar to an apple. However, at the crisp stage, the flavor of pears is flat. This study evaluated the effect of harvest maturity on the quality of fresh-cut pear salad. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and one month delayed. After 2 and 5 mon...

  7. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  13. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  14. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  15. 7 CFR 927.150 - Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. 927... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 927.150 Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. Pursuant to § 927.20(c), on and after July 1, 2013, the...

  16. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  17. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible Oregon and Washington pear growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pears grown...

  18. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  19. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  20. SPATIALLY RESOLVED HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A LENSED EMISSION LINE GALAXY AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Brenda L.; Hurley, Mairead; Bowen, David V.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Sharon, Keren; Straughn, Amber; Coe, Dan; Broadhurst, Tom; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-07-20

    We take advantage of gravitational lensing amplification by A1689 (z 0.187) to undertake the first space-based census of emission line galaxies (ELGs) in the field of a massive lensing cluster. Forty-three ELGs are identified to a flux of i{sub 775} = 27.3 via slitless grism spectroscopy. One ELG (at z = 0.7895) is very bright owing to lensing magnification by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 4.5. Several Balmer emission lines (ELs) detected from ground-based follow-up spectroscopy signal the onset of a major starburst for this low-mass galaxy (M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) with a high specific star formation rate ( Almost-Equal-To 20 Gyr{sup -1}). From the blue ELs we measure a gas-phase oxygen abundance consistent with solar (12+log(O/H) = 8.8 {+-} 0.2). We break the continuous line-emitting region of this giant arc into seven {approx}1 kpc bins (intrinsic size) and measure a variety of metallicity-dependent line ratios. A weak trend of increasing metal fraction is seen toward the dynamical center of the galaxy. Interestingly, the metal line ratios in a region offset from the center by {approx}1 kpc have a placement on the blue H II region excitation diagram with f ([O III])/f (H{beta}) and f ([Ne III])/f (H{beta}) that can be fitted by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This asymmetrical AGN-like behavior is interpreted as a product of shocks in the direction of the galaxy's extended tail, possibly instigated by a recent galaxy interaction.

  1. Antioxidant components and physico-chemical characteristics of jamun powder supplemented pear juice.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Swati; Ranote, Pushpinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    Studies were conducted to develop jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Two drying methods (Hot air cabinet drying and freeze drying) were used to prepare jamun pulp powder. Jamun powder was then blended with pear juice at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % levels for preparation of jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Among the drying methods used, freeze dried powder retained better bioactive compounds and possessed higher antioxidant activity as compared to hot air dried jamun powder. Analysis of color properties (L*, a*, b*) revealed lower L*, b* values and higher a* values with progression of supplementation levels indicating decreased brightness of product. Pear juice supplemented with 4 % jamun powder received highest overall acceptability scores and was chosen for development of final product. Physico-chemical characteristics of control pear juice did not vary much from when compared to jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Bioactive components mainly total phenols enhanced (9.24 % higher) with addition of jamun powder in pear juice. Addition of anthocyanins from jamun powder to pear juice upon blending improved antioxidant activity of the final product. Supplemented pear juice had 18.13 % higher antioxidant activity than pear juice without supplementation. Storage period of 6 months resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in jamun powder supplemented pear juice. PMID:27407197

  2. Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, C; Estévez, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Mecklenburg, P

    1998-01-01

    The use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 degrees Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 degrees Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: a(w); reducing sugars (as inverted sugar); glucose (%); ash content (%); sugar composition by TLC; OD (420 nm) and Y, x, y chromaticity coordinates; viscosity (cps) and density (g/ml). Sensory analyses to determine the relative sweetness were also conducted. Cactus pear syrup contained 52.38% reducing sugar. The syrup had a pH of 4.31, a viscosity of 27.05 cps, an Aw of 0.83, a density of 1.2900 g/ml, an acidity (as citric acid) of 0.74% and an ash content of 1.4%. Compared with traditional sweeteners such as fructose and glucose syrup, the acidity was greater than that of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) of 0.035%, and the ash values were considered a little high compared to glucose syrup which is 1.0%; these disparities can be attributed to the different processing conditions employed. Sensory evaluation revealed the same relative sweetness for cactus pear syrup and glucose, but lower than fructose; cactus pear syrup had a relative sweetness value of 67 with respect to sucrose (100). PMID:9839813

  3. Adventitious shoot regeneration of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adventitious shoot regeneration of twenty-four pear clones was compared in a common in vitro shoot induction and development protocol. This study also compared cultures newly established from scionwood with cultures that have been in long-term cold storage. In vitro cultures of 13 Pyrus clones and...

