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Sample records for pediatric hematology-oncology experience

  1. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Engage with ASPHO and benefit from the Society’s professional development, education, and networking resources! Read More » ... Career Center Mentoring Funding Compensation Survey © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 8735 W. Higgins Road, ...

  2. Increasing Diversity in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Ernest; Lakoski, Joan M.; Luban, Naomi; Lipton, Jeffrey M.; Poplack, David G.; Hagey, Anne; Felgenhauer, Judy; Hilden, Joanne; Margolin, Judith; Vaiselbuh, Sarah R.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity is necessary for the survival and success of both biological and social systems including societies. There is a lack of diversity, particularly the proportion of women and minorities in leadership positions, within medicine.1;2 In 2009 a group of ASPHO members recognized the need to support the career advancement of women and minority members. This article reports the results of a survey designed to characterize the comparative career pathway experience of women and minority ASPHO members. Procedure A group of ASPHO colleagues modified a published Faculty Worklife survey3 for use by Pediatric Hematologist-Oncologists (PHOs). A link to an online version of the survey was sent to all ASPHO members. Results Of 1228 ASPHO members polled, 213 responded (17%). Women and minority PHOs reported less satisfaction than their counterparts on 70 of the 90 issues addressed in the survey including the hiring process, access to resources as well as integration and satisfaction with their organizations. Women also expressed greater dissatisfaction with issues of work-life balance, support for family obligations and personal health. Conclusions The current literature suggests that there are significant disparities in career opportunities, compensation and satisfaction for women compared to men and minority compared to majority faculty in academic medicine.4–7 Our data, derived from a survey of ASPHO members, suggests that this holds true for PHOs as well. PMID:21284078

  3. The opinion of clinical staff regarding painfulness of procedures in pediatric hematology-oncology: an Italian survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Beliefs of caregivers about patient's pain have been shown to influence assessment and treatment of children's pain, now considered an essential part of cancer treatment. Painful procedures in hematology-oncology are frequently referred by children as the most painful experiences during illness. Aim of this study was to evaluate professionals' beliefs about painfulness of invasive procedures repeatedly performed in Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Units. Methods Physicians, nurses, psychologists and directors working in Hemato-Oncology Units of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (AIEOP) were involved in a wide-nation survey. The survey was based on an anonymous questionnaire investigating beliefs of operators about painfulness of invasive procedures (lumbar puncture, bone marrow aspirate and bone marrow biopsy) and level of pain management. Results Twenty-four directors, 120 physicians, 248 nurses and 22 psychologists responded to the questionnaire. The score assigned to the procedural pain on a 0-10 scale was higher than 5 in 77% of the operators for lumbar puncture, 97.5% for bone marrow aspiration, and 99.5% for bone marrow biopsy. The scores assigned by nurses differed statistically from those of the physicians and directors for the pain caused by lumbar puncture and bone marrow aspiration. Measures adopted for procedural pain control were generally considered good. Conclusions Invasive diagnostic-therapeutic procedures performed in Italian Pediatric Hemato-Oncology Units are considered painful by all the caregivers involved. Pain management is generally considered good. Aprioristically opinions about pain depend on invasiveness of the procedure and on the professional role. PMID:21663631

  4. Management of iron deficiency anemia: A survey of pediatric hematology/oncology specialists

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Jacquelyn M.; McCavit, Timothy L.; Buchanan, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common hematologic condition in children and adolescents in the United States (US). No prior reports have described the management of IDA by a large cohort of pediatric hematology-oncology specialists. Procedure A 20-question electronic survey that solicited responses to two hypothetical cases of IDA was sent to active members of the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO) in the United States. Results Of 1,217 recipients, 398 (32.7%) reported regularly treating IDA and completed the survey. In a toddler with nutritional IDA, 15% (N=61) of respondents reported ordering no diagnostic test beyond a complete blood count. Otherwise, wide variability in laboratory testing was reported. For treatment, most respondents would prescribe ferrous sulfate (N=335, 84%) dosed at 6 mg/kg/day (N=248, 62%) divided twice daily (N=272, 68%). The recommended duration of iron treatment after resolution of anemia and normalized serum ferritin varied widely from 0 months to 3 months. For an adolescent with heavy menstrual bleeding and IDA, most respondents recommended ferrous sulfate (N=327, 83%), with dosing based on the number of tablets daily. For IDA refractory to oral treatment, intravenous iron therapy was recommended most frequently, 48% (N=188) using iron sucrose, 17% (n=68) ferric gluconate, and 15% (N=60) low molecular weight iron dextran. Conclusion The approach to diagnosis and treatment of IDA in childhood was widely variable among responding ASPHO members. Given the lack of an evidence base to guide clinical decision making, further research investigating IDA management is needed. PMID:25663613

  5. Procedural pain management in Italy: learning from a nationwide survery involving centers of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Po', Chiara; Benini, Franca; Sainati, Laura; Farina, Maria Immacolata; Cesaro, Simone; Agosto, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    Procedural pain is an important aspect of care in pediatrics, and particularly in pediatric oncology where children often consider this to be the most painful experience during their illness. Best recommended practice to control procedural pain includes both sedative-analgesic administration and non-pharmacological treatments, practiced in an adequate and pleasant setting by skilled staff. A nationwide survey has been conducted among the Italian Centers of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology to register operators' awareness on procedural pain, state of the art procedural pain management, operators' opinions about pain control in their center, and possible barriers impeding sedation-analgesia administration. Based on indications in the literature, we discuss the results of the survey to highlight critical issues and suggest future directions for improvement. Future objectives will be to overcome differences depending on size, improve operators' beliefs about the complexity of pain experience, and promote a global approach to procedural pain. PMID:22355519

  6. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Pediatric Hematologic-Oncologic Disease: Literature Review and Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    ARZANIAN, Mohammad Thaghi; SHAMSIAN, Bibi Shahin; KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh; KAJIYAZDI, Mohammad; MALEK, Fatima; HAMMOUD, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological disease entity, which is represented by characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of subcortical/cortical hyperintensity in T2-weighted sequences. It is more often seen in parietaloccipital lobes, and is accompanied by clinical neurological changes. PRES is a rare central nervous system (CNS) complication in patients with childhood hematologic-oncologic disese and shows very different neurological symptoms between patients, ranging from numbness of extremities to generalized seizure. In this article, we will review PRES presentation in hematologic-oncologic patients. Then, we will present our patient, a 7-year-old boy with Evans syndrome on treatment with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone, with seizure episodes and MRI finding in favour of PRES. PMID:24949044

  7. Antifungal Prophylaxis in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: New Choices & New Data

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Christopher C.; Fisher, Brian T.; Sung, Lillian; Steinbach, William J.; Nieder, Michael; Alexander, Sarah; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.

    2012-01-01

    A severe complication of the treatment of pediatric cancers is the development of an invasive fungal infection (IFI). The data to support antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric oncology patients derive primarily from adult patients, and thus the optimal agent to utilize is not clear. Fluconazole has been a standard option, but agents with antimold activity are now available, each with limitations. Pediatric dosing for voriconazole and posaconazole is uncertain and multiple drug interactions exist. The echinocandins are well-tolerated, but only available in intravenous form. Ultimately, studies demonstrating biologic risk factors for the development of IFI may lead to personalized prophylactic strategies. PMID:22102607

  8. Bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pediatric hematology/oncology patients after anticancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mulla, Naima A; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; El Shafie, Sittana; Janahi, Mohammed; Al-Nasser, Abdullah A; Chandra, Prem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology and oncology represent a major problem worldwide, but this has not been studied in Qatar. In this study, we investigated the burden of infection and the resistance pattern in the bacterial etiology, in the only tertiary pediatric hematology and oncology center in Qatar. Methods All pediatric cancer patients (n=185) were evaluated retrospectively during the period 2004–2011; a total of 70 (38%) patients were diagnosed with bloodstream infections. Bacterial etiology was determined, along with their susceptibility patterns. Neutropenia, duration of neutropenia, fever, duration of fever, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated throughout the study. Results A total of 70 patients (38%) were diagnosed with acute leukemias, lymphomas, solid tumors, or brain tumors; those patients experienced 111 episodes of bacteremia. The most common Gram-positive (n=64 [55%]) isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=26), Staphylococcus hominis (n=9), and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=7), and the common Gram-negative (n=52 [45%]) isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=10), and Escherichia coli (n=7). There was a significant association observed between fever with positive blood culture and different types of cancer (P=0.035). The majority of bacteremia (n=68 [61.3%]) occurred in nonneutropenic episodes. Elevated values of CRP (≥5 mg/L) were detected in 82 (95.3%) episodes and were negatively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (r=−0.18; P=0.248) among all cases. However, the infection-related fatality rate was 2.2% (n=4), with three caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Multidrug resistant organisms were implicated in 33 (28.4%) cases and caused three of the mortality cases. Conclusion Multidrug resistant organisms cause mortality in pediatric cancer patients. Investigation of antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms may guide successful antimicrobial therapy and improve

  9. Preventing transmission of infectious agents in the pediatric in-patients hematology-oncology setting: what is the role for non-pharmacological prophylaxis?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Désirée; Cesaro, Simone; Livadiotti, Susanna; Ziino, Ottavio; Paolicchi, Olivia; Zanazzo, Giulio; Milano, Giuseppe M.; Licciardello, Maria; Barone, Angelica; Cellini, Monica; Raffaella, De Santis; Giacchino, Mareva; Rossi, Mario Renato; Aricò, Maurizio; Castagnola, Elio

    2011-01-01

    The most intensive chemotherapy regimens were used in the past for leukemia patients who were the main focus of trials on infections; today there are increasing numbers of children with solid cancer and considerable risk of infection who do receive intensive standard-dose chemotherapy. Despite a continuous will to protect the immune-compromised child from infections, evidence-based indications for intervention by non-pharmacological tools is still lacking in the pediatric hematology-oncology literature. Guidelines on standard precautions as well as precautions to avoid transmission of specific infectious agents are available. As a result of a consensus discussion, the Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology-Oncology (AIEOP) Cooperative Group centers agree that for children treated with chemotherapy both of these approaches should be implemented and vigorously enforced, while additional policies, including strict environmental isolation, should be restricted to patients with selected clinical conditions or complications. We present here a study by the working group on infectious diseases of AIEOP. PMID:21647282

  10. The child with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: is pharmacotherapy or watchful waiting the best initial management? A panel discussion from the 2002 meeting of the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, Paula; Tarantino, Michael D; Buchanan, George R; Bussel, James B; George, James N

    2004-02-01

    The initial management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura is a topic of debate among pediatric hematologists. The decision whether to start a patient on pharmacotherapy or to employ an approach of watchful waiting and patient education is problematic for this group of physicians. A wide variety of research studies and review articles have been published on either side of this debate. Here, the proceedings from a panel discussion, held at the 2002 American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology meeting, are presented. The panel, composed of experts on both sides of the debate, presented the rationale, benefits, and risks of both pharmacotherapy and the watchful waiting strategy. PMID:14767210

  11. A comprehensive approach to the prevention of central venous catheter complications: results of 10-year prospective surveillance in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Cavaliere, Mara; Pegoraro, Anna; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Zadra, Nicola; Tridello, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    We report our decennial experience with 1161 newly-placed long-term central venous catheters inserted in 919 hematology-oncology patients for a total of 413,901 CVC-days of observation. Most of the CVCs were partially-implanted, open-ended, Broviac-Hickman type of CVC (95 %). One thousand and twenty-four complications were recorded equal to 2.47 per 1000 CVC-days. The frequency of complications per CVC, the rate of episodes per 1000 CVC-days, and removal rate were malfunction/occlusion 42 %, 1.18/1000, and 2.3 %; mechanical (dislodgement/rupture/kinking) 18.3 %, 0.51/1000, and 77.4 %; bacteremia 14.8 %, 0.42/1000, and 18.6 %; exit-site/tunnel infection 11.5 %, 0.32/1000, and 9.7 %; thrombosis 0.86 %, 0.02/1000, and 30 %; pneumothorax 0.52 %, 0.01/1000, and 0. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors were for mechanical complications, a younger age <6.1 years at CVC insertion (HR 1.8, p = 0.0006); for bacteremia, a double lumen CVC (HR 3.1, p < 0.0001) and the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.5, p = 0.03); for exit-site/tunnel infection, a double lumen CVC (HR 2.1, p = 0.0003) and a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.8, p = 0.01); for malfunction/occlusion, an age <6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0003), the diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.9, p < 0.0001) and double lumen CVC (HR 1.33, p = 0.023). The cumulative incidence of premature CVC removal was 29.2 % and the risk factors associated with this event were the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.4, p = 0.0153) and an age at CVC positioning less than 6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0025). We conclude that a best-practice set of rules resulted in reduced CVC complications. PMID:26961934

  12. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    PubMed

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined. PMID:25637457

  13. Caregivers' insights on the dying trajectory in hematology oncology.

    PubMed

    McGrath, P

    2001-10-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged in the research literature that palliative care is not offered to patients with a hematologic malignancy. The evidence indicates that patients are not dying at home or in the comfort of the hospice setting but are more likely to end up in the high-tech care of an intensive care unit. The holistic, compassionate care of the hospice/palliative care philosophy is not routinely made available to either these patients or the families who care for them. However, little is known about what the end-of-life experience is for such patients and their families and how they are managing to negotiate their dying experience in a system that is designed to cure not to palliate. In particular, there is a dearth of information on what happens to the caregivers during what is characteristically a prolonged and difficult period of sustained caring within the high-tech system. This discussion presents findings from recent research that is beginning to document the experience of the dying trajectory for patients from these diagnostic groups and their families. The hope and expectation from such research is that the information will make a contribution to building multidisciplinary plans of care for hematologic malignancies during the dying trajectory, to ensure that patients and their families are appropriately referred to the palliative system or, at least, are given sensitive palliative care within the curative system. PMID:11605712

  14. Prospective audit and feedback on antibiotic prescription in an adult hematology-oncology unit in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C-L; Chan, D S-G; Earnest, A; Wu, T-S; Yeoh, S-F; Lim, R; Jureen, R; Fisher, D; Hsu, L-Y

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of a prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic prescription and resistance trends in a hematology-oncology unit in a university hospital (National University Cancer Institute, Singapore [NCIS]). A prospective interrupted time-series study comprising 11-month pre-intervention (PIP) and intervention evaluation phases (IEP) flanking a one-month implementation phase was carried out. Outcome measures included defined daily dose per 100 (DDD/100) inpatient-days of ASP-audited and all antibiotics (encompassing audited and non-audited antibiotics), and the incidence-density of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms at the NCIS. Internal and external controls were DDD/100 inpatient-days of paracetamol at the NCIS and DDD/100 inpatient-days of antibiotics prescribed in the rest of the hospital. There were 580 ASP recommendations from 1,276 audits, with a mean monthly compliance of 86.9%. Significant reversal of prescription trends towards reduced prescription of audited (coefficient = -2.621; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.923, -0.319; p = 0.026) and all evaluated antibiotics (coefficient = -4.069; 95% CI: -8.075, -0.063; p = 0.046) was observed. No changes were seen for both internal and external controls, except for the reversal of prescription trends for cephalosporins hospital-wide. Antimicrobial resistance did not change over the time period of the study. Adverse outcomes-the majority unavoidable-occurred following 5.5% of accepted ASP recommendations. Safe and effective ASPs can be implemented in the complex setting of hematology-oncology inpatients. PMID:21845470

  15. Red Blood Cell Antibodies in Hematology/Oncology Patients: Interpretation of Immunohematologic Tests and Clinical Significance of Detected Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a cornerstone of the management of patients with hematology/oncology disorders. However, a potentially deleterious consequence of transfusion is the development of alloantibodies against blood group antigens present on RBCs. Such alloantibodies can be an obstacle in providing compatible units for transfusion. Providers in this arena must fully understand the testing performed by blood banks, as well as the consequences of detected antibodies. This article reviews immunohematologic tests, describes how autoimmune hemolytic anemia is classified by autoantibodies; outlines RBC alloimmunization rates, and presents strategies to prevent/mitigate the impact of RBC alloimmunization. PMID:27113001

  16. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection in Patients at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, A; Farhangi, H; Badiee, Z; Banihashem, A; Mosaddegh, MR

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections in critical care unit are high, and they are serious hospital problems. Infections acquired during the hospital stay are generally called nosocomial infections, initially known as infections arising after 48 h of hospital admission. The mostfrequent nosocomial infections (urinary, respiratory, gastroenteritis and blood stream infection) were common in patients at hospital.The aim was to study, the current status of nosocomial infection, rate of infection among hospitalized children at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 200 patient's records presented with symptoms of nosocomial infection at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital from March 2014 to September 2014. Descriptive statistics using percentage was calculated. Results Incidence of nosocomial infections inpatients athematology-oncology ward was 31% (62/200). Of which 69.35% (43/62) blood stream infection being the most frequent; followed by 30.64% (19/62) was urinary tract infection (UTI), and the most common blood culture isolate was been Staphylococcus epidermidis 18 (41.86%), andour study showed that large numbers ofnosocomial UTIs causing by Gram‑negative bacteria. Conclusion This study showed blood stream infection and UTI are the common nosocomial infections among patients athematology-oncology ward. Early recognition of infections and short term use of invasive devices along with proper infection control procedures can significantly decrease the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients. PMID:26985350

  17. In vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine. Pediatric experience

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, W.A.; Hendee, W.R.; Gilday, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered.

  18. Enhancing the Imaging Experience for Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Baron, Molly; Joslin, Shannon; Kim, Jane S; Shet, Narendra S; Pocta, Brigitte; Olivi, Penny

    2016-01-01

    The University of Maryland Medical Center's goal was to improve the safety and comfort of pediatric imaging by enhancing the experience for children. Two pediatric radiologists and two child life specialists worked together to create a training program to help guide radiology technologists on how to approach and interact with children undergoing medical imaging. The results of surveys administered to technologists and parents or caregivers helped refine the strategy for both creating training sessions for technologists and reading materials for children and their parents to optimally prepare for the procedures. Training sessions included information on language choices, developmental considerations, comfort techniques, patient- and family-centered care practices, procedural support techniques, and coping styles. Through the implementation of learning sessions and distraction resources for technologists, and the development of preparation books, the imaging experience for pediatric patients at UMMC has improved. PMID:27514108

  19. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  20. Pediatric surgeons on the Internet: a multi-institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Wulkan, M L; Smith, S D; Whalen, T V; Hardin, W D

    1997-04-01

    An estimated 24 million people, or 11% of the North American population over 16 years of age, use the Internet. An estimated 40% of households have computers, and 37 million people have Internet access. The experience of three pediatric surgery Internet sites are reviewed to evaluate current practices and future potential of the Internet to practicing pediatric surgeons. The sites reviewed are the Pediatric Surgery Bulletin Board System (BBS), the Pediatric Surgery List Server, and the Pediatric Surgery Website. Statistics were collected at each site to characterize the number of users, traffic load, topics of interest, and times of peak use. There are currently 79 subscribers to the Pediatric Surgery BBS and 100 subscribers to the Pediatric Surgery List Server. The average user of the BBS is a young man who has placed an average of 52 calls to the BBS since joining. There have been 1413 Internet electronic mail messages sent. Twenty-five percent of the traffic has been related to clinical problems and 5% to research, teaching, and career issues. Traffic at this site has been increasing exponentially with most of the dialogue concentrated on clinical issues and problem cases. In a 3-month period the Pediatric Surgery Website received 16,270 hits. The most commonly accessed areas include an electronic mail directory, case studies, the job board, information on the pediatric surgical residency, and information on upcoming meetings. Pediatric surgeons are exploring the Internet and using available pediatric surgery resources. The scope of professional information available to pediatric surgeons on the Internet is still limited but is increasing rapidly. The Internet will impact the way physicians practice medicine through education and communication. PMID:9126766

  1. Medical Home Characteristics and the Pediatric Patient Experience

    PubMed Central

    Burnet, Deborah; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Nocon, Robert S.; Gao, Yue; Jin, Janel; Fairchild, Paige; Chin, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has roots in pediatrics, yet we know little about the experience of pediatric patients in PCMH settings. Objective To examine the association between clinic PCMH characteristics and pediatric patient experience as reported by parents. Research Design We assessed the cross-sectional correlation between clinic PCMH characteristics and pediatric patient experience in 24 clinics randomly selected from the Safety Net Medical Home Initiative, a 5-state PCMH demonstration project. PCMH characteristics were measured with surveys of randomly selected providers and staff; surveys generated 0 (worst) to 100 (best) scores for five subscales, and a total score. Patient experience was measured through surveying parents of pediatric patients. Questions from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Clinician & Group (CAHPS-CG) instrument produced 4 patient experience measures: timeliness, physician communication, staff helpfulness, and overall rating. To investigate the relationship between PCMH characteristics and patient experience, we used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure. Results We included 440 parents and 214 providers and staff in the analysis. Total PCMH score was not associated with parents’ assessment of patient experience; however, PCMH subscales were associated with patient experience in different directions. In particular, quality improvement activities undertaken by clinics were strongly associated with positive ratings of patient experience, while patient care management activities were associated with more negative reports of patient experience. Conclusions Future work should bolster features of the PCMH that work well for patients while investigating which PCMH features negatively impact patient experience, to yield a better patient experience overall. PMID:25310639

