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Sample records for pears grism survey

  1. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  2. Results from Stacking Grism Spectra of Galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2 in the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhavin; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Windhorst, Rogier A.; PEARS team, FIGS team

    2016-06-01

    We present results from median stacking of low-resolution grism spectra for ~1700 galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2. The data are from the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS) which is a 200 orbit HST ACS G800L grism survey in GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The visible and near-IR coverage of the grism, 6000A to 9500A, provides rest-frame visible wavelength coverage from ~3000A to ~6000A for the redshift range of our sample. We median stack galaxies of similar rest-frame u-r color and stellar mass by selecting them based on their location in our u-r color vs stellar mass diagram. The grism spectra are stacked in bins of 0.3 in u-r color and 0.5 dex in stellar mass over a range of 0.0 < u-r < 3.0 and 7.0 < log(M) [M_sol] < 11.5 with an average of ~30 galaxies per bin. We find that blue cloud galaxies typically show bluer continua, Balmer breaks and also show H-beta and [OIII] emission lines that are blended together due to the low-resolution of the grism. Red sequence galaxies typically show strong 4000A breaks and redder continua and, at lower significance, also the G-band and Mgb absorption features characteristic of late type stars. We also observe that green valley galaxies, which form ~6% of the total sample, typically show weaker 4000A breaks and relatively flatter continua at wavelengths redder than 4000A.

  3. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber N.

    2013-07-20

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  4. GLASS: The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space. HST Grism Spectroscopy of the Frontier Fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borello Schmidt, Kasper

    2015-08-01

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space (GLASS) is a 140 orbit spectroscopic survey of 10 massive galaxy clusters, including the six Hubble Frontier Fields. GLASS has observed the cluster cores in the HST-WFC3 G102 and G141 grisms providing a wide wavelength coverage in the near-infrared from roughly 0.8 - 1.7 μm. The parallel fields were observed through the optical ACS G800L grism. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification of the clusters, GLASS reaches excellent spectroscopic limits of ˜10-18 erg/s/cm2 and improved spatial resolution for lensed sources behind the clusters. These features are particularly useful for the three main science drivers of GLASS, which are: I) Use the hundreds of spectra of galaxies at z>6 to shed light on the epoch of reionization, the role galaxies play in reionizing the universe, and the Lyα escape fraction at the cosmic dawn. II) Study gas accretion, star formation, and outflows by spatially mapping resolved star formation and determine metallicity gradients from emission lines at z˜2. III) Explore the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution using the first comprehensive census of spatially resolved star formation in dense environments, i.e., the cluster cores as well as the cluster infall regions. The former two benefit highly from the improved depth and increased resolution provided by the cluster lensing. Apart from the main science drivers, a slew of ancillary science has been enabled by the survey. One particularly interesting example is the search for supernovae in the more than 40 GLASS visits, which resulted in the detection of the first multiple imaged supernova, SN Refsdal. I will present the survey, give an update on the current science results, in particular on the GLASS galaxies at the epoch of reionization, and provide a status report on the GLASS data releases, which are continuously being made available to the community.

  5. Spectrophotometric Redshifts in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharo, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined HST grism spectroscopy and deep broadband imaging to measure spectro-photometric redshifts (SPZs) of faint galaxies. Using a technique pioneered by Ryan et al. 2007, one can combine spectra and photometry to yield an SPZ that is more accurate than pure photometric redshifts, and can probe more deeply than ground-based spectroscopic redshifts. By taking mid-resolution spectra from the HST Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS), SPZs can be found for measurements potentially down to 27th magnitude (the typical brightness of a dwarf galaxy at redshift ∼1.5). A galaxy’s redshift is vital for understanding its place in the growth and evolution of the universe. The measurement of high-accuracy SPZs for FIGS sources will improve the faint-end and high-redshift portions of the luminosity function, and make possible a robust analysis of the FIGS fields for signs of Large Scale Structure (LSS). The improved redshift and distance measurements allowed for the identification of a structure at z=0.83 in one of the FIGS fields.

  6. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Cohen, Seth; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Meurer, Gernhardt; Straughn, Amber N.

    2013-01-01

    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  7. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc; Bunker, Andrew; Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal L.

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  8. Predicting Future Space Near-IR Grism Surveys Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, James W.; Teplitz, Harry; Atek, Hakim; Bunker, Andrew; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G.; Dominguez, Alberto; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Martin, Crystal L.; Masters, Dan; McCarthy, Patrick; Siana, Brian

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg2) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg-2 above an Hα flux of 2 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution in both the Hα luminosity function from z = 0.3-1.5 and the [O III] luminosity function from z = 0.7-2.3 is

  9. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). I. Survey Overview and First Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Wang, X.; Bradač, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Henry, A. L.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Jones, T. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Mason, C.; Pentericci, L.; Poggianti, B.; Stiavelli, M.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.

    2015-10-01

    We give an overview of the Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at obtaining grism spectroscopy of the fields of 10 massive clusters of galaxies at redshift z = 0.308-0.686, including the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) yields near-infrared spectra of the cluster cores covering the wavelength range 0.81-1.69 μm through grisms G102 and G141, while the Advanced Camera for Surveys in parallel mode provides G800L spectra of the infall regions of the clusters. The WFC3 spectra are taken at two almost orthogonal position angles in order to minimize the effects of confusion. After summarizing the scientific drivers of GLASS, we describe the sample selection as well as the observing strategy and data processing pipeline. We then utilize MACS J0717.5+3745, a HFF cluster and the first one observed by GLASS, to illustrate the data quality and the high-level data products. Each spectrum brighter than {H}{{AB}}=23 is visually inspected by at least two co-authors and a redshift is measured when sufficient information is present in the spectra. Furthermore, we conducted a thorough search for emission lines through all of the GLASS WFC3 spectra with the aim of measuring redshifts for sources with continuum fainter than {H}{{AB}}=23. We provide a catalog of 139 emission-line-based spectroscopic redshifts for extragalactic sources, including three new redshifts of multiple image systems (one probable, two tentative). In addition to the data itself, we also release software tools that are helpful to navigate the data.

  10. Spectroscopic CCD surveys for quasars at large redshift. 3: The Palomar Transit Grism Survey catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the initial results of the Palomar Transit Grism Survey (PTGS). The PTGS was designed to produce a sample of z greater than 2.7 quasars that were identified by well-defined selection criteria. The survey consists of six narrow (approximately equal to 8.5 min wide) strips of sky; the total effective area is 61.47 sq deg. Low-resolution slitless spectra, covering the wavelength range from 4400 to 7500 A, were obtained for approximately 600 000 objects. The wavelength- and flux-calibrated spectra were searched for emission lines with an automatic software algorithm. A total to 1655 emission features in the grism data satisfied our signal-to-noise ratio and equivalent width selection criteria; subsequent slit spectroscopy of the candidates confirmed the existence of 1052 lines (928 different objects). Six groups of emission lines were detected in the survey: Lyman alpha + N V, C IV, C III1, Mg II, H Beta + (O III), and H alpha + (S II). More than two-thirds of the candidates are low-redshift (z less than 0.45) emission-line galaxies; ninety objects are high-redshift quasars (z greater than 2.7) detected via their Lyman alpha + N V emission lines. The survey contains three previously unknown quasars brighter than 17th magnitude; all three have redshifts of approximately equal to 1.3. In this paper we present the observational properties of the survey, the algorithms used to select the emission-line candidates, and the catalog of emission-line objects.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). I. (Treu+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Wang, X.; Bradac, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Henry, A. L.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Jones, T. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Mason, C.; Pentericci, L.; Poggianti, B.; Stiavelli, M.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we give an overview of Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS; PI Treu; GO 13459) and we present the first release of the data for MACS J0717.5+3745, the first cluster targeted by the survey. Spectra for 1151 galaxies down to magnitude HAB=24 (F140W) have been visually inspected by members of our team to ensure quality control. GLASS is a cycle-21 large program with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), targeting 10 massive clusters, including the 6 Frontier Fields, using the WFC3 and ACS grisms. The program consists of 140 primary orbits (with the G102 and G141 grisms; range 0.81-1.69μm) and 140 parallel orbits (with the G800L grism). (2 data files).

  12. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbe, Ivo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of {approx}7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when {approx}60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin{sup 2}) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}5 per resolution element at H{sub 140} {approx} 23.1 and a 5{sigma} emission-line sensitivity of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} for typical objects, improving by a factor of {approx}2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 {mu}m at a spatial resolution of {approx}0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of {sigma}(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or {sigma}(v) Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1}. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z {approx} 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will

  13. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE PEARS SURVEY: PROBING THE STELLAR POPULATIONS AT MODERATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Pirzkal, Nor; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Panagia, Nino; Lisker, Thorsten; Daddi, Emanuele; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2009-11-20

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) slitless grism spectra from the PEARS program, we study the stellar populations of morphologically selected early-type galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. The sample-extracted from a visual classification of the (v2.0) HST/ACS images and restricted to redshifts z > 0.4-comprises 228 galaxies (i {sub F775W} < 24 mag, AB) out to z approx< 1.3 over 320 arcmin{sup 2}, with a median redshift z {sub M} = 0.75. This work significantly increases our previous sample from the GRAPES survey in the HUDF (18 galaxies over approx11 arcmin{sup 2}). The grism data allow us to separate the sample into 'red' and 'blue' spectra, with the latter comprising 15% of the total. Three different grids of models parameterizing the star formation history are used to fit the low-resolution spectra. Over the redshift range of the sample-corresponding to a cosmic age between 5 and 10 Gyr-we find a strong correlation between stellar mass and average age, whereas the spread of ages (defined by the root mean square of the distribution) is roughly approx1 Gyr and independent of stellar mass. The best-fit parameters suggest that it is the formation epoch and not the formation timescale that best correlates with mass in early-type galaxies. This result-along with the recently observed lack of evolution of the number density of massive galaxies-motivates the need for a channel of (massive) galaxy formation bypassing any phase in the blue cloud, as suggested by the simulations of Dekel et al.

  14. METALLICITIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM HST ACS PEARS AND HST WFC3 ERS GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AT 0.6 < z < 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; O'Connell, Robert

    2012-07-15

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission-line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3. Using a sample of 11 emission-line galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -19 which have [O II], H{beta}, and [O III] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo ({pi}MC{sup 2}) fitting of their spectral energy distribution, and span the mass range 8.1 < log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} ) < 10.1. These galaxies show mass-metallicity (M-Z) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations, which are offset by -0.6 dex in metallicity at given absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, as well as continuum-selected DEEP2 samples at similar redshifts. The emission-line-selected galaxies most resemble the local 'green peas' galaxies and Ly{alpha} galaxies at z {approx_equal} 0.3 and z {approx_equal} 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M{sub 20} morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-line Galaxies from Infrared Grism Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E.; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; Mutchler, Max; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Young, Erick T.; Xu, Chun

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 <~ z <~ 1.4, 1.2 <~ z <~ 2.2, and 2.0 <~ z <~ 3.3, respectively, in the G102 (0.8-1.1 μm R ~= 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 μm R ~= 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 48 ELGs to m AB(F098M) ~= 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ~= 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M)= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z >~ 2.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-15

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 {mu}m from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 {mu}m grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the H{alpha}, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.4, 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.2, and 2.0 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.3, respectively, in the G102 (0.8-1.1 {mu}m; R {approx_equal} 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 {mu}m; R {approx_equal} 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 48 ELGs to m A{sub B(F098M)} {approx_equal} 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts ({Delta}z {approx_equal} 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m{sub AB(F098M)}= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the

  17. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  18. Emission-Line Galaxies from the NICMOS/Hubble Space Telescope Grism Parallel Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Patrick J.; Yan, Lin; Freudling, Wolfram; Teplitz, Harry I.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Weymann, Ray J.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Fosbury, Robert A. E.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Thompson, Rodger I.; Williams, Robert E.; Heap, Sara R.

    1999-08-01

    We present the first results of a survey of random fields with the slitless G141 (λc=1.5 μm, Δλ=0.8 μm) grism on the near-IR camera and multiobject spectrometer (NICMOS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Approximately 64 arcmin2 have been observed at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes. The 3 σ limiting line and continuum fluxes in each field vary from 7.5×10-17 to 1×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1, and from H=20 to 22, respectively. Our median and area-weighted 3 σ limiting line fluxes within a 4 pixel aperture are nearly identical at 4.1×10-17 ergs cm-2 s-1 and are 60% deeper than the deepest narrowband imaging surveys from the ground. We have identified 33 emission-line objects and derive their observed wavelengths, fluxes, and equivalent widths. We argue that the most likely line identification is Hα and that the redshift range probed is from 0.75 to 1.9. The 2 σ rest-frame equivalent width limits range from 9 to 130 Å, with an average of 40 Å. The survey probes an effective comoving volume of 105 h-350 Mpc3 for q0=0.5. Our derived comoving number density of emission-line galaxies in the range 0.7

  19. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS): Dissecting reionization, z~2 galaxies, and dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, Tommaso; GLASS Team

    2016-01-01

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) is a large HST cycle-21 program targeting 10 massive galaxy clusters with extensive HST imaging from CLASH and the Frontier Field Initiative. The program consists of 140 primary and 140 parallel orbits of near-infrared WCF3 and optical ACS grism observations, which result in spatially resolved spectroscopy of thousands of galaxies. GLASS has three primary science drivers although a wide variety of other science investigations are possible with the public GLASS data (e.g. SN 'Refsdal'). The key science goals of GLASS are to: 1) shed light on the epoch of reionization, by measuring the lyman alpha optical depth at z>6 2) Study gas accretion, star formation, and outflows by spatially mapping resolved star formation and determine metallicity gradients from emission lines of galaxies at 1.3

  20. Emission Line Science in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS) Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark David; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Pharo, John; Rhoads, James E.; FIGS Team

    2016-01-01

    Emission lines can reveal a bounty of information about the processes occurring within a galaxy. Physical properties such as star formation rate and metallicity can be determined from ratios of emission line fluxes. The study of emission line galaxies (ELGs) through cosmic time gives insight into the processes by which galaxies evolve. Extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs), typified by strong nebular emission lines which dominate their spectra, are of interest because they are well known to be galaxies undergoing periods of intense star formation. Slitless grism spectroscopy offers a significant advantage to the study of ELGs and EELGs, allowing for measurement of the spectra of a large number of galaxies within a field. This allows for detection of ELGs and EELGs with few selection biases. Optical follow-up of FIGS-selected sources allows for analysis of star formation rate (SFR) through H-alpha measurements over the redshift range 0.3

  1. Metallicities of Emission-Line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 is less than z is less than 2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Lifang; Malhotra, Sangetta; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert; Kuemmel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission line strength. show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low resolution grism spectra in the optiCa.i with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using a sample of 11 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 approx < MB approx -19 which have [OII], H-Beta, and [OIII] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 <12+log(0/H)<8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (pi MC(exp 2)) fitting of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and span the mass range 8.1 < log(M(stellar)/M(solar)) < 10.1. These galaxies show a mass-metal1icity (M-L) and Luminosity-Metallicity (LZ) relation, which is offset by -

  2. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  3. Mapping the spatial distribution of star formation in cluster galaxies at z ~0.5 with the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, B.; Treu, T.; Schmidt, K. B.; Poggianti, B. M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Bradač, M.; Brammer, G. B.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.; Malkan, M.; Pentericci, L.; Trenti, M.; von der Linden, A.; Abramson, L.; He, J.; Morris, G.

    2016-06-01

    What physical processes regulate star formation in dense environments? Understanding why galaxy evolution is environment dependent is one of the key questions of current astrophysics. I will present the first characterization of the spatial distribution of star formation in cluster galaxies at z~0.5, and compare to a field control sample, in order to quantify the role of different physical processes that are believed to be responsible for shutting down star formation (Vulcani et al. 2015, Vulcani et al. in prep). The analysis makes use of data from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large HST cycle-21 program targeting 10 massive galaxy clusters with extensive HST imaging from CLASH and the Frontier Field Initiative. The program consists of 140 primary and 140 parallel orbits of near-infrared WCF3 and optical ACS slitless grism observations, which result in 3D spectroscopy of hundreds of galaxies. The grism data are used to produce spatially resolved maps of the star formation density, while the stellar mass density and optical surface brightness are obtained from multiband imaging. I will describe quantitative measures of the spatial location and extent of the star formation rate. I will show that both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside out growth. The Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. I will also correlate the properties of the Hα maps to the cluster global properties, such as the hot gas density, and the surface mass density. The characterization of the spatial distribution of Halpha provides a new window, yet poorly exploited, on the mechanisms that regulate star formation and morphological

  4. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya; Stern, Daniel; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Hathi, Nimish; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Kuemmel, Martin; Meurer, Gerhardt; and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  5. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). III. A Census of Lyα Emission at z ≳ 7 from HST Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Vulcani, B.; Huang, K.-H.; Hoag, A.; Maseda, M.; Guaita, L.; Pentericci, L.; Brammer, G. B.; Dijkstra, M.; Dressler, A.; Fontana, A.; Henry, A. L.; Jones, T. A.; Mason, C.; Trenti, M.; Wang, X.

    2016-02-01

    We present a census of Lyα emission at z≳ 7, utilizing deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy from the first six completed clusters of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). In 24/159 photometrically selected galaxies we detect emission lines consistent with Lyα in the GLASS spectra. Based on the distribution of signal-to-noise ratios and on simulations, we expect the completeness and the purity of the sample to be 40%-100% and 60%-90%, respectively. For the objects without detected emission lines we show that the observed (not corrected for lensing magnification) 1σ flux limits reach 5 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 per position angle over the full wavelength range of GLASS (0.8-1.7 μm). Based on the conditional probability of Lyα emission measured from the ground at z˜ 7, we would have expected 12-18 Lyα emitters. This is consistent with the number of detections, within the uncertainties, confirming the drop in Lyα emission with respect to z˜ 6. Deeper follow-up spectroscopy, here exemplified by Keck spectroscopy, is necessary to improve our estimates of completeness and purity and to confirm individual candidates as true Lyα emitters. These candidates include a promising source at z = 8.1. The spatial extent of Lyα in a deep stack of the most convincing Lyα emitters with < z> = 7.2 is consistent with that of the rest-frame UV continuum. Extended Lyα emission, if present, has a surface brightness below our detection limit, consistent with the properties of lower-redshift comparison samples. From the stack we estimate upper limits on rest-frame UV emission line ratios and find {f}{{C}{{IV}}}/{f}{Lyα }≲ 0.32 and {f}{{C}{{III}}]}/{f}{Lyα }≲ 0.23, in good agreement with other values published in the literature.

  6. First Results from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS): First Simultaneous Detection of Lyα Emission and Lyman Break from a Galaxy at z = 7.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; Christensen, L.; Hathi, N.; Pharo, J.; Joshi, B.; Yang, H.; Gronwall, C.; Cimatti, A.; Walsh, J.; O’Connell, R.; Straughn, A.; Ostlin, G.; Rothberg, B.; Livermore, R. C.; Hibon, P.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2016-08-01

    Galaxies at high redshifts are a valuable tool for studying cosmic dawn, therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyα emission and the Lyman break from a z=7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with the G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6σ ) in two observational position angles (PAs), with Lyα line flux of 1.06+/- 0.19× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2. The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than that in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations, implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates the total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyα measurements. A 4σ detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed, would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found. These observations from HST thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy for studying the epoch of reionization.

  7. Star formation, extinction and metallicity at 0.7grism survey of GOODS-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    The global star formation rate {SFR} is 10x higher at z=1 than today. This could be due to drastically elevated SFR in some fraction of galaxies, such as mergers with central bursts, or a higher SFR across the board. Either means that the conditions in z=1 star forming galaxies could be quite different from local objects. The next step beyond measuring the global SFR is to determine the dependence of SFR, obscuration, metallicity, and size of the star-forming region on galaxy mass and redshift. However, SFR indicators at z=1 typically apply local calibrations for UV, [O II] and far-IR, and do not agree with each other on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis. Extinction, metallicity, and dust properties cause uncontrolled offsets in SFR calibrations. The great missing link is Balmer H-alpha, the most sensitive probe of SFR. We propose a slitless WFC3/G141 IR grism survey of GOODS-N, at 2 orbits/pointing. It will detect Ha+[N II] emission from 0.7 600 galaxies, and a small number of higher-redshift emitters. This will produce: an emission-line redshift survey unbiased by magnitude and color selection; star formation rates as a function of galaxy properties, e.g. stellar mass and morphology/mergers measured by ACS; comparisons of SFRs from H-alpha to UV and far-IR indicators; calibrations of line ratios of H-alpha to important nebular lines such as [O II] and H-beta, measuring variations in metallicity and extinction and their effect on SFR estimates; and the first measurement of scale lengths of the H-alpha emitting, star-forming region in a large sample of z 1 sources.

  8. The 3D-HST Survey: Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/G141 Grism Spectra, Redshifts, and Emission Line Measurements for ~ 100,000 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica J.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickey, Claire; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Illingworth, Garth; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Ulf Lange, Johannes; Lundgren, Britt F.; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Oesch, Pascal; Pacifici, Camilla; Patel, Shannon G.; Price, Sedona; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A.; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2016-08-01

    We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 H 140 imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel I 814 imaging. In a previous paper, we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N (PI: B. Weiner). We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxies explicitly into account. The resulting catalog has redshifts and line strengths (where available) for 22,548 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 (79,609 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 26). Of these, 5459 galaxies are at z\\gt 1.5 and 9621 are at 0.7\\lt z\\lt 1.5, where Hα falls in the G141 wavelength coverage. The typical redshift error for {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 galaxies is {σ }z≈ 0.003× (1+z), i.e., one native WFC3 pixel. The 3σ limit for emission line fluxes of point sources is 2.1× {10}-17 erg s‑1 cm‑2. All 2D and 1D spectra, as well as redshifts, line fluxes, and other derived parameters, are publicly available.18

  9. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). II. Gas-Phase Metallicity and Radial Gradients in an Interacting System At Z ≃ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G. B.; Bradač, M.; Dressler, A.; Henry, A. L.; Malkan, M. A.; Pentericci, L.; Trenti, M.

    2015-03-01

    We present spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity for a system of three galaxies at z = 1.85 detected in the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). The combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST’s) diffraction limit and strong gravitational lensing by the cluster MACS J0717+3745 results in a spatial resolution of ≃200-300 pc, enabling good spatial sampling despite the intrinsically small galaxy sizes. The galaxies in this system are separated by ≃50-200 kpc in projection and are likely in an early stage of interaction, evidenced by relatively high specific star formation rates. Their gas-phase metallicities are consistent with larger samples at similar redshift, star formation rate (SFR), and stellar mass. We obtain a precise measurement of the metallicity gradient for one galaxy and find a shallow slope compared to isolated galaxies at high redshift, consistent with a flattening of the gradient due to gravitational interaction. An alternative explanation for the shallow metallicity gradient and elevated SFR is rapid recycling of metal-enriched gas, but we find no evidence for enhanced gas-phase metallicities which should result from this effect. Notably, the measured stellar masses log {{M}*}/{{M}} = 7.2-9.1 probe to an order of magnitude below previous mass-metallicity studies at this redshift. The lowest mass galaxy has properties similar to those expected for Fornax at this redshift, indicating that GLASS is able to directly study the progenitors of local group dwarf galaxies on spatially resolved scales. Larger samples from the full GLASS survey will be ideal for studying the effects of feedback, and the time evolution of metallicity gradients. These initial results demonstrate the utility of HST spectroscopy combined with gravitational lensing for characterizing resolved physical properties of galaxies at high redshift.

  10. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  11. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (Glass). V. Extent and Spatial Distribution of Star Formation in Z ˜ 0.5 Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Dressler, Alan; Fontana, Adriano; Bradač, Marusa; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; Malkan, Matthew; Pentericci, Laura; Trenti, Michele; von der Linden, Anja; Abramson, Louis; He, Julie; Morris, Glenn

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ˜ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 108-1011 M⊙ and star formation rates in the range 1-20 M⊙ yr-1. Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ˜20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set.

  12. Cryogenic VPH grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Murata, Chihiro; Taniguchi, Yuichiro; Okura, Tsutomu; Harashima, Masakazu; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Maruyama, Miyoko; Iye, Masanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    We present the development and first astronomical applications of VPH grisms which are now operated at cryogenic temperature in MOIRCS, a Cassegrain near-infrared instrument of the Subaru Telescope. We designed and fabricated the VPH grisms with a resolving power ~3000 for the use in near-infrared bands. The VPH grating, encapsulated in BK7 glass, is glued between two ZnSe prisms with vertex angle of 20 deg. After repeating several thermal cycles down to ~100 K carefully enough not to cause irreparable damage on the grism during cooling, we evaluated the performance at cryogenic temperature in the laboratory and found no deterioration and no large difference in the performance from that measured in room temperature. Based on commissioning observations with MOIRCS, we have confirmed the high efficiency (~0.8) and the resolving power of the original design. Common use of the grisms is due to start in the second semester of 2008.

  13. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  14. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-Line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straughn, A. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; Balick, B.; Bond, H. E.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimlbe, R. A.; Trauger, J. T.; Young, E. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6-1.6 microns from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L (0.6-0.95 micron) grism data in GOODS South, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The ERS grism field was observed at a depth of 2 orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which are presented here. ELGs are studied via the Ha, [O III ], and [OII] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.6, 1.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 2.4 and 2.0 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 3.6 respectively in the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R approximately 210) and C141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R approximately 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 25 ELGs to M(sub AB)(F098M) approximately 25 mag. The faintest source in our sample with a strong but unidentified emission line--is MAB(F098M)=26.9 mag. We also detect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample, indicative of downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes.

  15. Survey of susceptibility to abamectin of pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Civolani, S; Cassanelli, S; Rivi, M; Manicardi, G C; Peretto, R; Chicca, M; Pasqualini, E; Leis, M

    2010-06-01

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a relevant pest of pear, Pyrus communis L., trees in Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). The susceptibility to the insecticide abamectin was evaluated at different times of the year on C. pyri populations undergoing different control strategies within conventional, integrated, and organic farms. The tests performed were the egg spray and the topic and dip bioassay on adults. The larval mortality was evaluated by dip bioassay on treated leaves. The activity of P450-dependent monooxygenases, a relevant enzyme system involved in insecticide resistance of C. pyri, was also determined in adults by 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD assay). Tests on treated eggs and on larvae showed no significant differences in LC50 and LC90, although these values were always lower in individuals collected from organic farms in comparison with all other farms. Tests on overwintering adults revealed differences among populations, probably more related to collection time than to field pest control strategies. Unexpectedly, the ECOD assay on adults showed a slightly higher cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity in the population undergoing organic control in comparison to others. Our results indicate that egg spray is the most reliable bioassay to verify data of open-field applications. Apparently, no resistance to abamectin has yet been developed by C. pyri in Emilia-Romagna. PMID:20568628

  16. Low temperature GRISM direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkowski, Gerhard; Harnisch, Gerd; Grabowski, Kevin; Benkenstein, Tino; Ehrhardt, Sascha; Zeitner, Uwe; Risse, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    For spectroscopy in space, GRISM elements -obtained by patterning gratings on a prism surface - are gaining increasing interest. Originally developed as dispersive elements for insertion into an imaging light path without deflecting the beam, they are progressively found in sophisticated multi stage dispersion optics. We report on GRISM manufacturing by joining the individual functional elements -prisms and gratings - to suitable components. Fused silica was used as glass material and the gratings were realized by e-beam lithography und dry etching. Alignment of the grating dispersion direction to the prism angle was realized by passive adjustment. Materials adapted bonds of high transmission, stiffness and strength were obtained at temperatures of about 200°C in vacuum by hydrophilic direct bonding. Examples for bonding uncoated as well as coated fused silica surfaces are given. The results illustrate the great potential of hydrophilic glass direct bonding for manufacturing transmission optics to be used under highly demanding environmental conditions, as typical in space.

  17. 'Sunrise' pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sunrise' is a new pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. It combines a high degree of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. The sources of resistance in the pedigree are the old American cultivar, 'Seckel'...

  18. Machine Learning: Quality Control of HST Grism Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Lombardi, M.; Nilsson, K.; Rosa, M.

    2011-07-01

    The Pipeline for Hubble Legacy Archive Grism data (PHLAG) had been used to extract more than 70000 wavelength and flux calibrated 1D spectra. They were obtained from 153 fields observed in G800L grism spectroscopy mode with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This number of spectra is far too large to allow detailed visual inspection for quality control on reasonable time-scales. As a solution, we use machine learning techniques to classify spectra into "good" and "bad" based on a careful visual inspection of only about 3% of the full sample. A final visual skim through the set of "good" spectra was made to remove catastrophic failures. The remaining 47919 spectra form the largest set of slitless high-level spectroscopic data products publicly released to date.