  4. Mineral nutrition influences physiological responses of pear in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological disorders such as callus, shoot tip necrosis and hyperhydricity are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation and their causes are not well understood. A comprehensive medium optimization study to improve the growth of pear shoot cultures was also designed to determine ...

  5. Resistance of breeding program selections and cultivars to pear psylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Pyrus communis L. clones and sixteen breeders’ selections and cultivars with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis Max. or P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai crossed with P. communis were evaluated for resistance to pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Forster) using a nymphal feeding antixen...

  6. Improving in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse pear germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral nutrition of in vitro plants is often difficult to optimize due to complex chemical interactions of required nutrients. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, Oregon has over 200 shoot cultures of pears, including 18 species and many cultivars. Plant growth response o...

  7. 'Sunrise': A new early maturing fire blight resistant pear cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sunrise' is a new pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. It combines a high degree of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. The sources of resistance in the pedigree are the old American cultivar, 'Seckel'...

  8. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-01

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis. PMID:25384245

  9. Development of Micro-Encapsulated Pear Ester Kairomone Spray Adjuvant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Quality Protection Act 1996 is banning the use of most organophosphate (OP) insecticides and limitations on VOC-based products are being considered. Thus, there is a need for alternative insecticides to be made more effective and affordable. Knight and Light (2001) reported that the pear ester...

  10. OHxF paternity problem perplexes pear producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early in the 20th century, a collection of fire blight resistant pears from around the world was assembled in southern Oregon in an effort to develop improved rootstocks. ‘Old Home’ and ‘Farmingdale’ are two cultivars from Illinois that exhibited strong fire blight resistance and useful horticultura...

  11. An exciting new European pear cultivar is coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant, European pear selection selected at the USDA-ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, WV. The tentative name is ‘Gem’. It has been extensively tested at the Oregon State University’s Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension Center in...

  12. Phenolic compounds and chromatographic profiles of pear skins (Pyrus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to analyze the phenolic components of 16 pear skins (Pyrus spp., varieties and cultivars). More than 30 flavonoids and 13 hydroxycinnamat...

  13. X-ray resonator with pear-shaped reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Churikov, V A

    2003-11-30

    An X-ray resonator design is proposed in which peculiar pear-shaped reflectors, which are grazing-incidence X-ray mirrors, serve as optical elements. Special features of this resonator are relatively high reflector efficiencies and the axial symmetry of the output radiation. (resonators)

  14. "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story." Standards of Learning Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through fifth grade are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story" written by George Wead. This play toured in Virginia in 1999-2000 and was performed by the high school theater touring company,…

  15. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  16. Spectroscopic confirmation of the rich z = 1.80 galaxy cluster JKCS 041 using the WFC3 grism: Environmental trends in the ages and structure of quiescent galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Andreon, Stefano; Raichoor, Anand; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-06-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and grism spectroscopy in the field of the distant galaxy cluster JKCS 041 using the Wide Field Camera 3. We confirm that JKCS 041 is a rich cluster and derive a redshift z = 1.80 via the spectroscopic identification of 19 member galaxies, of which 15 are quiescent. These are centered upon diffuse X-ray emission seen by the Chandra observatory. As JKCS 041 is the most distant known cluster with such a large, spectroscopically confirmed quiescent population, it provides a unique opportunity to study the effect of the environment on galaxy properties at early epochs. We construct high-quality composite spectra of the quiescent cluster members that reveal prominent Balmer and metallic absorption lines. Using these, we measure the mean stellar ages in two bins of stellar mass. The quiescent cluster members' ages agree remarkably closely with that inferred by Whitaker et al. for similarly selected samples in the field, supporting the idea that the cluster environment is more efficient at truncating star formation while not having a strong effect on the mean epoch of quenching. We find some evidence (90% confidence) for a lower fraction of disk-like quiescent systems in JKCS 041 compared to a sample of coeval field galaxies drawn from the CANDELS survey. Taking this into account, we do not detect a significant difference between the mass-radius relations of the quiescent JKCS 041 members and our z ∼ 1.8 field sample. Finally, we demonstrate how differences in the morphological mixture of quenched systems can complicate measures of the environmental dependence of size growth.