  2. A Pediatric Near-Death Experience: Tunnel Variants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdahely, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study of boy who had near-death experience (NDE) due to nearly drowning when he was seven years old. Discusses case's variation of tunnel experience not before reported in either adult or pediatric NDE literature: while in the tunnel, the boy was comforted by two of his family's pets who had died prior to his accident. (Author/NB)

  3. Lived experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh; Asadi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caring is a valuable task. The staff in any profession that involves patients’ fear, anxiety, pain, and suffering may experience similar feelings. As a professional group, oncology nurses deal with patients and their relatives and caregivers under very stressful conditions. They encounter pain, suffering, and death as a part of their daily life. A number of studies have evaluated the experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in other countries. Therefore, conducting a survey about the experiences of Iranian nurses of caring for children with cancer can reveal their demands, stress, and limitations. Materials and Methods: In a qualitative research, in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with open-ended questions were conducted to evaluate the experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in a hospital in a metropolitan city of Iran. The subjects all consented to participate and had at least one year of working experience in the ward. Content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Results: The lived experiences of pediatric oncology nurses were categorized in five main themes. These themes included attachment, supportive care, trying to repress feelings, feeling of helplessness, and the need to be supported. Conclusions: According to these results, nurses who provide care for children with cancer require support. This research also highlighted the roles, limitations, and needs of nurses in pediatric oncology wards. PMID:24403935

  4. Pediatric intracranial gunshot wounds: the Memphis experience.

    PubMed

    DeCuypere, Michael; Muhlbauer, Michael S; Boop, Frederick A; Klimo, Paul

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Penetrating brain injury in civilians is much less common than blunt brain injury but is more severe overall. Gunshot wounds (GSWs) cause high morbidity and mortality related to penetrating brain injury; however, there are few reports on the management and outcome of intracranial GSWs in children. The goals of this study were to identify clinical and radiological factors predictive for death in children and to externally validate a recently proposed pediatric prognostic scale. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of penetrating, isolated GSWs sustained in children whose ages ranged from birth to 18 years and who were treated at 2 major metropolitan Level 1 trauma centers from 1996 through 2013. Several standard clinical, laboratory, and radiological factors were analyzed for their ability to predict death in these patients. The authors then applied the St. Louis Scale for Pediatric Gunshot Wounds to the Head, a scoring algorithm that was designed to provide rapid prognostic information for emergency management decisions. The scale's sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictability were determined, with death as the primary outcome. RESULTS Seventy-one children (57 male, 14 female) had a mean age of 14 years (range 19 months to 18 years). Overall mortality among these children was 47.9%, with 81% of survivors attaining a favorable clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≥ 4). A number of predictors of mortality were identified (all p < 0.05): 1) bilateral fixed pupils; 2) deep nuclear injury; 3) transventricular projectile trajectory; 4) bihemispheric injury; 5) injury to ≥ 3 lobes; 6) systolic blood pressure < 100 mm Hg; 7) anemia (hematocrit < 30%); 8) Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 5; and 9) a blood base deficit < -5 mEq/L. Patient age, when converted to a categorical variable (0-9 or 10-18 years), was not predictive. Based on data from the 71 patients in this study, the positive predictive value of the St

  5. Psychosocial Aspects of Siblings' Experiences of Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Marla; Brack, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    Identified those aspects of experiences of siblings of children with cancer that might have impact on school functioning. Also examined extent to which parents and siblings concurred in their reports of siblings' psychosocial functioning and adjustment. Findings from 15 children and adults attending pediatric oncology camp revealed that most…

  6. POND4Kids: a global web-based database for pediatric hematology and oncology outcome evaluation and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Yuri; Patel, Aman N; Arreola, Magada; Antillon, Federico G; Ribeiro, Raul C; Howard, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    The Pediatric Oncology Network Database, (www.pond4kids.org, POND), is a secure, web-based, multilingual pediatric hematology/oncology database created for use in countries with limited resources to meet various clinical data management needs including cancer registration, delivery of protocol-based care, outcome evaluation, and assessment of psychosocial support programs. Established as a part of the International Outreach Program at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, POND serves as a tool for oncology units to store patient data for easy retrieval and analysis and to achieve uniform data collection to facilitate meaningful comparison of information among centers. Launched in 2003, POND now has 233 sites registered with over 1,000 users in 66 countries. However, adoption and usage of POND varies widely among sites. This paper reviews some of the challenges to developing a global collaborative clinical platform based on the experiences of developing POND. The paper also presents a case study of POND use in Guatemala, where the Guatemalan National Oncology Unit (UNOP) has developed extensive internal and external global collaborations using POND. PMID:23388293

  7. Pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Kavaz, A; Özçakar, Z B; Bulum, B; Tüzüner, A; Keven, K; Şengül, Ş; Ekim, M; Yalçınkaya, F

    2013-04-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for children with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively of our 37 pediatric renal allograft recipients, including 20 boys and 17 girls from July 2007 to August 2012. The overall mean age at transplantation was 12.16 ± 4.25 years. Three patients (8.1%) were transplanted preemptively; two were ABO-incompatible transplantations. The majority of recipients received living donor grafts (81%). The mean duration of follow-up was 25.10 ± 14.95 months. Seven acute rejection episodes were observed in 6 patients (16.2%). Eleven recipients developed serious viral infections: cytomegalovirus (n = 8), parvovirus (n = 2), BK virus (polyoma hominis 1) (n = 2), or Ebstein-Barr virus (n = 1). Three patients died; one from posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, one from primary disease recurrence with infection, and one from sepsis. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Infection was the major concern after this procedure. PMID:23622586

  8. Pediatric interhemispheric arachnoid cyst: An institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Sardana, Hardik; Sinha, Sumit; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Suri, Ashish; Borkar, Sachin Anil; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Chandra, P. Sarat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interhemispheric arachnoid cysts (IHACs) are a rare type of congenital arachnoid cyst accounting for <5% of all cases. The optimum surgical management of symptomatic IHAC is still controversial, and there are no clear guidelines. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of six pediatric patients of IHAC operated from 2012 to 2015 at our institute. There was definitive sex predisposition with all patients being males. Endoscopic cystoventriculostomy, cystocisternostomy, and cystoperitoneal shunt surgeries were performed in three patients each. Results: The median age at presentation was 13 months. The most common clinical presentations were macrocrania with rapidly increasing head size, seizures, infantile spasms, and developmental delay. The mean duration of follow-up was 24.16 months (range: 3–36 months). Cyst size decreased in all the patients on follow-up imaging. Head size stabilized in all the patients. None of the patients required a second surgical procedure till the last follow-up. Conclusions: Both endoscopic cyst fenestration and shunt surgery are safe and effective in management of IHAC. PMID:27195030

  9. Women in pediatrics: the experience in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, T; Duval, R C; Lippé, J; Côté-Boileau, T

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the practice patterns of female pediatricians in Quebec with those of their male counterparts and to identify specific factors influencing these practice patterns. DESIGN: Matched cohort questionnaire survey. SETTING: Primary, secondary and tertiary care pediatric practices in Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All 146 female pediatricians and 133 of the 298 male pediatricians, matched for age as well as type and site of practice; 119 (82%) of the female and 115 (86%) of the male pediatricians responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic and family data as well as detailed information about the practice profile. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable regarding demographic data, professional work and patient care. Compared with the male respondents, the female pediatricians were younger and saw more outpatients. The mean number of hours worked per week, excluding on-call duty, was 40.5 (standard deviation [SD] 12.4) for the women and 48.9 (SD 12.0) for the men (p < 0.001). The female pediatricians were more likely than their male counterparts to have spouses who were also physicians (40%) or in another profession (45%). The female pediatricians without children worked significantly fewer hours than the male pediatricians with or without children (p < 0.001). Children (p = 0.006), but not the number of children (p = 0.452), had a significant effect on the number of hours worked by the female pediatricians. CONCLUSION: The duality of the role of female physicians as mothers and professional caregivers must be considered during workload evaluations. If the same style of practice and the increase in the proportion of female pediatricians continue, about 20% more pediatricians will be needed in 10 years to accomplish the same workload. PMID:8439936

  10. Pediatric retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy: An initial experience of 15 cases

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Souvik; Khanna, Puneet; Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Pawar, Dilip Kumar; Baipai, Minu; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Retroperitoneoscopic approach of nephrectomy in pediatric patients is a debatable issue from surgical point of view. Experience of anesthetic management of 15 such patients from a tertiary care teaching hospital has been described here. We found that capno-retroperitoneum increases end-tidal carbon-di-oxide, but normocapnea was achieved in the most of the patients. No significant hemodynamic changes were noted in any patients. However, subcutaneous emphysema was common, but self-limiting without any serious consequence. Postoperative pain after this procedure is usually manageable by nonopioid analgesics. PMID:25788784

  11. Pediatric nurses' grief experience, burnout and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Jehad Z

    2014-01-01

    Correlations among grief, burnout, and job satisfaction among highly satisfied pediatric nurses were examined using the Revised Grief Experience Inventory (RGEI), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS). Results showed that grief had significant correlations; positive with burnout, negative with job satisfaction. RN's reported significantly higher emotional exhaustion if their primary patients died and higher guilt if patients died younger. Conclusions suggest a dynamic statistical interaction among nurses' grief, burnout, and job satisfaction representing a pathway to intention to leave their unit, organization, or nursing. Recommendations include implementation and evaluation of grief intervention and education programs. PMID:24582646

  12. Pediatrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spackman, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The utilization of the Lixiscope in pediatrics was investigated. The types of images that can presently be obtained are discussed along with the problems encountered. Speculative applications for the Lixiscope are also presented.

  13. Ethics consultation in pediatrics: long-term experience from a pediatric oncology center.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Liza-Marie; Church, Christopher L; Metzger, Monika; Baker, Justin N

    2015-01-01

    There is little information about the content of ethics consultations (EC) in pediatrics. We sought to describe the reasons for consultation and ethical principles addressed during EC in pediatrics through retrospective review and directed content analysis of EC records (2000-2011) at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Patient-based EC were highly complex and often involved evaluation of parental decision making, particularly consideration of the risks and benefits of a proposed medical intervention, and the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. Nonpatient consultations provided guidance in the development of institutional policies that would broadly affect patients and families. This is one of the few existing reviews of the content of pediatric EC and indicates that the distribution of ethical issues and reasons for moral distress are different than with adults. Pediatric EC often facilitates complex decision making among multiple stakeholders, and further prospective research is needed on the role of ethics consultation in pediatrics. PMID:25970382

  14. Pediatric idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Ahmad S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is a severe illness with high mortality in the pediatric population. AIMS: To highlight our experience about clinical course and outcome of IDCM. Settings and Design: Patients’ files were reviewed retrospectively for diagnosed cases of IDCM in the pediatric cardiology unit of King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from Jan 2003 to Jun 2011. Materials and Methods: Data about full history, clinical examination and investigations were recorded and grouped according to outcome as alive and well (group 1), alive and symptomatic (group 2) and worsened or dead (group 3). Statistical Analysis: Data was subjected to descriptive analysis. Chi-square and Student's paired t-test techniques were used where appropriate. Spearman rank correlation and survival analysis was done. Results: Eighty three patients were included with presenting age median (range), i.e.,14 (2 months–12 years) with females predominance 53 (63.9%). On presentation; cardiomegaly was noted in 72 (86.7%) with increased lung vascularity in 45 (54%). Sixty-one (74%) patients had ST segment and T-wave changes on electrocardiogram, while the same number had left ventricular hypertrophy, and 15 (18%) had arrhythmias. Echocardiography records on presentation and at last follow-up showed significant difference in several areas. Group 1 had 40 (48.2%), Group 2 had 23 (27.7%) while 20 (24.1%) were in Group 3 including nine cases who died. Survival rate over three years was 78%. Older the age, worse was the outcome (Spearman's rho = 0.3, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Majority of subjects were presented during first year of life; the three year survival rate was 78%. Favorable outcome was correlated with younger age at presentation. PMID:23633851

  15. Ethics Consultation in Pediatrics: Long-Term Experience from a Pediatric Oncology Center

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Liza-Marie; Church, Christopher L.; Metzger, Monika; Baker, Justin N.

    2015-01-01

    There is little information about the content of ethics consultations (EC) in pediatrics. We sought to describe the reasons for consultation and ethical principles addressed during EC in pediatrics through retrospective review and directed content analysis of EC records (2000–2011) at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Patient-based EC were highly complex and often involved evaluation of parental decision making, particularly consideration of the risks and benefits of a proposed medical intervention, and the physician’s fiduciary responsibility to the patient. Non-patient consultations provided guidance in the development of institutional policies that would broadly affect patients and families. This is one of the few existing reviews of the content of pediatric EC and indicates the distribution of ethical issues and reasons for moral distress are different than with adults. Pediatric EC often facilitates complex decision-making among multiple stakeholders and further prospective research is needed on the role of ethics consultation in pediatrics. PMID:25970382

  16. Staff attitudes and expectations about music therapy: pediatric oncology versus neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bouhairie, Annie; Kemper, Kathi J; Martin, Kathleen; Woods, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Music is commonly used to reduce stress, but it has not been universally adopted in inpatient and outpatient settings. We compared the attitudes of staff in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the pediatric outpatient hematology oncology unit (PEDS ONC) toward music therapy. A cross-sectional survey of NICU staff was performed in the winter of 2003 and of PEDS ONC staff in the summer of 2005. Eligible subjects were 187 NICU and 20 PEDS ONC staff members. Surveys were distributed by e-mail, in person, and in staff mail boxes. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression. t-Tests and chi-square test were used to compare responses in the two units. The response rate was 75% in the NICU and 100% in PEDS ONC unit. Staff in the two locations were similar: the mean age of the staff was 37 years in NICU and 40 years in the PEDS ONC (p>.1); over 80% of the staff were female in both units and most (70% in the NICU, 75% in PEDS ONC) reported some previous musical training . Most agreed that music enjoyed by patients could reduce stress (86% in the NICU, 100% in PEDS ONC) and improve sleep (79% in the NICU, 95% in PEDS ONC). Attitudes toward music in both clinical settings were significantly associated with prior musical training , experience, and profession. Staff in both the NICU and PEDS ONC hold favorable attitudes toward music for patients. Staff attitudes in both inpatient and outpatient settings are not barriers to providing music therapy. PMID:19442339

  17. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  18. Outpatient pediatric dermatologic surgery: experience in 296 patients.

    PubMed

    D'Acunto, Carmine; Raone, Beatrice; Neri, Iria; Passarini, Batrice; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    From January 2010 to December 2012, 296 skin biopsies were performed in pediatric patients using only local anesthesia (cream and infiltration). The biopsies were divided into three groups: biopsies of skin neoplasms, biopsies of skin rashes and biopsies of follicular-centered lesions. Our data demonstrate the possibility of using this procedure, with the dual advantage of eliminating hospitalization and cost savings. PMID:25490940

  19. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

  20. Influence of patient age on the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from hematology/oncology patients: report from the Chemotherapy Alliance for Neutropenics and the Control of Emerging Resistance Program (North America).

    PubMed

    Kirby, Jeffrey T; Fritsche, Thomas R; Jones, Ronald N

    2006-09-01

    The Chemotherapy Alliance for Neutropenics and the Control of Emerging Resistance Program (CANCER) monitored the susceptibility of pathogens recovered in hematology/oncology centers from 2000 to 2002. A total of 3970 isolates from 32 hospitals (26 United States, 6 Canada) were analyzed at a central location (JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA) for trends in pathogen occurrence and reference antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. The top 5 ranking pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (14.1%), Escherichia coli (13.4%), Enterococcus spp. (10.2%), and Klebsiella spp. (9.5%). A total of 35.5% of S. aureus and 78.8% of CoNS were resistant to oxacillin, whereas 22.0% of Enterococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were highly susceptible (>90%) to piperacillin/tazobactam, 3rd-generation cephalosporins, and ciprofloxacin, but 3.9% and 2.4% of these species, respectively, met screening criteria for extended spectrum beta-lactamase production. Enterobacter spp. were less susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone (83.7-88.2%) because of Amp C production and were most inhibited by cefepime and imipenem. Amikacin and polymyxin B were very active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (97.4-97.7% susceptible). Prevalence of S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. increased significantly (+48% to 98%) with age, whereas CoNS and viridans group streptococci decreased markedly (-62% to 69%) with advancing age. The isolation of Gram-positive pathogens declined (55% to 47%) with age (< or =14 to > or =65 years). Fluoroquinolones generally exhibited decreased susceptibility with increased age against nearly all listed pathogens. Oxacillin resistance rates for S. aureus increased with age (6-46%) as did vancomycin resistance rates for enterococci (nil in < or =14 years group to 18-24% in adults). Pathogens infecting neutropenic patients did not reflect greater

  1. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    PubMed

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing. PMID:27367930

  2. Initial experience with a juvenile sheep model for evaluation of the pediatric intracorporeal ventricular assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xufeng; Li, Tieluo; Sanchez, Pablo; Watkins, Amelia; Li, Shuying; DeFilippi, Christopher; Wu, Zhongjun J.; Griffith, Bartley P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of source material available in animal models appropriate to test pediatric-size blood pump design for assisting the left ventricle. A juvenile ovine animal model was developed to evaluate two pediatric ventricular assist devices (VAD). The child size Jarvik 2000 and CircuLite VADs were tested with this model. The 33 in vivo experiments were retrospectively studied to evaluate the reliability of the animal model. Methods Dorset hybrid juvenile sheep (20~36 kg) were used for evaluation of the small pediatric VADs. Under general anesthesia, a left lateral thoracotomy was performed through the fifth intercostal space. The devices were implanted between the left ventricle apex and the descending aorta without cardiopulmonary bypass. Heparin was continuously infused for anticoagulation therapy. Results Support duration averaged 26.7±19.6 days. 75.7% (25/33) experiments were completed as intended. Animals were docile and did not require sitters beyond the immediate operative period. Complication includes leg injury, graft infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, intravenous line disconnection, weight loss, renal failure, red urine (1 for each) and pulmonary failure in two. The activated clotting time (ACT) was adjusted via continuous intravenous heparin to 150-200 second. Reliable hemodynamics and biocompability data were collected for evaluate the pediatric intracorporeal VADs in the animal model. Conclusion The juvenile sheep model is a reliable, reproducible, and translatable for testing the Pediatric VADs. These experiments provided vital information for improvement of the devices and for clinical application in the future. PMID:23254234

  3. Early Experience with Biodegradable Fixation of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Mazeed, Ahmed Salah; Shoeib, Mohammed Abdel-Raheem; Saied, Samia Mohammed Ahmed; Elsherbiny, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    This clinical study aims to evaluate the stability and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced poly-l/dl-lactide (SR-PLDLA) plates and screws for fixation of pediatric mandibular fractures. The study included 12 patients (3-12 years old) with 14 mandibular fractures. They were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by SR-PLDLA plates and screws. Maxillomandibular fixation was maintained for 1 week postoperatively. Clinical follow-up was performed at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Radiographs were done at 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively to observe any displacement and fracture healing. All fractures healed both clinically and radiologically. No serious complications were reported in the patients. Normal occlusion was achieved in all cases. Biodegradable osteofixation of mandibular fractures offers a valuable clinical solution for pediatric patients getting the benefit of avoiding secondary surgery to remove plates, decreasing the hospital stay, further painful procedures, and psychological impact. PMID:26269728

  4. Initial experience with Tadalafil in Pediatric Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Calderbank, Michelle; Ivy, David Dunbar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Our objective was to investigate the safety, tolerability, and effects of tadalafil in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension after transition from sildenafil or receiving tadalafil as initial therapy. Thirty three pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty nine of 33 patients were switched from sildenafil to tadalafil. The main reason for changing from sildenafil was once daily dosing. The average dose of sildenafil and tadalafil were 3.4+/−1.1 mg/kg/day and 1.0+/−0.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. In 14 of 29 patients undergoing repeat catheterization, statistically significant improvements were observed following transition from sildenafil to tadalafil, in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mmHg) (53.2+/−18.3 versus 47.4+/−13.7, p<0.05) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (unitsxm2) (12.2+/−7.0 versus 10.6+/−7.2, p<0.05). In 4 patients treated with tadalafil as initial therapy, clinical improvement was noted. Side effect profiles were similar in patients who had transitioned from sildenafil to tadalafil and included headache, nausea, myalgia, nasal congestion, flushing, and allergic reaction. Two patients discontinued tadalafil due to migraine or an allergic reaction. One patient on sildenafil had no break through syncope after transition to tadalafil. Tadalafil can be safely used in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and may prevent disease progression. PMID:22402804

  5. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  6. Speech Intelligibility of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients with 7 Years of Device Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Speech intelligibility of 24 prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 84 months of device experience was investigated. Each CI participant's speech samples were judged by a panel of 3 listeners. Intelligibility scores were calculated as the average of the 3 listeners' responses. The average write-down intelligibility score…

  7. [Experience of an Ethics Committee of a pediatric reference hospital].