  19. Design, Fabrication and Test of WFIRST-AFTA GRISM Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Kruk, Jeffrey; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Smith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is designed to perform wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopic survey of the sky. A compound Grism assembly is selected as its slitless dispersing element. Compared to the grisms in several instruments installed on the Hubble space telescope, the challenge of this grism is the much wider Field Of View (FOV), larger dispersion, and smaller f. The image quality of the slitless spectrometer is directly related to how deep of the sky the spectrometer is able to see. This paper discusses how to use a diffractive lens surface to compensate the wavelength dependent aberration created by the grating in non-collimated space to make the spectrometer diffraction limited, as well as how to intelligently combine the two diffractive surfaces (lens and grating) to reduce the unwanted diffraction orders from the grating. The paper also discusses how to improve the diffraction efficiency of the diffractive surfaces, as well as how to align and assemble the optics.

  20. Pyrus L. Pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed properties for the genus Pyrus (Pears) are described. This genus of the family Rosacea probably originated in the mountain regions of western and southwestern China and spread to the east and west. Cultivation of pears was first mentioned about 3000 years ago. About 24 species and subspecies...

  1. A WFC3 Grism Emission Line Redshift Catalog in the GOODS-South Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Aaron M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Barro, Guillermo; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Grützbauch, Ruth; Guo, Yicheng; Hsu, Li-Ting; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) imaging and G141 grism observations from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1≤slant λ ≤slant 1.7 μm with a resolving power of R∼ 130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z∼ 3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H ≤slant 24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift {{z}phot}≥slant 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines, and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of {{σ }NMAD}=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 arcmin2 and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677≤slant z≤slant 3.456 and have a median redshift of z = 1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z\\gt 1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z∼ 2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.

  2. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; diSeregoAlighieri, Sperello

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  3. GRISM Spectophotometry of the Uranus Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bradford

    1997-07-01

    Details of the near-infrared spectral reflectance of the Uranus rings are poorly known, because of problems associated with the scattered light from the planet. Grism spectroscopy of the brightest part of the Epsilon ring will be made with the planet just outside the field of view. To minimize the glare from Uranus, the observations should made when the widest part of the Epsilon ring is at a position angle of approximately 174 degrees. This is one in a series of observations designed to intercompare the near-infrared spectral reflectivity of dark objects in the solar system. Some record of processes that occurred within the Uranus subnebula may be left on the surfaces of the ring particles or the surface coatings of the associated dark inner satellites.

  4. ACS grism spectra in the HDF-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, G. R.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; Gronwall, C.; Benitez, N.; Franx, M.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Cross, N.; Ford, H. C.; Martel, A. R.; Tran, H. D.; Illingworth, G. D.; Clampin, M.; Postman, M.; Allen, T.; Anderson, K.; Ardila, D. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Golimowski, D. A.; McCann, Wm. J.; Menanteau, F.; Sirianni, M.; Zheng, W.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C.; Hartig, G.; Krist, J.; Sparks, W. B.; White, R. L.; Cheng, E.; Kimble, R. A.; Campbell, D.; Sullivan, P.; Bouwens, R.; Magee, D.; Bartko, F.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Infante, L.; Lesser, M.; Miley, G.; Rosati, P.; Volmer, P.; Rafal, M.; Woodruff, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    We present slitless spectra of sources in the Hubble Deep Field North obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. The Wide Field Camera was used to obtain dithered observations with a total exposure of 6700s (3 orbits) with the G800L grism. We concentrate on objects with published redshifts obtained spectroscopically and photometrically. In addition, we use a semi-automated technique to identify sources with emission line spectra, and those with broad stellar features. Sources with emission lines having a peak S/N > 4, have a median mF775W = 24.6 ABmag. This is 1.5 mag fainter than the median mF775W of objects in the Cohen et al. (2000, ApJ, 538, 29) spectroscopic redshift survey, illustrating that the G800L is a potentially useful tool for obtaining spectroscopic data of faint compact sources. ACS was developed under NASA contract NAS 5-32865, and this research is supported by NASA grant NAG5-7697. We are grateful for an equipment grant from the Sun Microsystems, Inc.

  5. Control of Spectral Phase of Ultrafast Optical Pulses with Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Charles; Field, Jeff; Squier, Jeff; Kane, Steve

    2008-10-01

    High-quality dispersion management is critical for ultrafast optics. Grisms are a combination of diffraction gratings and prisms. We can use grisms for high-fidelity control of the spectral phase of ultrafast pulses, making systems much more compact and easy to adjust. While the spectral phase of a given system can be obtained with ray-tracing, analytic expressions are desirable for exploring and optimizing new designs. We show that we can analytically calculate the spectral phase of a range of grism-like structures by making a superposition of basic tilted window modules. For example, a prism pair can be described by starting with a tilted slab of glass, which defines the outer edges of the prism pair. The inner edges of the prism pair are then created by superposing a tilted slab of air, which removes glass between the prisms. We will discuss the applications of these grism designs to ultrafast amplifiers and pulse shapers.

  6. Spatially Resolved WFC3/Grism Spectral Line Imaging of Gravitational Lensed Herschel-selected Luminous Dusty Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2013-10-01

    We propose WFC3 G102 and G141 grism spectral imaging of two gravitationally lensed dusty, starburst galaxies found with the 600 square degree Herschel-ATLAS survey. One galaxy is the brightest {both in far-IR at 250 micron and in near-IR in J/K-band}, while the second is the largest {11 arcsec on the sky} of the lensed sub-mm galaxies in a sample of 200 imaged with WFC3/F110W. The two galaxies are at redshifts that are optimal for grism observations with HST/WFC3. The lensing flux magnification and spatial enhancement makes them very unique for the study proposed hereand will increase the number of lensed galaxies imaged in spectral lines with WFC3 grisms to three from existing single serendipitous lens studied in HST-3D survey. With WFC3 grism spectra taken in a specific orientation to minimize foreground and lensing galaxy confusion we can map each of these galaxies in a variety of spatially-resolved spectral lines in the rest-frame optical, including impostant Balmer lines for studies on the interstellar medium. The grism spectra will allow us to determine the gas-phase metallicities of these two galaxies and to study the extinction of optically-thin regions compared to direct sub-mm emission seen in interferometric continuum images of optically thick dust in starbursting knots and clumps. With spatial resolution provided by gravitational lensing combined with HST/WFC3 resolution, we will be able to study the dependence of line ratios in high density/SFR regions to low dense diffuse environments.

  7. Fragrant pear sexuality recognition with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Benxue; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    In this research, a method to identify Kuler fragrant pear's sexuality with machine vision was developed. Kuler fragrant pear has male pear and female pear. They have an obvious difference in favor. To detect the sexuality of Kuler fragrant pear, images of fragrant pear were acquired by CCD color camera. Before feature extraction, some preprocessing is conducted on the acquired images to remove noise and unnecessary contents. Color feature, perimeter feature and area feature of fragrant pear bottom image were extracted by digital image processing technique. And the fragrant pear sexuality was determined by complexity obtained from perimeter and area. In this research, using 128 Kurle fragrant pears as samples, good recognition rate between the male pear and the female pear was obtained for Kurle pear's sexuality detection (82.8%). Result shows this method could detect male pear and female pear with a good accuracy.

  8. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...

  9. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  10. Updated Calibration and Backgrounds for the WFC3 IR Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Brammer, Gabriel; Ryan, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    We present new and improved calibration of the WFC IR (G102 and G141) grism mode. These new calibrations were generated by combining data obtained over six observing cycles and include a better sampling of the field of view. The result is a calibration of the spectral trace that has been improved to better than 0.1 detector pixel. A new fiducial wavelength reference spectrum is now used to calibrate the wavelength dispersion of the grisms and we show that the rms of the solution has been reduced to approximately 7 and 14 Angstrom for the G102 and G141 grisms, over the entire field of view. Overall, both the trace and wavelength calibration have been improved by about a factor of two and the G102 and G141 solutions are in better agreement at wavelengths where the two grisms overlap. We demonstrate that the grism calibration can be extrapolated for objects that are outside of the field of view but still result in dispersed spectra on the WFC3 detector.We also present new master sky images that can be used to improve the sky background subtraction from grism exposures. The individual components of the new background model include the zodiacal continuum and a strong He I emission line at 1.083 microns from the upper atmosphere. We find that fitting science exposures with a linear combination of these two background components enables modeling of the WFC3/IR grism background with an accuracy that is better than ~0.01 electrons/s/pix across the detector.

  11. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order....

  12. The Hubble Legacy Archive NICMOS grism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudling, W.; Kümmel, M.; Haase, J.; Hook, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J.

    2008-11-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) aims to create calibrated science data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive and make them accessible via user-friendly and Virtual Observatory (VO) compatible interfaces. It is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) and the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF). Data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) instruments with slitless spectroscopy modes are among the most difficult to extract and exploit. As part of the HLA project, the ST-ECF aims to provide calibrated spectra for objects observed with these HST slitless modes. In this paper, we present the HLA NICMOS G141 grism spectra. We describe in detail the calibration, data reduction and spectrum extraction methods used to produce the extracted spectra. The quality of the extracted spectra and associated direct images is demonstrated through comparison with near-IR imaging catalogues and existing near-IR spectroscopy. The output data products and their associated metadata are publicly available (http://hla.stecf.org/) through a web form, as well as a VO-compatible interface that enables flexible querying of the archive of the 2470 NICMOS G141 spectra. In total, spectra of 1923  unique targets are included.

  13. Grism cryogenic mount for the Euclid-NISP mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossin, Ch.; Grange, R.; Sanchez, P.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Laurent, P.; Dessaux, F.; Ceria, W.

    2014-07-01

    The spectroscopic channel of the Euclid Near Infrared SpectroPhotometer (NISP) relies on four grisms mounted on a wheel via Invar mounts. The mount design was studied to maintain the optical performances and alignment at cryogenic operating temperature (120K), and to survive launch vibrations. We designed two stages of radially compliant blades: one set of 9 blades is bonded to the Silica grism and the second set of 3 blades is located at interface points with the wheel. Severe packaging and mass constraints yielded us to design a ring mount with strong weight relief. In fall 2013 we proceeded to thermal cycling (323K-105K), vibration tests (10.7 g rms) to successfully qualify the grism mount in the Euclid environment. Thanks to detailed finite element analyses, we correlated simulations and tests.

  14. Design of a 3-bounce grism compressor for ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Amanda; Field, Jeffrey; Kane, Steve; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles

    2010-03-01

    A standard procedure to resolve material dispersion involves pulse compression with two passes through diffraction gratings. Grisms, which are prisms written directly on to diffraction gratings, allow for 3rd order dispersion compensation, which diffraction gratings alone do not allow for. We describe our progress toward a 3-bounce grism compressor design with passive 2nd and 3rd order dispersion compensation. The 3-bounce design is potentially more efficient because of one less bounce than in existing 4-bounce grism compressors. The grism compressor is composed of a mismatched grism pair, comprised of a 600 lines/mm grating and a 1200 lines/mm grating, to eliminate spatial chirp. Compressed pulses are to be characterized using frequency resolved optical gating. This grism design for femtosecond laser pulse dispersion compensation is both more compact and easier to align than other grism compressor systems used in commercial instruments.

  15. Evaluation of Likelihood of Co-occurrence of Erwinia amylovora with Mature Fruit of Winter Pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary concerns about fire blight prohibit export of U.S.-grown pears to some countries without this disease. To examine these concerns, we evaluated the potential for co-occurrence of E. amylovora with mature symptomless winter pear fruit by inoculation experiments and by survey of commercia...

  16. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  17. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  18. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  19. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  20. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  1. A Low Cost Grism Spectrometer for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovici, Dominic

    2016-06-01

    We have designed and built a low cost (appx. $500) low resolution (R ~ 300) grating-prism (grism) spectrometer for the University of Iowa's robotic observatory. Grism spectrometers differ from simple transmission grating systems by partially compensating for the curved focal plane using a wedge prism. The spectrometer has five optical elements, and was designed using a ray tracing program. The collimating and focusing optics are easily modified for other telescope optics. The optics are mounted in an enclosure made with a 3-d printer. The spectrometer was installed in a modified (extended) filter wheel and has been in routine operation since January 2016. I will show sample spectra using this system and discuss spectral calibration, and optical design considerations for other telescopes. I will also discuss how low-resolution spectrometers can be used in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  2. Analytical calculation of spectral phase of grism pairs by the geometrical ray tracing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, L.; Askari, A. A.; Saghafifar, H.

    2016-07-01

    The most optimum operation of a grism pair is practically approachable when an analytical expression of its spectral phase is in hand. In this paper, we have employed the accurate geometrical ray tracing method to calculate the analytical phase shift of a grism pair, at transmission and reflection configurations. As shown by the results, for a great variety of complicated configurations, the spectral phase of a grism pair is in the same form of that of a prism pair. The only exception is when the light enters into and exits from different facets of a reflection grism. The analytical result has been used to calculate the second-order dispersions of several examples of grism pairs in various possible configurations. All results are in complete agreement with those from ray tracing method. The result of this work can be very helpful in the optimal design and application of grism pairs at various configurations.

  3. Systematic Review of Pears and Health

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Holly; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties. Pears contain antioxidants and provide between 27 and 41 mg of phenolics per 100 g. Animal studies with pears suggest that pears may regulate alcohol metabolism, protect against ulcers, and lower plasma lipids. Human feeding studies with pears have not been conducted. In epidemiological studies, pears are combined with all fresh fruits or with apples, because they are most similar in composition. The high content of dietary fiber in pears and their effects on gut health set pears apart from other fruit and deserves study. PMID:26663955

  4. Grism based stretcher/compressor system for amplified, femtosecond kilohertz lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiosi, David M.; Gibson, Emily A.; Kane, Steve; Huff, Rachael; Murnane, Margaret; Kaptyen, Henry C.; Durfee, Charles G.; Squier, Jeff; Jimenez, Ralph

    We demonstrate a simple and efficient grism based stretcher/compression system. 36 fs, ˜300 µJ pulses are generated at 5-15 kHz by using this unique grism stretcher/material compressor in a Ti:sapphire amplifier system based on downchirped pulse amplification.

  5. Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and dispersion compensation of femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Emily A.; Gaudiosi, David M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Jimenez, Ralph; Kane, Steve; Huff, Rachel; Durfee, Charles; Squier, Jeff

    2006-11-01

    Efficient reflection grisms for pulse-compression and material-dispersion compensation have been designed and demonstrated in a 40 fs, 300 μJ, 5 kHz downchirped pulse amplification system for the first time to our knowledge. A grism design for 800nm femtosecond laser pulse dispersion compensation applications is realized by using standard, commercial diffraction gratings.

  6. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp.).

    PubMed

    Reed, Barbara M; Denoma, Jeanine; Wada, Sugae; Postman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elements of micropropagation include establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. The wide genetic variation in Pyrus makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced dormant shoots or from scions grafted onto seedling rootstocks to impose juvenility. Clean shoots are recovered after testing for contaminants at the initiation stage on ½ strength Murashige and Skoog 1962 medium (MS), at pH 6.9 for 1 week or by streaking on nutrient agar. Although pear species and cultivars are cultured on several well-known media, MS is the most commonly used. Our studies showed that multiplication and growth of shoots are best on Pear Medium with higher concentrations of calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate than MS medium and 4.4 μM N(6) benzyladenine. Pear shoots are often recalcitrant to rooting; however, a 5 s dip in 10 mM indole-3-butyric acid or naphthalene acetic acid before planting on basal medium without plant growth regulators is effective for many genotypes. Pear shoots store well at 1-4°C, and can hold for as long as 4 years without reculture. Cryopreservation protocols are available for long-term storage of pear shoot tips. Acclimation of in vitro-rooted or micrografted shoots in a mist bed follows standard procedures. PMID:23179686

  7. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets are all elements of micropropagation. The great genetic variation in Pyrus (pear)makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced do...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  13. Survey of Enrolled Students. Summary Report as Part of the Planning, Evaluation, and Assessment Review (PEAR) System. Research Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Petersburg Junior Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    As part of a college-wide assessment effort, St. Petersburg Junior College (Florida) conducted a survey of enrolled students in October 1995 to determine their perceptions of the quality of the college's academic and student support services. Questionnaires were distributed to 6,197 students, asking them to rate 28 college services on a 5-point…

  14. Design and Fabrication of Efficient Reflection Grisms for Pulse Compression and Dispersion Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Steve; Tortajada, Fred; Dinger, Herb; Touzet, Bruno; Huff, Rachel; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles; Gibson, Emily; Jimenez, Ralph; Gaudiosi, David; Kapteyn, Henry

    Efficient reflection grisms for pulse compression and material-dispersion compensation have been designed and demonstrated in a CPA system. Designs for 800-nm and 1030-nm ultrafast applications are characterized using off-the-shelf diffraction gratings.

  15. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $7.73 to $7.00 per ton of summer/fall processed...

  16. 76 FR 53811 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears...: This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $8.41 to $7.73 per ton of summer/fall processed...

  17. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  19. Grism Performance for Mid-IR (5-40 microns) Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Mar, D. J.; Jaffe, D. T.; Marsh, J. P.; Keller, L. D.; Herter, T. L.; Greene, T. P.; Adams, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Grisms provide a straightforward method to transform an imager into a spectrometer with little change to the original imaging optics. This paper addresses the performance of a suite of grisms as part of an Astrobiology Science and Instrument Development (ASTID) Program to implement a moderate resolution spectroscopic capability to the mid/far-IR facility instrument FORCAST for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) [see accompanying abstract by Adams et al.]. A moderate resolution mid-IR spectrometer on SOFIA will offer advantages not available to either ground or space-based instruments after the Spitzer Space Telescope ceases operation in approx. 2007. SOFIA will begin operations in 2007 and will have an operational lifetime of approx. 20 years. From aircraft altitudes, it will be possible to cover a range of wavelengths, particularly in the critical 5-9 micron band, where detection of astrobiologically interesting molecules have key spectral signatures, that are not accessible from the ground. This grism suite consists of six grisms: four monolithic Si grisms [see accompanying abstract by Mar et al.] and two KRS-5 grisms. These devices will allow long slit low-resolution and short slit, cross-dispersed high-resolution spectroscopic modes selectable by simply moving the camera filter wheels. This configuration will enable observing programs to gather images and spectra in a single SOFIA flight. The four silicon grisms, whose performance is highlighted in this paper, will operate in the following wavelength ranges: 5-8, 17-28, and 28-37 microns. In the 5-8 micron range, R=1200 is achievable for a 2 arcsecond slit using the grism as a cross-disperser. For the 17-28 and 28-37 micron ranges, the resolving powers are R approx. 130, 250 when used in low orders with a slit of 3 arcseconds. The silicon grisms demonstrate a new family of dispersive elements with good optical performance for spectroscopy from 1.2-8 micron and beyond 18 microns

  20. Analytical expressions for group-delay dispersion and third-order dispersion of a reflection grism-pair compressor.

    PubMed

    Su, Juan; Feng, Guoying

    2012-05-10

    We provide a detailed analytical expression of group-delay dispersion (GDD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) for a reflection grism-pair compressor without the first-order approximation of grating diffraction. The analytical expressions can be used to design a grism-pair compressor for compensating the dispersive material without ray tracing. Furthermore, the dispersion performance of the grism pair compressor, depending on compressor parameters, is comprehensively analyzed. Results are shown that we can adjust several parameters to obtain a certain GDD and TOD, such as the incidence angle of the beam, refractive index of the prism, grating constant, and the separation of the grism pair. PMID:22614499

  1. TOXICITY PERSISTENCE IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK, MONTANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Instream toxicity tests using the larval fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata were conducted on Prickly Pear Creek, Montana waters to study toxicity persistence in a stream. The toxicity source was Spring Creek, a tributary of Prickly Pear...

  2. Pear psylla resistance in breeders' selections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty pear cultivars and breeders’ selections with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis and P. pyrifolia crossed with P. communis were assessed for resistance to pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) using a nymphal feeding antixenosis assay. Four P. ussuriensis x P. communis h...

  3. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears. 917.176 Section 917.176 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears. 917.176 Section 917.176 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears. 917.176 Section 917.176 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  6. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  7. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  8. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  9. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  10. 21 CFR 145.176 - Artificially sweetened canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pears. 145.176... § 145.176 Artificially sweetened canned pears. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pears is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pears by § 145.175(a) except...

  11. New GRISMs for AFOSC based on volume phase holographic gratings in photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Bianco, Andrea; Landoni, Marco; Tomasella, Lina; Benetti, Stefano; Giro, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHG) can provide an improvement of diffraction efficiency and function- ality in already available astronomical instrumentation. Here, we present the design, manufacturing and testing of two GRISMs mounted on the AFOSC camera (at the 1.8 m Asiago telescope) based on VPHGs. Such diffrac- tion gratings have been written on a new solid and green sensitive photopolymer material produced by Bayer MaterialScience AG that show interesting performances (refractive index modulation, homogeneity, stability). The GRISMs have been designed according to the specific requests of astronomers. One GRISM consists in a very low dispersion VPHG (285 l/mm) that covers the range 500 - 1000 nm and suitable for observations of supernovae. The second one is a 600 l/mm VPHG for the Ha region. Both gratings show peak efficiency close to 90% and same diffraction efficiency is shown by the corresponding GRISMs. This high device's performances means that the coupling losses are very low, also thanks to the matching of the refractive index between sub- strates and prisms. Some observations have been finally carried out and the gain in terms of efficiency and signal to noise ratio have been calculated in order to compare the photopolymeric VPHGs with the classic GRISMs already mounted and used in the AFOSC spectrometer.

  12. GALEX Grism Spectroscopy of the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweigart, Allen

    We propose to obtain GALEX FUV-only grism spectroscopy of the hot stars in omega Centauri, the most massive globular cluster in our Galaxy. Previous UIT imagery of omega Cen showed that it contains about 2000 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars, and we estimate that GALEX spectra can be obtained for about 500 of these stars in the outer regions of the cluster, including about 50 of the hot ``blue hook'' stars discovered with UIT. The blue hook stars appear to be both hotter (35,000 K) and less luminous in the UIT color-magnitude diagram than predicted by canonical HB models and, indeed, are unexplained by standard evolutionary theory. Brown et al. (2001) have suggested that the blue hook stars are the progeny of stars which mixed their surface hydrogen into their hot He-burning interior during a delayed helium flash subsequent to leaving the red giant branch. This ``flash-mixing'' results in a hot hydrogen-deficient star with a typical surface abundance of 96% He and 4% C by mass. The GALEX spectral region includes the strong lines of C III 1426, 1578 A, C IV 1550 A, and He II 1640 A which will allow this predicted carbon and helium enrichment to be detected. These observations will therefore provide a crucial test of the Brown et al. flash-mixing hypothesis and will determine if flash mixing represents a new evolutionary channel for populating the hot HB. The GALEX spectra will also address other questions concerning the hot HB in omega Cen including (1) the metallicity distribution of HB stars with 9,000 K < Teff < 11,000 K, (2) the effect of radiative levitation on the UV spectra of stars with Teff > 11,000 K, and (3) the origin of the subluminous HB stars found in the UIT photometry with 15,000K < Teff < 30,000 K.

  13. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J.; Cohen, S.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; SOC, WFC3

    2011-01-01

    The Early Release Science II program for HST WFC3 includes one pointing observed with the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R 130) infrared grisms at a depth of 2 orbits/grism. From this data we detect 48 actively star-forming emission-line galaxies and measure the galaxies' redshifts, line fluxes, star-formation rates, and masses. In particular, the prominent emission lines Ha, [OII], and [OIII] fall into the two infrared grism bandpasses over a redshift range z=0.2-3.6, and the majority of galaxies have at least two lines in the observable wavelength range resulting in secure line identification and redshift determination. We detect galaxies with line fluxes to 3 x 10-17 erg/s/cm2 as well as several sources with very high EW lines. The higher spectral resolution and sensitivity of the WFC3 grisms over previous instrumentation also allows detection of other emission lines in some galaxies. The average magnitude of the emission-line galaxy sample is mAB(F098M)=23.6 mag with more than 20% of the sample fainter than mAB(F098M)=25 mag, demonstrating the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and intermediate redshifts. Our results point to the promising potential for future science with WFC3 grism spectroscopy, as well as upcoming missions such as JWST and WFIRST. This paper is based on Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. This research was supported in part by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA (ANS).

  14. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles. PMID:26988479

  15. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  16. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan, Renbin; Yesuf, Hassen; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Juneau, Stephanie; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Nandra, Kirpal

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  17. A CANDELS WFC3 GRISM STUDY OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: A MIX OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Yesuf, Hassen; Scarlata, Claudia; Bell, Eric F.; Laird, Elise S.; Rangel, Cyprian; Yan Renbin; Atek, Hakim; Dickinson, Mark; Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dunlop, James S.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2011-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >1{sigma} detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically {approx}7 times less massive (median M{sub *} = 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) than previously studied z {approx} 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O III]/H{beta} ratios which are very similar to previously studied z {approx} 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H{beta} emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L{sub [OIII]}/L{sub 0.5-10keV} ratio is intermediate between typical z {approx} 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  18. Leveraging 3D-HST Grism Redshifts to Quantify Photometric Redshift Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Wake, David A.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of photometric redshift accuracy in the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using 3D-HST grism redshifts to quantify and dissect trends in redshift accuracy for galaxies brighter than JH IR > 24 with an unprecedented and representative high-redshift galaxy sample. We find an average scatter of 0.0197 ± 0.0003(1 + z) in the Skelton et al. photometric redshifts. Photometric redshift accuracy decreases with magnitude and redshift, but does not vary monotonically with color or stellar mass. The 1σ scatter lies between 0.01 and 0.03 (1 + z) for galaxies of all masses and colors below z < 2.5 (for JH IR < 24), with the exception of a population of very red (U ‑ V > 2), dusty star-forming galaxies for which the scatter increases to ∼0.1 (1 + z). We find that photometric redshifts depend significantly on galaxy size; the largest galaxies at fixed magnitude have photo-zs with up to ∼30% more scatter and ∼5 times the outlier rate. Although the overall photometric redshift accuracy for quiescent galaxies is better than that for star-forming galaxies, scatter depends more strongly on magnitude and redshift than on galaxy type. We verify these trends using the redshift distributions of close pairs and extend the analysis to fainter objects, where photometric redshift errors further increase to ∼0.046 (1 + z) at {H}F160W=26. We demonstrate that photometric redshift accuracy is strongly filter dependent and quantify the contribution of multiple filter combinations. We evaluate the widths of redshift probability distribution functions and find that error estimates are underestimated by a factor of ∼1.1–1.6, but that uniformly broadening the distribution does not adequately account for fitting outliers. Finally, we suggest possible applications of these data in planning for current and future surveys and simulate photometric redshift performance in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Dark Energy Survey (DES), and combined DES and Vista Hemisphere

  19. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  20. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for... under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674),...

  1. Relative attractiveness of colour traps to pear psylla in relation to seasonal changes in pear phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents temporal color trap preference of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, Hemiptera: Psyllidae) over a 24 month duration. Black, blue, brown, clear, green, orange, red, white, and yellow traps were assayed against wild psylla populations. While pear psylla had a strong prefe...

  2. Inheritance of resistance to pear psylla nymphal feeding in pear (Pyrus communis L.) of European origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla is a serious pest of pear throughout North America and Europe. Inhibition of nymphal feeding has been identified as a key component of resistance, being correlated with mortality, delayed development of egg-laying. Breeding for resistance would be aided by knowledge of the inherita...

  3. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Federal Register on December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72245). The Committee made copies of the proposed rule... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  4. Polyphenolic Profile of Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri).

    PubMed

    Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Gašić, Uroš M; Zec, Gordan N; Vulić, Todor B; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2015-09-01

    The European pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of pear. Since proper control of this pest is essential, better understanding of the complex plant-pest relationship is mandatory. This research deals with constitutive polyphenolic profiles in leaves of 22 pear cultivars of diverse origin (P. communis, P. pyrifolia, and P. pyrifolia × P. communis) and different resistance to psylla. The study was designed to show which differences in the polyphenolic profile of leaves from resistant and susceptible pear cultivars could be utilized as information in subsequent breeding programs. The results demonstrated that the leaves of Oriental pear cultivars contained much higher amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, aesculin, and naringin, that, together with detected 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-hexoside, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, and hispidulin, indicated a clear difference between the species and might represent phenolics responsible for psylla resistance. PMID:26278376

  5. Current status of pear rootstock research: progress and priorities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As of 2010, there were 57,000 acres of commercially-grown pears in the United States with a total crop value of $382 million. The industry has been stagnating due to a declining consumption of processed pears and competition from imported pears and other fruits, as reflected in the loss of 10,000 a...

  6. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduous-calyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and tex...

  7. Plains Prickly Pear Cactus Response to Fire and Fuel Loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of prickly pear on rangelands has lead to numerous studies aimed at understanding prickly pear response to various natural and human induced treatments. Information is lacking on Plains prickly pear response to varied fuel loads. Pads of clones from three soil types (claypan, gravel, si...

  8. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  9. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  10. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  11. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  12. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  13. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  14. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  15. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  16. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pear crop insurance provisions. 457.111 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.111 Pear crop insurance provisions. The Pear Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  18. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  19. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  20. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  1. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pear crop insurance provisions. 457.111 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.111 Pear crop insurance provisions. The Pear Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  3. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  4. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  5. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  6. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  7. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  8. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  9. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  10. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  11. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  12. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  13. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  14. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  15. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  16. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  17. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pear crop insurance provisions. 457.111 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.111 Pear crop insurance provisions. The Pear Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  19. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  20. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  1. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  2. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  3. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  4. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear Psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear plants were transformed with D5C1a construct containing a gene that produces lytic peptide which is excreted into the intercellular spaces of pear leaves to impart resistance to fireblight, Erwinia amylovora (Burrill). The biology and behavior of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) was ...