  17. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear. PMID:26292286

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length = 853 bp), including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1%) unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species. PMID:23234335

  19. Program for energy analysis of residences (PEAR) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Corin, N.

    1989-01-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. The extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Software Description: The software is written in the Turbo Pascal programming language for implementation on an IBM PC microcomputer using MS-DOS operating system. Software requires 128K of memory and a hard disk or two floppy disk drives with either a monochrome or color monitor. A graphics adapter is needed to implement the Bar Chart option.

  20. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  1. Orbital varix with a pearly phlebolith. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Kuroda, E; Fujii, T; Kawano, H; Kabuto, M; Hayashi, M

    1990-08-01

    A patient is described with an orbital varix arising from the right superior ophthalmic vein, associated with ophthalmoplegia and severe pain, and without proptosis. The varix was detected using computerized tomography and orbital phlebography, and at surgery was verified as a venous aneurysm. During the operation, a pearly phlebolith was found. Histological examination of the varix revealed multiple ectatic venous channels. The etiology of this unusual clinical manifestation and the treatment of the patient are briefly discussed. PMID:2366087

  2. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  3. PEAR2.1. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.

    1992-01-16

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING OF A GROWING COMPACT GALAXY AT z = 1.9

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    We present HST/WFC3 grism near-IR spectroscopy of the brightest galaxy at z > 1.5 in the GOODS-South WFC3 ERS grism pointing. The spectrum is of remarkable quality and shows the redshifted Balmer lines H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} in absorption at z = 1.902 {+-} 0.002. The absorption lines can be produced by a post-starburst stellar population with a luminosity-weighted age of {approx}0.5 Gyr. The mass-to-light ratio inferred from the spectrum implies a stellar mass of (4 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We determine the morphology of the galaxy from a deep WFC3 H{sub 160} image. Similar to other massive galaxies at z {approx} 2 the galaxy is compact, with an effective radius of 2.1 {+-} 0.3 kpc. Although most of the light is in a compact core, the galaxy has two red, smooth spiral arms that appear to be tidally induced. The spatially resolved spectroscopy demonstrates that the center of the galaxy is quiescent whereas the surrounding disk is forming stars, as it shows H{beta} in emission. The galaxy interacts with a companion at a projected distance of 18 kpc, which also shows prominent tidal features. The companion is a factor of {approx}10 fainter than the primary galaxy and may have a lower metallicity. It is tempting to interpret these observations as evidence for the growth of compact, quiescent high-redshift galaxies through minor mergers, which has been proposed by several recent observational and theoretical studies. Interestingly both objects host luminous active galactic nuclei, which implies that these mergers can be accompanied by significant black hole growth.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO PEAR PSYLLA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) AND EVALUATION OF FIELD PREDATION BY TWO KEY PREDATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, and related psyllids are important pests of pear worldwide. To improve our understanding of the impact made by the various predators of pear psylla we developed antibodies against this pest to be used in detecting prey remains in the predator’s guts. Antibodie...

  6. Host resistance to pear psylla of breeding program selections and cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one pear cultivars and breeders’ selections with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis Max. or P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai crossed with P. communis were assessed to resistance pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Förster) using a nymphal feeding antixenosis assay. The proportion of ...

  7. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  8. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  9. Effects of elicitors of host plant defenses on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of cultivated pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. We examined the effects of foliar applications of three commercially available chemical elicitors of host-plant defenses, Actigard, Employ, and ODC, ...

  10. Transferability of apple EST-SSRs and assessment of genetic diversity in pear genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 1,062 apple EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were screened and evaluated for cross-species transferability onto two different pear cultivars. PCR amplification of pear DNA leaf tissue samples was successful using 721 primer pairs demonstrating a high efficiency of transfe...