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Fernanda; García, Hernán; Barraza, Norma; Ciruzzi, Susana; Ferrería, Juan Carlos; de los Ángeles Iervolino, Ma; Marín, Daniela; Mazzuccheli, Teresa; Menéndez, Célica; Novali, Luis; Ortega, Laura; Ponce, Corina; Quintana, Susana; Scrigni, Adriana; Selandari, Jorge; Shejter, Virginia; Rodríguez, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Since 1960, there has been a growing interest in the complexity of the ethical problems posed by medical practice. Ever since then, many ethical theories have attempted to support bioethics, setting the necessary grounds for decision making process. The aim of this article is to briefly present the history and working of a pediatric hospital's Assistance Ethics Committee, as well as its evolution from the very beginning. Throughout the Committee's career, progressive changes were made in the way of working. During its first years, the fulfillment of certain formalities was demanded when presenting patients, but this was modified overtime towards a less rigid and more reflexive and pluralistic presentation. Regarding our Ethics Committee, deliberation is the main and most valuable tool in the search for the best option when dealing with harsh and problematic cases that are presented. PMID:25622160

  8. Experience with the Histrelin Implant in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Erica A

    2016-01-01

    The histrelin implant has emerged as a therapeutic option for the treatment of central precocious puberty that has been favorably received by patients and providers. Inserted subcutaneously, the 50-mg implant provides continuous release of the potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) histrelin. Profound suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis occurs within 1 month of its placement resulting in pubertal arrest, attenuation of skeletal advancement and a progressive increase in predicted adult height. Although marketed for annual use, suppression lasting 2 years from a single implant has been demonstrated. Placing and removing the device is a minor outpatient procedure easily accomplished by a pediatric surgeon using local anesthesia. The major downside to the implant is a ∼25% rate of breakage upon removal. Information about the recovery of the HPG axis following histrelin explantation is limited but suggests an average time to menarche comparable with depot GnRHa formulations albeit with wide individual variation. PMID:26683629

  9. Pre-clinical medical student experience in a pediatric pulmonary clinic

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Thomas G.; Hershenson, Marc B.; Arteta, Manuel; Ramirez, Ixsy A.; Mullan, Patricia B.; Owens, Sonal T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to evaluate the educational value of introducing pre-clinical medical students to pediatric patients and their families in a subspecialty clinic setting. Methods First- and second-year medical students at the University of Michigan seeking clinical experience outside of the classroom attended an outpatient pediatric pulmonary clinic. Evaluation of the experience consisted of pre- and post-clinic student surveys and post-clinic parent surveys with statements employing a four-point Likert scale as well as open-ended questions. Results Twenty-eight first-year students, 6 second-year students, and 33 parents participated in the study. Post-clinic statement scores significantly increased for statements addressing empathic attitudes, confidence communicating with children and families, comfort in the clinical environment, and social awareness. Scores did not change for statements addressing motivation, a sense of team membership, or confidence with career goals. Students achieved their goals of gaining experience interacting with patients, learning about pulmonary diseases, and observing clinic workflow. Parents felt that they contributed to student education and were not inconvenienced. Conclusions Students identified several educational benefits of exposure to a single pediatric pulmonary clinic. Patients and families were not inconvenienced by the participation of a student. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate the value of this model of pre-clinical medical student exposure to subspecialty pediatrics. PMID:26547081

  10. Experience with endoscopic holmium laser in the pediatric population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merguerian, Paul A.; Reddy, Pramod P.; Barrieras, Diego; Bagli, Darius J.; McLorie, Gordon A.; Khoury, Antoine E.

    1999-06-01

    Introduction: Due to the unavailability of suitable endoscopic instruments, pediatric patients have not benefited fully from the technological advances in the endoscopic management of the upper urinary tract. This limitation may be overcome with the Holmuim:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet(Ho:YAG) laser delivered via small instruments. To date, there is no published report on the use of this modality in children. Purpose: We evaluated the indications, efficacy, and complications of endourological Ho:YAG laser surgery in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis, posterior urethral valves, ureterocele and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Methods: The patient population included 10 children with renal, ureteral and bladder calculi, 2 children with posterior urethral valves, 2 children with obstructing ureteroceles, 2 children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction and 1 child with a urethral stricture. Access to the lesions was either antegrade via a percutaneous nephrostomy tract or retrograde via the urethra. A solid state Ho:YAG laser with maximum output of 30 watts (New Star lasers, Auburn, CA) was utilized as the energy source. Results: A total of 10 patients underwent laser lithotripsy. The means age of the patients was 9 yrs (5-13 yrs). The average surface area of the calculi as 425.2 mm2 (92-1645 mm2). 8 of the patients required one procedure to render them stone free, one patient had a staghorn calculus filling every calyx of a solitary kidney requiring multiple treatments and one other patient with a staghorn calculus required 2 treatments. There were no complications related to the laser lithotripsy. Two newborn underwent successful ablation of po sterious urethral valves. Two infants underwent incision of obstructing ureteroceles with decompression of the ureterocele on postoperative ultrasound. Two children underwent endypyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction. One was successful an done required an open procedure to correct the obstruction. One child

  11. [Tocilizumab: experience in a French rheumatological pediatric center].

    PubMed

    Le Stradic, C; Galeotti, C; Koné-Paut, I

    2014-12-01

    Tocilizumab (TCZ) is an anti-interleukin-6-receptor antibody. The blockade of IL-6 is used as a strategy for the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (S-JIA) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). In this study, we describe the tolerability profile of tocilizumab in eight children followed in a pediatric rheumatology department. Six patients were treated for S-JIA and two for a MCD. They received doses of TCZ between 8 and 12mg/kg of body weight depending on their disease. Infusions were received every 2-4 weeks. The mean duration of treatment was 32.9 months (14 months to 4.5 years). Clinical adverse events were all mild or moderate. No cases of macrophage activation syndrome and no anaphylactic reactions were reported. TCZ was never stopped for a clinical adverse event. Neutropenia was the most common biological adverse event, sometimes requiring dose adjustments. Thrombopenia, lymphopenia, and increased liver enzymes were reported as well, but treatment was not modified. All these biological adverse events were not complicated by any clinical manifestation. In conclusion, TCZ had a good tolerability profile in these eight patients with partial or total efficacy. Despite this advantageous profile, TCZ should be closely monitored because of the potential severity of adverse events. Moreover, long-term safety has still not been assessed. PMID:25282455

  12. Effectiveness and properties of the biological prosthesis Permacol™ in pediatric surgery: A large single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Filisetti, Claudia; Costanzo, Sara; Marinoni, Federica; Vella, Claudio; Klersy, Catherine; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of prosthetic patches of non-absorbable materials represents a valid tool in the treatment of abdominal wall and diaphragmatic defects in pediatric age. In recent years research has developed biological dermal scaffolds made from a sheet of acellular matrix that can provide the desired support and reduce the occurrence of complications from non-absorbable implant. We present our experience and a systematic review to evaluate the use of biologic prosthesis for abdominal wall closure in pediatric patients. Methods The study from January 2009 to January 2015 involved 20 patients treated with Permacol™ implant. We observed postoperative complications only in patients treated for abdominal wall closure, which is the major indication for the use of Permacol™. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (according to PRISMA) on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE regarding the use of biological prosthesis in pediatric population considering the incidence of complications as the primary outcome. Results 3/20 patients experienced complications: 2 patients with skin necrosis healed conservatively and 1 of them developed laparocele. Thus only 1 patient with incisional hernia had significant surgery complication. In patients who were permanently implanted with Permacol™ it has not determined adverse reactions with optimal functional outcome. Conclusions In accordance with the few data (case reports and case series) reported in literature about pediatric patients, our experience in different pathologies and applications has shown the effectiveness of Permacol™, in particular for the non-occurrence of infections, that often affect the use of prosthesis. PMID:27054034

  13. Perceptions of transitional care needs and experiences in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Martin, K; Drabble, A; Seifert-Hansen, M; Dipchand, A I; Kaufman, M

    2009-03-01

    Survival following pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) continues to improve. The transition from pediatric to adult care is becoming a pivotal stage in the ongoing medical management of this population. Published data support enhanced outcomes for adolescent patients with increased attention to transitional care. The purpose of this study was to explore the 'transition experience' of adolescent HTx recipients and families. All teens (12-18 years) and parents at a single-center HTx program were invited to participate in semistructured interviews. Qualitative, phenomenological methodology was used to build theoretical knowledge and guided the data collection and analysis. The study population included 14 patients (7 males) with a mean age of 15.7 +/- 1.8 years (11.7-17.8 years) and at a mean of 4.1 +/- 3.3 years post-HTx (0.3-9.2 years) at the time of study participation. Major themes identified included: (i) adolescent disinterest and apathy regarding transition to adult care versus parental anxiety about their child's eventual departure from the pediatric transplant center, (ii) perceived differences in pediatric versus adult care and (iii) identification of strategies described as helpful in facilitating the transition. Understanding the experiences and perceptions of adolescent HTx recipients and their parents is crucial to planning effective transitional care and necessary for evidenced-based practice. PMID:19260839

  14. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in pediatric kidney transplantation: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Hidde; Bouts, Antonia H; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Beersma, Matthias F C; Cransberg, Karlien

    2013-09-01

    Many children receiving a kidney transplant are seronegative for CMV and therefore, highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection. This study aims at evaluating incidence, time of occurrence, and severity of CMV infection in the first year post-transplantation in relation to different types of CMV prophylaxis. Transplantations in three centers in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2010 were included. Retrospective, observational, multicenter study. Clinical data and PCR measurements of CMV were collected. Prophylaxis in high-risk patients (CMV serostatus D+R-) consisted of (val)ganciclovir during three months, or acyclovir plus CMV immunoglobulin at a former stage. Intermediate-risk patients (R+) received (val)acyclovir, or acyclovir plus CMV immunoglobulin at a former stage. Low-risk patients (D-R-) did not receive prophylaxis. Infection was defined as CMV PCR above 50 geq/mL plasma or whole blood, a clinically relevant infection above 1000 geq/mL. One hundred and fifty-nine transplantations were included. CMV infection was documented for 41% of high-risk, 24% of intermediate-risk, and 13% of low-risk patients, in the latter two groups typically during the first three months. The infection rate was highest in the high-risk group after cessation of valganciclovir prophylaxis. Valganciclovir provided better protection than did acyclovir + CMV immunoglobulin. Adding an IL2-receptor blocker to the immunosuppressive regimen did not affect the infection rate. Acute graft rejection was not related with CMV infection. Valganciclovir prophylaxis effectively prevents CMV infection in high-risk pediatric kidney recipients, but only during prophylaxis. Valacyclovir prophylaxis in intermediate-risk patients is less effective. PMID:23890076

  15. Institutional change. Experiences in two departments.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, H J; Sorensen, L B; Buehler, B A

    1997-04-01

    Though the principle may seem simple or fundamental it has been our experience that the best way to develop clinician-educators in an academic setting is to value their contributions. This means that those contributions must lead to promotion, they should be valued by colleagues, they must be valued by the administration and the chairman, and they must be considered when determining faculty salary. As faculty members perceived that they were valued for teaching and clinical service. and would not be punished for the amount of time they were spending in these endeavors, there was a clear group of faculty who came forward to take on a primary teaching role. This group was not limited to general pediatricians or ambulatory pediatricians, but included some specialists who felt that their pediatric background was sufficient for them to teach in a primary care setting. Two of our leading teachers in the generalist curriculum are specialists in nephrology and hematology/oncology. Although this requires them to go back and increase their knowledge in general pediatrics, it is far less difficult according to these faculty members than they expected. Our specialists continue to maintain their specialty practices, but have oriented their didactic lectures and clinical teaching to specialty and general aspects of pediatrics. It is not difficult to teach about parenting and psychosocial skills when describing a complicated specialty patient and to orient the students and residents to the general care of such a patient. Although the majority of strategies described in this article deal with departmental and college initiatives, the reason that these strategies have become an integral part of the Department of Pediatrics is the changing health care environment in Nebraska. Managed care has mandated that physicians be more flexible and be willing to take on a primary care role within their specialty. This has made the transition for many faculty much easier and has been reinforced

  16. Experiences of Pediatric Oncology Patients and Their Parents at End of Life: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care has been identified as an ongoing research priority. The child and parent experience provides valuable information to guide how health care professionals can improve the transition to end of life and the care provided to children and families during the vulnerable period. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the experience of pediatric oncology patients and their parents during end of life, and identify gaps to be addressed with interventions. A literature search was completed using multiple databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo. A total of 43 articles were included in the review. The analysis of the evidence revealed 5 themes: symptom prevalence and symptom management, parent and child perspectives of care, patterns of care, decision making, and parent and child outcomes of care. Guidelines for quality end-of-life care are needed. More research is needed to address methodological gaps that include the pediatric patient and their sibling's experience. PMID:26219300

  17. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery in Pediatric Patients: The Taiwan Experience

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Kai; Chou, Chieh; Li, Chung-Liang; Chiu, Hui-Gin; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive technology or laparoscopic surgery underwent a major breakthrough over the past two decades. The first experience of thoracoscopy in children was reported around 1980 for diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology and neoplasia. Up until the middle of the 1990s, the surgical community in Taiwan was still not well prepared to accept the coming era of minimally invasive surgery. In the beginning, laparoscopy was performed in only a few specialties and only relatively short or simple surgeries were considered. But now, the Taiwan's experiences over the several different clinical scenarios were dramatically increased. Therefore, we elaborated on the experience about pectus excavatum: Nuss procedure, primary spontaneous hemopneumothorax, thoracoscopic thymectomy, and empyema in Taiwan. PMID:23819123

  18. LigaSure Hemorrhoidectomy for Symptomatic Hemorrhoids: First Pediatric Experience.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Ole; Soccorso, Giampiero; Murthi, Govind

    2015-08-01

    Hemorrhoids are uncommon in children. Third and fourth degree symptomatic hemorrhoids may be surgically excised. We describe the first experience of using LigaSure (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts, United States) to perform hemorrhoidectomies in children. LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy has been well described in adults and is found to be superior in patient tolerance as compared with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:24918403

  19. Experiences of Early Transdisciplinary Teams in Pediatric Community Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubin, Tamie; Mortenson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although a transdisciplinary approach (TA) is considered best practice for children aged 0-3 years, there is limited information for professionals on how to successfully implement TA services. Using qualitative inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experiences of 6 service providers and managers who took part in early…

  20. The Relationship Between Nursing Experience and Education and the Occurrence of Reported Pediatric Medication Administration Errors.

    PubMed

    Sears, Kim; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Stevens, Bonnie; Murphy, Gail Tomblin

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors are one of the most common incidents in the hospitals. They can be harmful, and they are even more detrimental for pediatric patients. This study explored the relationship between nursing experience, education, the frequency and severity of reported pediatric medication administration errors (PMAEs). The data for this study were collected from a larger pan Canadian study. A survey tool was developed to collect self-reported data from nurses. In addition to descriptive statistics, a Poisson regression or a multiple linear regression was completed to address the research questions, and a Boneferrai correction was conducted to adjust for the small sample size. Results demonstrated that on units with more nurses with a higher level of current experience, more PMAEs were reported (p=.001), however; the PMAEs reported by these nurses were not as severe (p=.003). Implications to advance both safe medication delivery in the pediatric setting and safe culture of reporting for both actual and potential errors are identified. PMID:26872514

  1. Transition from Hospital to Home Following Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant: Qualitative Findings of Parent Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lerret, Stacee M.; Weiss, Marianne E; Stendahl, Gail; Chapman, Shelley; Neighbors, Katie; Amsden, Katie; Lokar, Joan; Voit, Ashley; Menendez, Jerome; Alonso, Estella M

    2014-01-01

    Transplant providers are challenged to determine appropriate interventions for patients and families due to limited published research regarding the context of the post-discharge experience from the perspective of parents of transplanted children. The purpose of this study is to describe the parent perspective of the transition from hospital to home following their child’s solid organ transplant. Within a mixed-methods design, 37 parents of pediatric heart, kidney and liver transplant recipients from three pediatric hospitals responded to qualitative interview questions on the day of hospital discharge and three weeks following hospital discharge. Insight to the discharge preparation process revealed necessary education components. Post-discharge themes were identified for coping, knowledge and adherence. The parents’ responses provide awareness as to specific stressors and concerns parents are faced with when their child is discharged from the hospital after solid organ transplant and opportunities for ways the transplant team can provide support. PMID:24814154

  2. [Psychosocial counseling in pediatric practice--report of experiences].

    PubMed

    Kraft-Krumm, D; Porsché, E; Horn, K

    1985-09-01

    The authors report on the activities of a female consultant with psychosocial orientation acting within the framework of a practising lady paediatrician's medical activities. The paediatrician refers patients or families to the social sciences consultant who studied paedagogics, sociology and psychology and who is so to say part of the paediatric consultation work. This amounts to an approach to an integrated type of treatment. It is an attempt to extend the old therapeutic concept of "disease", which has been mainly directed at cure and at treating the human organism, via practical interaction between various fields of human activity. Paediatric medicine lends itself quite easily to such an approach on the basis of experience collected in the course of time. The authors give a systematised description of the consultant practice, showing the boundary-lines of competencies. A few practical cases are outlined. The authors consider this set-up as an attempt to effect structural improvements of general medical care. PMID:4059448

  3. DISPARITIES IN PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY PATIENT EDUCATION AND LINGUISTIC RESOURCES: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY OF PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGISTS

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jeremy S; Self, Elizabeth; Friedman, Debra; Heiman, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background Extensive patient and family education is required at the time of a new diagnosis of pediatric cancer yet ittle data exist regarding the availability and linguistic competency of new cancer diagnosis education provided by pediatric oncology institutions. Procedure Using the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO) membership list, a web-based survey was conducted among a cohort of pediatric oncologists to determine pediatric oncologists’ assessment of institutional resources for new cancer diagnosis education and the availability of linguistically appropriate education. Results Of 1,294 ASPHO members sent email survey invitations, 573 (44.3%) responded with 429 meeting eligibility criteria. Oncologists at academic institutions reported their institutions had more availability of resources for new diagnosis education compared with those from non-academic institutions (Mean 78.6 vs. 74.3; 0 [not at all] – 100 [well equipped]; p=0.05). The mean score increased with volume of new cancer diagnoses/year: small (<75) = 73.4; medium (75 – 149) = 76.7; large (≥ 150) = 84.5 (p <0.001). Oncologists at large volume institutions reported more availability of an established patient education protocol (50.8% vs. 38.1%, p <0.001) and increased use of dedicated non-physician staff (79.9% vs. 66.1%, p=0.02), but less use of websites for patient education (17.2% vs. 33.3%, p=0.001). Availability of linguistically appropriate education improved with increasing institution size: small (76.4), medium (82.3) and large (84.0) patient volume (p <0.011). Conclusion According to pediatric oncologists, a disparity in educational and linguistic resources for new pediatric cancer diagnosis education exists depending on institution type and size. PMID:24167088

  4. Accountability and pediatric physician-researchers: are theoretical models compatible with Canadian lived experience?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Physician-researchers are bound by professional obligations stemming from both the role of the physician and the role of the researcher. Currently, the dominant models for understanding the relationship between physician-researchers' clinical duties and research duties fit into three categories: the similarity position, the difference position and the middle ground. The law may be said to offer a fourth "model" that is independent from these three categories. These models frame the expectations placed upon physician-researchers by colleagues, regulators, patients and research participants. This paper examines the extent to which the data from semi-structured interviews with 30 physician-researchers at three major pediatric hospitals in Canada reflect these traditional models. It seeks to determine the extent to which existing models align with the described lived experience of the pediatric physician-researchers interviewed. Ultimately, we find that although some physician-researchers make references to something like the weak version of the similarity position, the pediatric-researchers interviewed in this study did not describe their dual roles in a way that tightly mirrors any of the existing theoretical frameworks. We thus conclude that either physician-researchers are in need of better training regarding the nature of the accountability relationships that flow from their dual roles or that models setting out these roles and relationships must be altered to better reflect what we can reasonably expect of physician-researchers in a real-world environment. PMID:21974866