  5. 78 FR 24033 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 34). The Committee made copies of the proposed rule available to all pear handlers... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases...

  6. Grism-based pulse shaper for line-by-line control of more than 600 optical frequency comb lines.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, M S; Diddams, S A

    2010-10-01

    We construct a line-by-line pulse shaper using a grism (grating plus prism) dispersive element, which provides constant angular dispersion over 13.4 THz centered at ~311 THz (965 nm). When combined with a dual-mask liquid crystal modulator, this grism-based shaper is capable of line-by-line amplitude and phase control of over 600 modes of a 21 GHz stabilized optical frequency comb. PMID:20890354

  7. Grism compressor for carrier-envelope phase-stable millijoule-energy chirped pulse amplifier lasers featuring bulk material stretcher.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Jullien, A; Forget, N; Crozatier, V; Tournois, P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate compression of amplified carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-stable laser pulses using paired transmission gratings and high-index prisms, or grisms, with chromatic dispersion matching that of a bulk material pulse stretcher. Grisms enable the use of larger bulk stretching factors and thereby higher energy pulses with lower B-integral in a compact amplifier design suitable for long-term CEP control. PMID:22466193

  8. Revised wavelength and spectral response calibrations for AKARI near-infrared grism spectroscopy: Cryogenic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Shunsuke; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Isobe, Naoki; Usui, Fumihiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Onaka, Takashi; Yano, Kenichi; Kochi, Chihiro

    2016-04-01

    We perform revised spectral calibrations for the AKARI near-infrared grism to correct quantitatively for the effect of the wavelength-dependent refractive index. The near-infrared grism covering the wavelength range of 2.5-5.0 μm, with a spectral resolving power of 120 at 3.6 μm, is found to be contaminated by second-order light at wavelengths longer than 4.9 μm, which is especially serious for red objects. First, we present the wavelength calibration considering the refractive index of the grism as a function of the wavelength for the first time. We find that the previous solution is positively shifted by up to 0.01 μm compared with the revised wavelengths at 2.5-5.0 μm. In addition, we demonstrate that second-order contamination occurs even with a perfect order-sorting filter owing to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. Secondly, the spectral responses of the system from the first- and second-order light are simultaneously obtained from two types of standard objects with different colors. The response from the second-order light suggests leakage of the order-sorting filter below 2.5 μm. The relations between the output of the detector and the intensities of the first- and second-order light are formalized by a matrix equation that combines the two orders. The removal of the contaminating second-order light can be achieved by solving the matrix equation. The new calibration extends the available spectral coverage of the grism mode from 4.9 μm up to 5.0 μm. The revision can be used to study spectral features falling in these extended wavelengths, e.g., the carbon monoxide fundamental ro-vibrational absorption within nearby active galactic nuclei.

  9. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  10. Improved Mineral Nutrition for Pear Shoot Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository has over 200 pear accessions in culture, encompassing 18 species. Plant growth response on standard tissue culture medium varies widely due to the wide horticultural diversity of this collection. We used a systematic response-surface approach to eva...

  11. SWIFT-UVOT GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF COMETS: A FIRST APPLICATION TO C/2007 N3 (LULIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewits, D.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Landsman, W. B.; Carter, J. A.; Read, A. M.

    2011-01-15

    We observed comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin) twice on UT 2009 January 28, using the UV grism of the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope on board the Swift gamma-ray burst space observatory. Grism spectroscopy provides spatially resolved spectroscopy over large apertures for faint objects. We developed a novel methodology to analyze grism observations of comets, and applied a Haser comet model to extract production rates of OH, CS, NH, CN, C{sub 3}, C{sub 2}, and dust. The water production rates retrieved from two visits on this date were 6.7 {+-} 0.7 and 7.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup -1}, respectively. Jets were sought (but not found) in the white-light and 'OH' images reported here, suggesting that the jets reported by Knight and Schleicher are unique to CN. Based on the abundances of its carbon-bearing species, comet Lulin is 'typical' (i.e., not 'depleted') in its composition.

  12. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Ying, Yibin; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduouscalyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and texture attributes. Chinese packaging standards require that packed cases of fragrant pears contain 5% or less of the persistent-calyx type. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential means for automated sorting of pears according to calyx type. Hyperspectral images spanning the 992-1681 nm region were acquired using an EMCCD-based laboratory line-scan imaging system. Analysis of the hyperspectral images was performed to select wavebands useful for identifying persistent-calyx fruits and for identifying deciduous-calyx fruits. Based on the selected wavebands, an image-processing algorithm was developed that targets automated classification of Korla fragrant pears into the two categories for packaging purposes.

  13. 3D-HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED, LOW-METALLICITY STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 1.847

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Erb, Dawn K.; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan

    2012-10-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] {lambda}5007 and H{beta} emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 {+-} 100 and 520 {+-} 40 A, respectively. The source has a stellar mass {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, sSFR {approx} 100 Gyr{sup -1}, and detection of [O III] {lambda}4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size r{sub e} {approx}300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey.

  14. Infrared Grism Confirmation of a Strongly Lensed z ~ 11 Candidate: MACS0647-JD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Dan

    2013-10-01

    The first galaxies are the frontier of extragalactic astronomy. How and when did they form, and how did they contribute to reionization? Gravitational lensing has enabled efficient discovery of high-redshift galaxies including MACS0647-JD at z ~ 10.8 (420 Myr after the Big Bang), a strong candidate for the most distant galaxy yet known. This discovery by the CLASH Multi-Cycle Treasury program is consistent with expectations extrapolated from lower redshifts (4 < z < 8). The evolving luminosity function fit to these data includes sufficient numbers of faint galaxies at early times to reionize the universe. However, the discovery of MACS0647-JD is in tension with lower number densities of z > 9 candidates identified in deep field observations including the UDF. These field studies suggest z > 9 galaxies were building up in numbers much more rapidly than observed at later times. Confirmation of the z ~ 10.8 candidate is therefore paramount to our understanding of early galaxy evolution and reionization. All three strongly lensed images of MACS0647-JD are significantly detected in two HST filters (F140W and F160W). Lower redshift objects have been ruled out with high confidence, and the redshift is corroborated by our lens modeling. The strong lensing magnification provides us with a rare opportunity to confirm such a high redshift. We propose to do so with ten orbits of WFC3/IR G141 grism observations. Two orbits of F140W imaging are also required for calibration. As the first ever HST IR grism observations of a z < 1 cluster, this program will serve as an important pathfinder for future IR grism observations of lensed fields with HST and with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at z=11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, P. A.; Brammer, G.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Illingworth, G. D.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M.; Momcheva, I.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Gonzalez, V.; Holden, B.; Magee, D.; Skelton, R. E.; Smit, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Trenti, M.; Willner, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    We present Hubble WFC3/IR slitless grism spectra of a remarkably bright z ≳ 10 galaxy candidate, GN-z11, identified initially from CANDELS/GOODS-N imaging data. A significant spectroscopic continuum break is detected at λ =1.47+/- 0.01 μ {{m}}. The new grism data, combined with the photometric data, rule out all plausible lower redshift solutions for this source. The only viable solution is that this continuum break is the Lyα break redshifted to {z}{grism}={11.09}-0.12+0.08, just ˜400 Myr after the Big Bang. This observation extends the current spectroscopic frontier by 150 Myr to well before the Planck (instantaneous) cosmic reionization peak at z ˜ 8.8, demonstrating that galaxy build-up was well underway early in the reionization epoch at z > 10. GN-z11 is remarkably, and unexpectedly, luminous for a galaxy at such an early time: its UV luminosity is 3× larger than {L}* measured at z ˜ 6-8. The Spitzer IRAC detections up to 4.5 μm of this galaxy are consistent with a stellar mass of ˜109 M⊙. This spectroscopic redshift measurement suggests that James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to similarly and easily confirm such sources at z > 10 and characterize their physical properties through detailed spectroscopy. Furthermore, WFIRST, with its wide-field near-IR imaging, would find large numbers of similar galaxies and contribute greatly to JWST's spectroscopy, if it is launched early enough to overlap with JWST.

  16. A modular approach to the analytic calculation of spectral phase for grisms and other refractive/diffractive structures.

    PubMed

    Durfee, Charles G; Squier, Jeff A; Kane, Steve

    2008-10-27

    Analytic expressions for spectral phase for optical systems are very important for the design of wide-bandwidth optical systems. We describe a general formalism for analytically calculating the spectral phase for arbitrary optical structure made up of nested pairs of plane-parallel interfaces that can be diffractive or refractive. Our primary application is the calculation of the spectral phase of a grism pair, which is then used to analyze the behavior of higher-order phase terms. The analytic expressions for the grism spectral phase provide insight into the tunability of the third-order phase of grisms as well as the fourth-order limits. Our exact and approximate expressions are compared with a raytracing model. PMID:18958079

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis, Oriental fruit fly; Caleptrimerus... future infestations are taken. (4) The pears must be treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 and the... introduction of the following quarantine pests: Acrobasis pyrivorella, pear fruit moth; Alternaria...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis, Oriental fruit fly; Caleptrimerus... future infestations are taken. (4) The pears must be treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 and the... introduction of the following quarantine pests: Acrobasis pyrivorella, pear fruit moth; Alternaria...

  19. Metabolic Profiles of Anjou Pears Stored in Low Oxygen Atmospheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low oxygen storage atmospheres can slow ripening and prevent development of the peel disorder superficial scald on Anjou pear fruit; however, development of peel speckling can be exacerbated by low oxygen storage. To better understand how Anjou pear fruit respond to low oxygen atmospheres, a metabo...

  20. Fruit quality of pear psylla-resistant parental germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen interspecific backcross hybrid selections from various breeding programs have been selected as prospective parents for breeding for resistance of European-type pears to the pear psyllids (Cacopsylla spp.). The Pyrus communis x P. pyrifolia (n equal 6) backcross selections are derived mostly...

  1. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  2. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  3. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  4. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  5. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  6. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  7. First report of Gymnosporangium sabinae, European pear rust, on Bradford pear in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bradford pear, Pyrus calleryana Decne., is well known as an ornamental plant for its flowers, leaf color in fall, and disease resistance, making it desirable as a street tree. In August and October 2008, the aecial stage of Gymnosporangium sabinae (Dicks.) G. Winter was collected on leaves of P. cal...

  8. First report of European pear rust (pear trellis rust) caused by Gymnosporangium sabinae in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In November 2014, leaves of ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana, cultivar unknown) with bright orange to reddish spots typical of infection by a rust fungus were submitted to the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic from a landscape in Frederick County, VA, for diagnosis. Brown aecia with bulbous bases ...

  9. NIRCam Long Wavelength Channel grisms as the Dispersed Fringe Sensor for JWST segment mirror coarse phasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fang; King, Brian M.; Sigrist, Norbert; Basinger, Scott A.

    2008-07-01

    The baseline wavefront sensing and control for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) includes the Dispersed Hartmann Sensors (DHS) for segment mirror coarse phasing. The two DHS devices, residing on the pupil wheel of the JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Short Wavelength Channel (SWC), can sense the JWST segment mirror pistons by measuring the heights of 20 inter-segment edges from the dispersed fringes. JWST also incorporates two identical grisms in the NIRCam's Long Wavelength Channel (LWC). The two grisms, designed as the Dispersed Fringe Sensor (DFS), are used as the backup sensor for JWST segment mirror coarse phasing. The versatility of DFS enables a very flexible JWST segment coarse phasing process and the DFS is designed to have larger piston capture range than that of DHS, making the coarse phasing more robust. The DFS can also be a useful tool during JWST ground integration and test (I&T). In this paper we describe the DFS design details and use the JWST optical model to demonstrate the DFS coarse phasing process during flight and ground I&T.

  10. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed. PMID:22978211

  11. Needs assessment for future US pear rootstock directions based on the current state of pear production and rootstock research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear acreage in the United States (U.S.) is declining due to lack of precocity and high cost of production. The U.S. pear industry currently lacks “modern” orchard systems characterized by compact trees that produce early, high yields of large, high quality fruit. Tall, shaded canopies are not eco...

  12. Effect of resistant and susceptible East European pears on development and mortality of the pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla (Cacopsylla spp.) is a major pest of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. In breeding resistant cultivars, a thorough understanding of the nature of host resistance and susceptibility is essential for designing efficient and accurate methods to identify res...

  13. 78 FR 34 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Fresh...

  14. The Importance of Pear Ester in Codling Moth Monitoring and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the discovery of the attractiveness of pear ester for adult and larvae of codling moth research has developed this ripe pear volatile to improve the monitoring and management of this key pest of apple, pear, and walnut. A lure loaded with pear ester and codlemone has become the most widely...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  16. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  17. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  18. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  19. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  1. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  4. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant...

  6. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  7. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  8. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  9. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  10. Development of high-throughput silicon lens and grism with moth-eye anti-reflection structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamizuka, Takafumi; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Imada, Hiroaki; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Okada, Kazushi; Uchiyama, Masahito; Wada, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Anti-reflection (AR) is very important for high-throughput optical elements. The durability against cooling is required for the AR structure in the cryogenic optics used for mid-infrared astronomical instruments. Moth-eye structure is a promising AR technique strong against cooling. The silicon lens and grism with the moth-eye structure are being developed to make high-throughput elements for long-wavelength mid-infrared instruments. A double-sided moth-eye plano-convex lens (Effective diameter: 33 mm, Focal length: 188 mm) was fabricated. By the transmittance measurement, it was confirmed that its total throughput is 1.7+/- 0.1 times higher than bare silicon lenses in a wide wavelength range of 20{45 μm. It suggests that the lens can achieve 83+/-5% throughput in the cryogenic temperature. It was also confirmed that the moth-eye processing on the lens does not modify the focal length. As for the grism, the homogeneous moth-eye processing on blaze pattern was realized by employing spray coating for the resist coating in EB lithography. The silicon grism with good surface roughness was also developed. The required techniques for completing moth-eye grisms have been established.

  11. Comparing Apples and Pears: Women's Perceptions of Their Body Size and Shape

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Croughan, Mary S.; Chen, Zhen; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a growing public health problem among reproductive-aged women, with consequences for chronic disease risk and reproductive and obstetric morbidities. Evidence also suggests that body shape (i.e., regional fat distribution) may be independently associated with risk, yet it is not known if women adequately perceive their shape. This study aimed to assess the validity of self-reported body size and shape figure drawings when compared to anthropometric measures among reproductive-aged women. Methods Self-reported body size was ascertained using the Stunkard nine-level figures and self-reported body shape using stylized pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple figures. Anthropometry was performed by trained researchers. Body size and body mass index (BMI) were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Fat distribution indicators were compared across body shapes for nonobese and obese women using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Percent agreement and kappa statistics were computed for apple and pear body shapes. Results The 131 women studied were primarily Caucasian (81%), aged 32 years, with a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m2 (range 16.6–52.8 kg/m2). The correlation between body size and BMI was 0.85 (p<0.001). Among nonobese women, waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were 0.75, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.82 for pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple, respectively (p<0.001). Comparing apples and pears, the percent agreement (kappa) for WHR≥0.80 was 83% (0.55). Conclusions Self-reported size and shape were consistent with anthropometric measures commonly used to assess obesity and fat distribution, respectively. Self-reported body shape may be a useful proxy measure in addition to body size in large-scale surveys. PMID:22873752

  12. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  13. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  14. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  15. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  16. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  17. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  18. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin; Zhang, Shu; Ming, Ray; Zhu, Shilin; Khan, M. Awais; Tao, Shutian; Korban, Schuyler S.; Wang, Hao; Chen, Nancy J.; Nishio, Takeshi; Xu, Xun; Cong, Lin; Qi, Kaijie; Huang, Xiaosan; Wang, Yingtao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Juyou; Deng, Cao; Gou, Caiyun; Zhou, Weili; Yin, Hao; Qin, Gaihua; Sha, Yuhui; Tao, Ye; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yanan; Song, Yue; Zhan, Dongliang; Wang, Juan; Li, Leiting; Dai, Meisong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Yuezhi; Shi, Daihu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huping; Zeng, Liang; Zheng, Danman; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Maoshan; Wang, Guangbiao; Xie, Lin; Sovero, Valpuri; Sha, Shoufeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Jiangmei; Xu, Linlin; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xing; Li, Qingsong; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Junyi; Paull, Robert E.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. The pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ∼28.5% encode multiple isoforms. Repetitive sequences of 271.9 Mb in length, accounting for 53.1% of the pear genome, are identified. Simulation of eudicots to the ancestor of Rosaceae has reconstructed nine ancestral chromosomes. Pear and apple diverged from each other ∼5.4–21.5 million years ago, and a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event must have occurred 30–45 MYA prior to their divergence, but following divergence from strawberry. When compared with the apple genome sequence, size differences between the apple and pear genomes are confirmed mainly due to the presence of repetitive sequences predominantly contributed by transposable elements (TEs), while genic regions are similar in both species. Genes critical for self-incompatibility, lignified stone cells (a unique feature of pear fruit), sorbitol metabolism, and volatile compounds of fruit have also been identified. Multiple candidate SFB genes appear as tandem repeats in the S-locus region of pear; while lignin synthesis-related gene family expansion and highly expressed gene families of HCT, C3′H, and CCOMT contribute to high accumulation of both G-lignin and S-lignin. Moreover, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism is a key pathway for aroma in pear fruit. PMID:23149293

  19. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses. PMID:25145248

  20. Optical gratings and grisms: developments on straylight and polarization sensitivity improved microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Torsten; Triebel, Peter; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission, reflection gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular distribution. Focusing

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data (Kuemmel+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuemmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-09-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00um, with a dispersion of 40Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2-4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects possible

  2. Jonker pear analysis of oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M.Y.; Eisbernd, C.E.; Mason, T.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    Data for the normal state of the superconducting oxide systems YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}}, and the nonsuperconducting system La{sub 3}Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}O{sub 12.5 + {ital y}}, when plotted as thermoelectric coefficient versus logarithm of conductivity, exhibit Jonker pear behavior, confirming the semiconducting character of these materials. The symmetry of the plots indicates similar conduction parameters (density-of-states (DOS), transport constants, and mobilities) for {ital p}- and {ital n}-type mechanisms. Band gaps on the order of 0.5 eV are obtained. DOS-mobility products for the above-mentioned systems and La{sub 2 {minus} {ital x}}Ba{sub {ital x}}CuO{sub 4} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} scale roughly according to the density of copper ions in these materials and fall in the range 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 21} (cm {center dot} V {center dot} s){sup {minus} 1}. Assuming DOS equal to copper content results in mobilities on the order of 0.15 cm{sup 2} {center dot} V{sup {minus} 1} {center dot} s{sup 1}. These results are discussed in terms of possible semiconduction mechanisms.

  3. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  4. Improved Results in the Development of Large Silicon Grisms using New Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDavitt, D.; Ge, J.; Bernecker, J.; Miller, S.

    2001-12-01

    We present new results in the development of large silicon grisms ( ~ 25x25 mm2). Using photolithography, new etching techniques and post-processing steps we have obtained greatly improved results. Experiments were performed adding ammonium persulfate to the TMAH etching solution. This new method reduced the surface roughness up to ~30% (from rms 32 nm to 22 nm), eliminated all hillock formations and helped maintain constant etch rates. This combined with improved lithography processes has reduced the large-scale defects to less than a few per square inch. Other experiments in post-processing were also carried out. Thin layers of dry silicon dioxide were repeatedly added to and removed from the grating surface producing an additional improvement of ~20% to the surface roughness (from rms roughness of 22 nm to 16 nm) or a ~50% total improvement over previous results. Optical testing of a grating with rms roughness of 16 nm shows less than 1% integrated scattered light at 0.6328 um. We are applying the new techniques in etching an 80x40 mm2 grating on a ~ 30 mm thick substrate to make an anamorphic silicon immersion grating, which can provide a diffraction-limited spectral resolution (R = 200,000) at 2.2 micron.

  5. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ˜ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/Hβ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ˜40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/Hβ gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ˜ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  6. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, larvae cause severe damage apples, pears and walnuts worldwide by internal feeding and the introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. CM neonate larvae are attracted to and arrested by a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the “pear es...

  7. Effect of harvest maturity on quality of fresh-cut pear salad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture of an unripe pear is firm and crisp, similar to an apple. However, at the crisp stage, the flavor of pears is flat. This study evaluated the effect of harvest maturity on the quality of fresh-cut pear salad. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and one month delayed. After 2 and 5 mon...

  8. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  9. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  10. 7 CFR 927.150 - Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. 927... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 927.150 Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. Pursuant to § 927.20(c), on and after July 1, 2013, the...

  11. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  12. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible Oregon and Washington pear growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pears grown...

  13. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  14. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  20. SPATIALLY RESOLVED HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A LENSED EMISSION LINE GALAXY AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Brenda L.; Hurley, Mairead; Bowen, David V.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Sharon, Keren; Straughn, Amber; Coe, Dan; Broadhurst, Tom; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-07-20

    We take advantage of gravitational lensing amplification by A1689 (z 0.187) to undertake the first space-based census of emission line galaxies (ELGs) in the field of a massive lensing cluster. Forty-three ELGs are identified to a flux of i{sub 775} = 27.3 via slitless grism spectroscopy. One ELG (at z = 0.7895) is very bright owing to lensing magnification by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 4.5. Several Balmer emission lines (ELs) detected from ground-based follow-up spectroscopy signal the onset of a major starburst for this low-mass galaxy (M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) with a high specific star formation rate ( Almost-Equal-To 20 Gyr{sup -1}). From the blue ELs we measure a gas-phase oxygen abundance consistent with solar (12+log(O/H) = 8.8 {+-} 0.2). We break the continuous line-emitting region of this giant arc into seven {approx}1 kpc bins (intrinsic size) and measure a variety of metallicity-dependent line ratios. A weak trend of increasing metal fraction is seen toward the dynamical center of the galaxy. Interestingly, the metal line ratios in a region offset from the center by {approx}1 kpc have a placement on the blue H II region excitation diagram with f ([O III])/f (H{beta}) and f ([Ne III])/f (H{beta}) that can be fitted by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This asymmetrical AGN-like behavior is interpreted as a product of shocks in the direction of the galaxy's extended tail, possibly instigated by a recent galaxy interaction.

  1. Antioxidant components and physico-chemical characteristics of jamun powder supplemented pear juice.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Swati; Ranote, Pushpinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    Studies were conducted to develop jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Two drying methods (Hot air cabinet drying and freeze drying) were used to prepare jamun pulp powder. Jamun powder was then blended with pear juice at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % levels for preparation of jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Among the drying methods used, freeze dried powder retained better bioactive compounds and possessed higher antioxidant activity as compared to hot air dried jamun powder. Analysis of color properties (L*, a*, b*) revealed lower L*, b* values and higher a* values with progression of supplementation levels indicating decreased brightness of product. Pear juice supplemented with 4 % jamun powder received highest overall acceptability scores and was chosen for development of final product. Physico-chemical characteristics of control pear juice did not vary much from when compared to jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Bioactive components mainly total phenols enhanced (9.24 % higher) with addition of jamun powder in pear juice. Addition of anthocyanins from jamun powder to pear juice upon blending improved antioxidant activity of the final product. Supplemented pear juice had 18.13 % higher antioxidant activity than pear juice without supplementation. Storage period of 6 months resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in jamun powder supplemented pear juice. PMID:27407197

  2. Improving in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse pear germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral nutrition of in vitro plants is often difficult to optimize due to complex chemical interactions of required nutrients. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, Oregon has over 200 shoot cultures of pears, including 18 species and many cultivars. Plant growth response o...

  3. 'Sunrise': A new early maturing fire blight resistant pear cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sunrise' is a new pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. It combines a high degree of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. The sources of resistance in the pedigree are the old American cultivar, 'Seckel'...

  4. Cactus pear fruit: a new source for a natural sweetner.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, C; Estévez, A M; Sepúlveda, E; Mecklenburg, P

    1998-01-01

    The use of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica L.) to obtain a new natural liquid sweetener was studied. The juice of the fruit (16.5 degrees Brix) was clarified with enzymes, treated with active carbon to take out the color and vacuum concentrated to obtain a 60 degrees Brix syrup or liquid sweetener. Physical and chemical characteristics determined included: a(w); reducing sugars (as inverted sugar); glucose (%); ash content (%); sugar composition by TLC; OD (420 nm) and Y, x, y chromaticity coordinates; viscosity (cps) and density (g/ml). Sensory analyses to determine the relative sweetness were also conducted. Cactus pear syrup contained 52.38% reducing sugar. The syrup had a pH of 4.31, a viscosity of 27.05 cps, an Aw of 0.83, a density of 1.2900 g/ml, an acidity (as citric acid) of 0.74% and an ash content of 1.4%. Compared with traditional sweeteners such as fructose and glucose syrup, the acidity was greater than that of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) of 0.035%, and the ash values were considered a little high compared to glucose syrup which is 1.0%; these disparities can be attributed to the different processing conditions employed. Sensory evaluation revealed the same relative sweetness for cactus pear syrup and glucose, but lower than fructose; cactus pear syrup had a relative sweetness value of 67 with respect to sucrose (100). PMID:9839813

  5. Adventitious shoot regeneration of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adventitious shoot regeneration of twenty-four pear clones was compared in a common in vitro shoot induction and development protocol. This study also compared cultures newly established from scionwood with cultures that have been in long-term cold storage. In vitro cultures of 13 Pyrus clones and...

  6. Mineral nutrition influences physiological responses of pear in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological disorders such as callus, shoot tip necrosis and hyperhydricity are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation and their causes are not well understood. A comprehensive medium optimization study to improve the growth of pear shoot cultures was also designed to determine ...

  7. Phenolic compounds and chromatographic profiles of pear skins (Pyrus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized profiling method based on liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-ESI/MS) was used to analyze the phenolic components of 16 pear skins (Pyrus spp., varieties and cultivars). More than 30 flavonoids and 13 hydroxycinnamat...

  8. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-01

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis. PMID:25384245

  9. Development of Micro-Encapsulated Pear Ester Kairomone Spray Adjuvant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Quality Protection Act 1996 is banning the use of most organophosphate (OP) insecticides and limitations on VOC-based products are being considered. Thus, there is a need for alternative insecticides to be made more effective and affordable. Knight and Light (2001) reported that the pear ester...

  10. Resistance of breeding program selections and cultivars to pear psylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Pyrus communis L. clones and sixteen breeders’ selections and cultivars with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis Max. or P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai crossed with P. communis were evaluated for resistance to pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Forster) using a nymphal feeding antixen...

  11. X-ray resonator with pear-shaped reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Churikov, V A

    2003-11-30

    An X-ray resonator design is proposed in which peculiar pear-shaped reflectors, which are grazing-incidence X-ray mirrors, serve as optical elements. Special features of this resonator are relatively high reflector efficiencies and the axial symmetry of the output radiation. (resonators)

  12. "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story." Standards of Learning Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through fifth grade are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story" written by George Wead. This play toured in Virginia in 1999-2000 and was performed by the high school theater touring company,…

  13. OHxF paternity problem perplexes pear producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early in the 20th century, a collection of fire blight resistant pears from around the world was assembled in southern Oregon in an effort to develop improved rootstocks. ‘Old Home’ and ‘Farmingdale’ are two cultivars from Illinois that exhibited strong fire blight resistance and useful horticultura...

  14. An exciting new European pear cultivar is coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant, European pear selection selected at the USDA-ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, WV. The tentative name is ‘Gem’. It has been extensively tested at the Oregon State University’s Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension Center in...

  15. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  16. Spectroscopic confirmation of the rich z = 1.80 galaxy cluster JKCS 041 using the WFC3 grism: Environmental trends in the ages and structure of quiescent galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Andreon, Stefano; Raichoor, Anand; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-06-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging and grism spectroscopy in the field of the distant galaxy cluster JKCS 041 using the Wide Field Camera 3. We confirm that JKCS 041 is a rich cluster and derive a redshift z = 1.80 via the spectroscopic identification of 19 member galaxies, of which 15 are quiescent. These are centered upon diffuse X-ray emission seen by the Chandra observatory. As JKCS 041 is the most distant known cluster with such a large, spectroscopically confirmed quiescent population, it provides a unique opportunity to study the effect of the environment on galaxy properties at early epochs. We construct high-quality composite spectra of the quiescent cluster members that reveal prominent Balmer and metallic absorption lines. Using these, we measure the mean stellar ages in two bins of stellar mass. The quiescent cluster members' ages agree remarkably closely with that inferred by Whitaker et al. for similarly selected samples in the field, supporting the idea that the cluster environment is more efficient at truncating star formation while not having a strong effect on the mean epoch of quenching. We find some evidence (90% confidence) for a lower fraction of disk-like quiescent systems in JKCS 041 compared to a sample of coeval field galaxies drawn from the CANDELS survey. Taking this into account, we do not detect a significant difference between the mass-radius relations of the quiescent JKCS 041 members and our z ∼ 1.8 field sample. Finally, we demonstrate how differences in the morphological mixture of quenched systems can complicate measures of the environmental dependence of size growth.