  5. Parents' Experience with Pediatric Microarray: Transferrable Lessons in the Era of Genomic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Hayeems, R Z; Babul-Hirji, R; Hoang, N; Weksberg, R; Shuman, C

    2016-04-01

    Advances in genome-based microarray and sequencing technologies hold tremendous promise for understanding, better-managing and/or preventing disease and disease-related risk. Chromosome microarray technology (array based comparative genomic hybridization [aCGH]) is widely utilized in pediatric care to inform diagnostic etiology and medical management. Less clear is how parents experience and perceive the value of this technology. This study explored parents' experiences with aCGH in the pediatric setting, focusing on how they make meaning of various types of test results. We conducted in-person or telephone-based semi-structured interviews with parents of 21 children who underwent aCGH testing in 2010. Transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically according to the principles of interpretive description. We learned that parents expect genomic tests to be of personal use; their experiences with aCGH results characterize this use as intrinsic in the test's ability to provide a much sought-after answer for their child's condition, and instrumental in its ability to guide care, access to services, and family planning. In addition, parents experience uncertainty regardless of whether aCGH results are of pathogenic, uncertain, or benign significance; this triggers frustration, fear, and hope. Findings reported herein better characterize the notion of personal utility and highlight the pervasive nature of uncertainty in the context of genomic testing. Empiric research that links pre-test counseling content and psychosocial outcomes is warranted to optimize patient care. PMID:26259530

  6. Pediatric Discharge Content: A Multisite Assessment of Physician Preferences and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Coghlin, Daniel T.; Leyenaar, JoAnna K.; Shen, Mark; Bergert, Lora; Engel, Richard; Hershey, Daniel; Mallory, Leah; Rassbach, Caroline; Woehrlen, Tess; Cooperberg, David

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Professional medical societies endorse prompt, consistent discharge communication to primary care providers (PCPs) on discharge. However, evidence is limited about what clinical elements to communicate. Our main goal was to identify and compare the clinical elements considered by PCPs and pediatric hospitalists to be essential to communicate to PCPs within 2 days of pediatric hospital discharge. A secondary goal was to describe experiences of the PCPs and pediatric hospitalists regarding sending and receiving discharge information. METHODS A survey of physician preferences and experiences regarding discharge communication was sent to 320 PCPs who refer patients to 16 hospitals, with an analogous survey sent to 147 hospitalists. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and χ2 analyses were performed. RESULTS A total of 201 PCPs (63%) and 71 hospitalists (48%) responded to the survey. Seven clinical elements were reported as essential by >75% of both PCPs and hospitalists: dates of admission and discharge; discharge diagnoses; brief hospital course; discharge medications; immunizations given during hospitalization; pending laboratory or test results; and follow-up appointments. PCPs reported reliably receiving discharge communication significantly less often than hospitalists reported sending it (71.8% vs 85.1%; P < .01), and PCPs considered this communication to be complete significantly less often than hospitalists did (64.9% vs 79.1%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS We identified 7 core clinical elements that PCPs and hospitalists consider essential in discharge communication. Consistently and promptly communicating at least these core elements after discharge may enhance PCP satisfaction and patient-level outcomes. Reported rates of transmission and receipt of this information were suboptimal and should be targeted for improvement. PMID:24435595

  7. Human rhinovirus C infections in pediatric hematology and oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Loria, Carolina; Domm, Jennifer A; Halasa, Natasha B; Heitman, Elizabeth; Miller, E Kathryn; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Frangoul, Haydar; Williams, John V

    2015-02-01

    Children with cancer and HSCT recipients are at high risk for common viral infections. We sought to define the viral etiology of ARI and identify risk factors. Nasal wash samples were collected from pediatric hematology-oncology patients and HSCT recipients with ARI during the 2003-2005 winter seasons. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect Flu A, influenza B, RSV, PIV 1-3, human MPV, and HRV. HRV specimens were sequenced and genotyped. Seventy-eight samples from 62 children were included. Viruses were detected in 31 of 78 samples (40%). HRV were detected most frequently, in 16 (52%) including five HRVC; followed by seven (22%) RSV, five (16%) Flu A, four (13%) MPV, and two (6%) PIV2. There was a trend toward higher risk of viral infection for children in day care. Only 8% of the study children had received influenza vaccine. HRV, including the recently discovered HRVC, are an important cause of infection in pediatric oncology and HSCT patients. Molecular testing is superior to conventional methods and should be standard of care, as HRV are not detected by conventional methods. PMID:25377237

  8. Catheter Ablation of Pediatric Focal Atrial Tachycardia: Ten-Year Experience Using Modern Mapping Systems.

    PubMed

    Dieks, Jana-K; Müller, Matthias J; Schneider, Heike E; Krause, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Michael; Paul, Thomas; Kriebel, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Experience of catheter ablation of pediatric focal atrial tachycardia (FAT) is still limited. There are data which were gathered prior to the introduction of modern 3D mapping and navigation systems into the clinical routine. Accordingly, procedures were associated with significant fluoroscopy and low success rates. The aim of this study was to present clinical and electrophysiological details of catheter ablation of pediatric FAT using modern mapping systems. Since March 2003, 17 consecutive patients <20 years underwent electrophysiological study (EPS) for FAT using the NavX(®) system (n = 7), the non-contact mapping system (n = 6) or the LocaLisa(®) system (n = 4), respectively. Radiofrequency was the primary energy source; cryoablation was performed in selected patients with a focus close to the AV node. In 16 patients, a total number of 19 atrial foci (right-sided n = 13, left-sided n = 6) could be targeted. In the remaining patient, FAT was not present/inducible during EPS. On an intention-to-treat basis, acute success was achieved in 14/16 patients (87.5 %) with a median number of 11 (1-31) energy applications. Ablation was unsuccessful in two patients due to an epicardial location of a right atrial focus (n = 1) and a focus close to the His bundle (n = 1), respectively. Median procedure time was 210 (84-332) min, and median fluoroscopy time was 13.1 (4.5-22.5) min. In pediatric patients with FAT, 3D mapping and catheter ablation provided improved clinical quality of care. Catheter ablation may be considered early in the course of treatment of this tachyarrhythmia in symptomatic patients. PMID:26538211

  9. Nursing and dental students' and pediatric dentistry residents' responses to experiences with interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, Gail A; Kloostra, Stephanie J; Boynton, James R; Inglehart, Marita R

    2014-09-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received increasingly more attention over recent years. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) how nursing students' considerations concerning their own oral health and oral health-related knowledge changed from before to after experiencing IPE; 2) how nursing students', dental students', and pediatric dentistry residents' IPE-related attitudes and Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) scores changed after experiencing an IPE rotation; and 3) how these groups' attitudes and RIPLS scores were related. Data were collected from three groups who participated in an IPE rotation: thirty-eight of forty third-year dental students (95 percent response rate), all thirty-three nursing students (100 percent), and all six pediatric dentistry residents (100 percent) prior to the rotation, and 100 percent of each group after the rotation. As a control group, data were also collected at the beginning of the winter term from first-year dental students (104 out of 105; 99 percent response rate) and second-year dental students (102 out of 116; 88 percent); the same groups were surveyed at the end of term, with response rates of 98 percent for first-year students and 89 percent for second-year students. After the rotation, the nursing students' tooth brushing frequency increased, and their comfort level with dental visits and oral health-related knowledge improved. The dental students rated the importance of nurses' having oral health-related knowledge and skills lower than did the nursing students and pediatric dentistry residents. The groups' RIPLS scores correlated with these importance ratings. Overall, while the nursing students showed positive responses to IPE, the dental students' attitudes and RIPLS scores did not change as a result of the IPE experience. Future research should explore the conditions under which dental students are impacted by IPE. PMID:25179927

  10. The HIV Experience: Youth Identified Barriers for Transitioning from Pediatric to Adult Care

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brie-Anne; Battles, Haven B.; Pao, Maryland

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of youth living with HIV who transitioned from pediatric to adult care. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 59 youth (mean age = 22 years) living with HIV about the transition experience, demographics, and health status. Results Of youth who transitioned to adult care, immune function (CD4) trended downward, 45% found the transition more difficult than anticipated, and 32% could not find emotional support services. Youth identified the need for increased continuity of care, assistance with logistics, improved communication with providers and caregivers, and individualized management of their transition process. Conclusion Without adequate preparation, the transition process can be compromised with potentially serious health consequences. Youth living with HIV seek adult providers that can provide developmentally appropriate transition interventions that address loss, disclosure, and sexual behavior along with medical needs. PMID:20040607

  11. Outcomes and complications based on experience with resorbable plates in pediatric craniosynostosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nawaiz; Lyles, James; Panchal, Jayesh; Deschamps-Braly, Jordan

    2008-05-01

    The structure and functional relationship of polymers have long been the purview of engineers and polymer chemists. Bioabsorbable fixation devices have been used for decades as dissolvable suture meshes and, recently, routinely by orthopedic surgeons. During the past decade, bioabsorbable fixation systems have become available for use by craniomaxillofacial surgeons for cranial vault remodeling. This study evaluates the application of a bioabsorbable fixation system in reconstructive craniofacial procedures in a pediatric population. We reviewed 146 cases of cranial vault reconstruction including 98 boys and 48 girls ranging from 2 months to 16 years (mean, 15 months) in age. The procedures were performed for 6 years between January 1998 and June 2004. Bioabsorbable plates and screws were used in each case; most of these cases were craniosynostosis reconstructions. There were 69 cases of frontal sagittal craniosynostosis, 36 metopic, 20 unicoronal, 12 bicoronal, 5 lamboid, 2 deformational plagiocephaly, and 2 multiple fusion of sutures. Postoperative evaluation consisted of clinical examination and three-dimensional computed tomography scan reconstructions at 3, 6, and 12 months. Items specifically screened for on the clinical examination included wound healing, signs of infection, and palpability of implant through the skin. Six patients had palpable plates, 2 patients had palpable screw, and 5 patients had infection at the incision site (of which only 3 were treated with inpatient care including incision drainage and intravenous antibiotics). Our experience has been overwhelmingly positive, and we feel that our results suggest that resorbable fixation is a superior option in pediatric plastic and craniofacial surgery. PMID:18520420

  12. FDDI information management system for centralizing interactive, computerized multimedia clinical experiences in pediatric rheumatology/Immunology.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, R; Cronenberger, H; Stein, L; Hannum, W; Reed, A M; Wilhelm, C; Hsiao, H

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design, authoring, and development of interactive, computerized, multimedia clinical simulations in pediatric rheumatology/immunology and related musculoskeletal diseases, the development and implementation of a high speed information management system for their centralized storage and distribution, and analytical methods for evaluating the total system's educational impact on medical students and pediatric residents. An FDDI fiber optic network with client/server/host architecture is the core. The server houses digitized audio, still-image video clips and text files. A host station houses the DB2/2 database containing case-associated labels and information. Cases can be accessed from any workstation via a customized interface in AVA/2 written specifically for this application. OS/2 Presentation Manager controls, written in C, are incorporated into the interface. This interface allows SQL searches and retrievals of cases and case materials. In addition to providing user-directed clinical experiences, this centralized information management system provides designated faculty with the ability to add audio notes and visual pointers to image files. Users may browse through case materials, mark selected ones and download them for utilization in lectures or for editing and converting into 35mm slides. PMID:8591407

  13. [Lumbar puncture training using simulation-based educational strategies: Experience in a clinical pediatric residency].

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Juan C; Gouguenheim, Bárbara; Ghiglione, Analía; Bravo, Nélida; Prudencio, Carla I; Villois, Florencia; Abadie, Yamila; Zubieta, Ana; Golini, Carol; Villar, Victoria; Rodríguez, Susana P

    2015-12-01

    Pediatricians should acquire multiple skills during their professional training, including procedural skills. Skill acquisition requires knowledge on theoretical bases, direct observation and, lastly, supervised repetitive practice. Training using simulators allows to learn procedures in a controlled setting, ensuring patients' safety, integrating this as a learning stage prior to the actual contact with patients. Here we report on the teaching experience of a simulated lumbar puncture procedure. Training was provided to 112 first year pediatric residents who entered Hospital Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan in the 2013-2014 period. Educational contents included communication with parents regarding the procedure, material preparation, compliance with biosafety standards, sepsis and general patient care, puncture and subsequent cerebrospinal fluid collection, and specimen collection. Strategies included, in a sequential order, the introduction of theoretical aspects using the bibliography and audiovisual resources available at the hospital's online campus and subsequent practice of lumbar puncture in a 3-month-old infant phantom on a lateral recumbent position that allowed to make a puncture and collect cerebrospinal fluid. At each training session, the level of confidence was measured before and after the procedure, and a checklist was developed to verify an adequate compliance with each step of the procedure. The simulated lumbar puncture training model has been introduced as an educational strategy of our Pediatric Residency Program. PMID:26593801

  14. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man's Experience of Being Diagnosed with "Pediatric Bipolar Disorder".

    PubMed

    Parry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American's story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where social and economic factors have contributed to the rise of a dominant biomedical paradigm-or "biologism". This focus on the "bio" to the relative exclusion of the "psychosocial" in both diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences as this young man's story attests. The author explores aspects of his tale to analyze how the pediatric bipolar disorder "epidemic" arose and became emblematic of a dominant biologism. This narrative points to the need, depending on the service and country, to return to or retain/improve a balanced biopsychosocial perspective in child and adolescent mental health. Child psychiatry needs to advocate for health systems that support deeper listening to our patients. Then we can explore with them the full range of contextual factors that contribute to symptoms of individual and family distress. PMID:26237377

  15. Speech Intelligibility of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients With 7 Years of Device Experience

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Speech intelligibility of 24 prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 84 months of device experience was investigated. Each CI participant's speech samples were judged by a panel of 3 listeners. Intelligibility scores were calculated as the average of the 3 listeners' responses. The average write-down intelligibility score was 71.54% (SD = 29.89), and the average rating-scale intelligibility score was 3.03 points (SD = 1.01). Write-down and rating-scale intelligibility scores were highly correlated (r = .91, p < .001). Linear regression analyses revealed that both age at implantation and different speech-coding strategies contribute to the variability of CI participants' speech intelligibility. Implantation at a younger age and the use of the spectral-peak speech-coding strategy yielded higher intelligibility scores than implantation at an older age and the use of the multipeak speech-coding strategy. These results serve as indices for clinical applications when long-term advancements in spoken-language development are considered for pediatric CI recipients. PMID:15842006

  16. Towards a National Pediatric Musculoskeletal Trauma Outcomes Registry: the Pediatric Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Research Group (POTORG) experience.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Michael G; Vitale, Mark A; Lehmann, Charles L; Hyman, Joshua E; Roye, David P; Skaggs, David L; Schmitz, Michael L; Sponseller, Paul D; Flynn, John M

    2006-01-01

    This study is a pilot effort towards the broader implementation of a national pediatric musculoskeletal trauma outcomes registry. The primary goal of this project is to explore the feasibility of a web-based data acquisition and management platform and to identify catalysts and obstacles to multi-center collaboration. A prospective cohort of children presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Departments with ankle, femur, supracondylar humerus, tibial spine, or open fractures at five clinical centers between October 2001 and March 2003 comprised the study population. Patients were enrolled via the treating orthopaedic resident, using a web-based data acquisition and management system. Orthopaedic attendees were sent an automated reminder to complete a follow-up form one week after treatment, and parents of enrolled children were sent child and parent health questionnaires by e-mail and mail in order to capture health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress symptoms. A total of 299 patients were enrolled in the study with an average age of 7.3 years. Post-treatment follow-up questionnaires were completed by 39% of the attending orthopaedic surgeons, and by 43% of the enrolled patients or patient's parents. Children old enough to complete health questionnaires scored lower in 5 of 12 functional domains including Physical Function, Role/Social Emotional/Behavioral, Parental Impact-Emotional, Family Activities, and Family Cohesion. Within the subset of patients sustaining femur fractures whose parents completed health questionnaires, 9.5% reported significant post-traumatic stress symptoms. This study demonstrates the potential of a multi-center web-based registry to facilitate the collection of a rich array of pediatric trauma, treatment and patient-based outcomes data, although new regulatory issues regarding patient privacy pose challenges to such an approach. PMID:16557126

  17. Long Term Sequelae of Pediatric Craniopharyngioma – Literature Review and 20 Years of Experience

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michal; Guger, Sharon; Hamilton, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary–hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive, and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present data regarding long term complications of craniopharyngioma in children and adolescents and our experience from a large tertiary center. Hypothalamic dysfunction was noted to be the most significant complication, adversely affecting quality of life in survivors. Obesity, fatigue, and sleep disorders are the most notable manifestations of this dysfunction, and treatment is extremely difficult. Changes in management in recent years show a potential for improved long term outcomes; we found a trend toward less aggressive surgical management and increasing use of adjuvant treatment, accompanied by a decrease in complication rates. PMID:22645511

  18. Single-center experience in pediatric renal transplantation using thymoglobulin induction and steroid minimization.

    PubMed

    Warejko, Jillian K; Hmiel, S Paul

    2014-12-01

    Our center has offered thymoglobulin induction with steroid minimization to our pediatric renal transplant patients for the last 10 yr. Steroid minimization or avoidance has shown favorable results in survival, kidney function, and growth in previous studies of pediatric patients. We report our experience with this protocol over the past 10 yr with respect to patient/graft survival, acute rejection episodes, renal function, linear growth, bone density, cardiovascular risk factors, and opportunistic infections. A retrospective chart review was performed for pediatric renal transplant patients on the steroid-minimized protocol between January 2002 and December 2011 on an intention to treat basis. Patient demographics, height, weight, serum creatinine, iGFR, biopsies, and survival data were collected. Height and weight z-scores were calculated with EpiInfo 7, using the CDC 2000 growth charts. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. eGFR was calculated using the original and modified Schwartz equations. Forty-four pediatric patients were identified, aged 13 months to 19 yr. Five-yr survival was 95.5% for males and 94.4% for females. Only five patients had biopsy-proven ACR, two of which were at more than 12 months post-transplantation. Height delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.34, 0.38, and 0.79, respectively. Weight delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.87, 0.79, and 0.84, respectively. Mean original Schwartz eGFR was 84.3 ± 15.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , modified Schwartz eGFR was 59.3 ± 11.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , and iGFR was 64.2 ± 8.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at three yr. Of 18 subjects who had a bone density exam, none had a z-score less than -2 on DEXA exam at one-yr post-transplantation. Fifty-one percent of patients were on antihypertensives at the time of transplant compared with 43% at one-yr post-transplantation. Three yr post-transplantation, the average LDL was <100 mg/dL, and

  19. Discrete Choice Experiment to Evaluate Factors That Influence Preferences for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Dean A.; Diorio, Caroline; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial and fungal infections in pediatric oncology patients cause morbidity and mortality. The clinical utility of antimicrobial prophylaxis in children is uncertain and the personal utility of these agents is disputed. Objectives were to use a discrete choice experiment to: (1) describe the importance of attributes to parents and healthcare providers when deciding between use and non-use of antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis; and (2) estimate willingness-to-pay for prophylactic strategies. Methods Attributes were chances of infection, death and side effects, route of administration and cost of pharmacotherapy. Respondents were randomized to a discrete choice experiment outlining hypothetical treatment options to prevent antibacterial or antifungal infections. Each respondent was presented 16 choice tasks and was asked to choose between two unlabeled treatment options and an opt-out alternative (no prophylaxis). Results 102 parents and 60 healthcare providers participated. For the antibacterial discrete choice experiment, frequency of administration was significantly associated with utility for parents but not for healthcare providers. Increasing chances of infection, death, side effects and cost were all significantly associated with decreased utility for parents and healthcare providers in both the antibacterial and antifungal discrete choice experiment. Parental willingness-to-pay was higher than healthcare providers for both strategies. Conclusion Chances of infection, death, side effects and costs were all significantly associated with utility. Parents have higher willingness-to-pay for these strategies compared with healthcare providers. This knowledge can help to develop prophylaxis programs. PMID:23082169

  20. Pediatric renal transplantation: 13 years of experience--report from the Chilean Cooperative Multicenter Group.

    PubMed

    Rosati, P; Pinto, V; Delucchi, A; Salas, P; Cano, F; Zambrano, P; Lagos, E; Rodriguez, E; Hevia, P; Ramirez, K; Quiero, X; Azócar, M; Rodriguez, S; Aguiló, J; Varela, M; Ferrario, M; Ramirez, R; Palacios, J M; Turu, I; Jimenez, O; Godoy, J; Gaete, J; Maluenda, X; Villegas, R