  17. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear. PMID:26292286

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length = 853 bp), including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1%) unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species. PMID:23234335

  19. Program for energy analysis of residences (PEAR) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Corin, N.

    1989-01-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. The extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Software Description: The software is written in the Turbo Pascal programming language for implementation on an IBM PC microcomputer using MS-DOS operating system. Software requires 128K of memory and a hard disk or two floppy disk drives with either a monochrome or color monitor. A graphics adapter is needed to implement the Bar Chart option.

  20. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  1. Orbital varix with a pearly phlebolith. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Kuroda, E; Fujii, T; Kawano, H; Kabuto, M; Hayashi, M

    1990-08-01

    A patient is described with an orbital varix arising from the right superior ophthalmic vein, associated with ophthalmoplegia and severe pain, and without proptosis. The varix was detected using computerized tomography and orbital phlebography, and at surgery was verified as a venous aneurysm. During the operation, a pearly phlebolith was found. Histological examination of the varix revealed multiple ectatic venous channels. The etiology of this unusual clinical manifestation and the treatment of the patient are briefly discussed. PMID:2366087

  2. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  3. PEAR2.1. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.

    1992-01-16

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING OF A GROWING COMPACT GALAXY AT z = 1.9

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    We present HST/WFC3 grism near-IR spectroscopy of the brightest galaxy at z > 1.5 in the GOODS-South WFC3 ERS grism pointing. The spectrum is of remarkable quality and shows the redshifted Balmer lines H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} in absorption at z = 1.902 {+-} 0.002. The absorption lines can be produced by a post-starburst stellar population with a luminosity-weighted age of {approx}0.5 Gyr. The mass-to-light ratio inferred from the spectrum implies a stellar mass of (4 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. We determine the morphology of the galaxy from a deep WFC3 H{sub 160} image. Similar to other massive galaxies at z {approx} 2 the galaxy is compact, with an effective radius of 2.1 {+-} 0.3 kpc. Although most of the light is in a compact core, the galaxy has two red, smooth spiral arms that appear to be tidally induced. The spatially resolved spectroscopy demonstrates that the center of the galaxy is quiescent whereas the surrounding disk is forming stars, as it shows H{beta} in emission. The galaxy interacts with a companion at a projected distance of 18 kpc, which also shows prominent tidal features. The companion is a factor of {approx}10 fainter than the primary galaxy and may have a lower metallicity. It is tempting to interpret these observations as evidence for the growth of compact, quiescent high-redshift galaxies through minor mergers, which has been proposed by several recent observational and theoretical studies. Interestingly both objects host luminous active galactic nuclei, which implies that these mergers can be accompanied by significant black hole growth.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO PEAR PSYLLA (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) AND EVALUATION OF FIELD PREDATION BY TWO KEY PREDATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, and related psyllids are important pests of pear worldwide. To improve our understanding of the impact made by the various predators of pear psylla we developed antibodies against this pest to be used in detecting prey remains in the predator’s guts. Antibodie...

  6. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  7. Effects of elicitors of host plant defenses on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of cultivated pear (Pyrus communis L.) in North America and Europe. We examined the effects of foliar applications of three commercially available chemical elicitors of host-plant defenses, Actigard, Employ, and ODC, ...

  8. Transferability of apple EST-SSRs and assessment of genetic diversity in pear genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 1,062 apple EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were screened and evaluated for cross-species transferability onto two different pear cultivars. PCR amplification of pear DNA leaf tissue samples was successful using 721 primer pairs demonstrating a high efficiency of transfe...

  9. Characterization of Pear Blister Canker Viroid Isolates from Australian Pome Fruit Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) was detected in pear (Pyrus sp.), nashi (Pyrus serotina) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) trees from various pome fruit growing regions of Australia using dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. Characteristic symptoms of PBCVd infection were not observed on the...

  10. Nomenclature and Genetic Relationships of Apples and Pears from Terceira Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritage apple (Malus domestica Borkh. hybrids) and pear (Pyrus communis L. hybrid) trees grow in villages throughout Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Some of these pears have different names but similar morphology. The objective of this study was to determine synonymy, homology, and phylogeny of ...

  11. Attraction of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to Female Psylla in Pear Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster), is a major economic pest of pears in North America and Europe. Laboratory studies have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotypes in this species are attracted to volatiles from females. The present study tested whether attrac...

  12. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2. PMID:23587660

  13. Biological Control of Phacidiopycnis Rot in ‘d’Anjou’ Pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis rot, caused by Phacidiopycnis piri, is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of pears (Pyrus) in the U.S. and a major disease of ‘d’Anjou’ pears grown in Washington State. Phacidiopycnis rot can originate from infection of wounds on the fruit. In this study, two biocontrol...

  14. Inoculum availability and seasonal survival of Potebniamyces pyri in pear orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potebniamyces pyri (anamorph Phacidiopycnis piri) is the causal agent of Phacidiopycnis rot, a postharvest disease of pear fruit (Pyrus communis). Infections of pear fruit by P. pyri occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop after harvest during storage or in the market. P. pyri also is the cause o...

  15. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  16. Host resistance to pear psylla of breeding program selections and cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one pear cultivars and breeders’ selections with interspecific pedigrees involving Pyrus ussuriensis Max. or P. pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai crossed with P. communis were assessed to resistance pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Förster) using a nymphal feeding antixenosis assay. The proportion of ...

  17. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  18. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain (PLS229) isolated from pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 strain genome was annotated to have 3,259 open readin...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  4. THE ENDICOTT PEAR TREE - OLDEST LIVING FRUIT TREE IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This brief article summarizes the history and present condition of a historic pear tree that is very likely to be the oldest fruit tree in North America. The Endicott Pear Tree was planted about 1630 in Danvers, Massachusetts by the Colonial Governor John Endicott. It has survived various hardships...

  5. Pears (In: Brooks & Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Names, synonyms, and brief descriptions of new and noteworthy fruit cultivars are periodically published in the "Brooks and Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties." This paper is the Pear section of the 44th Brooks and Olmo Register and describes the Asian pear cultivar 'Sooyoung' and the Eur...

  6. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  7. PEAR: a microcomputer program for residential energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.; Huang, Y.J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Bull, J.

    1985-11-01

    We have designed a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), which is written with user-friendly input and output and runs on the IBM PC. PEAR provides an easy-to-use and very fast compilation and extrapolation of a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. The current version, which covers five residential building prototypes in over 800 locations, estimates energy and cost savings resulting from typical conversion measures such as ceiling, wall and floor insulation, window type and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to adjust for optional measures including roof or wall color, movable insulation, whole-house fans, night temperature setback, reflective or heat absorbing glass, thermal mass in exterior walls, and two attached sunspace options. The program is designed to be used as a research tool by energy and policy analysts, and as a non-technical energy calculation method by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  8. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  9. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  10. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Less-Dormant Taiwanese Pear and the Dormant Japanese Pear during Winter Season.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Shida, Yoji; Araki, Shungo; Takeuchi, Yukari; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ishige, Taichiro; Yajima, Shunsuke; Tamura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The flower bud transcriptome in the less dormant Taiwanese pear 'Hengshanli' and high-chilling requiring Japanese pear strain TH3 subjected to the same chilling exposure time were analyzed during winter using next-generation sequencing. In buds sampled on January 10th and on February 7th in 2014, 6,978 and 7,096 genes, respectively, were significantly differentially expressed in the TH3 and 'Hengshanli' libraries. A comparative GO analysis revealed that oxidation-reduction process (biological process) and ATP binding (molecular function), were overrepresented during the ecodormancy period (EP) when compared to the endodormancy deepest period (DP), indicating that ATP synthesis was activated during the transition between these dormancy stages. Among the 11 differently expressed genes (DEGs) annotated as probable dehydrins or LEA protein-related genes, 9 DEGs showed higher transcript levels in the DP than in the EP. In order to focus on transcription factors induced by low temperature or drought, 7 differently expressed genes (DEGs) annotated as probable ICE1 or DREB proteins were analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression levels of 3 genes were higher in TH3 than in 'Hengshanli' on all sampling days. Their expression increased during the endodormancy deepest period (DP) and then decreased before endodormancy breaking in TH3 buds. Taken together, these results suggest that these genes annotated as ICE1, DREB and ERF are involved in endodormancy maintenance and in the transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. PMID:26451604

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Less-Dormant Taiwanese Pear and the Dormant Japanese Pear during Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Shida, Yoji; Araki, Shungo; Takeuchi, Yukari; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ishige, Taichiro; Yajima, Shunsuke; Tamura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The flower bud transcriptome in the less dormant Taiwanese pear ‘Hengshanli’ and high-chilling requiring Japanese pear strain TH3 subjected to the same chilling exposure time were analyzed during winter using next-generation sequencing. In buds sampled on January 10th and on February 7th in 2014, 6,978 and 7,096 genes, respectively, were significantly differentially expressed in the TH3 and ‘Hengshanli’ libraries. A comparative GO analysis revealed that oxidation-reduction process (biological process) and ATP binding (molecular function), were overrepresented during the ecodormancy period (EP) when compared to the endodormancy deepest period (DP), indicating that ATP synthesis was activated during the transition between these dormancy stages. Among the 11 differently expressed genes (DEGs) annotated as probable dehydrins or LEA protein-related genes, 9 DEGs showed higher transcript levels in the DP than in the EP. In order to focus on transcription factors induced by low temperature or drought, 7 differently expressed genes (DEGs) annotated as probable ICE1 or DREB proteins were analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression levels of 3 genes were higher in TH3 than in ‘Hengshanli’ on all sampling days. Their expression increased during the endodormancy deepest period (DP) and then decreased before endodormancy breaking in TH3 buds. Taken together, these results suggest that these genes annotated as ICE1, DREB and ERF are involved in endodormancy maintenance and in the transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. PMID:26451604

  13. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected. PMID:26991288

  14. Tree Growth Stage and Environment after Pathogen Inoculation Alters Susceptibility of Pear Trees to Phytophthora Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated whether growth stage of pear (Pyrus communis) tree rootstock and environment after inoculation with Phytophthora syringae influences tree susceptibility to infection. Trees at different stages of dormancy development were inoculated with the pathogen and maintained in different condi...

  15. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F.

    2008-04-15

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  16. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90 days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  17. Pear Bud Metabolism: Seasonal Changes in Glucose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Richard H.; Faust, Miklos

    1969-01-01

    Utilization of glucose, uracil and valine by flower and leaf buds of seedling pear trees (Pyrus calleryana Decne.) from the time of flower bud initiation to flowering was investigated. A very high rate of glucose utilization through the pentose phosphate pathway was observed throughout the development of buds. There was no difference in the type of glucose metabolism between flower and leaf buds except immediately before flowering, when the metabolism in flower buds was shifted toward the glycolytic pathway. Such a shift did not occur in leaf buds. The incorporation of uracil and valine into the nucleic acid and protein fraction of buds, respectively, was high throughout bud development, perhaps indicating a high rate of turnover in the resting buds. Incorporation of both compounds decreased when buds started to expand prior to flowering. PMID:16657202

  18. Proteomic analysis of ‘Zaosu’ pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red skin bud mutation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breeding for strong red skin color is an important objective of the pear breeding program. There are few reports of proteome research in green skin pear and its red skin bud mutation. The manuscript at hand is one of the first studies dealing with 2D-PAGE-based analysis of pear fruits and leaves, establishing a suitable sample preparation and testing different 2D-PAGE protocols. Therefore, it may grant a basis for further studies on the pear proteome being the studies main goal. A proteomic analysis was conducted on leaves and fruits of ‘Zaosu’ pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red skin bud mutation in order to reveal their genetic differences in the protein level. Results In the present study, the optimized two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis system of pear leaf and fruit was set up, and applied to analyze the leaves and fruit protein. The interesting peptide fragments were determined using 4800 Plus MALDI TOF/TOFTM Analyzer mass spectrometer, and the sequence obtained was blasted in NCBInr to identify the differentially-expressed protein. In the 1.5-fold differently-expressed proteins between ‘Zaosu’ pear and its mutant, 10 out of 35 proteins in fruit and 12 out of 24 ones in leaves were identified successfully. Among the 22 identified proteins, 7 protein spots were related to photosynthesis and energy metabolism; 4 were associated with environmental stress; 4 with disease defense; 2 with amino acid metabolism; 2 with cytoskeleton; 1 with antioxidant function; 1 with calcium metabolism; and 1 with unknown function. Moreover, related physiological index, such as chlorophyll content, Rubisco content and polyphone oxidase activity, were different between ‘Zaosu’ pear and its mutant. Conclusion A 2-D gel electrophoresis system of pear leaves and fruits was established, which was suitable for the analysis of proteome comparison. To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in leaves

  19. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification. PMID:22451246

  20. Metabolic profiles of d’Anjou pears stored in low oxygen atmospheres

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low oxygen storage atmospheres slow ripening and prevent superficial scald development on d’Anjou pear fruit. A metabolic profiling approach was employed to characterize peel metabolites in d’Anjou pears stored at 1C in air, 1.5kPa O2/0.5kPa CO2 (CA), or 0.5kPa O2/0.5kPa CO2 (UA) for up to 6 months...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa Pear Leaf Scorch Strain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, C-C; Deng, W-L; Jan, F-J; Chang, C-J; Huang, H; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain PLS229, isolated from the pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp, with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 genome was annotated and has 3,259 open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24652975

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of modified oligonucleotides by PEAR using Phusion and KOD DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuxiang; Zhang, Jianye; Li, Yingjia; Chen, Gang; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-02-01

    Antisense synthetic oligonucleotides have been developed as potential gene-targeted therapeutics. We previously reported polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR) for amplification of natural and 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate) (S)-modified oligonucleotides. Here, we extended the PEAR technique for enzymatic preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-(2'-F) and 2'-F/S double-modified oligonucleotides. The result showed that KOD and Phusion DNA polymerase could synthesize oligonucleotides with one or two modified nucleotides, and KOD DNA polymerase is more suitable than Phusion DNA polymerase for PEAR amplification of 2'-F and 2'-F/S double modified oligonucleotides. The composition of PEAR products were analyzed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI/LC/MS) detection and showed that the sequence of the PEAR products are maintained at an extremely high accuracy (>99.9%), and after digestion the area percent of full-length modified oligonucleotides reaches 89.24%. PEAR is suitable for synthesis of modified oligonucleotides efficiently and with high purity. PMID:25517220

  3. Application of infrared lock-in thermography for the quantitative evaluation of bruises on pears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ghiseok; Kim, Geon-Hee; Park, Jongmin; Kim, Dae-Yong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-03-01

    An infrared lock-in thermography technique was adjusted for the detection of early bruises on pears. This mechanical damage is usually difficult to detect in the early stage after harvested using conventional visual sorting or CCD sensor-based imaging processing methods. We measured the thermal emission signals from pears using a highly sensitive mid-infrared thermal camera. These images were post-processed using a lock-in method that utilized the periodic thermal energy input to the pear. By applying the lock-in method to infrared thermography, the detection sensitivity and signal to noise ratio were enhanced because of the phase-sensitive narrow-band filtering effect. It was also found that the phase information of thermal emission from pears provides good metrics with which to identify quantitative information about both damage size and damage depth for pears. Additionally, a photothermal model was implemented to investigate the behavior of thermal waves on pears under convective conditions. Theoretical results were compared to experimental results. These results suggested that the proposed lock-in thermography technique and resultant phase information can be used to detect mechanical damage to fruit, especially in the early stage of bruising.

  4. Spatially-Resolved HST GRISM Spectroscopy of a Lensed Emission Line Galaxy at Z to approximately 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Brenda L.; Hurley, Mairead; Bowen, David V.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Sharon, Keren; Straughn, Amber; Coe, Dan; Broadhurst, Tom; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of gravitational lensing amplification by Abell 1689 (z=0.187) to undertake the first space-based census of emission line galaxies (ELGs) in the field of a massive lensing cluster. Forty-three ELGs are identified to a flux of i(sub 775)=27.3 via slitless grism spectroscopy. One ELG (at z=0.7895) is very bright owing to lensing magnification by a factor of approx = 4.5. Several Balmer emission lines detected from ground-based follow-up spectroscopy signal the onset of a major starburst for this low-mass galaxy (M(sub star) approx = 2 x 10(exp 9)Solar Mass) with a high specific star formation rate (approx = 20/ Gyr). From the blue emission lines we measure a gas-phase oxygen abundance consistent with solar (12+log(O /H)=8.8 +/- O.2). We break the continuous line-emitting region of this giant arc into seven approx 1 kpc bins (intrinsic size) and measure a variety of metallicity dependent line ratios. A weak trend of increasing metal fraction is seen toward the dynamical center of the galaxy. Interestingly, the metal line ratios in a region offset from the center by -lkpc have a placement on the blue HI! region excitation diagram with f([OIII]/ f(H-Beta) and f([NeIII/ f(H-Beta) that can be fit by an AGN. This asymmetrical AGN-like behavior is interpreted as a product of shocks in the direction of the galaxy's extended tail, possibly instigated by a recent galaxy interaction.

  5. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  6. Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Slitless Spectrometer: Design, Prototype, and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Content, David; Dominguez, Margaret; Emmett, Thomas; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John; Kruk, Jeffrey; Marx, Catherine; Pasquale, Bert; Wallace, Thomas; Whipple, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The slitless spectrometer plays an important role in the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission for the survey of emission-line galaxies. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing. Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response.

  7. Russeting in apple and pear: a plastic periderm replaces a stiff cuticle

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Bishnu P.; Grimm, Eckhard; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Russeting in apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) is a disorder of the fruit skin that results from microscopic cracks in the cuticle and the subsequent formation of a periderm. To better understand russeting, rheological properties of cuticular membranes (CM) and periderm membranes (PM) were studied from the russet-sensitive apple ‘Karmijn de Sonnaville’ and from ‘Conference’ pear. Methodology The CM and PM were isolated enzymatically, investigated by microscopy and subjected to tensile tests, creep/relaxation tests and to stepwise creep tests using a material testing machine. Principal results The isolated CM formed a continuous polymer, whereas the PM represented a cellular structure of stacked cork cells. Tensile tests revealed higher plasticity of the hydrated PM compared with the CM, as indicated by a higher strain at the maximum force (ɛmax) and a lower modulus of elasticity (E). In apple, the maximum force (Fmax) was higher in the CM than in the PM but in pear the higher Fmax value was found for the PM. In specimens obtained from the CM : PM transition zone, the weak point in apple was found to be at the CM : PM borderline but in pear it was within the CM. In both apple and pear, creep/relaxation tests revealed elastic strain, creep strain, viscoelastic strain and viscous strain components in both the PM and CM. For any particular force, strains were always greater in the PM than in the CM and were also greater in pear than in apple. The ɛmax and Fmax values of the CM and PM were lower than those of non-russeted and russeted whole-fruit skin segments, which included adhering tissue. Conclusions In russeting, stiff CM are replaced by more plastic PM. Further, the cell layers underlying the CM and PM represent the load-bearing structure in the fruit skin in apple and pear. PMID:23350024

  8. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, L P; Butler, P A; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bönig, S; Bree, N; Cederkäll, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; De Witte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kröll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M

    2013-05-01

    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are 'octupole deformed', that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on (220)Rn and (224)Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental studies of atomic electric-dipole moments that might reveal extensions to the standard model. PMID:23657348

  9. Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects Asian pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed

    Kim, W S; Gardan, L; Rhim, S L; Geider, K

    1999-04-01

    A novel pathogen from Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was analysed by sequencing the 16S rDNA and the adjacent intergenic region, and the data were compared to related Enterobacteriaceae. The 16S rDNA of the Asian pear pathogen was almost identical with the sequence of Erwinia amylovora, in contrast to the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region of both species. A dendrogram was deduced from determined sequences of the spacer regions including those of several related species such as Erwinia amylovora, Enterobacter pyrinus, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli. Dendrograms derived from 121 biochemical characteristics including Biotype 100 data placed the Asian pear pathogen close to Erwinia amylovora and more distantly to other members of the species Erwinia and to the species Pantoea and Enterobacter. Another DNA relatedness study was performed by DNA hybridizations and estimation of delta Tm values. The Asian pear strains constituted a tight DNA hybridization group (89-100%) and were barely related to strains of Erwinia amylovora (40-50%) with a delta Tm in the range of 5.2-6.8. The G + C content of DNA from the novel pathogen is 52 mol%. Therefore, it is proposed that strains isolated from Asian pears constitute a new species and the name Erwinia pyrifoliae is suggested; the type strain is strain Ep 16/96T (= CFBP 4172T = DSM 12163T). PMID:10319516

  10. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    Sugar, organic acid, triterpenoid and phenolic composition as well as antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear were studied. Fruits and leaves of 'Radana' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were used. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the pear pulp, peel, leaves and seeds. Fructose was the major sugar in pulp, seeds and peel (227.46, 45.36 and 67.49 g/kg dry mass [DM], respectively), while sorbitol was predominant in leaves (40.66 g/kg DM). Malic acid was the major organic acid, followed by citric and shikimic acids. The highest concentration of triterpenoids (3460.5 μg/g DM) was determined in pear peel, and ursolic acid was predominant. Leaves were characterized by the highest amount of phenolics (5326.7 mg/100 g DM) and the highest DPPH and FRAP values (2027.9 and 3539.6 μmol TE/100 g DM, respectively). Pear leaves and seeds may be selected as potential sources of phytochemicals. PMID:26948642

  12. Genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Sara; Brewer, Lester; Lamberts, Robert; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael; Perchepied, Laure; Guérif, Philippe; Durel, Charles-Eric; Bus, Vincent G M; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. Identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. Development of molecular markers linked to the lethal genes will allow breeders to avoid incompatible inbred combinations that could affect the expression of important agronomic tratis co-segregating with these genes. Although hybrid necrosis has been reported in several plant taxa, including Rosaceae species, this phenomenon has not been described previously in pear. In the interspecific pear population resulting from a cross between PEAR3 (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus communis) and ‘Moonglow’ (P. communis), we observed two types of hybrid necrosis, expressed at different stages of plant development. Using a combination of previously mapped and newly developed genetic markers, we identified three chromosome regions associated with these two types of lethality, which were genetically independent. One type resulted from a negative epistatic interaction between a locus on linkage group 5 (LG5) of PEAR3 and a locus on LG1 of ‘Moonglow’, while the second type was due to a gene that maps to LG2 of PEAR3 and which either acts alone or more probably interacts with another gene of unknown location inherited from ‘Moonglow’. PMID:26770810

  13. Infrared imaging technology for detection of bruising damages of 'Shingo' pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-06-01

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors that needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects including fruit bruise is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red imaging techniques in the 1000 nm to 1700 nm has good potentials for identifying and detecting bruises since bruises result in the rupture of internal cell walls due to defects on agricultural materials. In this study, feasibility of hyperspectral infra-red (1000 - 1700 nm) imaging technique for the detection of bruise damages underneath the pear skin was investigated. Pear bruises, affecting the quality of fruits underneath the skin, are not easily discernable by using conventional imaging technique in the visible wavelength ranges. Simple image combination methods as well as multivariate image analyses were explored to develop optimal image analysis algorithm to detect bruise damages of pear. Results demonstrated good potential of the infra-red imaging techniques for detection of bruises damages on pears.

  14. ATTRACTION OF MALE SUMMERFORM PEAR PSYLLA TO VOLATILES FROM FEMALE PSYLLA: EFFECTS OF FEMALE AGE, MATING STATUS, AND PRESENCE OF HOST PLANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a pest of pears throughout North America and western Europe. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that males of the overwintering form (winterform morphotype) were attracted to volatiles from pear shoots infested with post-d...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1323 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1323 Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption... for residues of the biochemical pesticide, ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester), in or on all...

  16. A transcriptome approach towards understanding the development of ripening capacity in European pears (Pyrus communis L. cv Bartlett)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of European pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) to ripen after harvest develops during the final stages of growth on the tree. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit physico-chemical properties and transcription profiles during fruit maturation leadi...

  17. Plains Prickly Pear Response to Fire: Effects of Fuel Load, Heat, Fire Weather, and Donor Site Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plains prickly pear (Opuntia polyacantha Haw.) is common throughout the Great Plains and like related species, often becomes detrimental to agricultural production. We examined direct fire effects on plains prickly pear and mechanisms of tissue damage to facilitate development of fire prescriptions...

  18. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  19. A Transcriptome Approach towards Understanding the Development of Ripening Capacity in European Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv Bartlett)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of European pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) to ripen after harvest develops during the final stages of growth on the tree. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit physico-chemical properties and transcription profiles during fruit maturation leadi...

  20. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  1. Effect of blending and storage on quality characteristics of blended sand pear-apple juice beverage.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dev; Sharma, P C; Vaidya, Devina

    2011-02-01

    Juice from sand pear and apple was extracted by grating the fruits following extraction using hydraulic press. The juice after extraction was filtered, heat pasteurized and packed in glass bottles followed by processing. Suitability of blending sand pear juice with apple juice was evaluated. Blending of sand pear juice (SPJ) with apple juice (AJ) in the proportion of 50:50 to 60:40 gave better quality with higher sensory score. With the increase in the level of SPJ in the AJ mix there was gradual increase in the level of polyphenols. Brix to acid ratio of the beverage was optimum when SPJ and AJ were blended in the ratio of 50:50 to 60:40. Storage of blended beverage containing 50-60% SPJ was found more shelf stable during 6 months storage. PMID:23572723

  2. A 'compare and contrast' exercise: wrapping versus personalised external aortic root support (PEARS).

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Wrapping of the aorta and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) both have the purpose of preventing further expansion of the ascending aorta in order to reduce the risk of aortic dissection and to spare the patient the disastrous consequences of aortic rupture. For the first time, Plonek and colleagues have reported systematically the CT appearances of a series of cases of wrapping. They illustrate the important finding that there are residual spaces between the aorta and the wrap. PEARS by contrast is intimately in contact with the aorta due to its personalised design and is fully incorporated due it construction from a porous mesh. A limitation of PEARS is that it is, of its nature, a planned and elective operation while wrapping can be undertaken during an emergency operation and can be used without prior planning as an intraoperative decision. PMID:27406033

  3. [Huanghua pear soluble solids contents Vis/NIR spectroscopy by analysis of variables optimization and FICA].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-li; Sun, Tong; Hu, Tian; Hu, Tao; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model of the visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmission spectroscopy with fine stability and precise predictability for the non destructive testing of the soluble solids content of huanghua pear, through comparing the effects of various pretreatment methods, variable optimization method, fast independent principal component analysis (FICA) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) on mathematica model for SSC of huanghua pear, and the best combination of methods to establish model for SSC of huanghua pear was got. Vis/NIR diffuse transmission spectra of huanghua pear were acquired by a Quality Spec spectrometer, three methods including genetic algorithm, successive projections algorithm and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) were used firstly to select characteristic variables from spectral data of huanghua pears in the wavelength range of 550~950 nm, and then FICA was used to extract factors from the characteristic variables, finally, validation model for SSC in huanghua pears was built by LS-SVM on the basic of those parameters got above. The results showed that using LS-SVM on the foundation of the 21 variables screened by CARS and the 12 factors selected by FICA, the CARS-FICA-LS-SVM regression model for SSC in huanghua pears was built and performed best, the coefficient of determination and root mean square error of calibration and prediction sets were RC(2)=0.974, RMSEC=0.116%, RP(2)=0.918, and RMSEP=0.158% respectively, and compared with the mathematical model which uses PLS as modeling method, the number of variables was down from 401 to 21, the factors were also down from 14 to 12, the coefficient of determination of modeling and prediction sets were up to 0.023 and 0.019 respectively, while the root mean square errors of calibration and prediction sets were reduced by 0.042% and 0.010% respectively. These experimental results showed that using CARS-FICA-LS-SVM to

  4. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKCC-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy. PMID:26466664

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment on physicochemical and sensory properties of bartlett pears.

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Yalda; Caporaso, Fred; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-09-01

    A major concern in exporting agricultural commodities is the introduction or spread of exotic quarantine pests to the new area. To prevent spread of insect pests, various phytosanitary measures are used. Worldwide commercial use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment has increased greatly in recent years; however, trade has been limited to tropical fruits. Bartlett pear is a major summer variety of California pears with great potential and market for export. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 400, 600, and 800 Gy on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of early and late harvest Bartlett pears was investigated. Firmness and color changes indicate that irradiation delayed the ripening of pears by 1 d. For the early harvest pears, scarring, bruising, and off flavor were significantly increased at the highest irradiation dose (800 Gy). The appearance of early harvest 800 Gy irradiated pears was the only attribute that received significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower scores than the control in consumer testing. For the late harvest pears, the 400 Gy fruit had lowest levels of scarring and bruising as rated by trained panelist but consumers did not score the control and 800 Gy fruit differently for any attribute. Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and chroma were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased and hue increased by irradiation for the early harvest pears. These results suggest that there was a difference in radiotolerance of early and late harvest pears, but in both cases, irradiation at 400 to 600 Gy seemed to maintain best quality. PMID:24024694

  6. Isoform identification, recombinant production and characterization of the allergen lipid transfer protein 1 from pear (Pyr c 3).