    2005-04-01

    Between 1989 and 2002, 178 renal transplants were performed in 168 pediatric patients in Chile. The mean age was 10.9 +/- 3.7 years (range 1 to 17.9). End-state renal disease etiologies were: congenital renal hypoplasia/dysplasia, chronic glomerulonephritis, and reflux nephropathy. Seventy received a graft from a living donor (LD), and 108 from a cadaveric donor (CD). Only 9% received antibody induction. Acute rejection episodes were reported in 76 patients: 38% in LD recipients and 48% in CD recipients (P = NS). One-, 3-, and 5-year graft survivals were 88%, 84%, and 76%, respectively, for LD and 86%, 79%, and 68% for CD recipients. Actuarial graft survival was significantly better among those patients with serum creatinine < 1 mg/dL at 1 year posttransplant compared with those with creatinine > 1 mg/dL (P < .05). The graft survival rate has improved from the first period (1989 to 1996) to the second period (1997 to 2002); (P = .05). Patient survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 98%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, for LD, and 95%, 94%, and 94% for CD. Global height/age Z-score decreased from -0.7 at birth to -1.5 when dialysis started, and to -2.4 at the time of transplantation. The Z-score height/age at 1, 3, and 5 years posttransplantation was -2.25, -2.24, and -2.5. No significant differences were observed in transplant outcomes comparing patients younger than 7 years with those older ones. In conclusion, pediatric renal transplant has been performed in Chile with acceptable morbidity. The patient and graft survivals are similar to the reported international experience. In the last period there was a significant improvement in graft survival. PMID:15866676

  1. Biological therapies for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Lessons from the adult and pediatric experiences.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Matthew L; Gotte, Alisa C

    2008-06-01

    Biologics have advanced the therapy of adult and pediatric arthritis. They have been linked to rare serious adverse outcomes, but the actual risk of these events is controversial in adults, and largely unknown in pediatrics. Because of the paucity of safety and efficacy data in children, pediatric rheumatologists often rely on the adult literature. Herein, we reviewed the adult and pediatric literature on five classes of medicines: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, anakinra, rituximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab. For efficacy, we reviewed randomized controlled studies in adults, but did include lesser qualities of evidence for pediatrics. For safety, we utilized prospective and retrospective studies, rarely including reports from other inflammatory conditions. The review included studies on rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis, as well as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Overall, we found that the TNF inhibitors have generally been found safe and effective in adult and pediatric use, although risks of infections and other adverse events are discussed. Anakinra, rituximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab have also shown positive results in adult trials, but there is minimal pediatric data published with the exception of small studies involving the subgroup of children with systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, in whom anakinra and tocilizumab may be effective therapies. PMID:19707357

  2. Physician and medical student perceptions and expectations of the pediatric clerkship: a Qatar experience

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Khan, Shabina; Osman, Samar; Alsamman, Yasser; Khanna, Tushar; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Background The average number of clerkship weeks required for the pediatric core rotation by the US medical schools is significantly lower than those required for internal medicine or general surgery. Objective The objective behind conducting this survey study was to explore the perceptions and expectations of medical students and pediatric physicians about the third-year pediatric clerkship. Methods An anonymous survey questionnaire was distributed to all general pediatric physicians at Hamad Medical Corporation and to students from Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar. Results Feedback was obtained from seven attending pediatricians (100% response rate), eight academic pediatric fellow physicians (100% response rate), 36 pediatric resident physicians (60% response rate), and 36 medical students (60% response rate). Qualitative and quantitative data values were expressed as frequencies along with percentages and mean ± standard deviation and median and range. A P-value <0.05 from a 2-tailed t-test was considered to be statistically significant. Participants from both sides agreed that medical students receive <4 hours per week of teaching, clinical rounds is the best environment for teaching, adequate bedside is provided, and that there is no adequate time for both groups to get acquainted to each other. On the other hand, respondents disagreed on the following topics: almost two-thirds of medical students perceive postgraduate year 1 and 2 pediatric residents as the best teachers, compared to 29.4% of physicians; 3 weeks of inpatient pediatric clerkship is enough for learning; the inpatient pediatric environment is safe and friendly; adequate feedback is provided by physicians to students; medical students have accessibility to physicians; students are encouraged to practice evidence-based medicine; and students get adequate exposure to multi-professional teams. Conclusion Assigning devoted physicians for education, providing proper job description or definition

  3. Pediatric BAHA in Italy: the "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital's experience.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Pasquale; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Pacifico, Concettina; Presuttari, Fabio; Bottero, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    The "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital offers the largest Italian cohort of children using a BAHA. This paper retrospectively reviews the center's experience with pediatric BAHA from its start in 1995 to December 2009, especially focusing on most debated issues, all the way from candidate selection to functional outcome and complications. A total of 47 children (21 females and 26 males) were implanted. From 1995 to 2000, a two-stage procedure was adopted in 100% (n = 22) cases. From 2001 onwards, one-stage surgery was chosen for 10 patients. Implant loss occurred in two patients (4.2%) after a two-stage surgery. Overall, the local complication rate was not different in the one-stage and in the two-stage group. The functional gain was significantly better with BAHA than conventional bone-conduction hearing aids and there was no significant difference in terms of functional outcome between the seven patients receiving a BAHA at an age younger than 5 years and the rest. The study results suggest that children presenting an indication to auditory rehabilitation with BAHA should be referred to specialized tertiary care centers. Only in such settings, a complete, multidisciplinary approach to associated comorbidities and syndromes is possible, and implantation of children at an age younger than five and one-stage surgery can be conducted safely and effectively. PMID:21739094

  4. Family experiences with pediatric antiretroviral therapy: responsibilities, barriers, and strategies for remembering medications.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Koenig, Linda J; Allison, Susannah; Bachanas, Pamela; Bulterys, Marc; Bettica, Linda; Tepper, Vicki J; Abrams, Elaine J

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between adherence to pediatric HIV regimens and three family experience factors: (1) regimen responsibility; (2) barriers to adherence; and (3) strategies for remembering to give medications. Caregivers of 127 children ages 2-15 years in the PACTS-HOPE multisite study were interviewed. Seventy-six percent of caregivers reported that their children were adherent (taking > or = 90% of prescribed doses within the prior 6 months). Most caregivers reported taking primary responsibility for medication-related activities (72%-95% across activities); caregivers with primary responsibility for calling to obtain refills (95%) were more likely to have adherent children. More than half of caregivers reported experiencing one or more adherence barriers (59%). Caregivers who reported more barriers were also more likely to report having non-adherent children. Individual barriers associated with nonadherence included forgetting, changes in routine, being too busy, and child refusal. Most reported using one or more memory strategies (86%). Strategy use was not associated with adherence. Using more strategies was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting that forgetting was a barrier. For some families with adherence-related organizational or motivational difficulties, using numerous memory strategies may be insufficient for mastering adherence. More intensive interventions, such as home-based nurse-administered dosing, may be necessary. PMID:18627275

  5. Optimizing operational efficiencies in early phase trials: The Pediatric Trials Network experience.

    PubMed

    England, Amanda; Wade, Kelly; Smith, P Brian; Berezny, Katherine; Laughon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Performing drug trials in pediatrics is challenging. In support of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development funded the formation of the Pediatric Trials Network (PTN) in 2010. Since its inception, the PTN has developed strategies to increase both efficiency and safety of pediatric drug trials. Through use of innovative techniques such as sparse and scavenged blood sampling as well as opportunistic study design, participation in trials has grown. The PTN has also strived to improve consistency of adverse event reporting in neonatal drug trials through the development of a standardized adverse event table. We review how the PTN is optimizing operational efficiencies in pediatric drug trials to increase the safety of drugs in children. PMID:26968616

  6. Assessing patient experiences in the pediatric patient-centered medical home: a comparison of two instruments.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Chakravorty, Shourjo; Madden, Vanessa; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Gubernick, Ruth; Kairys, Steven; Pelaez-Velez, Cristina; Sanders, Lee M; Thompson, Lindsay

    2014-11-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a model of care that has been promoted as a way to transform a broken primary care system in the US. However, in order to convince more practices to make the transformation and to properly reimburse practices who are PCMHs, valid and reliable data are needed. Data that capture patient experiences in a PCMH is valuable, but which instrument should be used remains unclear. Our study aims to compare the validity and reliability of two national PCMH instruments. Telephone surveys were conducted with children who receive care from 20 pediatric practices across Florida (n = 990). All of the children are eligible for Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program. Analyses were conducted to compare the Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Survey-Patient-Centered Medical Home (CAHPS-PCMH) and the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) medical home domain. Respondents were mainly White non-Hispanic, female, under 35 years old, and from a two-parent household. The NS-CSHCN outperformed the CAHPS-PCMH in regard to scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients all ≥0.81 vs. 0.56-0.85, respectively). In regard to item-domain convergence and discriminant validity the CAHPS-PCMH fared better than the NS-CSHCN (range of convergence 0.66-0.93 vs. 0.32-1.00). The CAHPS-PCMH did not correspond to the scale structure in construct validity testing. Neither instrument performed well in the known-groups validity tests. No clear best instrument was determined. Further revision and calibration may be needed to accurately assess patient experiences in the PCMH. PMID:24585412

  7. Fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel): a review of 18 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Donna L; Vidor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    Safe and effective combination pediatric vaccines are necessary to simplify complex immunization schedules and to improve coverage and protection for children worldwide. We provide an overview of the 18 years of clinical and worldwide experience with DTaP-IPV-Hib (Pediacel(®)), a unique fully liquid pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria [D], tetanus [T], acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus [IPV], Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]). Pediacel has demonstrated good and lasting immunogenicity in many populations, with differing primary series and booster schedules, and with a variety of coadministered vaccines. The acellular pertussis antigens have proven efficacy and real-world effectiveness. Clinical and post-marketing studies confirm the safety of Pediacel. Pediacel can be used for primary series and toddler booster doses, as well as in mixed pediatric vaccine schedules. PMID:24985159

  8. [THE WORLD EXPERIENCE OF THE PEDIATRIC INTESTINAL FAILURE PROGRAM: SUCCESSFUL OUTCOMES FROM INTESTINAL REHABILITATION].

    PubMed

    Abbou, Benyamine; Sukhotnik, Igor; Rofe, Amnon

    2015-12-01

    Management of children with short bowel syndrome is optimized by interdisciplinary coordination of parenteral and enteral nutrition support, medical management of associated complications, surgical lengthening procedures, and intestinal transplantation. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Centers were established in 14 pediatric hospitals throughout the United States and Canada and the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium has been developed and is implementing prospective, multi-institutional studies to better define the specific aspects of intestinal failure management that optimize long-term outcomes. The published data from these studies suggest that intestinal failure in pediatric patients is quite treatable and provides further evidence that all infants at risk for intestinal failure should be treated aggressively and referred early to a dedicated intestinal rehabilitation center. Improved communication and integration with the transplant service have resulted in earlier assessment, decreased rates of transplantation, and decreased mortality from liver failure. The data presented demonstrates that a newly established intestinal failure program can achieve excellent survival in a cohort of chronically ill and complex pediatric cases that have historically been associated with substantial mortality. PMID:26897781

  9. Knowledge of and Attitudes Regarding Postoperative Pain among the Pediatric Cardiac Nursing Staff: An Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Dongara, Ashish R; Shah, Shail N; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Archana S

    2015-06-01

    Pain following cardiac intervention in children is a common, but complex phenomenon. Identifying and reporting pain is the responsibility of the nursing staff, who are the primary caregivers and spend the most time with the patients. Inadequately managed pain in children may lead to multiple short- and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain in children among the nursing staff at B.M. Patel Cardiac Center, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India. The study included 42 of the 45 nurses employed in the cardiac center. The nurses participating in the study were responsible for the care of the pediatric patients. A modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain and a sociodemographic questionnaire were administered after obtaining written informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee. Mean (SD) experience in years of the nursing staff was 2.32 (1.69) years (range 1 month to 5 years). Of the nurses, 67% were posted in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) score for true/false questions was 11.48 (2.95; range 7,19). The average correct response rate of the true/false questions was 45.9%. Knowledge about pain was only affected by the ward in which the nurse was posted. In first (asymptomatic) and second (symptomatic) case scenarios, 78.6% and 59.5% underestimated pain, respectively. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management is poor among nurses. Targeted training sessions and repeated reinforcement sessions are essential for holistic patient care. PMID:25439124

  10. Blood culture contamination in hospitalized pediatric patients: a single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyewon; Park, Cheong Soo; Kim, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Blood culture is the most important tool for detecting bacteremia in children with fever. However, blood culture contamination rates range from 0.6% to 6.0% in adults; rates for young children have been considered higher than these, although data are limited, especially in Korea. This study determined the contamination rate and risk factors in pediatric patients visiting the emergency room (ER) or being admitted to the ward. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of blood cultures obtained from children who visited Yonsei Severance Hospital, Korea between 2006 and 2010. Positive blood cultures were labeled as true bacteremia or contamination according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection, after exclusion of cultures drawn from preexisting central lines only. Results Among 40,542 blood cultures, 610 were positive, of which 479 were contaminations and 131 were true bacteremia (overall contamination rate, 1.18%). The contamination rate in the ER was significantly higher than in the ward (1.32% vs. 0.66%, P<0.001). The rate was higher in younger children (2.07%, 0.94%, and 0.61% in children aged <1 year, 1-6 years, and >6 years, respectively). Conclusion Overall, contamination rates were higher in younger children than in older children, given the difficulty of performing blood sampling in younger children. The contamination rates from the ER were higher than those from the ward, not accounted for only by overcrowding and lack of experience among personnel collecting samples. Further study to investigate other factors affecting contamination should be required. PMID:24868215

  11. Kids in the atrium: comparing architectural intentions and children's experiences in a pediatric hospital lobby.

    PubMed

    Adams, Annmarie; Theodore, David; Goldenberg, Ellie; McLaren, Coralee; McKeever, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The study reported here adopts an interdisciplinary focus to elicit children's views about hospital environments. Based at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, the research explores the ways in which designers and patients understand and use the eight-storey lobby, The Atrium, a monumental addition constructed in 1993. It is a public place that never closes; hundreds of children pass through the namesake atrium every day. Combining methodological approaches from architectural history and health sociology, the intentions and uses of central features of the hospital atrium are examined. Data were collected from observations, focused interviews, and textual and visual documents. We locate the contemporary atrium in a historical context of building typologies rarely connected to hospital design, such as shopping malls, hotels and airports. We link the design of these multi-storey, glass-roofed spaces to other urban experiences especially consumption as normalizing forces in the everyday lives of Canadian children. Seeking to uncover children's self-identified, self-articulated place within contemporary pediatric hospitals, we assess how the atrium--by providing important, but difficult-to-measure functions such as comfort, socialization, interface, wayfinding, contact with nature and diurnal rhythms, and respite from adjacent medicalized spaces--contributes to the well-being of young patients. We used theoretical underpinnings from architecture and humanistic geography, and participatory methods advocated by child researchers and theorists. Our findings begin to address the significant gap in understanding about the relationship between the perceptions of children and the settings where their healthcare occurs. The study also underlines children's potential to serve as agents of architectural knowledge, reporting on and recording their observations of hospital architecture with remarkable sophistication. PMID:19962223

  12. Review of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and the Pediatric Research Equity Act: What can the obstetric community learn from the pediatric experience?

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhaoxia; Zajicek, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Children have been called therapeutic orphans as they have been excluded from drug research and new drug development resulting in the lack of proper labels for majority of the drugs for pediatric use. The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) are two legislative mandates to improve pediatric drug labeling. The BPCA legislation authorizes the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to implement research programs through funding clinical trials to study off-patent drugs in pediatric population. Obstetric pharmacology research gaps are in many ways similar to those in pediatrics, including off-label use of common medications, and lack of knowledge of appropriate dosing, safety, and efficacy of drugs. Much research is needed to define mechanisms of disease and drug actions in pregnant women to fill the knowledge gaps. PMID:26455383

  13. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without total body irradiation for pediatric acute leukemia: a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yanshun; Qin, Maoquan; Wang, Bin; Li, Sidan; Zhu, Guanghua; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Kai; Lin, Wei; Zheng, Huyong

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a promising method for therapy of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. However, less availability of matched donors limited its wide application. Recently, haploidentical HSCT has become a great resource. Here, we have retrospectively reported our experience of 20 pediatric patients with acute leukemia who underwent haploidentical HSCT without total body irradiation (TBI) myeloablative regimen in our center from November 2007 to June 2014. All the patients attained successful HSCT engraftment in terms of myeloid and platelet recovery. Thirteen patients developed grade I–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (a-GVHD). The incidence of grade I–II a-GVHD, grade III–IV a-GVHD, and chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) was 45%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. The mean myeloid and platelet recovery time was 13.20±2.41 and 19.10±8.37 days. The median follow-up time was 43.95±29.26 months. During the follow-up, three patients died. The overall survival (OS) rate was 85%. The present study indicated that haploidentical HSCT without TBI myeloablative regimen significantly improved the OS rate of pediatric patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27217774

  14. The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: Our experience of 975 infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Mallipatna, Ashwin; Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Dabir, Supriya; Sivakumar, Munsusamy; Krishnan, Narasimha; Mehta, Pooja; Berendschot, Tos; Yadav, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an important imaging tool assessing retinal architecture. In this article, we report a single centers experience of using handheld spectral domain (SD)-OCT in a pediatric population using the Envisu 2300 (Bioptigen Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Methods: We studied SD-OCT images from 975 patients imaged from January 2011 to December 2014. The variety of cases that underwent an SD-OCT was analyzed. Cases examples from different case scenarios were selected to showcase unique examples of many diseases. Results: Three hundred and sixty-eight infants (37.7%) were imaged for retinopathy of prematurity, 362 children (37.1%) underwent the test for evaluation of suboptimal vision or an unexplained vision loss, 126 children (12.9%) for evaluation of nystagmus or night blindness, 54 children (5.5%) for an intraocular tumor or a mass lesion such as retinoblastoma, and 65 children (6.7%) for other diseases of the pediatric retina. The unique findings in the retinal morphology seen with some of these diseases are discussed. Conclusion: The handheld SD-OCT is useful in the evaluation of the pediatric retinal diseases. The test is useful in the assessment of vision development in premature children, evaluation of unexplained vision loss and amblyopia, nystagmus and night blindness, and intraocular tumors (including retinoblastoma). PMID:26458476

  15. Training of Generalists in Medicine and Pediatrics: Experience at Harvard, and Adding a General Medicine Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Joseph; Relman, Arnold S.