    PubMed

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Amato, Stefano; Passera, Elisabetta; Sforza, Stefano; Mistrello, Gianni; Berni, Rodolfo; Folli, Claudia

    2012-01-10

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins belonging to LTP1 family represent the most important allergens for non pollen-related allergies to Rosaceae fruits in the Mediterranean area. Peach LTP1 (Pru p 3) is a major allergen and is considered the prototypic allergenic LTP. On the contrary, pear allergy without pollinosis seems to be under-reported when compared to other Rosaceae fruits suggesting that the as-yet-uncharacterized pear LTP1 (Pyr c 3) has in vivo a low allergenicity. We report here on the identification of four cDNAs encoding for LTP1 in pear fruits. The two isoforms exhibiting amino acid sequences most similar to those of peach and apple homologues were obtained as recombinant proteins. Such isoforms exhibited CD spectra and lipid binding ability typical of LTP1 family. Moreover, pear LTP1 mRNA was mainly found in the peel, as previously shown for other Rosaceae fruits. By means of IgE ELISA assays a considerable immunoreactivity of these proteins to LTP-sensitive patient sera was detected, even though allergic reactions after ingestion of pear were not reported in the clinical history of the patients. Finally, the abundance of LTP1 in protein extracts from pear peel, in which LTP1 from Rosaceae fruits is mainly confined, was estimated to be much lower as compared to peach peel. Our data suggest that the two isoforms of pear LTP1 characterized in this study possess biochemical features and IgE-binding ability similar to allergenic LTPs. Their low concentrations in pear might be the cause of the low frequency of LTP-mediated pear allergy. PMID:22015956

  7. Dissipation of teflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in field-sprayed and cold-stored pears.

    PubMed

    Aplada-Sarlis, P G; Miliadis, G E; Tsiropoulos, N G

    1999-07-01

    Dissipation of residues of benzoylurea insecticides teflubenzuron (TFB) and triflumuron (TFM) under field conditions was evaluated on a pear orchard in Greece. Residues were determined by UV-HPLC analysis, with a detection limit of 0.030 mg/kg for both pesticides. TFB residues in pears were found to persist for 2 weeks and decline thereafter with 48% of the initial deposit remaining 42 days after the last application. TFM residues were found to decline following first-order kinetics and with a half-life of 39(+/-7) days. Residues of both pesticides found in pears collected at harvest maturity were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by individual countries. Dissipation of TFB and TFM in cold-stored pears was also evaluated. TFB residues were very persistent for the whole storage period, whereas TFM residues did not dissipate for 6 weeks and then showed a constant decline; 7% of the initial concentration remained at the end of the storage period of 29 weeks. PMID:10552588

  8. Performance of US 71655-014, a fire blight resistant pear selection from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, West Virginia. In an earlier, un-replicated trail in Oregon, it was determined that US 71655-014 had several positive attributes including precocity, annual production, ...

  9. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples and investigate whether these can be used to enhance the efficacy of pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, for monitoring female and male codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the f...

  10. Evaluation of fruit quality and susceptibility to blue mold of nine Asian pear cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine Asian pear cultivars (Atago, Hosui, Isiiwase, Kosui, Olympic, Shinko, Shinsui, Ya Li, and Yoinashi) were evaluated for quality (firmness, titratable acidity, and soluble solids) and susceptibility to the blue mold pathogen Penicillium expansum. Fruit were grown at the University of Maryland Ext...

  11. Growth medium alterations improve in vitro cold storage of pear germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of new fruit cultivars is dependent on genetic resource collections such as those at the Pomological Garden at the Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture near Almaty, Kazakhstan. The pear germplasm collection of the Pomological Garden contains 615 cultivars and 3 species. About 36 ac...

  12. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  13. Identification of European and Asian Pears Using EST-SSRs From Pyrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten EST-SSRs previously isolated from Pyrus were used to identify 81 P. communis, 13 P. pyrifolia and 20 P. ussuriensis or P. × bretschneideri accessions. Cross-transference of these EST-SSRs was high in these species. PYC-008 and PYC-004 were the least informative SSRs in each of the pear species a...

  14. SEASONAL VARIABILITY IN PRICKLY PEAR CREEK WATER QUALITY AND MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prickly Pear Creek, Montana, was sampled during four seasons in 1982 and 1983 to attempt to relate biological responses to fluctuations in discharge, in-stream toxicity and metal concentration in the water column. The biota (macroinvertebrate) were definitely impacted directly do...

  15. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  16. Ploidy of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) world pear germplasm collection determined by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Living germplasm collections representing world diversity of pear (Pyrus L.) are maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Flow cytometry was performed on young leaf tissue from 1,284 genebank accessions to assess p...

  17. Transgene expression in pear (Pyrus communis L.) driven by a phloem-specific promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gene expression cassette carrying ß-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene under the control of the promoter of the Arabidopsis sucrose-H+ symporter gene (AtSUC2) was introduced to pear plants via an Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transformation procedure. Transgenic shoots were regenerated from...

  18. Genetic Relationships within Heritage Apple and Pear Cultivars in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Açores cooperative initiative program (ACIP) scientists from the US Department of Agriculture and Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agario da Terceira are collaborating to identify heritage apples and pears collected from locations throughout Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Nine apple microsatel...

  19. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... orders were being amended at the time (72 FR 12038, March 15, 2007). USDA determined that it would be... were amended in 2006 (71 FR 41345, July 21, 2006). USDA has determined that continuance referenda are... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in...

  20. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  1. Genetic and biochemical bases of superficial scald storage disorder in apple and pear fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a physiological storage disorder affecting apple and pear fruits. The disorder develops during cold storage and intensifies after removal to market temperatures. Scald symptoms result from necrosis of a few hypodermal cell layers and manifest as brown or black patches on the fru...

  2. Regulating Ripening of 'Bartlett' Pears Using Preharvest Plus Postharvest Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in ripening uniformity of Bartlett (Pyrus Communis) pears in cold storage may be a problem in some years because of factors such as lack of chilling hours during winter, protracted anthesis and insufficient labor at harvest. On large orchards, such variation makes harvest timing very diffi...

  3. Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of superficial scald development in apple and pear fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a physiological storage disorder of apple and pear fruits. It develops during prolonged cold storage and intensifies after removal to warmer temperatures. Despite many years of investigation, the biochemical mechanism of scald is still unknown. The prevailing hypothesis holds th...

  4. Biofilm production and resistance to disinfectants in Salmonella strains isolated from prickly pear, water, and soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: i) determine the capacity of Salmonella isolated from prickly pear (10 strains), water samples (2 strains), and soil (3 strains) to form biofilms, and ii) evaluate the bactericidal effect of citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium hypochlorite on biofilm-forming st...

  5. Effect of the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest decay and patulin accumulation in apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruiyu; Yu, Ting; Guo, Shuanghuan; Hu, Hao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a strain of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest blue mold and patulin accumulation in apples and pears stored at 23°C was evaluated. The occurrence and severity of apple and pear decay caused by Penicillium expansum were significantly inhibited by R. paludigenum. However, the application of the yeast at a high concentration (10(8) cells per ml) enhanced patulin accumulation after 7 days of storage; the amount of patulin increased 24.2 times and 12.6 times compared to the controls in infected apples and pears, respectively. However, R. paludigenum reduced the patulin concentration in the growth medium by both biological degradation and physical adsorption. Optimal in vitro patulin reduction was observed at 30°C and at pH 6.0. R. paludigenum incubated at 28°C was tolerant to patulin at concentrations up to 100 mg/liter. In conclusion, R. paludigenum was able to control postharvest decay in apples and pears and to remove patulin in vitro effectively. However, because the yeast induced patulin accumulation in fruit, the assessment of mycotoxin content after biological treatments in postharvest decay control is important. R. paludigenum may also be a promising source of gene(s) and enzyme(s) for patulin degradation and may be a tool to decrease patulin contamination in commercial fruit-derived products. PMID:25581191

  6. Fall and summer pruning to control vigor in d'Anjou pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling vigor in d’Anjou trees is an ongoing challenge in Washington pear orchards. Vigor depends on: nitrogen fertilization, cultivar, rootstock, and pruning/training system. Cultivar d’Anjou is inherently more vigorous than other cultivars, like Bartlett, which induces a more manageable tree...

  7. Performance of US 71655-014, a fire blight resistant pear selection from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, West Virginia. In an earlier, unreplicated trial in Oregon, it was determined that US 71655-014 had several positive attributes including precocity, annual producti...

  8. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha on Callery pear in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E.S. Salmon (Ascomycetes, Erysiphales) is the etiological agent of a powdery mildew disease that occurs on rosaceous plants, primarily Malus and Pyrus. This fungus is nearly circumglobal. In May 2009, leaves of Bradford pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.), some di...

  9. Response of summerform pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to male- and female-produced odors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), assessing response of summerform male and female psyllids to both male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. Male psyllids were attracted to odors from live females an...

  10. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  11. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain in Taiwan through whole genome sequence analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing diseases in many economically important crops mostly in the Americas but also in Asia and Europe. A strain of X. fastidiosa was found to cause pear leaf scorch (PLS) disease in Taiwan in 1992. Because of nutritional fastidiousness, characteriza...

  12. Effect of pretreatment methods of dormant pear buds on viability after cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to develop alternatives for dormant bud cryopreservation by using several cryoprotectants on four pear cultivars with a view to improve the viability of the dormant buds. We used different cryoprotectants such as Honey, PVS2, PVS3, PVS4, Towill, IPBB-1 for cultivars: Talgarskaya Kra...

  13. Hyperspectral near-infrared imaging for the detection of physical damages of pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors, which needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Thus, a reliable non-destructive detection method for the fruit defects including bruises is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red ima...

  14. Differentiation of deciduous-calyx Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential method for automatic sorting of pears according to their calyx type. The hyperspectral images were analyzed and wavebands at 1190 nm and 1199 nm were selected for differentiating deciduous-calyx fruits from persistent-calyx ones. A ...

  15. A new attractive, precocious, productive, fire blight resistant pear selection. What more could you ask for?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear scion selection developed by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Preliminary trials indicated several positive attributes including precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit, long storage life, and good consumer acceptance. In 2005, a rep...

  16. Evaluation of Pyrus germplasm for resistance to pear psylla in the orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An orchard collection of 208 diverse Pyrus genotypes was evaluated by both subjective ratings and objective counts of eggs and nymphs of pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) to determine whether differences in susceptibility could be detected with a degree of reliability sufficient for a preli...

  17. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  18. Stability of pear-shaped configurations bifurcated from a pressurized spherical balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. B.; Xie, Y. X.

    2014-08-01

    It is well-known that for most spherical rubber balloons the pressure versus volume curve associated with uniform inflation is N-shaped (the pressure increases rapidly to a maximum, falls to a minimum, and subsequently increases monotonically), and that somewhere along the descending branch of this curve the spherical shape may bifurcate into a pear shape through localized thinning near one of the poles. The bifurcation is associated with the (uniform) surface tension reaching a maximum. It is previously known that whenever a pear-shaped configuration becomes possible, it has lower energy than the co-existing spherical configuration, but the stability of the pear-shaped configuration itself is unknown. With the use of the energy stability criterion, it is shown in this paper that the pear-shaped configuration is unstable under pressure control, but stable under mass control. Our calculations are carried out using the Ogden material model as an example, but it is expected that the qualitative stability results should also be valid for other material models that predict a similar N-shaped behavior for uniform inflation.

  19. Evaluation of potential alternative varieties for U.S. west coast pear growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California, Oregon, and Washington produced 97% of the commercial U.S. pear crop from 2003-2005, consisting of 50% of 'Bartlett' ('Williams'), 36% of 'Anjou', 11% of 'Bosc', and 2% of others, mainly 'Comice', 'Red Clapp's Favorite', 'Seckel', and 'Concorde'. Declining processing demand has heighte...

  20. Evaluation of potential alternative European pear cultivars for U.S. West Coast growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California, Oregon, and Washington produced 98% of the commercial U.S. pear crop from 2003 to 2005, consisting of 'Williams Bartlett' (51%), 'Beurre Anjou' (36%), 'Beurre Bosc' (11%), and 2% others, mainly 'Doyenne du Comice', 'Red Clapp's Favorite', 'Seckel', and 'Concorde'. Declining processing d...

  1. Infra-red imaging technology for detection of bruise damages of Shingo pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors that needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects including fruit bruise is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red imaging tech...

  2. The Draft Genome Sequence of European Pear (Pyrus communis L. ‘Bartlett’)

    PubMed Central

    Pindo, Massimo; Thrimawithana, Amali; Deng, Cecilia; Ireland, Hilary; Fiers, Mark; Dzierzon, Helge; Cestaro, Alessandro; Fontana, Paolo; Bianco, Luca; Lu, Ashley; Storey, Roy; Knäbel, Mareike; Saeed, Munazza; Montanari, Sara; Kim, Yoon Kyeong; Nicolini, Daniela; Larger, Simone; Stefani, Erika; Allan, Andrew C.; Bowen, Judith; Harvey, Isaac; Johnston, Jason; Malnoy, Mickael; Troggio, Michela; Perchepied, Laure; Sawyer, Greg; Wiedow, Claudia; Won, Kyungho; Viola, Roberto; Hellens, Roger P.; Brewer, Lester; Bus, Vincent G. M.; Schaffer, Robert J.; Gardiner, Susan E.; Velasco, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft assembly of the genome of European pear (Pyrus communis) ‘Bartlett’. Our assembly was developed employing second generation sequencing technology (Roche 454), from single-end, 2 kb, and 7 kb insert paired-end reads using Newbler (version 2.7). It contains 142,083 scaffolds greater than 499 bases (maximum scaffold length of 1.2 Mb) and covers a total of 577.3 Mb, representing most of the expected 600 Mb Pyrus genome. A total of 829,823 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected using re-sequencing of ‘Louise Bonne de Jersey’ and ‘Old Home’. A total of 2,279 genetically mapped SNP markers anchor 171 Mb of the assembled genome. Ab initio gene prediction combined with prediction based on homology searching detected 43,419 putative gene models. Of these, 1219 proteins (556 clusters) are unique to European pear compared to 12 other sequenced plant genomes. Analysis of the expansin gene family provided an example of the quality of the gene prediction and an insight into the relationships among one class of cell wall related genes that control fruit softening in both European pear and apple (Malus×domestica). The ‘Bartlett’ genome assembly v1.0 (http://www.rosaceae.org/species/pyrus/pyrus_communis/genome_v1.0) is an invaluable tool for identifying the genetic control of key horticultural traits in pear and will enable the wide application of marker-assisted and genomic selection that will enhance the speed and efficiency of pear cultivar development. PMID:24699266

  3. The 3D-HST Survey: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Brammer, G.; Franx, M.; Skelton, R.; Lundgren, B.; Whitaker, K. E.; 3D-HST Team

    2013-01-01

    3D-HST is a near-IR spectroscopic survey with the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study galaxy evolution at 1surveying ~600 sq. arcmin of well-studied extragalactic fields (AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, UKIDSS-UDS) with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with ACS/G800L grism coverage. When completed in early 2013, 3D-HST would provide the critical third dimension - redshift - for some ~10,000 galaxies at z>1. In this talk, I will review the observational details, reduction pipeline, data quality and the wide range of public data products, including added-value photometric and spectroscopic catalogs. Data from the 3D-HST survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. Our first public data release will be in early 2013 and we would like to advertise this unique data set to the community.

  4. Science Highlights from the 3D-HST Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; 3D-HST Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    3D-HST is a 248-orbit spectroscopic survey with the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study galaxy evolution at z>1. Providing the critical third dimension - redshift - via slitless optical and near-IR grism spectra, 3D-HST opens new possibilities for science and discovery in the deep extragalactic fields AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S and UKIDSS-UDS. With observations now completed, I will review the status of the survey and the plans of the team to make data products available to the community. We have combined the grism observations with archival data to create an unique dataset which incorporates > 1000 HST orbits. I will also present some science highlights from the survey. These include tracing the growth of Milky Way-like galaxies since 2.5, investigating the star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at 0.3 < z < 2.5, a detailed analysis of resolved stellar populations patterns of galaxies and studying the properties of dust in star-forming galaxies at 1.

  5. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured. PMID:25348501

  6. The 3D-HST Survey: First Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Gabriel; 3D-HST Survey Team

    2013-01-01

    3D-HST is a 248-orbit survey with the WFC3 G141 and ACS G800L grisms on board the Hubble Space Telescope, providing optical and near-IR slitless spectroscopic coverage of 75% of the CANDELS extragalactic survey fields. With data-taking due to be completed in early 2013, I will present some of the early science highlights already obtained from the survey. These include an H-alpha survey of a complete sample of massive galaxies and resolved H-alpha maps of star-forming galaxies at 1, detailed spectroscopic analysis of an extremely low-mass, low-metallicity starburst galaxy at z=1.85, and an unbiased census of Mg II absorbers along a QSO sightline at 1 < z < 2.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Xoconostle Pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Saeed A.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of xoconostle pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Xoconostle pears were sliced, blended, and centrifuged. The supernatant was then filtered using a 0.45 μm filter to obtain direct extract. Direct extract of xoconostle pears was tested against four strains of E. coli O157:H7 in brain heart infusion (BHI) laboratory medium using growth over time and agar well diffusion assays. Our results showed that direct extract of xoconostle pears had a significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect at 4, 6, and 8% (v/v) concentrations and complete inhibitory effect at 10% (v/v) during 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) was 400 μL mL−1 (v/v) and minimum lethal volume (MLV) was 650 μL mL−1 (v/v). The inhibitory effect of xoconostle pears found to be concentration dependent and not strain dependent. Thus, xoconostle pears extract has the potential to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and could provide a natural means of controlling pathogenic contamination, thereby mitigating food safety risks. PMID:22934117

  9. Effect of maturity and cold storage on ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears treated after harvest with 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further our understanding of the response of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and their ability to recover the capacity to ripen, ‘Bartlett’ pears were treated with 0.3 µL L-1 1-MCP for 12 h at 20 °C immediately after harvest in two seasons and to pear fruit of four maturitie...

  10. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2) and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm). Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%. PMID:20162014

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel chitinase with antifungal activity from 'Baozhu' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Yang, Chengcheng; Liang, Xiaobo; Li, Lirong

    2016-04-01

    A novel chitinase from the 'Baozhu' pear was found, purified, and characterized in this report. This chitinase was a monomer with a molecular mass of 28.9 kDa. Results of the internal peptide sequence analyses classify this chitinase as a class III chitinase. In the enzymatic hydrolytic assay, this chitinase could hydrolyze chitin derivatives into di-N-acetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) as a major product in the initial phase, as well as hydrolyze GlcNAc2 into N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which represents both chitobiosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminase activity. Biological analyses showed that this chitinase exhibits strong antifungal activity toward agricultural pathogenic fungi. In total, chitinase from 'Baozhu' pear is a novel bifunctional chitinase that could be a potential fungicide in the biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26593558

  12. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, Isolated from a Pear Tree Canker

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jeannie M.; Bennett, Rhett W.; MacFarland, Logan; Abranches Da Silva, Megan E.; Meza-Turner, Britney M.; Dark, Phillip M.; Frey, Mackenzie E.; Wellappili, Dulani P.; Beugli, Aron D.; Jue, Holman J.; Mellander, Joshua M.; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plant-associated Erwinia include pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. We report the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, isolated from a canker on a pear tree inoculated with Erwinia amylovora. OSU19-1 and a closely related European isolate, E. billingiae Eb661T, share many similarities including 40 kb of plasmid sequence. PMID:26430039

  14. Two MYB transcription factors regulate flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shiwei; Meng, Geng; Song, Linyan; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds play important roles in the modern diet, and pear fruits are an excellent dietary source of these metabolites. However, information on the regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruits is rare. In this work, 18 putative flavonoid-related MYB transcription factors (TFs) were screened by phylogenetic analysis and four of them were correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis patterns in pear fruits. Among these MYB-like genes, the specific functions of two novel MYB TFs, designated as PbMYB10b and PbMYB9, were further verified by both overexpression and RNAi transient assays. PbMYB10b, a PAP-type MYB TF with atypical motifs in its conserved region, regulated the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways by inducing the expression of PbDFR, but its function could be complemented by other MYB TFs. PbMYB9, a TT2-type MYB, not only acted as the specific activator of the proanthocyanidin pathway by activating the PbANR promoter, but also induced the synthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols by binding the PbUFGT1 promoter in pear fruits. The MYBCORE-like element has been identified in both the PbUFGT1 promoter and ANR promoters in most species, but it was not found in UFGT promoters isolated from other species. This finding was also supported by a yeast one-hybrid assay and thus enhanced the likelihood of the interaction between PbMYB9 and the PbUFGT1 promoter. PMID:26687179

  15. Managing ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit ripening with 1-methylcyclopropene reapplication during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated low-dose 1-MCP-applications were evaluated during cold storage of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to overcome long-term ripening inhibition of a high dose 1-MCP treatment at harvest. Fruit were exposed to 1-MCP at 0, 0.42, 4.2 or 42 umol m-3 at harvest in year one, and to 0, 0.42 or 42 umol m-3 in y...

  16. Combination of 1-Methylcyclopropene and ethoxyquin to control superficial scald of 'Anjou' pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application at 20 °C for 24 hours on the day of harvest plus an ethoxyquin drench at 1000 µL L-1 after 1, 7, 30 and 60 days (d) of cold storage controlled superficial scald of ‘d’Anjou’ pears stored in air at -1 °C for 5 months. 1-MCP alone, or ethoxyquin alo...

  17. Post-harvest HPLC determination of chlorfluazuron residues in pears treated with different programs.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Choi, Yong-Sun

    2007-07-01

    The present study was conducted to monitor the level of chlorfluazuron residues in pear samples in order to assess the risk posed by the presence of such residues to the consumer. Chlorfluazuron was sprayed onto pear trees at the recommended dose rate at two different times at 30 and 21 days prior to harvesting in one treatment, at 21 and 14 days prior to harvesting in another treatment, and three times at 30, 21 and 14 days prior to harvesting in a third treatment. Chlorfluazuron residues were extracted with acetonitrile and partitioned into ethyl acetate. The residue determination was performed on an Apollo C(18) column using HPLC with a UV detection of 254 nm following the clean-up of the extract by open column chromatography with Florisil. The versatility of this method was evidenced by its good linearity (>0.995) in the concentration range between 0.2 and 10 microg/mL. The majority of the mean recoveries at two different fortification levels, 0.05 and 0.25 ppm, ranged from 84.9 +/- 3.2 to 94.3 +/- 10.6, and the repeatability (as the relative standard deviation) from three repetitive determinations of recovery was between 3.8 and 11%. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) was 0.008 ppm and the limit of quantitation was 0.03 ppm. Trace amounts of chlorfluazuron were detectable when it was applied onto the pear trees at two or three times prior to harvesting; however, the levels of chlorfluazuron were not quantified. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of this method allowed for quantitation and identification at low levels with a run time of less than 12 min. Chlorfluazuron can be used safely to protect pears when sprayed two or three times at 14 days prior to harvesting. PMID:17428007

  18. Seasonal variability in Prickly Pear Creek water quality and macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Baldigo, B.P.; Baker, J.R.; Kinney, W.L.; Fillinger, M.

    1986-12-01

    Prickly Pear Creek, Montana, was sampled during four seasons in 1982 and 1983 to attempt to relate biological responses to fluctuations in discharge, in-stream toxicity, and metal concentration in the water column. The biota (macroinvertebrate) were definitely impacted directly downstream from a metal source during all seasons, but no definite relationships among discharge, metal concentration, and biological response could be established on a seasonal basis.

  19. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS+WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 SURVEY FOR LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS. I. THE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Meara, John M.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Madau, Piero

    2011-08-01

    We present a set of 71 quasars observed in the near ultraviolet with the PR200L prism on the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the G280 grism on the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The quasars were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to search for intervening Lyman limit system (LLS) absorption. The sample was subjected to the constraints that the quasars have AB magnitude g' < 18.5, quasar emission redshift 2.3 < z{sub em} < 2.6, and lack strong BAL or z {approx_equal} z{sub em} absorption. The median emission redshift of the sample is z-bar = 2.403. The data were all processed using custom data reduction pipelines, and the one-dimensional spectra have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and resolution to easily identify absorption from LLS over the redshift range 1.2 < z < 2.5. The WFC3 data presented here are the first non-calibration spectra from the G280 grism.

  20. Identification and field evaluation of pear fruit volatiles attractive to the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-Fei; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2012-08-01

    Plant volatiles play a key role in host plant location of phytophagous insects. Cydia molesta is an important pest of pear fruit late in the growing season. We identified and quantified volatiles from immature and mature fruits of six pear varieties by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Attractiveness of synthetic blends to adults based on gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) activity was investigated in both field and laboratory. Consistent electroantennographic activity was obtained for 12 compounds from headspace collections of the mature fruits of the six pear varieties. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among six odor profiles. Among the six mixtures, the mixture of 1-hexanol, nonanal, ethyl butanoate, butyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, hexyl butanoate, and farnesene (different isomers) with a 1:1:100:70:7:5:1:4 ratio from the variety Jimi and the mixture of nonanal, ethyl butanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and farnesene with a 1:100:1:32:1:2 ratio from the variety Huangjin were highly attractive to both sexes in the field. However, male captures were much higher than those of females. Further wind tunnel tests proved that both sexes exhibited upwind flight to the lures, but only males landed on the source. Our finding indicates that mixtures mimicking Jimi and Huangjin volatiles attract both females and males of C. molesta, and these host volatiles may be involved in mate finding behavior. PMID:22730107

  1. Genetic structure and diversity of the wild Ussurian pear in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hironori; Amo, Hitomi; Wuyun, Tana; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ussurian pear is the most important cultivated pear in the northern part of China. Cultivated Ussurian pears are considered to have derived from Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. which is native to the northeast of China. In Japan, two varieties of P. ussuriensis, P. ussuriensis var. aromatica and var. hondoensis are native to the northern area and the central area of the main island respectively. In order to reveal the origin of Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica distributed in the northern area of main island of Japan, more than 40 explorations have been performed in Japan and in China, and more than 30 natural habitats were recognized. These natural habitats are at risk of extinction because of human development and forest degradation caused by climate change. Population structure and genetic diversity of P. ussuriensis in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan have been investigated using both morphological and molecular markers in order to define appropriate conservation units, and to provide a good focus for conservation management. Distant evolutionary relationships between P. ussuriensis Maxim. in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan inferred from population genetic structure and phylogenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:27069394

  2. Genetic structure and diversity of the wild Ussurian pear in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hironori; Amo, Hitomi; Wuyun, Tana; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ussurian pear is the most important cultivated pear in the northern part of China. Cultivated Ussurian pears are considered to have derived from Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. which is native to the northeast of China. In Japan, two varieties of P. ussuriensis, P. ussuriensis var. aromatica and var. hondoensis are native to the northern area and the central area of the main island respectively. In order to reveal the origin of Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica distributed in the northern area of main island of Japan, more than 40 explorations have been performed in Japan and in China, and more than 30 natural habitats were recognized. These natural habitats are at risk of extinction because of human development and forest degradation caused by climate change. Population structure and genetic diversity of P. ussuriensis in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan have been investigated using both morphological and molecular markers in order to define appropriate conservation units, and to provide a good focus for conservation management. Distant evolutionary relationships between P. ussuriensis Maxim. in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan inferred from population genetic structure and phylogenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:27069394

  3. SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS IN PEAR ON TWO BENEFICIAL MIRIDAE BUGS.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, K; Belien, T; Bylemans, D

    2015-01-01

    Anthocoris nemoralis, Anthocoris nemorum and Orius spp. are not the only beneficial predatory bugs inhabiting pear orchards in Belgium. Quite often, the Miridae bugs Heterotoma spp. and Pilophorus spp. can be found during spring and summer in these orchards, thereby feeding on several pests such as psyllids, aphids, spider mites, ... . Side-effects are usually assessed on Anthocoris and Orius spp., but due to the potential importance of Miridae bugs in pest reduction, we tested some commonly used crop protection products used in pear cultivation on Heterotoma planicornis and Pilophorus perplexus (residue-based tests in petri-dishes). One day after treatment, mortalities already could be observed for some products. Seven days after treatment, abamectin, deltamethrin and thiacloprid were considered the most toxic products as stated by the IOBC classification. This outcome was then analysed with regard to different treatment schedules, providing insights in potential side-effects on crop protection treatments on the composition of beneficial fauna in pear orchards. PMID:27145577

  4. Oxidative stress and senescence-like status of pear calli co-cultured on suspensions of incompatible quince microcalli.