    1975-01-01

    Joseph Dorsey describes the development of the Harvard Medical School service program now serving 40,000 members in two health centers. Planning considerations for developing the primary care residency are included. Arnold Relman discusses the role of internal medicine and pediatrics in training primary care physicians noting subspecialization…

  16. Is STEP the future for patients requiring proctocolectomy? A new therapeutic proposal from pediatric experience

    PubMed Central

    Mangray, Hansraj; Ghimenton, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We present a pediatric case of medically unmanageable juvenile colonic polyposis, initially treated with subtotal colectomy and an ileostomy followed by a proctectomy, ileal-J-pouch and serial transverse enteroplasties (STEP) of the distal ileum. The STEP procedure in an adequate length was able to control stooling of our patient. PMID:26273442

  17. The College of American Pathologists guidelines for whole slide imaging validation are feasible for pediatric pathology: a pediatric pathology practice experience.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michael A; Chenever, Emily; Baker, Peter B; Boué, Daniel R; Fung, Bonita; Hammond, Sue; Hendrickson, Brett W; Kahwash, Samir B; Pierson, Christopher R; Prasad, Vinay; Nicol, Kathleen K; Barr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) is rapidly transforming educational and diagnostic pathology services. Recently, the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center (CAP-PLQC) published recommended guidelines for validating diagnostic WSI. We prospectively evaluated the guidelines to determine their utility in validating pediatric surgical pathology and cytopathology specimens. Our validation included varied pediatric specimen types, including complex or less common diagnoses, in accordance with the guidelines. We completed WSI review of 60 surgical pathology cases and attempted WSI review of 21 cytopathology cases. For surgical pathology cases, WSI diagnoses were highly concordant with glass slide diagnoses; a discordant diagnosis was observed in 1 of 60 cases (98.3% concordance). We found that nucleated red blood cells and eosinophilic granular bodies represented specific challenges to WSI review of pediatric specimens. Cytology specimens were more frequently discordant or failed for technical reasons, with overall concordance of 66.7%. Review of pediatric cytopathology specimens will likely require image capture in multiple focal planes. This study is the first to specifically evaluate WSI review for pediatric specimens and demonstrates that specimens representing the spectrum of pediatric surgical pathology practice can be reviewed using WSI. Our application of the proposed CAP-PLQC guidelines to pediatric surgical pathology specimens is, to our knowledge, the first prospective implementation of the CAP-PLQC guidelines. PMID:25387255

  18. Erythropoietin biosimilars currently available in hematology-oncology.

    PubMed

    Kamioner, Didier

    2012-03-01

    The discovery of epoietin (EPO) and the cloning of its gene facilitated the understanding of the mechanism of control behind red blood cell formation. This cloning was followed by the commercial development of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO). The use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) (epoietin, ESA, EPO) is important for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic renal failure and cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. After several years of discussions, debates and questions, ESA, intravenous iron and blood transfusions seem to have finally found their respective indications in the treatment of anemia in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Now, a new question arises: What is the role of ESA biosimilars? PMID:22252675

  19. Utility of a dedicated pediatric cardiac anticoagulation program: the Boston Children's Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jenna M; Hellinger, Amy; Dionne, Roger; Brown, Loren; Galvin, Rosemary; Griggs, Suzanne; Mittler, Karen; Harney, Kathy; Manzi, Shannon; VanderPluym, Christina; Baker, Annette; O'Brien, Patricia; O'Connell, Cheryl; Almond, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of stroke in children. Warfarin therapy can be difficult to manage safely in this population because of its narrow therapeutic index, multiple drug and dietary interactions, small patient size, high-risk cardiac indications, and lack of data to support anticoagulation recommendations. We sought to describe our institution's effort to develop a dedicated cardiac anticoagulation service to address the special needs of this population and to review the literature. In 2009, in response to Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals for Anticoagulation, Boston Children's Hospital created a dedicated pediatric Cardiac Anticoagulation Monitoring Program (CAMP). The primary purpose was to provide centralized management of outpatient anticoagulation to cardiac patients, to serve as a disease-specific resource to families and providers, and to devise strategies to evolve clinical care with rapidly emerging trends in anticoagulation care. Over 5 years the CAMP Service, staffed by a primary pediatric cardiology attending, a full-time nurse practitioner, and administrative assistant with dedicated support from pharmacy and nutrition, has enrolled over 240 patients ranging in age from 5 months to 55 years. The most common indications include a prosthetic valve (34 %), Fontan prophylaxis (20 %), atrial arrhythmias (11 %), cardiomyopathy (10 %), Kawasaki disease (7 %), and a ventricular assist device (2 %). A patient-centered multi-disciplinary cardiac anticoagulation clinic was created in 2012. Overall program international normalized ratio (INR) time in therapeutic range (TTR) is favorable at 67 % (81 % with a 0.2 margin) and has improved steadily over 5 years. Pediatric-specific guidelines for VKOR1 and CYP2C9 pharmacogenomics testing, procedural bridging with enoxaparin, novel anticoagulant use, and quality metrics have been developed. Program satisfaction is rated highly among families and providers. A dedicated pediatric

  20. "We're not going to say it's suffering; we're going to say it's an experience": The lived experience of maternal caregivers in pediatric kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mantulak, Andrew; Nicholas, David B

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the surgical and immunological aspects of pediatric kidney transplantation have resulted in significant improvements in long-term outcome and survival rates. However, there continues to be a negative impact reported on overall family functioning despite the reported good health and quality of life for the transplanted child. This research utilizes a phenomenological approach to examine the lived experiences of seven mothers of children who had undergone kidney transplantation. Findings of the study illuminate that the experience of mothering in the context of pediatric kidney transplantation is reflected in (1) the significance of relationships to the experience of self; (2) the lived experience of time; and (3) opportunities for growth and personal development. This research identifies that, while maternal caregiving in this context is fraught with challenges, there are opportunities for the development of skills and personal growth within the experience. By embracing a strength-based perspective, social work is well positioned to offer support for maternal meaning-making and adjustment during times of stress and uncertainty. PMID:27586427

  1. Acute Ataxia in Childhood: 11-Year Experience at a Major Pediatric Neurology Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Kavita; Maricich, Stephen M; Alper, Gulay

    2016-08-01

    We categorized the causes of acute ataxia in the pediatric population-referred to the Division of Neurology-at a large, urban pediatric medical center. Of the 120 cases identified over the past 11 years, post-infectious cerebellar ataxia was the most commonly diagnosed (59%), followed by drug intoxication, opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia syndrome, episodic ataxia, acute cerebellitis, cerebellar stroke, ADEM, meningitis, cerebral vein thrombosis, Leigh's disease, Miller-Fisher syndrome, and concussion. Among the patients with post-infectious cerebellar ataxia, 85% were 1-6 years old and all had a history of antecedent viral illness. CSF pleocytosis was present in 40% of patients; all had normal brain MRIs. The majority (91%) recovered within 30 days. We conclude that post-infectious cerebellar ataxia remains the most common cause of acute ataxia in childhood and that it carries a good prognosis. We also differentiate acute post-infectious cerebellar ataxia from other causes with similar presentations. PMID:27071467

  2. Pediatric cancer survivorship research: experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Leisenring, Wendy M; Mertens, Ann C; Armstrong, Gregory T; Stovall, Marilyn A; Neglia, Joseph P; Lanctot, Jennifer Q; Boice, John D; Whitton, John A; Yasui, Yutaka

    2009-05-10

    The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a comprehensive multicenter study designed to quantify and better understand the effects of pediatric cancer and its treatment on later health, including behavioral and sociodemographic outcomes. The CCSS investigators have published more than 100 articles in the scientific literature related to the study. As with any large cohort study, high standards for methodologic approaches are imperative for valid and generalizable results. In this article we describe methodological issues of study design, exposure assessment, outcome validation, and statistical analysis. METHODS for handling missing data, intrafamily correlation, and competing risks analysis are addressed; each with particular relevance to pediatric cancer survivorship research. Our goal in this article is to provide a resource and reference for other researchers working in the area of long-term cancer survivorship. PMID:19364957

  3. Essentials of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Fellowship: Part 3: Clinical Education and Experience.

    PubMed

    Mittiga, Matthew R; Nagler, Joshua; Eldridge, Charles D; Ishimine, Paul; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; McAneney, Constance M

    2016-07-01

    This article is the third in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article focuses on the clinical aspects of fellowship training including the impact of the clinical environment, modalities for teaching and evaluation, and threats and opportunities in clinical education. PMID:27380607

  4. Long-term outcome of pediatric kidney transplantation: A single-center experience from Greece.

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Fotios; Stabouli, Stella; Printza, Nikoleta; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Stefanidis, Constantinos; Miserlis, Grigorios; Dotis, John; Kapogiannis, Anastasios; Georgaki-Angelaki, Helen; Gkogka, Chrysa; Kollios, Konstantinos; Papanikolaou, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric kidney Tx has critically altered the outcome in ESRD pediatric patients. The aims of this study were to determine long-term graft and patient survival in a homogeneous ethnic population. We reviewed the medical charts of pediatric kidney Tx performed between 1990 and 2012 in Greece. Seventy-five kidney Txs were performed from LRD and 62 from DD. The 10- and 20-yr graft survival was higher in LRD Tx compared with DD Tx. Both patient and graft survival at 10 and 20 yr after Tx were similar in LRD Tx from grandparents compared with parents (92.9% vs. 93.4% 20-yr patient survival, 71.4% vs. 78.7% and 57.1% vs. 72.1%, 10- and 20-yr graft survival, respectively). However, there was a decreasing tendency in LRD Tx rates in period 2001-2012 compared with period 1990-2000 (47.1% vs. 62.7%). Risk factors for poor five-yr graft survival were DD Tx, and induction treatment with ALG compared with basiliximab, but their effect attenuated at 10 yr after Tx. In conclusion, Tx from LRD may offer efficient survival outcomes irrespective of donor age, suggesting that even older LRD could be an excellent option for the 1st kidney Tx in children and adolescents. PMID:27029484

  5. Colistin use in pediatric intensive care unit for severe nosocomial infections: experience of an university hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of colistin therapy in pediatric patients with severe nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care unit. Methods The medical records of patients treated with colistin at a 200-bed university children hospital were reviewed. Result Thirty-one patients (male/female = 22/9; median age, 3 years; range, 3 months-17 years) received forty-one courses of colistin. The average dose of colistin was 4.9 ± 0.5 mg/kg/day and average treatment duration was 19.8 ± 10.3 days. Three patients who received concomitant nephrotoxic agent with colistin developed nephrotoxicity. Colistin treatment was well tolerated in other patients, and neurotoxicity was not seen in any patient. Favourable outcome was achieved in 28 (68.3%) episodes. Twelve patients died during the colistin therapy. Six of these patients died because of primary underlying disease. The infection-related mortality rate was found 14.6% in this study. Conclusion In our study, colistin therapy was found to be acceptable treatment option for the severe pediatric nosocomial infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. However, the use of concomitant nephrotoxic drugs with colistin must be avoided and renal function test should be closely monitored. PMID:24199612

  6. Pediatric MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the oral medications in the pediatric population. Network of Pediatric MS Centers The National MS Society ... MS Study Group (2004) and established a nationwide network of six Pediatric MS Centers of Excellence (2006) ...

  7. Pediatric Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... common causes, which are 1 , 2 , 3 : Motor vehicle accidents Suffocation (being unable to breathe) Drowning Poisoning ... gov/safechild [top] American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] ...

  8. Laparo-endoscopic single site surgery in pediatrics: Feasibility and surgical outcomes from a preliminary prospective Canadian experience

    PubMed Central

    Khambati, Aziz; Wehbi, Elias; Farhat, Walid A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is becoming an alternative to standard laparoscopic surgery. Proposed advantages include enhanced cosmesis and faster recovery. We assessed the early post-operative surgical outcomes of LESS surgery utilizing different instruments in the pediatric urological population in Canada. Methods: We prospectively captured data on all patients undergoing LESS at our institution between February 2011 and August 2012. This included patient age, operative time, length of stay, complications and short-term surgical outcomes. Different instruments/devices were used to perform the procedures. Access was achieved through a transumbilical incision. Results: A total of 16 LESS procedures were performed, including seven pyeloplasties, four unilateral and one bilateral varicocelectomies, two simple nephrectomies, one renal cyst decortication and one pyelolithotomy. There was no statistical difference in the operative times, hospital length of stay and cost (pyeloplasty only) in patients undergoing pyeloplasty and varicocelectomy using the LESS technique when compared to an age matched cohort of patients managed with the traditional laparoscopic approach. One pyeloplasty in the LESS group required conversion to open due to a small intra-renal pelvis. There were no immediate or short term post-operative complications; however, one patient experienced a decrease in renal function status post LESS pyeloplasty. Since all procedures were performed by a vastly experienced surgeon at a tertiary center, the generalizability of the results cannot be assessed. Conclusions: There are only a few series that have assessed the role of LESS in pediatric urological surgery. Although our experience is limited by a heterogeneous group of patients with a short follow-up period, the present cohort demonstrates the safety and feasibility of LESS. Further evaluation with randomized studies is required to better assess the role of LESS in pediatric

  9. A worldview of the professional experiences and training needs of pediatric psycho-oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheim, Daniel; Breyer, Joanna; Battles, Haven; Zadeh, Sima; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thirty years after the origin of the field of psycho-oncology, limited data exist about the work practices of professionals providing psychosocial care to children with cancer and their families. METHOD A survey was designed to assess training, work environment, theoretical orientation, services provided, sub-specialty areas or areas of special interest, satisfactions, challenges and continuing education needs of pediatric psycho-oncologists. Members of national and international psycho-oncology organizations were invited to participate in the web-based survey. RESULTS 786 professionals from 63 countries responded. The sample consisted mostly of psychologists (41%), physicians (20%), and social workers (14%). Approximately half of the participants worked in a designated psycho-oncology unit. Psychologists and social workers provided the majority of psychosocial services. Individual sessions with parents were most common (42%), followed by sessions with children (41%), survivors (36%), families (31%) and siblings (25%). Therapies provided include CBT (50%), relaxation (43%), psychodynamic psychotherapy (27%), play therapy (26%), and imagery (23%). Two-thirds report having appropriate supervision; 37% conduct research; only half feel their salary is appropriate. Differences in therapeutic modalities were found by country. Clinicians desire training on clinical interventions, improving communication with medical staff, research and ethics. CONCLUSIONS An international cohort of clinicians providing pediatric psycho-oncology services perform a wide variety of tasks, use a range of therapeutic approaches and report considerable work satisfaction. Problem areas include professional inter-relations, inadequate supervision and needs for additional, specialized training. Opportunity exists for global collaboration in pediatric psycho-oncology research and practices to enhance clinical effectiveness and reduce professional isolation. PMID:22461180

  10. Getting the data in: three year experience with a pediatric electronic medical record system.

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, I. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Clinician's Workstation (CWS) has provided the full-functionality of an on-line electronic patient record for outpatient pediatric clinics over the past 3 years. The implementation of the CWS built upon a substantial effort in integration of data from various sources. This paper addresses the subsequent design issues which had to be resolved in order to enable both physician and transcriptionist-driven data entry and retrieval, notably selecting a feasible mixture of controlled vocabulary and free text. Some of the consequences of these design decisions on clinical care, clinical education, clinical and basic research are reviewed with examples from the last three years. PMID:7949969

  11. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man’s Experience of Being Diagnosed with “Pediatric Bipolar Disorder”

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American’s story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where social and economic factors have contributed to the rise of a dominant biomedical paradigm—or “biologism”. This focus on the “bio” to the relative exclusion of the “psychosocial” in both diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences as this young man’s story attests. The author explores aspects of his tale to analyze how the pediatric bipolar disorder “epidemic” arose and became emblematic of a dominant biologism. This narrative points to the need, depending on the service and country, to return to or retain/improve a balanced biopsychosocial perspective in child and adolescent mental health. Child psychiatry needs to advocate for health systems that support deeper listening to our patients. Then we can explore with them the full range of contextual factors that contribute to symptoms of individual and family distress. PMID:26237377

  12. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    PubMed

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea. PMID:19650578

  13. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Caitlin E.; Blackwood, R. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with obsessive compulsive disorder and/or tics. Like Sydenham’s chorea, its presumed pathogenesis consists of autoantibodies cross-reacting with neurons in response to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (GASI). There are currently no diagnostic laboratory findings and management ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis to intravenous immunoglobulin to plasmapheresis. The diagnosis remains controversial, resulting in inconsistent referrals and significant patient anxiety. Methods A retrospective study was performed on all patients referred to the Pediatric Infectious Disease Division with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Patients were analyzed by demographics, medical history, co-morbidities, symptoms, prior treatment, laboratory tests, management strategies, and treatment outcomes. Results From 2003 to 2013, there were 21 patients with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Only five met the diagnostic criteria. No patient at referral had an objective scale to monitor symptoms. Eight referrals had a major psychiatric disorder, and none fulfilled diagnostic criteria (p<0.01). Discussion The majority of the patients referred with a pre-diagnosis of PANDAS do not fulfill diagnostic criteria nor do they have objective criteria for symptom monitoring. Major psychiatric disorders do not seem to be associated with PANDAS, and better physician education may prevent misdiagnoses. Multidisciplinary management is recommended. PMID:26196024

  14. Pediatric Cardiac Transplantation Using Hearts Previously Refused for Quality: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Easterwood, Rachel; Singh, Rakesh K.; McFeely, Eric D.; Zuckerman, Warren A.; Addonizio, Linda J.; Gilmore, Lisa; Beddows, Kimberly; Chen, Jonathan M.; Richmond, Marc E.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric donor hearts are regularly refused for donor quality with limited evidence as to which donor parameters are predictive of poor outcomes. We compare outcomes of recipients receiving hearts previously refused by other institutions for quality with the outcomes of recipients of primarily-offered hearts. Data for recipients aged ≤ 18 and their donors were obtained. Specific UNOS refusal codes were used to place recipients into refusal and non-refusal groups; demographics, morbidity, and mortality were compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to determine differences in graft survival. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to determine independent risk factors for post-operative mortality. From 7/1/2000-4/30/2011, 182 recipients were transplanted and included for analysis. 130 received a primarily-offered heart; 52 received a refused heart. No difference in post-operative complications or graft survival between the two groups (p=0.355) was found. Prior refusal was not an independent risk factor for recipient mortality. Analysis of this large pediatric cohort examining outcomes with quality-refused hearts shows that in-hospital morbidity and long-term mortality for recipients of quality-refused hearts is no different than recipients of primarily-offered hearts, suggesting that donor hearts previously refused for quality are not necessarily unsuitable for transplant and often show excellent outcomes. PMID:23648205

  15. Foreign Bodies Ingestion in Children: Experience of 61 Cases in a Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Diaconescu, Smaranda; Gimiga, Nicoleta; Sarbu, Ioan; Stefanescu, Gabriela; Olaru, Claudia; Ioniuc, Ileana; Ciongradi, Iulia; Burlea, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is a worldwide pediatric pathology. We assessed the clinical, endoscopic, and therapeutic aspects of this condition in a pediatric gastroenterology unit. We reviewed 61 patients (median age of 3.25 ± 4.7 years). The most frequently ingested objects were coins (26.23%), unidentified metal objects (13.11%), bones (8.19%), batteries, and buttons (6.55%). The clinical features we encountered included abdominal pain (55.73%), vomiting (34.42%), and asymptomatic children (29.5%). Routine X-ray examination enabled finding the foreign body in 42 of the cases. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed within 24–72 hours. 25 cases resulted in a negative endoscopy (40.98%), 19 objects (31.14%) were removed using a polypectomy snare, and extraction failure occurred in 17 patients (27.86%). 28 foreign bodies were passed without incidents; in 14 cases, the swallowed objects were never found. In one case, a battery was stuck in the esophageal folds and led to tracheal-esophageal fistula and bronchopneumonia and later to esophageal stenosis. We report a large proportion of foreign bodies that could not be identified or removed due to lack of early endoscopy and poor technical settings. Batteries and sharp objects lead to severe complications and preschool-age children are at high risk for such events. PMID:26949384

  16. A qualitative study exploring the experiences of parents of children admitted to seven Dutch pediatric intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schuurman, Beatrix Elink; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; van Heerde, Marc; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To explore parents' experiences during the admission of their children to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Method Qualitative method using in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to capture parents’ experiences. Thirty-nine mothers and 25 fathers of 41 children admitted to seven of the eight PICUs in university medical centers in The Netherlands were interviewed. Results Parents were interviewed within 1 month after their child’s discharge from a PICU. Thematic analysis identified 1,514 quotations that were coded into 63 subthemes. The subthemes were categorized into six major themes: attitude of the professionals; coordination of care; emotional intensity; information management; environmental factors; parent participation. Most themes had an overarching relationship representing the array of experiences encountered by parents when their child was staying in a PICU. The theme of emotional intensity was in particular associated with all the other themes. Conclusions The findings provided a range of themes and subthemes describing the complexity of the parental experiences of a PICU admission. The subthemes present a systematic and thematic basis for the development of a quantitative instrument to measure parental experiences and satisfaction with care. The findings of this study have important clinical implications related to the deeper understanding of parental experiences and improving family-centered care. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-010-2074-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21063674

  17. Influence of Arousal, Previous Experience, and Age on Surgery Preparation of Same Day of Surgery and In-Hospital Pediatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Jan; Melamed, Barbara G.

    1984-01-01

    Studied two pediatric surgery populations (N=66) to determine differences in retention of preparatory information. Results showed that children exposed to a hospital-relevant film retained more information than those children not prepared regardless of age, IQ, previous experience, sex, and time of film preparation. (LLL)

  18. Transferring Young People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care: Parents' Experiences and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; van Staa, AnneLoes; van Vliet, Ingeborg; Ewals, Frans V. P. M.; Hilberink, Sander R.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) now reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to elicit parents' experiences with the transfer from pediatric to adult medical care. A convenience sample of 131 Dutch parents of young people with PIMD (16--26 years) completed a web-based questionnaire. Twenty-two…

  19. Acute antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric kidney transplants: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Twombley, Katherine; Thach, Lonnie; Ribeiro, Annelise; Joseph, Catherine; Seikaly, Mouin

    2013-11-01

    aAMR is a potentially devastating complication of kidney transplantation. The incidence of aAMR in children, while thought to be rare, is not well defined, and there is a paucity of data on treatment regimens in children. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of our pediatric patients that were treated for aAMR between 2007 and 2009. Three adolescent Hispanic males were found to have aAMR. All three received deceased donor transplants, and all three verbalized non-adherence. Treatment consisted of rituximab, solumedrol, PE, and IVIgG in one patient, and PE, IVIgG, and bortezomib in two patients. The only side effect of therapy noted was mild hypotension with rituximab that resolved after decreasing the infusion rate. There were no reported infections two yr after treatment, and all of the viral monitoring in these patients remained negative. PMID:23901848

  20. P05.01OUTCOME OF THE PEDIATRIC MEDULLOBLASTOMA PATIENTS: SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE FROM SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Abosoudah, I.; Sumaili, T.; Bayoumy, M.; El Sayed, M.E.; Altrabolsi, H.; Yassin, F.; Binsadiq, B.