    PubMed

    Nocito, Fabio F; Espen, Luca; Fedeli, Chiara; Lancilli, Clarissa; Musacchi, Stefano; Serra, Sara; Sansavini, Silviero; Cocucci, Maurizio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a simple in vitro system to study physiological, biochemical and molecular changes occurring in a pear callus (Pyrus communis L., cv. Beurré Bosc) grown in close proximity to spatially separated undifferentiated homologous (pear) or heterologous (quince; Cydonia oblonga Mill., East Malling clone C) cells in its neighboring environment. After a 7-day co-culture period, the presence of heterologous cells produced negative effects on the pear callus, whose relative weight increase and adenylate energy charge decreased by 30 and 24%, respectively. Such behavior was associated with a higher O(2) consumption rate (+125%) which did not seem to be coupled to adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Analyses of alternative oxidase and enzymatic activities involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification strongly suggested that the higher O(2) consumption rate, measured in the pear callus grown in the heterologous combination, may probably be ascribed to extra-respiratory activities. These, in turn, might contribute to generate metabolic scenarios where ROS-induced oxidative stresses may have the upper hand. The increase in the levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive metabolites, considered as diagnostic indicators of ROS-induced lipid peroxidation, seemed to confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression levels of a few senescence-associated genes were higher in the pear callus grown in the heterologous combination than in the homologous one. Taken as a whole, physiological and molecular data strongly suggest that undifferentiated cells belonging to a pear graft-incompatible quince clone may induce an early senescence-like status in a closely co-cultured pear callus. PMID:20190345

  5. Non-conventional methods for the control of post-harvest pear diseases.

    PubMed

    Mari, M; Bertolini, P; Pratella, G C

    2003-01-01

    Pears are highly perishable products, especially during the post-harvest phase, when considerable losses can occur. Among the fungal diseases, blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum, grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea, Mucor rot caused by Mucor piriformis are common on pear fruits. Other (weak) pathogens like Phialophora malorum, Alternaria spp., and Cladosporium herbarum tend to infect wounds and senescent fruits. A post-harvest fungicide treatment can reduce decay but effectiveness decreases with the appearance of resistant strains. There is a clear need to develop new and alternative methods of controlling post-harvest diseases. The emerging technologies for the control of post-harvest fungal diseases are essentially threefold: application of antagonistic microorganisms, application of natural antimicrobial substances and application of sanitizing products. Two biological control products, Aspire (Candida oleophila I-182) (Ecogen, Langhorne, PA, USA) and Bio-Save 110 (Pseudomonas syringae) (EcoScience, Worcester, MA, USA; formerly Bio-Save 11) are currently registered in the USA for post-harvest application to pears. Other potential biocontrol agents have been isolated from fruit and shown to suppress post-harvest decay in pear. It is important that evaluation of these microorganisms be carried out in a product formulation because the formulation may improve or diminish antagonistic efficacy depending on the concentration of chemical product and the duration of exposure to the treatment. Plants produce a large number of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial effects on post-harvest pathogens. Detailed studies have been conducted on aromatic compounds, essential oils, volatile substances and isothiocyanates, with encouraging results. In particular, allyl-isothiocyanate used as a volatile substance, controls blue mould in 'Conference' and 'Kaiser' pear inoculated with a thiabendazole-resistant strain. Sanitizing products such as chlorine dioxide, peracetic

  6. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  7. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  8. Longitudinal NMR parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit during the growing process using a mobile magnetic resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geya, Yuto; Kimura, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Hirotaka; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Gemma, Hiroshi; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, Kosui) were performed using an electrically mobile magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a 0.2 T and 16 cm gap permanent magnet. To measure the relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficients of the pear fruit in relation to their weight, seven pear fruits were harvested almost every week during the cell enlargement period and measured in a research orchard. To evaluate the in situ relaxation times, six pear fruits were longitudinally measured for about two months during the same period. The measurements for the harvested samples showed good agreement with the in situ measurements. From the measurements of the harvested samples, it is clear that the relaxation rates of the pear fruits linearly change with the inverse of the linear dimension of the fruits, demonstrating that the relaxation mechanism is a surface relaxation. We therefore conclude that the mobile MRI system is a useful device for measuring the NMR parameters of outdoor living plants.

  9. Evaluation of the Pear Ester Kairomone as a Formulation Additive for the Granulovirus of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in Pome Fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orchard studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in apple and pear to evaluate the larval kairomone (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) as a formulation additive to improve the efficacy of the granulovirus (CpGV) of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The addition of a 5%...

  10. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate: a kairomonal spray-adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of apples, pears and walnuts worldwide, causing internal feeding damage by larvae and introduction of molds and spoilage micro-organisms. Hatched CM larvae are highly responsive to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the ...

  11. Attraction of Male Winterform Pear Psylla to Female-produced Volatiles and to Female Extracts and Evidence of Male-Male Repellency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a major pest of commercial pears in North America and Europe. Olfactometer trials have shown that males of both the summerform and winterform morphotype are attracted to female-infested host material. Additional work with the su...

  12. RE-INITIATING SOFTENING ABILITY OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE-TREATED 'BARLETT' AND 'D'ANJOU' PEARS AFTER REGULAR AIR OR CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ and ‘d’Anjou’ pears treated with 300 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), did not soften to eating quality within 7 d, a desirable ripening period. In this research, a preconditioning method was evaluated as a means to regenerate ripening ability of pears prior to marketing. Fruit treat...

  13. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear. PMID:27200050

  14. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear. PMID:27200050

  15. Genome-Wide Function, Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analysis of Sugar Transporter Family Genes in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd).

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ming; Zheng, Dan-man; Li, Lei-ting; Qiao, Xin; Wei, Shu-wei; Bai, Bin; Zhang, Shao-ling; Wu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The sugar transporter (ST) plays an important role in plant growth, development and fruit quality. In this study, a total of 75 ST genes were identified in the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) genome based on systematic analysis. Furthermore, all ST genes identified were grouped into eight subfamilies according to conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of cis-regulatory element sequences of all ST genes identified the MYBCOREATCYCB1 promoter in sucrose transporter (SUT) and monosaccharide transporter (MST) genes of pear, while in grape it is exclusively found in SUT subfamily members, indicating divergent transcriptional regulation in different species. Gene duplication event analysis indicated that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play key roles in ST gene amplification, followed by tandem duplication. Estimation of positive selection at codon sites of ST paralog pairs indicated that all plastidic glucose translocator (pGlcT) subfamily members have evolved under positive selection. In addition, the evolutionary history of ST gene duplications indicated that the ST genes have experienced significant expansion in the whole ST gene family after the second WGD, especially after apple and pear divergence. According to the global RNA sequencing results of pear fruit development, gene expression profiling showed the expression of 53 STs. Combined with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, two polyol/monosaccharide transporter (PLT) and three tonoplast monosaccharide transporter (tMT) members were identified as candidate genes, which may play important roles in sugar accumulation during pear fruit development and ripening. Identification of highly expressed STs in fruit is important for finding novel genes contributing to enhanced levels of sugar content in pear fruit. PMID:26079674

  16. Investigation of ascorbate metabolism during inducement of storage disorders in pear.

    PubMed

    Cascia, Giuseppe; Bulley, Sean M; Punter, Matthew; Bowen, Judith; Rassam, Maysoon; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-02-01

    In pear and apple, depletion of ascorbate has previously been associated with development of stress-related flesh browning. This disorder occurs in intact fruit and differs from browning associated with tissue maceration and processing. We investigated changes in ascorbate content, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and gene expression of l-galactose pathway genes, ascorbate recycling genes and APXs from harvest to 30 days storage for three pear varieties ['Williams Bon Chretien' (WBC), 'Doyenne du Comice' and 'Beurre Bosc']. The pears were stored at 0.5°C in air or controlled atmosphere (CA, 2 kPa O(2) and 5 kPa CO(2)). Storage in CA caused significant amounts of storage disorders in WBC only. Ascorbate content generally declined after harvest, although a transient increase in ascorbate in the form of dehydroascorbate (DHA) between harvest and 3 days was observed in CA stored WBC, possibly due to low at-harvest monodehydroascorbate reductase and CA-decreased dehydroascorbate reductase expression. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction indicated that all cultivars responded to CA storage by increasing transcripts for APXs, and surprisingly the pre-l-galactose pathway gene GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, of which the product GDP mannose, is utilized either for cell wall polysaccharides, protein N-glycosylation or ascorbate production. Overall, the small differences in ascorbate we observed suggest how ascorbate is utilized, rather than ascorbate content, determines the potential to develop internal browning. Moreover, a transitory increase in DHA postharvest may indicate that fruits are at risk of developing the disorder. PMID:22568767

  17. [Hyperspectral technology combined with CARS algorithm to quantitatively determine the SSC in Korla fragrant pear].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Bai-Shao; Ni, Jun-Hui; Li, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has large data volume and high dimensionality, and original spectra data includes a lot of noises and severe scattering. And, quality of acquired hyperspectral data can be influenced by non-monochromatic light, external stray light and temperature, which resulted in having some non-linear relationship between the acquired hyperspectral data and the predicted quality index. Therefore, the present study proposed that competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm is used to select the key variables from visible and near infrared hyperspectral data. The performance of CARS was compared with full spectra, successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and GA-SPA (genetic algorithm-successive projections algorithm). Two hundred Korla fragrant pears were used as research object. SPXY algorithm was used to divided sample set to correction set with 150 samples and prediction set with 50 samples, respectively. Based on variables selected by different methods, linear PLS and nonlinear LS-SVM models were developed, respectively, and the performance of models was assessed using parameters r2, RMSEP and RPD. A comprehensive comparison found that GA, GA-SPA and CARS can effectively select the variables with strong and useful information. These methods can be used for selection of Vis-NIR hyperspectral data variables, particularly for CARS. LS-SVM model can obtain the best results for SSC prediction of Korla fragrant pear based on variables obtained from CARS method. r2, RMSEP and RPD were 0.851 2, 0.291 3 and 2.592 4, respectively. The study showed that CARS is an effectively hyperspectral variable selection method, and nonlinear LS-SVM model is more suitable than linear PLS model for quantitatively determining the quality of fra- grant pear based on hyperspectral information. PMID:25739220

  18. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  19. Photosynthesis and water-use efficiency of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in relation to pear thrips defoliation.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, D S; Tyree, M T; Parker, B L; Skinner, M

    1994-06-01

    An experimental introduction of pear thrips (Taeniothrips inconsequens Uzel), a major defoliator in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) forests in northeastern North America, was conducted in a field plantation to determine if compensatory gas exchange occurs in response to feeding damage by this piercing-sucking insect. Sugar maple trees were enclosed in netting (167 micro m mesh) and pear thrips adults were introduced before leaf expansion in the spring. Pear thrips reduced whole-tree leaf area by approximately 23% and reduced leaf size (both mass and area) by 20% in the upper crown. Measurements of net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(net)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were made on tagged foliage that was later analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) to provide estimates of short- and long-term leaf water use efficiency (WUE). Pear thrips feeding reduced A(net) for fully expanded leaves by approximately 20%, although leaf chlorophyll content and leaf mass per unit area were apparently not affected. Comparison of A(net), g(s), instantaneous WUE and leaf delta(13)C between damaged and control trees as well as visibly undamaged versus moderately damaged foliage on pear thrips-infested trees indicated that there were no effects of pear thrips feeding damage on WUE or leaf delta(13)C. Long-term WUE among sugar maple trees in the field plantation, indicated by leaf delta(13)C analysis, was related to shorter-term estimates of leaf gas exchange behavior such as g(s) and calculated leaf intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)). We conclude that pear thrips feeding has no effect on leaf WUE, but at the defoliation levels in our experiment, it may reduce leaf A(net), as a result of direct tissue damage or through reduced g(s). Therefore, even small reductions in leaf A(net) by pear thrips feeding damage may have an important effect on the seasonal carbon balance of sugar maple when integrated over the entire growing season. PMID:14967678

  20. Preliminary resistance screening on abamectin in pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Peretto, Riccardo; Caroli, Luigi; Pasqualini, Edison; Chicca, Milvia; Leis, Marilena

    2007-10-01

    In northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region), integrated pest management has been used for several years against pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a relevant pest of pear (Pyrus spp.) trees. After the outlawing of amitraz in 2005, the most common active ingredient involved is abamectin, a mixture of avermectin B1a and avermectin B1b. After the development of C. pyri resistance to azinphos methyl in southern France, we evaluated, by topical application, the different sensitivities to abamectin on C. pyri populations collected in orchards from Emilia-Romagna, where different field strategies were used, with alternative success in terms of pest management. The LC50 values ranged between 1.61 and 28.37 mg/liter, and they revealed variations more related to collection time than to field strategies. The failure of abamectin treatments against C. pyri in some Emilia-Romagna locations is probably unrelated to resistance development, but rather it is related to incorrect pest defense management, which could interfere with pest parasitoids and predators. PMID:17972642

  1. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere. PMID:24426044

  2. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. PMID:25993418

  3. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-01

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus. PMID:26186890

  4. Identification of a sex attractant pheromone for male winterform pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola.

    PubMed

    Guédot, Christelle; Millar, Jocelyn G; Horton, David R; Landolt, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, uses a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females to isolate and identify the pheromone. Post-diapause females produced significantly more of the cuticular hydrocarbon, 13-methylheptacosane, than post-diapause males and diapausing females. In olfactometer assays, conspecific males were attracted to synthetic racemic 13-methylheptacosane, whereas females were not, indicating that the behavioral response to this chemical is sex-specific. Furthermore, 13-methylheptacosane was as attractive to males as a cuticular extract of females, suggesting that this chemical was largely responsible for the female attractiveness. A field study showed that males but not females were attracted to 13-methylheptacosane, confirming the olfactometer results. This study provides evidence that 13-methylheptacosane is a sex attractant pheromone for C. pyricola winterform males. This is the first identification of a sex pheromone in the Psylloidea. Our results open the path to developing monitoring tools and possibly new strategies for integrated pest management of this insect. PMID:20063206

  5. Retention of a European pear aroma model mixture using different types of saccharides.

    PubMed

    Tobitsuka, Koki; Miura, Makoto; Kobayashi, Syoichi

    2006-07-12

    Eight types of microcapsules of European pear (La France) aroma model mixture were prepared, and their retained aroma components and sample microstructures (both surface and cross-section) were compared. The La France pear aroma model mixture was prepared by the mixing of hexanal and five kinds of esters. alpha-Cyclodextrin (alpha-CD), gum arabic (GA), soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) were used as carrier solids, and spray drying and freeze drying comprised the drying methods. The mean particle size of the microcapsules ranged from 8.34 microm for the microcapsules with alpha-CD to 9.67 microm for those with SSPS. The total aroma contents were different depending upon the microencapsulation systems (1.35 g/100 g of microcapsules for the spray-dried microcapsules with HBCD to 14.1 g/100 g of microcapsules for the freeze-dried microcapsules with GA). The microcapsules with alpha-CD and GA were stable against heat treatment (40, 80, or 120 degrees C for 60 min) under nitrogen gas flow. PMID:16819918

  6. Purification and characterization of a NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Japanese pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Oura, Y; Yamada, K; Shiratake, K; Yamaki, S

    2000-07-01

    NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14) from Japanese pear fruit was purified to apparent homogeneity (single band by SDS-PAGE with silver staining), and had a specific activity of 916.7 nKatal/mg protein. The molecular of the native enzyme was calculated to be 160 kDa by gel filtration, whereas SDS-PAGE gave a subunit size of 40 kDa, indicating that the native enzyme is a homotetramer. The protein immunologically reacted with an antibody raised in rabbit against the fusion protein expressed in E. coli harboring an apple NAD-SDH cDNA. The Km, values for sorbitol and fructose were 96.4+/-8.60 and 4239+/-33.5 mM, respectively, and optimum pH for sorbitol oxidation was 9.0 and 7.0 for fructose reduction. Pear NAD-SDH had a very narrow substrate specificity, that is, sorbitol, L-iditol, xylitol and L-threitol were oxidized but not any of the other alcohols tested. These data suggest the structural importance of an S configuration at C-2 and an R configuration at C-4 in the substrate(s). Its enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited both by heavy metal ions such as mercury, and by thiol compounds, such as L-cysteine. However, the addition of zinc ion reversed the enzyme inactivation caused by addition of L-cysteine. PMID:10963448

  7. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  8. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. PMID:26314026

  9. Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

  10. Metabolic Profiling of Developing Pear Fruits Reveals Dynamic Variation in Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Including Plant Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Akira; Otsuka, Takao; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Murayama, Hideki; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites in the fruits of edible plants include sweet sugars, visually appealing pigments, various products with human nutritional value, and biologically active plant hormones. Although quantities of these metabolites vary during fruit development and ripening because of cell division and enlargement, there are few reports describing the actual dynamics of these changes. Therefore, we applied multiple metabolomic techniques to identify the changes in metabolite levels during the development and ripening of pear fruits (Pyrus communis L. ‘La France’). We quantified and classified over 250 metabolites into six groups depending on their specific patterns of variation during development and ripening. Approximately half the total number of metabolites, including histidine and malate, accumulated transiently around the blooming period, during which cells are actively dividing, and then decreased either rapidly or slowly. Furthermore, the amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids also increased in pear fruits around 3–4 months after the blooming period, when fruit cells are enlarging, but virtually disappeared from ripened fruits. Some metabolites, including the plant hormone abscisic acid, accumulated particularly in the receptacle prior to blooming and/or fruit ripening. Our results show several patterns of variation in metabolite levels in developing and ripening pear fruits, and provide fundamental metabolomic data that is useful for understanding pear fruit physiology and enhancing the nutritional traits of new cultivars. PMID:26168247

  11. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  12. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  13. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  14. Involvement of Peroxidase and Indole-3-acetic Acid Oxidase Isozymes from Pear, Tomato, and Blueberry Fruit in Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Chaim

    1972-01-01

    Protein extracts were obtained from climacteric fruits (pear, tomato) and nonclimacteric fruits (blueberry) during various stages of ripening. The use of a gel electrophoresis technique revealed a consistent reinforcement in indoleacetic acid oxidase but not in peroxidase isozymes during ripening. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to the resistance of fruits to ripening and ethylene action. Images PMID:16658043

  15. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  16. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected. PMID:24484960

  17. Field Attraction of Codling Moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Apple and Pear Fruit, and Quantitation of Kairomones from Attractive Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) responded in orchards to fruit placed within traps. Numbers of codling moths in traps baited with immature uninfested apples, immature apples infested with larval codling moth, ripe apples, and ripe pears were significantly greater than in un-bait...

  18. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  19. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on in vitro rooting capacity of shoots in pear clones (Pyrus communis L.) of different ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation. In this study, intense efforts have been made for improvement of rooting procedures for triploid, tetraploid, and mixploid clones of the pear cultivar, 'Fertility', obtained by in vitro colchicine treatment. An efficient roo...

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of polygalacturonase produced by Penicillium expansum during postharvest decay of ‘Anjou’ pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polygalacturonase (PG) was extracted and purified from decayed tissue of ‘Anjou’ pear fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. Both chromatographic methods revealed a single peak co...

  1. Efficacy of 1-methylcyclopropene on the mitigation of storage disorders of "Rocha" pear under normal refrigerated and controlled atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Domingos Pf; Carvalho, Rita; Dupille, Eve

    2016-07-01

    Alternatives are needed for long-term preservation of European pears (Pyrus communis L.) after the ban on diphenylamine. "Rocha" pear fruit harvested at commercial maturity were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-methylcyclopropene, SmartFresh™) and diphenylamine and stored at 0 ℃, 90-95% relative humidity, under normal atmosphere for up to six months or under controlled atmosphere (controlled atmosphere, 3 kPa O2 + 0.7 kPa CO2) for up to 9.4 months. At 312 nl l(-1), 1-methylcyclopropene reduced softening and yellowing, and increased soluble solids content during shelf life in comparison with fruit treated with diphenylamine. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 312 nl l(-1) was also more effective than diphenylamine in reducing superficial scald and internal browning disorders. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 150 nl l(-1) had little effect on ripening-related changes but was effective against physiological disorders of pears stored in regular atmosphere or under controlled atmosphere. Delayed controlled atmosphere slightly reduced internal browning disorders but increased superficial scald. 1-Methylcyclopropene at 312 nl l(-1) reduced physiological disorders in "Rocha" pear under refrigerated storage and delayed ripening-related softening and color changes during shelf life. At 150 nl l(-1), 1-methylcyclopropene is as effective as diphenylamine against storage disorders without ripening impairment. PMID:26437671

  2. Experimental use of the micro-encapsulated pear ester kairomone for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus invasion of tree nuts is primarily through insect damage by moth larvae, such as the codling moth (CM) attacking walnuts. Our goal is to diminish insect-caused nut damage through the use of novel, species-specific host-plant kairomones. We have identified the pear ester (PE) (ethyl (2E, ...

  3. Mesos components (CaC12, MgSO4, KH2P04) are critical for improving pear micropropagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository in vitro collection contains over 200 pear accessions in 18 species. Due to the wide genetic diversity of this collection there is also a diverse response to growth on standard tissue culture media. An initial study of mineral nutrition using a syste...

  4. Penicillium solitum produces a polygalacturonase isozyme in decayed ‘Anjou’ pear fruit capable of macerating host tissue in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polygalacturonase (PG) isozyme was isolated from Penicillium solitum-decayed ‘Anjou’ pear fruit and purified to homogeneity using a multistep process. Both gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography revealed a single PG activity peak and analysis of the purified protein showed a single band...

  5. Genetic relationships between wild progenitor pear (Pyrus L.) species and local cultivars native to Georgia, South Caucasus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrus communis ssp. caucasica and P. salicifolia are among 11 species of Pyrus that are native to the country of Georgia. We have compared the genetic diversity of these, as well as other Georgian wild pear species and cultivars, to that of wild P. communis in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm S...

  6. UV-C light inactivation kinetics of Penicillium expansum on pear surfaces: Influence on physicochemical and sensory quality during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest quality and storage life of fresh pear are often limited by fungal growth caused by Penicillium expansum. Ultraviolet-C light (UV-C 254 nm) is a promising alternative disinfestation method to reduce fruit spoilage by fungi. In this study, UV-C inactivation kinetic data of Penicillium exp...

  7. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  8. Microencapsulated Pear Ester Enhances Insecticide Efficacy in Walnuts for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepido...

  9. Oxidation products of alpha-farnesene associated with superficial scald development in d'Anjou pear fruit are conjugated trienols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conjugated triene (CT) oxidation products of the acyclic sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene are thought to induce development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald in apple and pear fruits of susceptible cultivars. CTs that accumulate in peel tissue of Granny Smith and Delicious apples ...

  10. Block Liposomes: Vesicles of Charged Lipids with Distinctly Shaped Nanoscale Sphere-, Pear-, Tube-, or Rod-Segments

    PubMed Central

    Zidovska, Alexandra; Ewert, Kai K.; Quispe, Joel; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization of block liposomes, a new class of liquid vesicles, from mixtures of the highly charged (+16 e) multivalent cationic lipid MVLBG2 and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). Block liposomes (BLs) consist of distinct spherical, tubular, and micellar liposomes which remain connected, forming a single liposome. This is in contrast to typical vesicle systems, where distinctly shaped liposomes are macroscopically separated. In a narrow composition range (8-10 mol % MVLBG2), an abundance of micrometer-scale BLs (typically sphere-tube-sphere triblocks) was observed. Cryo-TEM revealed that BLs are also present at the nanometer scale, where the blocks consist of distinctly shaped nanoscale spheres, pears, tubes, or rods. Pear-tube diblock and pear-tube-pear triblock liposomes contain nanotubes with inner lumen diameter 10-50 nm. In addition, sphere-rod diblock liposomes are present, containing rigid micellar nanorods ≈4 nm in diameter and several μm in length. Block liposomes may find a range of applications in chemical and nucleic acid delivery and as building blocks in the design of templates for hierarchical structures. PMID:19913164

  11. Effect of pyrimethanil on Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium paludigenum, and Rhodotorula glutinis biocontrol of Penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Zhou, Tao; Sheng, Kuang; Zeng, Lizhen; Ye, Changzhou; Yu, Ting; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2013-06-17

    The effect of biocontrol yeasts and pyrimethanil at low concentration on inhibition of blue mold rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit was investigated. Pyrimethanil at low concentration (40μg/mL) alone had little inhibitory activity against the P. expansum infection in pear fruit wounds although it was effective in inhibiting the survival of P. expansum on Asp-agar medium. Pyrimethanil at this low concentration significantly enhanced the efficacy of Cryptococcus laurentii at 1×10(7)CFU/mL in reducing blue mold rot in vivo compared with C. laurentii at 1×10(7)CFU/mL alone. However, there was no additive inhibitory activity when pyrimethanil was combined for application with biocontrol yeasts Rhodosporidium paludigenum or Rhodotorula glutinis. Combination of pyrimethanil and C. laurentii at low concentration also inhibited blue mold rot when P. expansum was inoculated into fruit wounds 12h before treatment and fruit was stored at low temperature (4°C). Pyrimethanil at 0.04 to 400μg/mL did not influence the survival of C. laurentii in vitro, and it only slightly reduced the population growth of C. laurentii after 48h of incubation in the pear fruit wounds. There was no significant difference in quality parameters including total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of pear fruit wounds among all treatments after 5days of treatment at 25°C. Integration of C. laurentii and pyrimethanil at low concentration might be an effective and safe strategy to control P. expansum infection in pear fruit, especially in an integrated postharvest disease management strategy. PMID:23673061

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive. PMID:24650181

  13. Optical system for measurement of internal pear quality using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yande; Ying, Yibin

    2005-07-01

    An optical system based on Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy for nondestructive measurement of internal quality in intact fruit was developed. This system consisted of a light source, interferometer, fiber optical sensor, InGaAs detector, data collection card, and fruit holder. Quantification tests for sugar content (SC) and titratable acidity (TA) of 248 pear samples were carried out by using the multivariate calibration technique of partial least squares (PLS). The calibration model for SC and TA gave correlation coefficients of determination of 0.867 and 0.793, standard errors of calibration of 0.256 and 0.020, and standard errors of prediction of 0.320 and 0.019, respectively. Experimental results show that this optical system could be directly applied to fast quantification analysis for internal quality of fruits.

  14. Studies of the shapes of heavy pear-shaped nuclei at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    For certain combinations of protons and neutrons there is a theoretical expectation that the shape of nuclei can assume octupole deformation, which would give rise to reflection asymmetry or a "pear-shape" in the intrinsic frame, either dynamically (octupole vibrations) or statically (permanent octupole deformation). I will briefly review the historic evidence for reflection asymmetry in nuclei and describe how recent experiments carried out at REX-ISOLDE have constrained nuclear theory and how they contribute to tests of extensions of the Standard Model. I will also discuss future prospects for measuring nuclear shapes from Coulomb Excitation: experiments are being planned that will exploit beams from HIE-ISOLDE that are cooled in the TSR storage ring and injected into a solenoidal spectrometer similar to the HELIOS device developed at the Argonne National Laboratory.

  15. Effect of cations on the permeability of pear leaf cuticle to protons

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, S.; Berg, V. )

    1989-04-01

    Direct damage to leaves by acid precipitation must involve penetration of the cuticle by the acid. We investigated how the permeability of isolated pear leaf cuticles was affected by the presence of different cations on the morphological inner side. Isolated cuticles were mounted in apparatus with the morphological outer side of the cuticle exposed to pH 3 acid and the inner side exposed to approximately pH 7 solution. Changes in the pH of the inside solution were monitored to determine cuticle permeability to protons. Permeabilities from trials with and without solutions of CaCl{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl and KCl were compared. The presence of calcium, cadmium or magnesium ions greatly reduced the permeability of the cuticles to protons. Potassium and sodium ions had no significant effect on permeability. These effects will be used to propose a modified model of proton movement through leaf cuticle.

  16. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition. PMID:22886626

  17. 'Gem' pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Gem’ is a new cultivar which combines excellent appearance, fruit quality and long storage potential with precocious and high yields. It can be eaten without ripening due to a crisp, juicy texture, as well as ripened to a soft texture. ‘Gem’ was jointly released by the U. S. Department of Agricul...

  18. Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Herbach, Kirsten M; Mosshammer, Markus R; Carle, Reinhold; Yi, Weiguang; Sellappan, Subramani; Akoh, Casimir C; Bunch, Ron; Felker, Peter

    2005-01-26

    Total phenolics, ascorbic acid, and betalain contents of differently colored cactus pear clones (nine Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill. clones and one O. robusta Wendl. clone) were investigated and related to their respective antioxidant potential assessed by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TEAC and ORAC values were very highly correlated with each other and also with values for total phenolics, betalain contents, and ascorbic acid concentrations. Total phenolics had the greatest contribution to ORAC and TEAC values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of cactus pear juices permitted the differentiation of the clones based on variations in pigment patterns and betalain concentrations. The red and yellow betalains were absent in lime green colored cactus fruits. The ratio and concentration of these pigments were responsible for the yellow, orange, red, and purple colors in the other clones. Progeny of purple and lime green colored parents were characterized by 12% and 88% of plants bearing lime green and purple fruit, respectively. This implies that the genes for betalain production were lacking in the lime green fruits but could be provided by a parent with a complete set of genes, that is, purple fruits. Besides known pigments typical of Cactaceae, two unexpected betalains were identified. Whereas gomphrenin I was found for the first time in tissues of cactus plants, methionine-betaxanthin has never been described before as a genuine betalain. In addition to their alleged health-promoting properties, various combinations of yellow betaxanthins and red-purple betacyanins may allow the development of new food products without using artificial colorants. PMID:15656686

  19. Extended alternating-temperature cold acclimation and culture duration improve pear shoot cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; Reed, B M

    2000-06-01

    Meristems of many pear genotypes can be successfully cryopreserved following 1 week of cold acclimation, but an equal number do not survive the process or have very little regrowth. This study compared commonly used cold acclimation protocols to determine whether the cold acclimation technique used affected the cold hardiness of shoots or the regrowth of cryopreserved meristems. In vitro-grown pear (Pyrus L.) shoots were cold acclimated for up to 16 weeks, then either the shoot tips were tested for cold hardiness or the meristems were cryopreserved by controlled freezing. Cold acclimation consisted of alternating temperatures (22 degrees C with light/-1 degrees C darkness with various photo- and thermoperiods) or a constant temperature (4 degrees C with an 8-h photoperiod or darkness). Compared with nonacclimated controls, both alternating- and constant-temperature acclimation significantly improved postcryopreservation regrowth of P. cordata Desv. and P. pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don meristems. Alternating-temperature acclimation combined with either an 8-h photoperiod or darkness was significantly better than constant-temperature acclimation. Alternating-temperature shoot acclimation for 2 to 5 weeks significantly increased postcryopreservation meristem regrowth, and recovery remained high for up to 15 weeks acclimation. Postcryopreservation meristem regrowth increased with 1 to 5 weeks of constant-temperature acclimation and then declined with longer acclimation. Shoot cold hardiness varied with the acclimation procedure. The LT(50) of shoots acclimated for 10 weeks with alternating temperatures was -25 degrees C; that with constant temperature was -14.7 degrees C; and that of the nonacclimated control was -10 degrees C. Less frequent transfer of cultures also improved acclimation of shoots. Shoots grown without transfer to fresh medium for 6-12 weeks had higher postcryopreservation recovery with shorter periods of acclimation than shoots with a 3-week transfer

  20. Life cycle and control of the forest bug Pentatoma rufipes L. in organically managed pear orchards.

    PubMed

    Peusens, G; Beliën, T

    2012-01-01

    In Belgian pear production growers may encounter major economic problems when fruit becomes damaged by bugs. One of the major pests belongs to the stink bugs, Pentatoma rufipes L. (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) which feeds by piercing into buds, flowers and fruit. To study the population dynamics of this species it was monitored in organic pear orchards by the beating tray method. Results revealed their univoltine life cycle and their presence within the orchard during the entire year. They overwinter in the second nymphal stage and become active in March/April. After 3 moultings adulthood is reached during May/June. In summer mating takes place and eggs are laid at the underside of the leaves of the fruit trees. By the end of August the eggs hatch and the first young nymphs appear. At first they aggregate but when they have moulted into the next stage dispersal takes place (September) and by October they search for hiding places on the trees to hibernate. As damage is done before and after blossom the application of an insecticide has to be well defined and timed. Therefore the efficacy of spinosad and natural pyrethrum, applied once or twice before and/or after bloom, was compared in a field trial. Data indicated that a single application of spinosad after bloom and a double application of spinosad or pyrethrum (before and after bloom) reduced the number of bugs with 83.3%. Damage to the crop was the lowest (4.5%) when spinosad was applied twice but no statistical difference with both other applications was found. PMID:23885435

  1. Genetic Determinants of On-Aspirin Platelet Reactivity: Focus on the Influence of PEAR1

    PubMed Central

    Würtz, Morten; Nissen, Peter H.; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet aggregation during aspirin treatment displays considerable inter-individual variability. A genetic etiology likely exists, but it remains unclear to what extent genetic polymorphisms determine platelet aggregation in aspirin-treated individuals. Aim To identify platelet-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing platelet aggregation during aspirin treatment. Furthermore, we explored to what extent changes in cyclooxygenase-1 activity and platelet activation may explain such influence. Methods We included 985 Danish patients with stable coronary artery disease treated with aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Patients were genotyped for 16 common SNPs in platelet-related genes using standard PCR-based methods (TaqMan). Platelet aggregation was evaluated by whole blood platelet aggregometry employing Multiplate Analyzer (agonists: arachidonic acid and collagen) and VerifyNow Aspirin. Serum thromboxane B2 was measured to confirm aspirin adherence and was used as a marker of cyclooxygenase-1 activity. Soluble P-selectin was used as marker of platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, cyclooxygenase-1 activity, and platelet activation were compared across genotypes in adjusted analyses. Results The A-allele of the rs12041331 SNP in the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) gene was associated with reduced platelet aggregation and increased platelet activation, but not with cyclooxygenase-1 activity. Platelet aggregation was unaffected by the other SNPs analyzed. Conclusion A common genetic variant in PEAR1 (rs12041331) reproducibly influenced platelet aggregation in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. The exact biological mechanism remains elusive, but the effect of this polymorphism may be related to changes in platelet activation. Furthermore, 14 SNPs previously suggested to influence aspirin efficacy were not associated with on-aspirin platelet aggregation. Clinical Trial Registration

  2. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process. PMID:24032574

  3. Primitive Genepools of Asian Pears and Their Complex Hybrid Origins Inferred from Fluorescent Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphism (SSAP) Markers Based on LTR Retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuang; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Yu, Peiyuan; Yue, Xiaoyan; Ahmed, Maqsood; Cai, Danying; Teng, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that interspecific hybridization was the major mode of evolution in Pyrus. The genetic relationships and origins of the Asian pear are still unclear because of frequent hybrid events, fast radial evolution, and lack of informative data. Here, we developed fluorescent sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) markers with lots of informative sites and high polymorphism to analyze the population structure among 93 pear accessions, including nearly all species native to Asia. Results of a population structure analysis indicated that nearly all Asian pear species experienced hybridization, and originated from five primitive genepools. Four genepools corresponded to four primary Asian species: P. betulaefolia, P. pashia, P. pyrifolia, and P. ussuriensis. However, cultivars of P. ussuriensis were not monophyletic and introgression occurred from P. pyrifolia. The specific genepool detected in putative hybrids between occidental and oriental pears might be from occidental pears. The remaining species, including P. calleryana, P. xerophila, P. sinkiangensis, P. phaeocarpa, P. hondoensis, and P. hopeiensis in Asia, were inferred to be of hybrid origins and their possible genepools were identified. This study will be of great help for understanding the origin and evolution of Asian pears. PMID:26871452

  4. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  5. Chemical characterization of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) and perspectives for the storage of its juice.

    PubMed

    Gurrieri, S; Miceli, L; Lanza, C M; Tomaselli, F; Bonomo, R P; Rizzarelli, E

    2000-11-01

    In this work, Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) were partially characterized from a chemical point of view, and the possibility of long-term storage of their juice was investigated. The acidity of the prickly pear juice turned out to be very low (0.02%) and the pH very high (6.4-6.5) if compared with values found in other common fruit juices. In the perspective of processing and storage conditions according to Italian law, the acidity has been corrected by adding the proper amount of tartaric and/or phosphoric acid. The sugar content (mainly glucose and fructose) is very high (11-12%), and also L-ascorbic acid is present in considerable amount (31-38 mg/100 g). Among the transition metals, a high content of manganese(II) (1.7-2.9 ppm) and good amounts of iron(III) (0.6-1.2 ppm) and zinc(II) (0.3-0.4 ppm) were found. In particular, such ions appear to be present mainly in the thick skin of the fruit or "trapped" inside the pulp. Pectin methylesterase (PME) seems to be present in very small amount and/or is not highly active. Furthermore, PME activity decreases considerably after the necessary adjustment of the pH and the thermal treatment requested for long-term storage. After approximately 2 months, none of the juices prepared was affected by noticeable sedimentation of the pulp. Finally, different samples of prickly pear juice were sensorially analyzed, employing descriptors such as color, aroma, viscosity, acidity, sweetness, and off-flavors. The results obtained can be considered very satisfactory, and the juice has been widely appreciated when compared with other products commonly available on the market such as pear and peach juices. PMID:11087496

  6. Pistil-function breakdown in a new S-allele of European pear, S21*, confers self-compatibility.

    PubMed

    Sanzol, Javier

    2009-03-01

    European pear exhibits RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility controlled by the polymorphic S-locus. S-allele diversity of cultivars has been extensively investigated; however, no mutant alleles conferring self-compatibility have been reported. In this study, two European pear cultivars, 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño', were classified as self-compatible after fruit/seed setting and pollen tube growth examination. S-genotyping through S-PCR and sequencing identified a new S-RNase allele in the two cultivars, with identical deduced amino acid sequence as S(21), but differing at the nucleotide level. Test-pollinations and analysis of descendants suggested that the new allele is a self-compatible pistil-mutated variant of S(21), so it was named S(21)*. S-genotypes assigned to 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño' were S(10)S(21)* and S(21)*S(25) respectively, of which S(25) is a new functional S-allele of European pear. Reciprocal crosses between cultivars bearing S(21) and S(21)* indicated that both alleles exhibit the same pollen function; however, cultivars bearing S(21)* had impaired pistil-S function as they failed to reject either S(21) or S (21)* pollen. RT-PCR analysis showed absence of S(21)* -RNase gene expression in styles of 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño', suggesting a possible origin for S(21)* pistil dysfunction. Two polymorphisms found within the S-RNase genomic region (a retrotransposon insertion within the intron of S(21)* and indels at the 3'UTR) might explain the different pattern of expression between S(21) and S(21)*. Evaluation of cultivars with unknown S-genotype identified another cultivar 'Azucar Verde' bearing S(21)*, and pollen tube growth examination confirmed self-compatibility for this cultivar as well. This is the first report of a mutated S-allele conferring self-compatibility in European pear. PMID:19096853

  7. Relationship between shelf-life and optical properties of Yuanhuang pear in the region of 400-1150 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xueming; Fu, Xiaping; Rao, Xiuqin; Fang, Zhenhuan

    2016-05-01

    The main goals of this study are to investigate the potential of absorption coefficient for the prediction of water contents in `Yuanhuang' pear and analyze the relationship between the shelf-life and bulk optical properties in the range of 900-1050 nm. An automated integrating sphere (AIS) system was used to measure the total reflectance, total transmittance of pear flesh tissues in visible-Near infrared (Vis-NIR) range. These two measurements were used to estimate the absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μ's of pear samples by using an inverse adding doubling (IAD) light propagation model. The detection accuracy of the AIS system was verified by using both liquid (Intralipid-20% as scatterer) and solid phantom (TiO2 as scatterer, carbon black as absorber). The relative error of measurement of μ's of liquid phantom with four different concentration (0.5%,1%,1.5%,2%) at 632.8 nm, 751 nm, 833 nm are less than 10% except for 2% concentration at 833 nm, and the relative error of measurement μa and μ's of solid phantom at 525.4 nm, 632.1 nm, 710.3 nm and 780.1 nm are less than 5% except for the μa at 525.4 nm. A total of 140 samples were used to conduct the moisture measurement, and drying method was used. Predictive models for moisture content from μa data were constructed using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The coefficient of correlation of calibration set (Rc) and validation set (Rp) were 0.50 and 0.45 respectively. The relationship between the shelf-life and optical properties was analyzed by dividing pear samples into three categories according to the actual shelf-life, and calculating classification accuracy by using actual and calculated shelf-life grade.

  8. Evaluation of yeasts from Tibetan fermented products as agents for biocontrol of blue mold of Nashi pear fruits*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Xu, Yang; Lu, Huang-ping; Xiao, Rui; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Yu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    A total of 20 strains of yeast isolated from Tibetan fermented products were screened for antagonism against blue mold of pear caused by Penicillium expansum. Six isolates that inhibited incidence of postharvest decay by 35% or more were selected for further screening. Among them, the most effective was Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The results showed that washed cell suspensions of R. mucilaginosa yielded better antagonistic efficacy than unwashed cell-culture mixtures, cell-free culture filtrates, and autoclaved cell cultures. Biocontrol activity improved with increasing concentrations of incubated cells. The best concentration was 1×108 cells/ml, at which the incidence of decay was only 16.7% after 6 d of incubation. The germination of conidia of P. expansum in vitro was significantly inhibited by both washed cell-suspensions and unwashed cell-culture mixtures. Rapid colonization by yeast at different concentrations showed a relationship between yeast-cell concentration and biocontrol activity. Although the titratable acidity of pear fruits increased after treatment, R. mucilaginosa did not affect the total soluble solids or ascorbic acid content. This is the first study to report that the yeast R. mucilaginosa from Tibet Autonomous Region of China may have potential as an antagonist to control the postharvest decay of pear fruits. PMID:25845361

  9. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Douglas M.; Knight, Alan L.; Henrick, Clive A.; Rajapaska, Dayananda; Lingren, Bill; Dickens, Joseph C.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Buttery, Ronald G.; Merrill, Gloria; Roitman, James; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2001-08-01

    Ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both walnut and apple orchard contexts, but has shown limited effectiveness in a pear orchard context. Rubber septa lures loaded with ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate remained attractive for several months under field conditions. At the same low microgram load rates on septa, the combined gender capture of CM in kairomone-baited traps was similar to the capture rate of males in traps baited with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component. The particular attribute of attracting CM females renders this kairomone a novel tool for monitoring population flight and mating-ovipositional status, and potentially a major new weapon for directly controlling CM populations.

  10. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. PMID:24210248

  11. Proteogenomic analysis of the Venturia pirina (Pear Scab Fungus) secretome reveals potential effectors.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Ira R; Jones, Dan; Bowen, Joanna K; Deng, Cecilia; Faou, Pierre; Hall, Nathan E; Jayachandran, Vignesh; Liem, Michael; Taranto, Adam P; Plummer, Kim M; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2014-08-01

    A proteogenomic analysis is presented for Venturia pirina, a fungus that causes scab disease on European pear (Pyrus communis). V. pirina is host-specific, and the infection is thought to be mediated by secreted effector proteins. Currently, only 36 V. pirina proteins are catalogued in GenBank, and the genome sequence is not publicly available. To identify putative effectors, V. pirina was grown in vitro on and in cellophane sheets mimicking its growth in infected leaves. Secreted extracts were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and the data (ProteomeXchange identifier PXD000710) was queried against a protein database generated by combining in silico predicted transcripts with six frame translations of a whole genome sequence of V. pirina (GenBank Accession JEMP00000000 ). We identified 1088 distinct V. pirina protein groups (FDR 1%) including 1085 detected for the first time. Thirty novel (not in silico predicted) proteins were found, of which 14 were identified as potential effectors based on characteristic features of fungal effector protein sequences. We also used evidence from semitryptic peptides at the protein N-terminus to corroborate in silico signal peptide predictions for 22 proteins, including several potential effectors. The analysis highlights the utility of proteogenomics in the study of secreted effectors. PMID:24965097

  12. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    PubMed

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers. PMID:27537082

  13. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring. PMID:26548961

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using cotyledons in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ikuko; Sato, Yoshihiko; Saito, Toshihiro; Moriguchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Genetic transformation was successfully established producing both transformed adventitious shoots and calli in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by using cotyledons as explants. Cotyledons of five cultivars were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the pBIN19-sgfp, which contained a green fluorescent protein gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene. In order to increase transformation efficiency, sonication and ethylenedioxybis (ethylamine)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments were applied, which could produce physical wounds across the tissue and prevent plant defense reaction, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence was evaluated two weeks and five months after Agrobacterium inoculation as measures of transient and stable transformations, respectively. As a result, sonication significantly increased both transient and stable expression of GFP fluorescence, whereas EGTA treatment did not show a positive effect on either. Out of 18 regenerated plantlets obtained, one plant regenerated from ‘Agenosho Shinanashi’ showed stable GFP fluorescence. This plant was confirmed as a transformant by PCR and genomic Southern blotting. Three other transformed regenerated shoots by myb gene showed red color, which were derived from ‘Imamuraaki’ by the same transformation method. Transformation system in this study was shown to be reproducible since plural transformants were obtained. PMID:24273422

  16. Differentiation and functional connection of vascular elements in compatible and incompatible pear/quince internode micrografts.

    PubMed

    Espen, Luca; Cocucci, Maurizio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio

    2005-11-01

    Micrografts of internodes excised from in vitro grown pear plants (Pyrus communis L. cv. 'Bosc' (B) and cv. 'Butirra Hardy' (BH)) and quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill. East Malling clone C (EMC)), were cultured aseptically to test the effectiveness of their functional vascular reconnection in relation to incompatibility-compatibility relationships that these genotypes exhibit in the field. The incompatible heterograft (B/EMC) showed a marked delay in internode cohesion compared with the autografts (both B/B and BH/BH) and the compatible heterograft (BH/EMC). Even when fused, the translocation of [14C]-sorbitol from upper to lower internode was lower in B/EMC micrografts than in the other combinations. Epifluorescence studies performed with carboxyfluorescin, a specific phloem probe, indicated that the limited translocation was caused by a delay in the establishment of functional phloem continuity between the two internodes. In the B/EMC combination, new differentiated tracheary elements (TE) in the parenchyma tissue at the graft interface between the two internodes were not detected until 30 days after grafting, whereas in the BH/EMC heterograft and both autografts, new xylem connections appeared to cross the interface 20 days after grafting. Immunohistochemical detection (terminal nick-end labeling assay) of the number of cells undergoing nuclear DNA fragmentation at the graft interface confirmed that the limited and delayed TE differentiation in B/EMC heterografts was associated with a decrease in the activity of programmed cell death processes involved in the differentiation of TE. PMID:16105809

  17. Differential responses in pear and quince genotypes induced by Fe deficiency and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Zocchi, Graziano

    2009-07-15

    Most of the studies carried out on Fe deficiency condition in arboreous plants have been performed, with the exception of those carried out on plants grown in the field, in hydroponic culture utilizing a total iron depletion growth condition. This can cause great stress to plants. By introducing Fe deficiency induced by the presence of bicarbonate, we found significant differences between Pyrus communis L. cv. Conference and Cydonia oblonga Mill. BA29 and MA clones, characterized by different levels of tolerance to chlorosis. Pigment content and the main protein-pigment complexes were investigated by HPLC and protein gel blot analysis, respectively. While similar changes in the structural organization of photosystems (PSs) were observed in both species under Fe deficiency, a different reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus was found in the presence of bicarbonate between tolerant and susceptible genotypes, in agreement with the photosynthetic electron transport rate measured in isolated thylakoids. In order to characterize the intrinsic factors determining the efficiency of iron uptake in a tolerant genotype, the main mechanisms induced by Fe deficiency in Strategy I species, such as Fe3+-chelate reductase (EC 1.16.1.7) and H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) activities, were also investigated. We demonstrate that physiological and biochemical root responses in quince and pear are differentially affected by iron starvation and bicarbonate supply, and we show a high correlation between tolerance and Strategy I activation. PMID:19269060

  18. Identification of Erwinia species isolated from apples and pears by differential PCR.

    PubMed

    Gehring, I; Geider, K

    2012-04-01

    Many pathogenic and epiphytic bacteria isolated from apples and pears belong to the genus Erwinia; these include the species E. amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. billingiae, E. persicina, E. rhapontici and E. tasmaniensis. Identification and classification of freshly isolated bacterial species often requires tedious taxonomic procedures. To facilitate routine identification of Erwinia species, we have developed a PCR method based on species-specific oligonucleotides (SSOs) from the sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and gpd. Using species-specific primers that we report here, differentiation was done with conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) applying two consecutive primer annealing temperatures. The specificity of the primers depends on terminal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are characteristic for the target species. These PCR assays enabled us to distinguish eight Erwinia species, as well as to identify new Erwinia isolates from plant surfaces. When performed with mixed bacterial cultures, they only detected a single target species. This method is a novel approach to classify strains within the genus Erwinia by PCR and it can be used to confirm other diagnostic data, especially when specific PCR detection methods are not already available. The method may be applied to classify species within other bacterial genera. PMID:22330936

  19. PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

  20. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. {sup 125}I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids.

  1. Dickeyafangzhongdai sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Yuan, Xiaoli; Yi, Jianping; Fan, Jiaqin; Xu, Zhigang; Hu, Baishi; De Boer, Solke H; Li, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Gram-stain-negative, pectinolytic bacteria were repeatedly isolated from pear trees displaying symptoms of bleeding canker in China. Three strains, JS5T, LN1 and QZH3, had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that shared 99 % similarity to the type strain of Dickeya dadantii. Phylogenetic analysis of strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 with isolates representing all species of the genus Dickeya and related Pectobacterium species supported their affiliation to Dickeya. Multi-locus sequence typing employing concatenated sequences encoding recA, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, dnaX and the intergenic spacer illustrated a phylogeny which placed strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 as a distinct clade, separate from all other species of the genus Dickeya. Average nucleotide identity values obtained in comparison with all species of the genus Dickeya supported the distinctiveness of strain JS5T within the genus Dickeya. Additionally, all three strains were phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus Dickeya by failing to hydrolyse casein, and by producing acids from (-)-d-arabinose, (+)melibiose, (+)raffinose, mannitol and myo-inositol, but not from 5-keto-d-gluconate or β-gentiobiose. The name Dickeya fangzhongdai sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains; the type strain is JS5T (=CGMCC 1.15464T=DSM 101947T). PMID:27045848

  2. Genome-wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons between Pear Species of P. bretschneideri and P. Communis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Wu, Jun; Wei, Shuwei; Xu, Yingxiu; Tao, Shutian; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-01-01

    Recent sequencing of the Oriental pear (P. bretschneideri Rehd.) genome and the availability of the draft genome sequence of Occidental pear (P. communis L.), has provided a good opportunity to characterize the abundance, distribution, timing, and evolution of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in these two important fruit plants. Here, a total of 7247 LTR-RTs, which can be classified into 148 families, have been identified in the assembled Oriental pear genome. Unlike in other plant genomes, approximately 90% of these elements were found to be randomly distributed along the pear chromosomes. Further analysis revealed that the amplification timeframe of elements varies dramatically in different families, super-families and lineages, and the Copia-like elements have highest activity in the recent 0.5 million years (Mys). The data also showed that two genomes evolved with similar evolutionary rates after their split from the common ancestor ~0.77–1.66 million years ago (Mya). Overall, the data provided here will be a valuable resource for further investigating the impact of transposable elements on gene structure, expression, and epigenetic modification in the pear genomes. PMID:26631625

  3. Determination of kresoxim-methyl and its thermolabile metabolites in pear utilizing pepper leaf matrix as a protectant using gas chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Musfiqur; Jang, Jin; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Abd El-Aty, A.M.; Ko, Ah-Young; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Yang, Angel; Park, Ki Hun; Shim, Jae-Han

    2013-01-01

    Kresoxim-methyl and its two thermolabile metabolites, BF 490-2 and BF 490-9, were analyzed in pear using a pepper leaf matrix protection to maintain the metabolites inside the gas chromatography system. Samples were extracted with a mixture of ethyl acetate and n-hexane (1:1, v/v) and purified and/or separated using a solid phase extraction procedure. The pepper leaf matrix was added and optimized with cleaned pear extract to enhance metabolite sensitivity. Matrix matched calibration was used for kresoxim-methyl in the pear matrix and for metabolites in the pear mixed with pepper leaf matrix. Good linearity was obtained for all analytes with a coefficient of determination, r2 ⩾ 0.992. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.006 and 0.02 mg kg−1 and 0.02 and 0.065 mg kg−1 for kresoxim-methyl and the metabolites, respectively. Recoveries were carried out at two concentration levels and were 85.6–97.9% with a relative standard deviation <2.5%. The method was successfully applied to field incurred pear samples, and only kresoxim-methyl was detected at a concentration of 0.03 mg kg−1. PMID:25685500

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Prolongs Postharvest Storage of Fresh-Cut Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) by Alleviation of Oxidative Damage and Inhibition of Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuai-Ping; Wu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Han, Yi; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (•O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide. PMID:24454881

  5. PEAR 2. 1 (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences): User's manual. [Report contains diskette; program uses DOE-2. 1 data base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This document provides descriptions of the data screens that make up PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), together with step-by-step instructions for using the microcomputer program diskette. PEAR is entirely contained on a single 5-1/4 inch diskette that can be used by IBM or all IBM-compatible personal computers having at least 128K memory. The program will operate on either a hard disk or a two disk drive system, with either a monochromatic or color monitor. However, a graphics adapter is needed to implement the Bar Chart Option. It is strongly recommended that a backup copy of the PEAR program be made for everyday use and that the original program diskette be stored in a safe place. A diskette for data storage is not needed in order to run the PEAR program. PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. This database was compiled by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. A Human Platelet Receptor Protein Microarray Identifies the High Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor Subunit α (FcεR1α) as an Activating Platelet Endothelium Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) Ligand*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Vandenbriele, Christophe; Kauskot, Alexandre; Verhamme, Peter; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Wright, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies to identify loci responsible for platelet function and cardiovascular disease susceptibility have repeatedly identified polymorphisms linked to a gene encoding platelet endothelium aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR1), an “orphan” cell surface receptor that is activated to stabilize platelet aggregates. To investigate how PEAR1 signaling is initiated, we sought to identify its extracellular ligand by creating a protein microarray representing the secretome and receptor repertoire of the human platelet. Using an avid soluble recombinant PEAR1 protein and a systematic screening assay designed to detect extracellular interactions, we identified the high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor subunit α (FcεR1α) as a PEAR1 ligand. FcεR1α and PEAR1 directly interacted through their membrane-proximal Ig-like and 13th epidermal growth factor domains with a relatively strong affinity (KD ∼ 30 nm). Precomplexing FcεR1α with IgE potently inhibited the FcεR1α-PEAR1 interaction, and this was relieved by the anti-IgE therapeutic omalizumab. Oligomerized FcεR1α potentiated platelet aggregation and led to PEAR1 phosphorylation, an effect that was also inhibited by IgE. These findings demonstrate how a protein microarray resource can be used to gain important insight into the function of platelet receptors and provide a mechanistic basis for the initiation of PEAR1 signaling in platelet aggregation. PMID:25713122

  7. Localized graft incompatibility in pear/quince (Pyrus communis/Cydonia oblonga) combinations: multivariate analysis of histological data from 5-month-old grafts.

    PubMed

    Ermel, F. F.; Kervella, J.; Catesson, A. M.; Poëssel, J. L.

    1999-08-01

    To characterize the structural events associated with incompatibility of graft development, we conducted a histological study of compatible and incompatible pear/pear and pear/quince grafts that had been grown for five months in a greenhouse. Multivariate analysis of histological data describing the structure of the graft union allowed us to discriminate between compatible and incompatible combinations before either macroscopic examination or qualitative microscopic examination differences between graft combinations became evident. The histological variables responsible for the discrimination between incompatible and compatible unions were related to three typical symptoms of graft incompatibility: bark discontinuity, which was the main feature; cambial dysfunction; and accumulation of starch in the scion. Little cell necrosis was observed at the interface of incompatible grafts at the 5-month stage of graft development. Multivariate analysis of histological data provides a new tool for studying early structural events resulting from the graft incompatibility response and for diagnosing early graft incompatibility. PMID:12651320

  8. Effects of aortic root motion on wall stress in the Marfan aorta before and after personalised aortic root support (PEARS) surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, S D; Xu, X Y; Pepper, J R; Izgi, C; Treasure, T; Mohiaddin, R H

    2016-07-01

    Aortic root motion was previously identified as a risk factor for aortic dissection due to increased longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aortic root motion on wall stress and strain in the ascending aorta and evaluate changes before and after implantation of personalised external aortic root support (PEARS). Finite element (FE) models of the aortic root and thoracic aorta were developed using patient-specific geometries reconstructed from pre- and post-PEARS cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images in three Marfan patients. The wall and PEARS materials were assumed to be isotropic, incompressible and linearly elastic. A static load on the inner wall corresponding to the patients' pulse pressure was applied. Cardiovascular MR cine images were used to quantify aortic root motion, which was imposed at the aortic root boundary of the FE model, with zero-displacement constraints at the distal ends of the aortic branches and descending aorta. Measurements of the systolic downward motion of the aortic root revealed a significant reduction in the axial displacement in all three patients post-PEARS compared with its pre-PEARS counterparts. Higher longitudinal stresses were observed in the ascending aorta when compared with models without the root motion. Implantation of PEARS reduced the longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta by up to 52%. In contrast, the circumferential stresses at the interface between the supported and unsupported aorta were increase by up to 82%. However, all peak stresses were less than half the known yield stress for the dilated thoracic aorta. PMID:27255604

  9. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state. PMID:25172854

  10. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kalcsits, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  11. The Change of First-flowering Date over South Korea Projected from Downscaled IPCC AR5 Simulation: Peach and Pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2014-12-01

    The variations in the first-flowering date (FFD) of peach (Prunus persica) and pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) under future climate change in South Korea are investigated using simulations obtained from five models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. For the study, daily temperature simulations with Historical (1986-2005), and RCP (2071-2090) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are statistically downscaled to 50 peach and pear FFD (FFDpeach and FFDpear, respectively) observation sites over South Korea. The number of days transformed to standard temperature (DTS) method is selected as the phenological model and applied to simulations for estimating FFDpeach and FFDpear over South Korea, due to its superior performance on the target plants and region compared to the growing degree days (GDD) and chill days (CD) methods. In the analysis, mean temperatures for early spring (February to April) over South Korea in 2090 under RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are expected to have increased by 1.9K and 3.3K, respectively. Among the early spring months of February to April, February shows the largest temperature increase of 2.1K and 3.7K for RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increased temperature during February and March accelerates the plant growth rate and thereby advances FFDpeach by 7.0 and 12.7 days and FFDpear by 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. These results imply that the present flowering of peach and pear in the middle of April will have advanced to late March or early April by the end of this century. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  12. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. PMID:24216324

  13. Oxidative stress associated with rootstock-scion interactions in pear/quince combinations during early stages of graft development.