    2014-01-01

    PROPOSE: This is a retrospective study to review the outcome of pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MBL) in the era of the modern therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical charts of 36 cases of pediatric medulloblastoma (≤ 15 years) diagnosed between January 2001 and December 2011 were reviewed as regard the initial presentation, surgical, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy treatment. Survival analysis was done to determine the prognosis. RESULTS: The mean age of the group was a 7 ± 3 year, 8% (3 patients) were under the age of 3 years, and 21 patients (58%) were boys while 15 patients (42%) were girls. Headache, vomiting and ataxia were the most common presentations reported in 92%, 86%, and 64% of the patients respectively. Nineteen patients (53%) presented with M0 disease, 1 patient (3%) with M2 and 16 patients (44%) with M3. Fifteen patients (42%) were in the average-risk group, while 21 (58%) were in the high-risk group. Total resection of the tumor was done in 16 patients (44%), near total resection in 5 patients (14%), partial resection (biopsy) in 15 patients (42%). Twenty nine (81%) patients received initial first line chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At a mean follow up of 39 ± 29 months, 11 patients relapse, 4 patient underwent 2nd salvage surgery, 9 patients received second line chemotherapy, 3 patients received salvage radiotherapy. Three patients underwent salvage stem cell transplant. The 3 and 5 years disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 68 % & 53 % and 71% & 65% respectively. The only significant factors for OS were the age (≤3 Vs. >3 years P 0.005) and treatment per MBL protocol (P 0.021). On the other hand, age was also the significant factor for DFS (P 0.043). CONCLUSION: In the modern era, the use of combined modality treatment approach including safe surgical resection, neuroaxis radiotherapy and chemotherapy become the standard of care for treatment of Medulloblastoma, In our series, the age and the use of

  1. Epidemiology of Pediatric Trauma and Its Patterns in Western Iran: A Hospital Based Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jalalvandi, Fereshteh; Arasteh, Peyman; Faramani, Roya Safari; Esmaeilivand, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Trauma is a major cause of mortality in children aged 1 to 14 years old and its patterns differs from country to country. In this study we investigated the epidemiology and distribution of non-intentional trauma in the pediatric population. Materials and Methods: The archives of 304 children below 10 years old who presented to Taleghani trauma care center in Kermanshah, Iran from March to September 2008, were reviewed. Patients’ demographic and injury related information were registered. The participants were categorized into three age groups of 0-2, 3-6 and 7-10 years old and the data was compared among age groups and between both sexes. Findings: The most common cause for trauma was falling from heights (65.5%) and road traffic accidents (16.4%). The most common anatomical sites of injury were the upper limbs followed by the head and neck (36.8% and 31.2%, respectively). Injuries mostly occurred in homes (67.4%). The injuries were mostly related to the orthopedics and the neurosurgery division (84.1% and 13.1%, respectively). Accident rates peaked during the hours of 18-24 (41.3%). Male and female patients did display any difference regarding the variables. Children between the ages of 0-2 years old had the highest rate of injury to the head and neck area (40.3%) (p=0.024). Falls and road traffic accidents displayed increasing rates from the ages of 0-2 to 3-6 and decreasing rates to the ages of 7-10 years old (p=0.013). From the ages of 0-2 to 3-6 years old, street accidents increased and household traumas decreased. After that age household trauma rates increased and street accidents decreased (p=0.005). Children between the ages of 7-10 years old had the highest rate of orthopedic injury (p=0.029). Conclusion: Special planning and health policies are needed to prevent road accidents especially in children between the ages of 3-6 years old. Since homes were the place where children between the ages of 0-2 were mostly injured, parents

  2. Somatic, hematologic phenotype, long-term outcome, and effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. An analysis of 97 Fanconi anemia patients from the Italian national database on behalf of the Marrow Failure Study Group of the AIEOP (Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology).

    PubMed

    Svahn, Johanna; Bagnasco, Francesca; Cappelli, Enrico; Onofrillo, Daniela; Caruso, Silvia; Corsolini, Fabio; De Rocco, Daniela; Savoia, Anna; Longoni, Daniela; Pillon, Marta; Marra, Nicoletta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Farruggia, Piero; Locasciulli, Anna; Addari, Carmen; Cerri, Carla; Mastrodicasa, Elena; Casazza, Gabriella; Verzegnassi, Federico; Riccardi, Francesca; Haupt, Riccardo; Barone, Angelica; Cesaro, Simone; Cugno, Chiara; Dufour, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed 97 Fanconi anemia patients from a clinic/biological database for genotype, somatic, and hematologic phenotype, adverse hematological events, solid tumors, and treatment. Seventy-two patients belonged to complementation group A. Eighty percent of patients presented with mild/moderate somatic phenotype and most with cytopenia. No correlation was seen between somatic/hematologic phenotype and number of missense mutations of FANCA alleles. Over follow-up, 33% of patients improved or maintained mild/moderate cytopenia or normal blood count, whereas remaining worsened cytopenia. Eleven patients developed a hematological adverse event (MDS, AML, pathological cytogenetics) and three developed solid tumors. 10 years cumulative risk of death of the whole cohort was 25.6% with median follow-up 5.8 years. In patients eligible to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of moderate cytopenia, mortality was significantly higher in subjects transplanted from matched unrelated donor over nontransplanted subjects, whereas there was no significant difference between matched sibling donor transplants and nontransplanted patients. In patients eligible to transplant because of severe cytopenia and clonal disease, mortality risk was not significantly different in transplanted from matched unrelated versus matched sibling donor versus nontransplanted subjects. The decision to transplant should rely on various elements including, type of donor, HLA matching, patient comorbidities, impairment, and clonal evolution of hematopoiesis. Am. J. Hematol. 91:666-671, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27013026

  3. Parent experiences of inpatient pediatric care in relation to health care delivery and sociodemographic characteristics: results of a Norwegian national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The national survey of parent experiences with inpatient pediatric care contribute to the Norwegian system of health care quality indicators. This article reports on the statistical association between parent experiences of inpatient pediatric care and aspects of health care delivery, child health status and health outcome as assessed by the parents, and the parents’ sociodemographic characteristics. Methods 6,160 parents of children who were inpatients at one of Norway’s 20 pediatric departments in 2005 were contacted to take part in a survey that included the Parent Experience of Pediatric Care questionnaire. It includes 25 items that form six scales measuring parent experiences: doctor services, hospital facilities, information discharge, information about examinations and tests, nursing services and organization. The six scales were analyzed using OLS-regression. Results 3,308 (53.8%) responded. Mean scores ranged from 62.81 (organization) to 72.80 (hospital facilities) on a 0–100 scale where 100 is the best possible experience. Disappointment with staff, unexpected waiting, information regarding new medication, whether the staff were successful in easing the child’s pain, incorrect treatment and number of previous admissions had a statistically significant association with at least five of the PEPC scale scores. Disappointment with staff had the strongest association. Most sociodemographic characteristics had weak or no associations with parent experiences. Conclusions The complete relief of the child’s pain, reducing unexpected waiting and disappointment with staff, and providing good information about new medication are aspects of health care that should be considered in initiatives designed to improve parent experiences. In the Norwegian context parent experiences vary little by parents’ sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24325153

  4. Frequency of kidney diseases and clinical indications of pediatric renal biopsy: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, S.; Nasir, K.; Drohlia, M. F.; Salman, B.; Ahmad, A.

    2016-01-01

    Kidney biopsy occupies a fundamental position in the management of kidney diseases. There are very few renal pathology studies available in the literature from developing world. This study scrutinized the frequency and clinicopathological relationship of kidney biopsies done at the kidney center from 1997 to 2013 amongst pediatric patients. Kidney allograft biopsy were excluded. The specimen was examined under light microscopy and immunofluorescence while electron microscopy was not done. The study includes 423 patients, mean age was 10.48 ± 4.58 years, males 245 (57.9%) were more than females 178 (42.1%). Nephrotic syndrome 314 (74.2%) was the most common clinical presentation followed by acute nephritic syndrome 35 (8.3%) and acute renal failure 24 (5.7%). Primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) was the most common group of diseases, seen in 360 (85.1%) followed by secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN) in 27 (6.4%) and tubulointerstitial nephritis in 21 (5.0%). Among PGN, minimal change disease (MCD) was the most dominant disease, with 128 (30.3%) cases followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis FSGS in 109 (25.8%) and membranous glomerulonephropathy in 27 (6.4%). Lupus nephritis (LN) was the leading cause of glomerular disease in SGN followed by hemolytic uremic syndrome. In conclusion, MCD is the most common histological finding, especially in younger children and FSGS is second to it. SGN is rare, and the most common disease in this category is LN while tubulointerstitial and vascular diseases are infrequent. PMID:27194835

  5. Four-year experience with bronchial asthma in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Osundwa, V M; Dawod, S

    1992-12-01

    Charts of all children with severe acute asthma admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care unit (PICU) of this hospital between January 1987 and December 1990 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 47 admissions for life threatening asthma to the PICU over this period, representing about 2% of all acute asthma admissions to our hospital. The mean duration of symptoms in these patients before admission was 54 hours. Only 55% of the PICU admissions had received bronchodilators before coming to our hospital emergency room from where they were admitted. From arterial blood gas analysis, 57% of the patients had hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 45 mmHg). All the patients received nebulized salbutamol frequently as well as intravenous aminophylline and hydrocortisone. Mechanical ventilation was used in only 8.5% of the patients. Only two patients developed pneumothorax, neither of whom had been mechanically ventilated, but they did not require surgical intervention for drainage. There was only one death in a patient who was known to have sickle cell anemia and developed sagittal sinus thrombosis. We conclude from our series that the mortality for children with life threatening asthma admitted to PICU is very low if bronchodilators and steroids are used optimally in their management, along with judicious selection of those requiring mechanical ventilation. PMID:1471785

  6. Frequency of kidney diseases and clinical indications of pediatric renal biopsy: A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, S; Nasir, K; Drohlia, M F; Salman, B; Ahmad, A

    2016-01-01

    Kidney biopsy occupies a fundamental position in the management of kidney diseases. There are very few renal pathology studies available in the literature from developing world. This study scrutinized the frequency and clinicopathological relationship of kidney biopsies done at the kidney center from 1997 to 2013 amongst pediatric patients. Kidney allograft biopsy were excluded. The specimen was examined under light microscopy and immunofluorescence while electron microscopy was not done. The study includes 423 patients, mean age was 10.48 ± 4.58 years, males 245 (57.9%) were more than females 178 (42.1%). Nephrotic syndrome 314 (74.2%) was the most common clinical presentation followed by acute nephritic syndrome 35 (8.3%) and acute renal failure 24 (5.7%). Primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) was the most common group of diseases, seen in 360 (85.1%) followed by secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN) in 27 (6.4%) and tubulointerstitial nephritis in 21 (5.0%). Among PGN, minimal change disease (MCD) was the most dominant disease, with 128 (30.3%) cases followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis FSGS in 109 (25.8%) and membranous glomerulonephropathy in 27 (6.4%). Lupus nephritis (LN) was the leading cause of glomerular disease in SGN followed by hemolytic uremic syndrome. In conclusion, MCD is the most common histological finding, especially in younger children and FSGS is second to it. SGN is rare, and the most common disease in this category is LN while tubulointerstitial and vascular diseases are infrequent. PMID:27194835

  7. Prognostic factors and treatment results of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma: A single center experience.

    PubMed

    Büyükkapu-Bay, Sema; Çorapçıoğlu, Funda; Aksu, Görkem; Anık, Yonca; Demir, Hakan; Erçin, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the demographic, clinic data, prognostic factors and treatment/follow-up results of children who were diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and followed in our center of Pediatric Oncology, Kocaeli University Medical Faculty, Kocaeli, Turkey, for 10 years. This retrospective study evaluated 41 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who were younger than 18 years-old. All patients were treated with risked adapted ABVD (Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Dacarbazine) chemotherapy and also received involved field radiotherapy. Thirty-two patients (78%) were males and 9 (22%) were females, with a mean age of 10.7±4.0 years. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed cellular type in 51.2% of the patients. B symptoms (unexplained fever, unexplained weight loss, drenching night sweats) were present in 53.7% of the patients and 36.6% of the patients were at advanced stage at the time of the diagnosis. The 3-year overall and event-free survival rates were 88% and 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were 88%, 78%. Age, stage, treatment risk groups, presence of B symptoms and hematological parameters had no significant effect on overall and event-free survival in univariate analysis while bulky disease was the only significant factor on overall survival. Our treatment policy was succesful regarding the similar survival rates in the treatment risk groups, however novel treatment strategies adopting the early response with the reduction of adverse effects are planned in the near future. PMID:27186698

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic features of citrin deficiency: five-year experience in a Chinese pediatric center.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan-Zong; Deng, Mei; Chen, Feng-Ping; Wen, Fang; Guo, Li; Cao, Shui-Liang; Gong, Jian; Xu, Hao; Jiang, Guang-Yu; Zhong, Le; Kobayashi, Keiko; Saheki, Takeyori; Wang, Zi-Neng

    2011-07-01

    Citrin is a liver-type aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC) encoded by the gene SLC25A13. Two phenotypes for human citrin deficiency have been described, namely the adult-onset citrullinemia type II (CTLN2) and the neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). However, citrin deficiency currently remains a perplexing and poorly recognized disorder. In particular, description of post-NICCD clinical presentations before CTLN2 onset is rather limited. Analysis of SLC25A13 mutations, identification of dysmorphic erythrocytes, hepatobiliary scintigraphic imaging and investigation of post-NICCD clinical presentations were performed in a citrin-deficient cohort comprised of 51 cases of children diagnosed with citrin deficiency in a Chinese pediatric center. Twelve SLC25A13 mutations were detected in this cohort, including the novel V411M and G283X mutations. Among the 51 citrin-deficient subjects, 7 cases had echinocytosis, which was associated with more severe biochemical abnormalities. Delayed hepatic discharge and bile duct/bowel visualization were common scintigraphic findings. Moreover, 9 of the 34 post-NICCD cases demonstrated concurrent failure to thrive and dyslipidemia, constituting a clinical phenotype different from NICCD and CTLN2. The novel mutations, echinocytosis, hepatobiliary scintigraphic features and the novel clinical phenotype in this study expanded the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of citrin deficiency, and challenge the traditionally-assumed 'apparently healthy' period after the NICCD state for this disease entity. PMID:21424115

  9. Longitudinal renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients: 20-years experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Punkaj; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Gardner, Megan; Bryant, Janet C; Noel, Tommy R; Knecht, Kenneth R

    2015-03-01

    This study was initiated to assess the temporal trends of renal function, and define risk factors associated with worsening renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients in the immediate post-operative period. We performed a single-center retrospective study in children ≤18 yr receiving OHT (1993-2012). The AKIN's validated, three-tiered AKI staging system was used to categorize the degree of WRF. One hundred sixty-four patients qualified for inclusion. Forty-seven patients (28%) were classified as having WRF after OHT. Nineteen patients (11%) required dialysis after heart transplantation. There was a sustained and steady improvement in renal function in children following heart transplantation in all age groups, irrespective of underlying disease process. The significant factors associated with risk of WRF included body surface area (OR: 1.89 for 0.5 unit increase, 95% CI: 1.29-2.76, p = 0.001) and use of ECMO prior to and/or after heart transplantation (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.51-8.13, p = 0.004). Use of VAD prior to heart transplantation was not associated with WRF (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.17-1.51, p = 0.22). On the basis of these data, we demonstrate that worsening renal function improves early after orthotopic heart transplantation. PMID:25484128

  10. Pediatric Cardiomyopathies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Pediatric Cardiomyopathies Updated:Oct 22,2015 Patient education material ... oxygen or high blood pressure. According to the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry, one in every 100,000 children ...

  11. Myocarditis - pediatric

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle in an infant or young child. ... infections such as Lyme disease. Other causes of pediatric myocarditis include: Allergic reactions to certain medicines Exposure ...

  12. Pediatric Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Goun; Lim, Byung Chan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric stroke is relatively rare but may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Along with the advance of brain imaging technology and clinical awareness, diagnosis of pediatric stroke is increasing wordwide. Pediatric stroke differs from adults in variable risk factor/etiologies, diverse and nonspecific clinical presentation depending on ages. This review will be discussed pediatric stroke focusing on their clinical presentations, diagnosis and etiologies/risk factors. PMID:26180605

  13. Dual-Axis Rotational Angiography is Safe and Feasible to Detect Coronary Allograft Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Rios, Rodrigo; Loomba, Rohit S; Foerster, Susan R; Pelech, Andrew N; Gudausky, Todd M

    2016-04-01

    Coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the leading cause of graft failure in pediatric heart transplant recipients, also adding to mortality in this patient population. Coronary angiography is routinely performed to screen for CAV, with conventional single-plane or bi-plane angiography being utilized. Dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (RA) has been described, mostly in the adult population, and may offer reduction in radiation dose and contrast volume. Experience with this in the pediatric population is limited. This study describes a single-institution experience with RA for screening for CAV in pediatric patients. The catheterization database at our institution was used to identify pediatric heart transplant recipients having undergone RA to screen for CAV. Procedural data including radiation dose, fluoroscopy time, contrast volume, and procedure time were collected for each catheterization. The number of instances in which RA was not successful, ECG changes were present, and CAV was detected were also collected for each catheterization. A total of 97 patients underwent 345 catheterizations utilizing RA. Median radiation dose-area product per kilogram was found to be 341.7 (mGy cm(2)/kg), total air kerma was 126.8 (mGy), procedure time was 69 min, fluoroscopy time was 9.9 min, and contrast volume was 13 ml. A total of 17 (2 %) coronary artery injections out of 690 could not be successfully imaged using RA. A total of 14 patients had CAV noted at any point, 10 of whom had progressive CAV. Electrocardiographic changes were documented in a total of 10 (3 %) RA catheterizations. Procedural characteristics did not differ between serial catheterizations. RA is safe and feasible for CAV screening in pediatric heart transplant recipients while offering coronary imaging in multiple planes compared to conventional angiography. PMID:26846123

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in pediatric patients: an analysis of 15 confirmed consecutive cases during 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Ji-Man

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia occurs in various immunocompromised patients. Despite the prophylaxis strategies in clinical practice, certain patients develop P. jirovecii pneumonia. This study was performed to investigate pediatric cases with P. jirovecii pneumonia in a single center. Methods We identified pediatric patients younger than 19 years with microbiologically confirmed P. jirovecii pneumonia from January 2000 to February 2014. A retrospective chart review was performed. Results Fifteen episodes of P. jirovecii pneumonia in 14 patients were identified with median age of 8.3 years (range, 0.4–18.6 years). Among these patients, 11 patients had hematology-oncology diseases, 2 had primary immunodeficiency disorders (one with severe combined immunodeficiency and the other with Wiskott Aldrich syndrome), 1 had systemic lupus erythematosus and 1 received kidney transplant. Four patients were transplant recipients; 1 allogeneic and 2 autologous hematopoietic cell transplant and 1 with kidney transplant. The median absolute lymphocyte count at the diagnosis of P. jirovecii pneumonia was 5,156 cells/mm3 (range, 20–5,111 cells/mm3). In 13 episodes (13 of 15, 86.7%), patients were not receiving prophylaxis at the onset of P. jirovecii pneumonia. For treatment, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was given as a main therapeutic agent in all 15 episodes. Steroid was given in 9 episodes (60%). Median treatment duration was 15 days (range, 4–33 days). Overall mortality at 60 days was 35.7% (5 of 14). Conclusion Majority of our patients developed P. jirovecii pneumonia while not on prophylaxis. Continuous efforts and more data are needed to identify high risk patients who may get benefit from P. jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis.