    PubMed

    Irisarri, Patricia; Binczycki, Piotr; Errea, Pilar; Martens, Helle Juel; Pina, Ana

    2015-03-15

    Exposing a plant to stress situations, such as grafting, generally triggers antioxidant defense systems. In fruit tree grafting, quince (Cydonia oblonga) is widely used as a rootstock for pear (Pyrus communis L.), but several economically important pear cultivars are incompatible with available quince rootstocks. In this study, grafts were established using an in vitro callus graft system mimicking the events taking place in fruit trees. In vitro grown callus from pear [P. communis L. cv. 'Conference' (Co) and cv. 'William' (Wi)] and quince (C. oblonga Mill. clone 'BA29') was used to establish the compatible homografts 'Co/Co', 'Wi/Wi' and 'BA29/BA29', the compatible heterograft 'Co/BA29' and the incompatible heterograft 'Wi/BA29'. The main objective was to determine whether specific isoforms of genes involved in oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)] are differentially expressed at the graft interface from compatible and incompatible unions throughout 3 weeks after grafting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and programmed cell death were also evaluated in the course of graft development. Genes differentially expressed between compatible and incompatible heterografts were identified. Transcript levels of six antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD3, APX3, APX6, CAT1 and CAT3) were down-regulated 10 days after grafting (DAG) in the incompatible heterograft in comparison to the compatible one. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activities were significantly higher at 1 and 10 days after wounding in the compatible cultivar 'Co' than in the incompatible one 'Wi'. These findings, together with live cell imaging of ROS-specific probes, ultrastructural mitochondrial changes and DNA fragmentation related to apoptotic processes, give indications that within incompatible rootstock/scion interfaces, either the level of ROS is increased or there is a less efficient detoxification system. PMID:25543953

  14. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  15. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  16. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5–12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the

  17. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the promotion

  18. Surveying Future Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  19. Emission line galaxy pairs up to z=1.5 from the WISP survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Dai, Yu Sophia; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Bagley, Micaela B.; Baronchelli, Ivano; Bedregal, Alejandro; Beck, Melanie; Bunker, Andrew; Dominguez, Alberto; Hathi, Nimish P.; Henry, Alaina L.; Mehta, Vihang; Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Siana, Brian D.; WISPs Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of spectroscopically identified emission line galaxy pairs up to z=1.5 from WISPs (WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey) using high resolution direct and grism images from HST. We searched ~150 fields with a covered area of ~600 arcmin^2, and a comoving volume of > 400 Gpc^3 at z=1-2, and found ~80 very close physical pairs (projected separation Dp < 50 h^{-1}kpc, relative velocity d_v < 500 kms^{-1}), and ~100 close physical pairs (50 < Dp < 100 h^{-1}kpc, d_v < 1000 kms^{-1}) of emission line galaxies, including two dozen triplets and quadruples. In this poster we present the multi-wavelength data, star formation rate (SFR), mass ratio, and study the merger rate evolution with this special galaxy pair sample.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Climacteric Fruit of Chinese Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) Reveals New Insights into Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups ‘biological process’, ‘molecular function’ and ‘cellular component’. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  1. Prodigious polyphyly in imperilled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydeard, Charles; Minton, Russell L.; Williams, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Unionid bivalves or freshwater pearly-mussels (Unionoidea: Unionidae) serve as an exemplary system for examining many of the problems facing systematists and conservation biologists today. Most of the species and genera were described in the late 1800s and early 1900s, but few phylogenetic studies have been conducted to test conventional views of species and classification. Pearly-mussels of Gulf Coastal drainages of the southeastern United States from the Escambia (southern Alabama to Florida) to the Suwannee Rivers (Florida) are a unique fauna comprised of approximately 100 species, with about 30 endemic to the region. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to test the monophyly and to estimate evolutionary relationships of five unionid species representing three different genera. The molecular phylogenies depict all three genera as polyphyletic. The prodigious polyphyly exhibited within unionids is due to incorrect notions of homology and false assumptions about missing anatomical data. In contrast, the molecular phylogeny provides evidence to support the recognition of all five unionid species as distinct evolutionary entities. Furthermore, molecular genealogical evidence supports the elevation of Quincuncina infucata (Conrad) of the Suwannee River to species level, for which Q. kleiniana (Lea) is available.

  2. The ability of a cold-adapted Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from Tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Yan, Fujie; Wilson, Charles; Shen, Qing; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in Tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (Penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. YC1, an isolate identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. A washed cell suspension of YC1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. A concentration of 10(8) cells/ml reduced the incidence of decay to 35 %, compared to the control where decay incidence was 100 %. A higher intracellular level of trehalose and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated acids present in YC1, was associated with increased the tolerance of this strain to low temperatures, relative to the other strains that were evaluated. The increased tolerance to low temperature allowed the YC1 strain of yeast to more effectively compete for nutrients and space in wounded pear fruit that had been inoculated with spores of P. expansum and placed in cold storage. The present study demonstrated the ability to select cold-adapted yeasts from cold climates and use them as biocontrol agents of postharvest diseases of fruit placed in cold storage. PMID:26454432

  3. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic performance of pear-shaped ZnO/Ag core-shell submicrospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Jian-Qi; Ge, Hong-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Pear-shaped ZnO/Ag core-shell submicrospheres with good monodispersity were prepared via a seed-mediated particle growth procedure, where metal Ag (by reducing Ag+ with Sn2+) deposited on the as-prepared ZnO submicrospheres served as seeds (nucleation sites) for further growth of Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectra. Structure characterization demonstrates that the ZnO/Ag composites are composed of pear-shaped wurtzite ZnO submicrosphere core and Ag nanoparticles (nanoshell). Photoluminescence indicates that Ag nanoshell can effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electrons and holes of ZnO. This is responsible for the higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/Ag core-shell composites. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared ZnO/Ag samples for degradation of Rhodamine B was evaluated with a comparative study. The relationship between the structure of the samples and their photocatalytic performance shows that Ag deposits can significantly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO submicrospheres.

  4. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  5. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the cation proton antiporters family in pear and four other Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongsheng; Qi, Kaijie; Liu, Xing; Yin, Hao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jianqing; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2016-08-01

    The monovalent cation proton antiporters (CPAs) play essential roles in plant nutrition, development, and signal transduction by regulating ion and pH homeostasis of the cell. The CPAs of plants include the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, K(+) efflux antiporter, and cation/H(+) exchanger families. However, currently, little is known about the CPA genes in Rosaceae species. In this study, 220 CPA genes were identified from five Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, and Prunus mume), and 53 of which came from P. bretschneideri. Phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and gene expression analyses were conducted on the entire CPA genes of pear. Gene expression data showed that 35 and 37 CPA genes were expressed in pear fruit and pollen tubes, respectively. The transcript analysis of some CPA genes under abiotic stress conditions revealed that CPAs may play an important role in pollen tubes growth. The results presented here will be useful in improving understanding of the complexity of the CPA gene family and will promote functional characterization in future studies. PMID:27193473

  6. Cropload management and appropriate harvest timing improves final fruit size and fruit quality of US 71655-014, a new fire blight resistant European pear selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US71655-014 (‘Gem’) is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station. Despite possessing several positive attributes (precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit appearance, fire blight resistance good storability and consumer acceptance), ‘...

  7. EVALUATION OF THE CODLING MONT GRANULOVIRUS AND SPINOSAD FOR CODLING MOTH CONTROL AND IMPACT ON NON-TARGET SPECIES IN PEAR ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coding moth is a key insect pest of apple and pear in the Pacific Northwest. Insecticidal formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and spinosad that are approved for use in both organic and conventionally managed orchards have recently become available. In tests in experimental and c...

  8. Responses of ‘d’Anjou’ Pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit to storage at low oxygen setpoints determined by monitoring fruit chlorophyll fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘d’Anjou’ pears, a superficial scald-susceptible cultivar, were stored in air or controlled atmospheres containing 1.5 kPa O2 or a minimal partial pressure determined using real-time monitoring of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence. In two experiments, the low O2 setpoints were 0.4 and 0.5 kPa. During...

  9. Pithy brown core in ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit developing during controlled atmosphere storage at pO2 determined by monitoring chlorophyll fluorescense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological responses and fruit quality of ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit from five orchard lots were evaluated after cold storage in air or controlled atmospheres (CA) with the oxygen (O2) concentration based on assessment of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) or standard conditions (1.5 kPa O2). The pCO2...

  10. In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, 'Fertility'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyploid plantlets, including triploid, tetraploid and other polyploids, were induced from in vitro leaves of a European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Fertility' by a colchicine treatment. In vitro leaves were incubated in 0.4% colchicine solution for 24, 48 or 72 h, and transferred to an adv...

  11. Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

  12. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  13. Quantitative Proteomics-Based Reconstruction and Identification of Metabolic Pathways and Membrane Transport Proteins Related to Sugar Accumulation in Developing Fruits of Pear (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Fukao, Yoichiro; Morimoto, Reina; Otagaki, Shungo; Oikawa, Akira; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps. PMID:26755692

  14. A quantitative PCR assay for the detection of phytoplasmas causing almond brownline, peach yellow leafroll, and pear decline diseases in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas cause several important diseases in California’s almond and fruit tree orchards. A phytoplasma associated with almond brown line (ABL) disease, peach yellow leafroll phytoplasma (PYLR-P) and pear decline phytoplasma (PD-P) are genetically related based on homology in the 16S-23S rDNA sp...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  16. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of ‘Osa Gold’ were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:27436955

  17. Combined effects of sodium chlorite dip treatment and chitosan coatings on the quality of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chlorite (SC) alone and its sequential treatment with edible coatings on browning inhibition and quality maintenance of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears. Edible coatings were prepared from chitosan (CH) and its water soluble derivative: carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH...

  18. Complementary DNA cloning of the pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene and agrobacterium-mediated anti-sense genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to genetically modify plantlets of the Chinese yali pear to reduce their expression of ripening-associated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and therefore increase the shelf-life of the fruit. Primers were designed with selectivity for the conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and yali complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning was performed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The obtained cDNA fragment contained 831 base pairs, encoding 276 amino acid residues, and shared no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with other published ACO genes. The cDNA fragment was inversely inserted into a pBI121 expression vector, between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator, in order to construct the anti‑sense expression vector of the ACO gene; it was transfected into cultured yali plants using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Four independent transgenic lines of pear plantlets were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. A Southern blot assay revealed that there were three transgenic lines containing a single copy of exogenous gene and one line with double copies. The present study provided germplasm resources for the cultivation of novel storage varieties of pears, therefore providing a reference for further applications of anti‑sense RNA technology in the genetic improvement of pears and other fruit. PMID:26460204

  19. Effects of high temperatures on UV-B/visible irradiation induced postharvest anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Yunhongli No. 1’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) have seen increased cultivation in China in recent years, prized for their attractive market value and nutritional benefits. However, poor fruit coloration has been a noticeable problem. Postharvest ultraviolet-B (UV-B)/visible irradiation has been used...

  20. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:27436955

  1. Molecular Analysis of the Processes of Surface Brown Spot (SBS) Formation in Pear Fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Dangshansuli) by De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pu; Xue, Cheng; Wu, Ting-ting; Heng, Wei; Jia, Bing; Ye, Zhenfeng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Liwu

    2013-01-01

    Browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. In 2011, investigators in China found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, SBS) in pre-harvest ‘Dangshansuli’ pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). SBS has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. Interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. In this paper, de novo transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of pears with SBS using Illumina sequencing showed that SBS up-regulated the expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, phenolic compound synthesis and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and SBS was associated with inhibition of primary and secondary metabolism genes. Ca2+-sensor proteins might be involved in the signal transduction that occurs during the process of SBS formation, and this signaling is likely to be regulated by H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). Phytohormone and mineral element analyses confirmed that GA3, ABA, H2O2 and Ca2+ contribute to SBS formation. In addition to the seasonal characteristics, low levels of O2 and Ca2+ in the fruit are potential causes of the browning response due to exposure to oxidative stress, oxidative-reductive imbalance and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affected the membrane integrity. Disruption of the membranes allows for PPO and phenolic compounds to come into contact, and the phenolic compounds are oxidized to form the browning pigments. PMID:24058529

  2. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Feng, Wen-Ting; Chen, Sha-Sha; Xu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jiang-Li; Li, Peng-Min; Ma, Feng-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome. PMID:24637788

  3. PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 Interact with bHLH to Enhance Anthocyanin Accumulation in Pears

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shouqian; Sun, Shasha; Chen, Xiaoliu; Wu, Shujing; Wang, Deyun; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Color is an important agronomic trait of pears, and the anthocyanin content of fruit is immensely significant for pear coloring. In this study, an anthocyanin-activating R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10.1, was isolated from fruits of red sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Aoguan). Alignments of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that PyMYB10.1 was involved in anthocyanin regulation. Similar to PyMYB10, PyMYB10.1 was predominantly expressed in red tissues, including the skin, leaf and flower, but it was minimally expressed in non-red fruit flesh. The expression of this gene could be induced by light. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 activated the AtDFR promoter. The activation of AtDFR increased to a greater extent when combined with a bHLH co-factor, such as PybHLH, MrbHLH1, MrbHLH2, or AtbHLH2. However, the response of this activation depended on the protein complex formed. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 activated the AtDFR promoter to a greater extent than other combinations of proteins. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 also induced the highest anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco transient-expression assays. Moreover, PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1. These results suggest that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 are positive anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators in pears that act via the formation of a ternary complex with PybHLH. The functional characterization of PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 will aid further understanding of the anthocyanin regulation in pears. PMID:26536358

  4. Microbial analysis and survey test of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried fruits for patient's food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kyung-A.; Son, Eun-Joo; Lyu, Eun-Soon

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the microbiological and organoleptic qualities of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, pears, strawberries, pineapples, and grapes, and evaluated the organoleptic acceptability of the sterilized freeze-dried fruits for hospitalized patients. The freeze-dried fruits were gamma-irradiated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, and 15 kGy, and their quality was evaluated. Microorganisms were not detected in apples after 1 kGy, in strawberries and pears after 4 kGy, in pineapples after 5 kGy, and in grapes after 12 kGy of gamma irradiation. The overall acceptance score, of the irradiated freeze-dried fruits on a 7-point scale at the sterilization doses was 5.5, 4.2, 4.0, 4.1, and 5.1 points for apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The sensory survey of the hospitalized cancer patients (N=102) resulted in scores of 3.8, 3.7, 3.9, 3.9, and 3.7 on a 5-point scale for the gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The results suggest that freeze-dried fruits can be sterilized with a dose of 5 kGy, except for grapes, which require a dose of 12 kGy, and that the organoleptic quality of the fruits is acceptable to immuno-compromised patients. However, to clarify the microbiological quality and safety of freeze-dried fruits should be verified by plating for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.

  5. Pigmentation in sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruit: biochemical characterization, gene discovery and expression analysis with exocarp pigmentation mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Zhang, Shujun; Dai, Mei-song; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-05-01

    Exocarp color of sand pear is an important trait for the fruit production and has caused our concern for a long time. Our previous study explored the different expression genes between the two genotypes contrasting for exocarp color, which indicated the different suberin, cutin, wax and lignin biosynthesis between the russet- and green-exocarp. In this study, we carried out microscopic observation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to detect the differences of tissue structure and biochemical composition between the russet- and green-exocarp of sand pear. The green exocarp was covered with epidermis and cuticle which was replaced by a cork layer on the surface of russet exocarp, and the chemicals of the russet exocarp were characterized by lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. We explored differential gene expression between the russet exocarp of 'Niitaka' and its green exocarp mutant cv. 'Suisho' using Illumina RNA-sequencing. A total of 559 unigenes showed different expression between the two types of exocarp, and 123 of them were common to the previous study. The quantitative real time-PCR analysis supports the RNA-seq-derived gene with different expression between the two types of exocarp and revealed the preferential expression of these genes in exocarp than in mesocarp and fruit core. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed divorced expression of lipid metabolic process genes, transport genes, stress responsive genes and other biological process genes in the two types of exocarp. Expression changes in lignin metabolism-related genes were consistent with the different pigmentation of russet and green exocarp. Increased transcripts of putative genes involved the suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in 'Suisho' exocarp could facilitate deposition of the chemicals and take a role in the mutant trait responsible for the green exocarp. In addition, the divorced expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters involved in the trans

  6. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

  7. Biogas production from pear residues using sludge from a wastewater treatment plant digester. Influence of the feed delivery procedure.

    PubMed

    Arhoun, B; Bakkali, A; El Mail, R; Rodriguez-Maroto, J M; Garcia-Herruzo, F

    2013-01-01

    Clear economic advantages may be obtained from the management of seasonal fruit wastes by codigestion at existing facilities which are working throughout the year with other residues. We have explored the biomethanization of pear residues in a 5L stirred reactor loaded with sludge from the anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Different organic loading rates (OLRs) of fruit waste were tested with two delivery procedures: a discontinuous one (fed once a day) and a pseudocontinuous one. For both procedures, as the OLR increases the pH of the digester drops to acidic values and large OLRs may cause the reactor failure. Nevertheless, the pseudocontinuous delivery allows the treatment of more residue, (10.5 versus 6.0 g of volatile solids per litre of reactor and day), maintaining the specific biogas production (0.44 L of biogas per gram of volatile solids), with some improvement in methane concentration (44% vs 39%). PMID:23131648

  8. Effects of elevated CO sub 2 concentrations on glycolysis in intact Bartlett pear fruit. [Pyrus communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, E.L.; Kader, A.A.; Romani, R.J. )

    1988-04-01

    Mature intact Bartlett pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) were stored under a continuous flow of air or air + 10% CO{sub 2} for 4 days at 20{degree}C. Fruit kept under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations exhibited reduced respiration (O{sub 2} consumption) and ethylene evolution rates, and remained firmer and greener than fruit stored in air. Protein content, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate levels, and ATP:phosphofructokinase and PPi:phosphofructokinase activities declined, while levels of fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate increased in fruit exposed to air + 10% CO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in light of a possible inhibitory effect of CO{sub 2} at the site of action of both phosphofructokinases in the glycolytic pathway, which could account, at least in part, for the observed reduction in respiration.

  9. Comparative gas exchange characteristics of potted, glasshouse-grown almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, S.S.; Larsen, F.E.; Bendel, R.B.; Radamaker, G.K.; Bassman, J.H.; Bidlake, W.R.; Wir, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (Rd), transpirational flux density (TFD) and leaf conductance (kl) on glasshouse-grown plants of almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear were examined under various laboratory environmental conditions. Grape and almond had the highest light-saturated photosynthetic rates, greater than 20 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Apple had the lowest temperature optimum for Pn, 20??C. Almond had the highest Rd rate between 10 and 50??C, but grape had the highest Q10 for respiration, a value of 2.5. Apple, olive and grape stomata were most sensitive to the leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Apple had the greatest sensitivity of Pn to the vapor pressure difference. ?? 1992.

  10. [Electron microscopy and restriction analysis of bacteriophages isolated from quince and pear with symptoms of fire blight].

    PubMed

    Tovkach, F I; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Korol', N A; Kushkina, A I; Moroz, S N; Muchnik, F V

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations of isolates from quince and pear affected with fire blight disease were studied using electron microscopy, restriction analysis and both agarose gel electrophoresis of particles and host range scoping method. The isolate from quince (pMA1) comprises at least three phage populations and two phage variants that can be detected on different bacterial indicators. After titration of this isolate on Erwinia amylovora the bacteriophage KEY of B1 morphotype with the genome size of 82.4 kb was identified. The isolate pMA1 also includes a unique phage population 4*, which can be identified on the test bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (Pag) g150. Two analogous populations being also present in the isolate pMA1 that appeared to be close phage variants with almost identical Hpal-restriction patterns can be identified using Pag g157 and 9/7-1. The situation is similar in the case of phage isolates from pear, pMG. Three phage populations identified in it using three different indicators represent the same phage of C1 morphotype (TT10-27) with a genome size of 71.4 kb. At least two other phage populations were also detected in the same isolate using P. agglomerans 9/7-2 as an indicator. A model system allowing the most efficient analysis of the isolates for the presence of different phage populations and phage variants in plants infected by fire blight disease has been developed. It provides for using three indicator enterobacterial species closely associated with the plants: E. amylovora, Erwinia "horticola" and Pagglomerans and ignoring of the phage cloning procedure. PMID:24479316

  11. Relative effect of temperature and pH on diel cycling of dissolved trace elements in prickly pear creek, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.A.; Nimick, D.A.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Diel (24 hr) cycles in dissolved metal and As concentrations have been documented in many northern Rocky Mountain streams in the U.S.A. The cause(s) of the cycles are unknown, although temperature- and pH-dependent sorption reactions have been cited as likely causes. A light/dark experiment was conducted to isolate temperature and pH as variables affecting diel metal cycles in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. Light and dark chambers containing sediment and a strand of macrophyte were placed in the stream to simulate instream temperature oscillations. Photosynthesis-induced pH changes were allowed to proceed in the light chambers while photosynthesis was prevented in the dark chambers. Water samples were collected periodically for 22 hr in late July 2001 from all chambers and the stream. In the stream, dissolved Zn concentrations increased by 300% from late afternoon to early morning, while dissolved As concentrations exhibited the opposite pattern, increasing 33% between early morning and late afternoon. Zn and As concentrations in the light chambers showed similar, though less pronounced, diel variations. Conversely, Zn and As concentrations in the dark chambers had no obvious diel variation, indicating that light, or light-induced reactions, caused the variation. Temperature oscillations were nearly identical between light and dark chambers, strongly suggesting that temperature was not controlling the diel variations. As expected, pH was negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with dissolved Zn concentrations and positively correlated with dissolved As concentrations in both the light and dark chambers. From these experiments, photosynthesis-induced pH changes were determined to be the major cause of the diel dissolved Zn and As cycles in Prickly Pear Creek. Further research is necessary in other streams to verify that this finding is consistent among streams having large differences in trace-element concentrations and mineralogy of channel substrate. ?? 2004 Kluwer

  12. Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene and storage atmosphere on changes in volatile compounds and fruit quality of conference pears.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Cambiaghi, Paola; Grassi, Maurizio; Zerbini, Paola Eccher

    2005-12-14

    Conference pears (Pyrus communis L.) were treated with 25 and 50 nL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at -0.5 degrees C for 24 h, then stored for up to 22 weeks in air (NA) and controlled atmosphere (CA). After 7 and 14 weeks of storage, fruits were retreated with 1-MCP. After 7, 14, and 22 weeks of storage, fruits were kept for up to 7 days at 20 degrees C in air for poststorage ripening. The effects of 1-MCP treatment declined with duration of storage in both storage atmospheres, indicating that retreatments had little additional effects on subsequent ripening. Ethylene production was lower and firmness was higher in 50 nL L(-1) fruits, while the 25 nL L(-1) dose was not very different from the control. Development of superficial scald was not prevented by 1-MCP treatments, but the severity of the symptoms was influenced. The 1-MCP effects were perceivable on texture (juiciness) and flavor. Control fruit and 25 nL L(-1) fruit reached their best sensory quality after 14 weeks of storage, while 50 nL L(-1) fruit reached the same sensory quality later, keeping a fresh flavor when the quality of control fruit declined and became watery or grainy. The fresh flavor in 50 nL L(-1) fruit was probably due to the presence below the odor detection threshold concentrations of the volatile compounds responsible for the "ripe pear" aroma, mainly of butanol and ethyl butanoate. CA prolonged or enhanced the effects of 1-MCP; 1-MCP cannot substitute for CA but can reinforce the CA effects. PMID:16332131

  13. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Functional Divergence of MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Xue, Cheng; Li, Jiaming; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Yu, Li'ang; Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The MYB superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. To date, MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate MYB genes and divided them into four subfamilies. The R2R3-MYB (PbrMYB) family shared an R2R3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. The Pbr MYB family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including 33 subgroups which contained both MYB genes of Rosaceae plants and AtMYB genes, and four subgroups which included only Rosaceae MYB genes or AtMYB genes. PbrMYB genes with similar functions clustered into the same subgroup, indicating functional conservation. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplications played critical roles in the expansion of the MYB family. The 87 Pbr MYB duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving Pbr MYB gene evolution. The 15 gene pairs presented 1-7 codon sites under positive selection. A total of 147 expressed genes were identified from RNA-sequencing data of fruit, and six Pbr MYB members in subgroup C1 were identified as important candidate genes in the regulation of lignin synthesis by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Further correlation analysis revealed that six PbrMYBs were significantly correlated with five structural gene families (F5H, HCT, CCR, POD and C3'H) in the lignin pathway. The phylogenetic, evolution and expression analyses of the MYB gene family in Chinese white pear establish a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of Pbr MYB genes. PMID:26872835

  14. Hubble space telescope grism spectroscopy of extreme starbursts across cosmic time: The role of dwarf galaxies in the star formation history of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Pacifici, Camilla; Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel; Charlot, Stephane; Lehnert, Matthew; Lee, Janice; Bedregal, Alejandro; Bunker, Andrew J.; Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Hathi, Nimish; Martin, Crystal L.; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2014-07-10

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, on board the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high redshift (z ∼ 1-2). While most high-z surveys are biased toward massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation for about 1000 emission line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. We use the Hα emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to M{sub *} ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 Å. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-M{sub *} sequence with much higher specific SFRs (>10 Gyr{sup –1}). While on-sequence galaxies follow continuous star formation processes, EELGs are thought to be caught during an extreme burst of star formation that can double their stellar mass in a period of less than 100 Myr. The contribution of the starburst population to the total star formation density appears to be larger than what has been reported for more massive galaxies in previous studies. In the complete mass range 8.2 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) <10 and a SFR lower completeness limit of about 2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (10 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2), we find that starbursts having EW{sub rest}(Hα) > 300, 200, and 100 Å contribute up to ∼13%, 18%, and 34%, respectively, to the total SFR of emission-line-selected sample at z ∼ 1-2. The comparison with samples of massive galaxies shows an increase in the contribution of starbursts toward lower masses.

  15. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O2,active packaging compared with low O2 packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, initial O2/CO2: 5/5; 30/5; 80/0) and passive packaging (initial O2/CO2: 20.8/0 (air)) on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut ‘Yaoshan’ pear stored at 4C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O2 (30% and 80%) ...

  16. Exploring Candidate Genes for Pericarp Russet Pigmentation of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) via RNA-Seq Data in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Pericarp Color

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Dai, Mei-song; Zhang, Shu-jun; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-01-01

    Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. ‘Qingxiang’ × ‘Cuiguan’ F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1) between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to ‘cellular_component’ and ‘biological_process’, suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of ‘lipid metabolic processes’, ‘transport’, ‘response to stress’, ‘oxidation-reduction process’ and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation. PMID:24400075

  17. Exploring candidate genes for pericarp russet pigmentation of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) via RNA-Seq data in two genotypes contrasting for pericarp color.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Dai, Mei-song; Zhang, Shu-jun; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-01-01

    Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. 'Qingxiang' × 'Cuiguan' F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1) between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to 'cellular_component' and 'biological_process', suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of 'lipid metabolic processes', 'transport', 'response to stress', 'oxidation-reduction process' and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation. PMID:24400075

  18. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate, a kairomonal spray adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2010-07-14

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. The pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE), evokes attraction and arrestment of CM larvae. Microencapsulated PE formulation (PE-MEC) enhances the control efficacy of insecticides when used as a spray adjuvant. Characterization of the microencapsulated kairomone, including microcapsule size, concentrations, emission rates, and larval response, was performed. Microcapsule diameter ranged from 2 to 14 mum, with 68% of capsules being 2-3 mum, and the concentration of microcapsules averaged 25.9 x 10(4) capsules per mL of field spray solution. Headspace collections showed emission of PE was related to PE-MEC concentration and was best described as first-order power decay. Neonate larvae responded to PE-MEC applications aged through 14 days. These results demonstrated that application of PE-MEC concurrent with insecticides may increase neonate foliar wandering, thereby disrupting host location and enhancing mortality by prolonging its exposure to insecticide. PMID:20527813

  19. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Multiple Long Terminal Repeats, Lineage-Specific Amplification, and Frequent Interelement Recombination for Cassandra Retrotransposon in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-01-01

    Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants. PMID:24899073

  20. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27375258