  15. Neck masses in paediatric population: An experience with children attended the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics in Baghdad 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayoof, Ali F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric neck mass is a frequent cause for surgical consultation. Neck masses can be simply classified into congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic. Although most of the cases are due to benign processes, malignant causes must not be overlooked. The aim of this study is to assess the paediatric neck masses in Iraqi patients highlighting the distribution of cases according to their demographic characteristics and etiology. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional observed study is conducted in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, at the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics in Baghdad from April 2008 to March 2009. Sixty four patients with neck masses aged 14 years and below were examined and managed. The underlying causes of the neck masses were addressed and categorized. Results: Among the 64 patients, 42 (65.6%) were male. The inflammatory group represents 57% of the cases, while the malignant neoplasm accounts for approximately 10% of the conditions mainly due to lymphoma 5 (7.8%). Sixteen patients (25%) fall in the congenital group, in which the thyroglossal duct cyst was the commonest type. Wound infection developed in two patients, while one patient with cystic hygroma showed recurrence. Conclusion: Pediatrics neck masses are distributed in categories that similar in pattern and distribution in the world except the infectious/inflammatory category that shows variation in distribution in respect to the socioeconomic status. The surgical intervention and procedures are related to the facility as well as to the experience. PMID:26168753

  16. Pediatric sialadenitis.

    PubMed

    Francis, Carrie L; Larsen, Christopher G

    2014-10-01

    Sialadenitis in the pediatric population accounts for up to 10% of all salivary gland disease. Viral parotitis and juvenile recurrent parotitis are the two most common causes. Multiple factors, independently or in combination, can result in acute, chronic, or recurrent acute salivary gland inflammation. Sialendoscopy has emerged as the leading diagnostic technique and intervention for pediatric sialadenitis. Sialendoscopy is a safe and effective gland-preserving treatment of pediatric sialadenitis. Investigational studies are needed to address the impact of steroid instillation, postoperative stenting, and long-term outcomes of pediatric sialendoscopy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric sialadenitis. PMID:25128215

  17. Experiences of african american parents following perinatal or pediatric death: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Kavanaugh, Karen; Issel, L Michele; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Meert, Kathleen L

    2014-01-01

    A child's death is one of life's most difficult experiences. Little is known about the unique factors that influence the grief experience for bereaved African American parents. Through an integrative review of 10 publications, the authors describe the grief responses, outcomes, and implications for African American parents who experience the death of a child. Four themes emerged: (a) emotional response to loss; (b) factors that added to the burden of loss; (c) coping strategies; and (d) health consequences of grief. Healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers should be sensitive to the unique needs of African American parents following a child's death. PMID:24666143

  18. Epileptic seizures as a manifestation of cow's milk allergy: a studied relationship and description of our pediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Mahmood, Fahad; Scalia, Ferdinando; Corsello, Giovanni; Lubrano, Riccardo; Vitaliti, Giovanna

    2014-12-01

    Adverse reactions after ingestion of cow's milk proteins can occur at any age, from birth and even amongst exclusively breast-fed infants, although not all of these are hypersensitivity reactions. The most common presentations related to cow's milk protein allergy are skin reactions, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis as well as gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. In addition, several cases of cow's milk protein allergy in the literature have documented neurological involvement, manifesting with convulsive seizures in children. This may be due to CNS spread of a peripheral inflammatory response. Furthermore, there is evidence that pro-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for disrupting the blood-brain barrier, causing focal CNS inflammation thereby triggering seizures, although further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenic relationship between atopy and its neurological manifestations. This review aims to analyze current published data on the link between cow's milk protein allergy and epileptic events, highlighting scientific evidence for any potential pathogenic mechanism and describing our clinical experience in pediatrics. PMID:25394911

  19. Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Resource-Limited Settings: The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sripipatana, Tabitha; Turner, Abigail Norris; Hoblitzelle, Chuck; Robinson, Joanna; Wilfert, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. In September 1999, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation initiated a multicountry, service-based programmatic effort in the developing world to reduce perinatally acquired HIV infection. We review 6½ years of one of the world's largest programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Methods. Each PMTCT facility records patient data in antenatal clinics and labor and delivery settings about counseling, testing, HIV status, and antiretroviral prophylaxis and submits the data to foundation staff. Results. More than 2.6 million women have accessed foundation-affiliated services through June 2006. Overall, 92.9% of women who received antenatal care or were eligible for PMTCT services in labor and delivery have been counseled, and 82.8% of those counseled accepted testing. Among women identified as HIV positive, 75.0% received antiretroviral prophylaxis (most a single dose of nevirapine), as did 45.6% of their infants. Conclusions. The foundation's experience has demonstrated that opt-out testing, supplying mothers with medication at time of diagnosis, and providing the infant dose early have measurably improved program efficiency. PMTCT should be viewed as an achievable paradigm and an essential part of the continuum of care. PMID:18703458

  20. Treatment of choledochal cyst in a pediatric population. A single institution experience of 15-years. Case series

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Baez, Hector; Coello-Ramírez, Pedro; Ixtabalán-Escalante, Eddy Mizraím; Sotelo-Anaya, Eduardo; Gallo-Morales, Mariana; Cordero-Estrada, Eduardo; Sainz-Escarrega, Victor Hugo; Ploneda-Valencia, César Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Background Choledochal cyst (CC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the bile duct that approximately 75% of the patients are diagnosed in childhood. Without a standardized surgical procedure for the biliary reconstruction, we present our experience over the last 15 years and show the differences between the biliary reconstructions techniques in our population. Methods We did a retrospective hospital archive search for patients admitted to the pediatric surgery department with the diagnosis of a choledochal cyst from January 2000 to June 2015. Results We found 15 patients, of which, 1 was excluded because of missing data from the hospital record. Of the remaining 14, eight had hepaticojejunal (HY) anastomosis in Roux-en-Y, with a 25% rate of complications; six had hepatoduodenal (HD) anastomosis with a rate of complications of 16.6%. The average hospital length of stay in the group of HD vs. HY was 14 ± 1.6-days vs. 19 ± 8.2-days respectively. Discussion There are no standardized surgical reconstruction techniques of the biliary tract after the CC excision, there is literature that supports the biliary reconstruction with an HY and an HD without a distinct advantage over one or the other. Conclusion: In our series HD anastomosis represents a safe procedure with fewer complications than HY. PMID:26900456

  1. A five-year experience with the use of BiPAP in a pediatric intensive care unit population.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gayatri; Tobias, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed their experience with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) to treat respiratory insufficiency in pediatric patients over a 5-year period. After excluding patients on chronic home BiPAP and those in whom BiPAP was used to facilitate tracheal extubation (because there were no pre-BiPAP values on which to judge its efficacy), the study cohort included 45 patients (1.5 to 22 years) in whom BiPAP was used for acute respiratory insufficiency. The primary indication for BiPAP was a primary pulmonary parenchymal process in 29 patients and postoperative atelectasis with respiratory insufficiency following cardiac or upper abdominal surgery in 16 patients. There were no differences in the pre-BiPAP values of oxygen requirement, PCO2, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate between the 2 groups. With the application of BiPAP in patients with primary pulmonary parenchymal disease, there was a decreased oxygen requirement, PCO2, and respiratory rate. No change in oxygen saturation was noted. In patients with postoperative respiratory insufficiency, there was an improvement in all 4 parameters. There was no difference in post-BiPAP values of oxygen requirement, respiratory rate, or PCO2 between the 2 groups. The post-BiPAP oxygen saturation was greater in patients with postoperative respiratory insufficiency (96% +/- 4%) than in patients with primary pulmonary parenchymal disease (92% +/- 6%, P = .02). Endotracheal intubation was required in 11 of 29 patients with primary pulmonary parenchymal pathology versus 1 of 16 patients with postoperative atelectasis and/or respiratory insufficiency (P = .03). The chances of requiring intubation were greater in patients < or = 6 years of age (relative risk 1.9), if the oxygen requirement did not decrease to less than 60% within the first 24 hours of BiPAP use (relative risk 3.3) and if there were any PCO2 values > or = 55 mmHg during the first 24 hours of BiPAP use (relative risk 9.8). No severe

  2. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  3. Experiences and Implications of Social Workers Practicing in a Pediatric Hospital Environment Affected by SARS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Saini, Michael; McNeill, Ted

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study's purpose was threefold: to detail the experiences of social workers practicing in a hospital environment affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to describe essential themes and structures of social work practices within this crisis environment, and to explore recommendations for better preparedness to…

  4. Pediatric anterior skull base tumors: Our experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramana, N. K.; Anantheswar, Y. N.

    2010-01-01

    Surgery for skull base lesions has advanced considerably in the past few years. The improvement in surgical results could be attributed to the availability of refined imaging modalities, modern technological advances and multidisciplinary team approach. In this report, we present our personal experience in the surgical management of 45 children with a variety of skull base lesions treated over 10 years. This article includes a retrospective analysis of the surgical approaches used and their results with a review of the literature. PMID:21042498

  5. Ethical issues at the interface of clinical care and research practice in pediatric oncology: a narrative review of parents' and physicians' experiences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians. Methodology An empirical ethical approach, combining (1) a narrative review of (primarily) qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, and (2) comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about (pediatric) research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice. Results Analysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician (doctor vs. scientist). True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the existence of a therapeutic

  6. Families' experiences of living with pediatric epilepsy: A qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harden, Jeni; Black, Rebecca; Chin, Richard F M

    2016-07-01

    Living with epilepsy in childhood has implications for the child and their family beyond the physical effects associated with epileptic seizures. Qualitative research has emerged, aiming to deliver a greater depth of understanding of the experiences of living with epilepsy from the perspectives of children with epilepsy, their parents, and their siblings. This review of qualitative research had three aims: first, to synthesize the demographic and epilepsy profiles of research participants in eligible studies in order to provide a clear picture of who are included and excluded when studying families' experiences; second, to present and discuss the methodological concerns and implications of research involving children with epilepsy; and third, to synthesize the findings arising from qualitative research with families in order to identify common themes across all relevant studies to date. Papers published in the English language prior to January 2016 were identified following a search of eight electronic databases: Embase, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, ASSIA, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved a sample of children with epilepsy (up to 18years of age), parents, or siblings of children with epilepsy and used qualitative methods. Twenty-one studies were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. Findings in relation to the three aims were the following: 1) Researchers were seeking an understanding of children's experiences directly from children rather than by parental proxy. However, children with learning disabilities were often excluded from research, meaning that their views are not being heard. Parental research was predominantly with mothers, and father experiences were not often accessed. There was very little research with siblings. 2) The rationale for and ethical implications of the choice of research methods adopted were not always clear, and not all studies gave adequate attention to the development of

  7. Imaging Findings in Pediatric Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES): 5 Years of Experience From a Tertiary Care Center in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Bhatia, Vikas; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singh, Paramjeet; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the radiological and clinical spectrum of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in pediatric population. A retrospective evaluation of the pediatric patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome seen over the last 5 years in the authors' hospital was done. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were analyzed, and a review of literature was performed. Out of 32 pediatric patients of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, 10 (31.25%) were males and 22 (68.75%) were females, with a mean age of 10.6 years. Renal disease (62.5%) was the most common primary disease, followed by chemotherapy for hemato-oncologic malignancies (15.6%). Hypertension was present in 81.2% of cases. Atypical MRI findings were seen in 62.5% cases. Frontal involvement was common and seen in 56% of the cases. Overall, MRI findings considered atypical in adults were found to be common in the series of pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The understanding of the clinical settings and familiarity with radiological findings in pediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome patients is important to adequately treat these patients and to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:27071468

  8. A reappraisal of the clinical efficacy of nebulized flunisolide in pediatric asthma: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Ahmad; Mroueh, Salman; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Flunisolide (FLU) is a synthetic corticosteroid with potent topical anti-inflammatory activity. Its oral bioavailability is poor (6.7%). After gastrointestinal and lung absorption, the drug undergoes rapid and extensive first-pass metabolism by the liver to an inactive 6beta-hydroxylated metabolite. Plasma half-life is estimated to be 3.9 to 4.6 hours. FLU has a low volume of distribution at steady state and a short terminal half-life after inhalation (96 L and 1.6 hour, respectively). FLU, like budesonide, has a short pulmonary residence time and it is hypothesized that it may undergo esterification in the cell due to the presence of a free hydroxyl group at C21. Nebulization may offer important advantages over other inhalation methods. Nebulizers allow drug delivery in very young children through passive inhalation, depending less on patient coordination and cooperation. Comparative studies indicate that FLU is nebulized to a better advantage than beclomethasone dipropionate and budesonide. This is attributed to its elevated water solubility. The aim of this article is to outline the factors that influence drug nebulization and the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of FLU compared to other inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, we report a series of clinical data regarding the efficacy of nebulized FLU with focus on the Italian experience. Overall, the physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetic profile of FLU favor its use for nebulization. Clinical data indicate that nebulized FLU is effective in asthma treatment in infants and children. Side effects were not reported at the commonly used doses. PMID:17883883

  9. Pediatric Oncology Palliative Care: Experiences of General Practitioners and Bereaved Parents

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Sue J.; Gibson, Faith; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study set in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom, aimed to examine the role of the general practitioner (GP) in children’s oncology palliative care from the perspective of GPs who had cared for a child with cancer receiving palliative care at home and bereaved parents. Methods One-to-one semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 18 GPs and 11 bereaved parents following the death. A grounded theory data analysis was undertaken; identifying generated themes through chronological comparative data analysis. Results Similarity in GP and parent viewpoints was found, the GPs role seen as one of providing medication and support. Time pressures GPs faced influenced their level of engagement with the family during palliative and bereavement care and their ability to address their identified learning deficits. Lack of familiarity with the family, coupled with an acknowledgment that it was a rare and could be a frightening experience, also influenced their level of interaction. There was no consistency in GP practice nor evidence of practice being guided by local or national policies. Parents lack of clarity of their GPs role resulted in missed opportunities for support. Conclusions Time pressures influence GP working practices. Enhanced communication and collaboration between the GP and regional childhood cancer centre may help address identified GP challenges, such as learning deficits, and promote more time-efficient working practices through role clarity. Parents need greater awareness of their GP’s wide-ranging role; one that transcends palliative care incorporating bereavement support and on-going medical care for family members PMID:26925307

  10. Living with the unknown: Posttraumatic stress disorder in pediatric bone marrow transplantation survivors and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Taskıran, Gülseren; Sürer Adanır, Aslı; Özatalay, Esin

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is used to treat children with various hematologic, oncologic, and metabolic diseases. Although the treatment can be lifesaving, it is also physically and psychologically demanding for both the child and caregivers. In previous studies, BMT is found to be related with anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and psychosocial problems both in children and parents. The aim of this study was to investigate PTSD in pediatric BMT survivors and their mothers compared with the healthy controls. Twenty-seven BMT survivors and their mothers and 28 healthy peers and their mothers were recruited as the study group and as the comparison group, respectively. All children were interviewed using Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) for assessing posttraumatic stress responses. As for mothers, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was used. In healthy children and mothers, instead of BMT, the most important traumatic event reported by them was included. All data were analyzed by a neutral statistician from the Department of Biostatistics of the university. The BMT group, both children and mothers, obtained significantly higher PTSD rates than the control group (66.5% and 17.8%, respectively, in children; 57.6% and 7%, respectively, in mothers). However, there was a weak correlation between survivors' and mothers' posttraumatic stress responses. These findings suggest that BMT is a significant stressor for both children and mothers. Clinicians should be aware of psychiatric symptoms of children who underwent such a life-threatening condition. Combination of medical treatment with psychosocial support is imperative. PMID:26949991

  11. Early experience with X-ray magnetic resonance fusion for low-flow vascular malformations in the pediatric interventional radiology suite.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tiffany J; Girard, Erin; Shellikeri, Sphoorti; Setser, Randolph; Vossough, Arastoo; Ho-Fung, Victor; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2016-03-01

    This technical innovation describes our experience using an X-ray magnetic resonance fusion (XMRF) software program to overlay 3-D MR images on real-time fluoroscopic images during sclerotherapy procedures for vascular malformations at a large pediatric institution. Five cases have been selected to illustrate the application and various clinical utilities of XMRF during sclerotherapy procedures as well as the technical limitations of this technique. The cases demonstrate how to use XMRF in the interventional suite to derive additional information to improve therapeutic confidence with regards to the extent of lesion filling and to guide clinical management in terms of intraprocedural interventional measures. PMID:26681438

  12. Pediatric Specialists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  13. Pediatric Terminology

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is working with NCI Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to provide standardized terminology for coding pediatric clinical trials and other resea

  14. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  15. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Last revised on February 12, 2016 Related Digital Libraries Pediatric GeneralPediatrics.com - the general pediatrician's view of the Internet PediatricEducation.org - a pediatric digital library and learning collaboratory intended to serve as a ...

  16. Nevirapine exposure with WHO pediatric weight band dosing: enhanced therapeutic concentrations predicted based on extensive international pharmacokinetic experience.

    PubMed

    Nikanjam, Mina; Kabamba, Desiré; Cressey, Tim R; Burger, David; Aweeka, Francesca T; Acosta, Edward P; Spector, Stephen A; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2012-10-01

    Nevirapine (NVP) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) used worldwide as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in infants and children to treat HIV infection. Dosing based on either weight or body surface area has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but can be difficult to implement in resource-limited settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed simplified weight band dosing for NVP, but it has not been critically evaluated. NVP pharmacokinetic data were combined from eight pediatric clinical trials (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group [PACTG] studies 245, 356, 366, 377, 403, 1056, and 1069 and Children with HIV in Africa Pharmacokinetics and Adherence of Simple Antiretroviral Regimens [CHAPAS]) representing subjects from multiple continents and across the pediatric age continuum. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterize developmental changes in NVP disposition, identify potential sources of NVP pharmacokinetic variability, and assess various pediatric dosing strategies and their impact on NVP exposure. Age, CYP2B6 genotype, and ritonavir were independent predictors of oral NVP clearance. The Triomune fixed-dose tablet was an independent predictor of bioavailability compared to the liquid and other tablet formulations. Monte Carlo simulations of the final model were used to assess WHO weight band dosing recommendations. The final pharmacokinetic model indicated that WHO weight band dosing is likely to result in a percentage of children with NVP exposure within the target range similar to that obtained with FDA dosing. Weight band dosing of NVP proposed by the WHO has the potential to provide a simple and effective dosing strategy for resource limited settings. PMID:22869579

  17. Pediatric Anthropometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinich, Kathleen D.; Reed, Matthew P.

    Anthropometry is the measurement of human size, shape, and physical capabilities. Most pediatric anthropometry data are gathered to describe child growth patterns, but data on body size, mass distribution, range of motion, and posture are used to develop crash test dummies and computational models of child occupants. Pediatric anthropometry data are also used to determine child restraint dimensions, so they will accommodate the applicable population of child occupants.

  18. Management of pediatric mandibular fractures using bioresorbable plating system – Efficacy, stability, and clinical outcomes: Our experiences and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahinder; Singh, R.K.; Passi, Deepak; Aggarwal, Mohit; Kaur, Guneet

    2015-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and stability of the biodegradable fixation system for treatment of mandible fractures in pediatric patients by measuring the bite force. Methods Sixty pediatric patients with mandibular fractures (36 males, 24 females) were included in this study. The 2.5-mm resorbable plates were adapted along Champy's line of ideal osteosynthesis and secured with four 2.5 mm diameter monocortical resorbable screws, 8 mm in length. All patients were followed for 10 months. Clinical parameters, such as soft tissue infection, nonunion, malunion, implant exposure, malocclusion, nerve injury, and bite force for stability, were prospectively assessed. Results Adequate fixation and primary bone healing was achieved in 100% of the cases. Six minor complications (10%) were observed: 2 soft tissue infections (3%), 1 plate dehiscence (2%), 1 malocclusion (2%), and 2 paresthesia (3%). Conclusion 2.5-mm resorbable plating system along Champy's line of ideal osteosynthesis is a good treatment modality for mandible fractures in pediatric patients. PMID:27195206

  19. Building Bridges From Hospital to Home: Understanding the Transition Experience for the Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Branowicki, Patricia A; Vessey, Judith A; Temple, Kendal L Jackson; Lulloff, Amanda J

    2016-09-01

    Caregivers of pediatric oncology patients are expected to understand and adhere to a complex medical plan of care while at home; yet little is known about how to assess and evaluate the caregivers' abilities to adequately meet these demands. The purpose of this study was to describe the issues and daily challenges faced by caregivers as they transition from hospital to home after their child's cancer diagnosis. Patients and caregivers received a home visit by an expert pediatric oncology nurse within 72 hours postdischarge after initial diagnosis. The nursing narrative notes from these visits were analyzed using content analysis. Four explanatory themes emerged: (1) "We're doing okay," (2) "This isn't going so well," (3) "I could use a little help with this," and (4) "An RN in the house makes you feel safe and know what is correct." These analyses revealed many caregivers achieved mastery of caring for the child at home; however, an overwhelming majority of caregivers expressed questions or concerns to the nurse during the home visit, even those achieving mastery of care. A home visit by an expert pediatric oncology nurse assisted the caregiver in transitioning to caring for the child at home. Such programs should be considered when planning transition programs from hospital to home. PMID:26668212

  20. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Stephen L; Liu, Jehnan; Soleymani, Kamyar; Romasco, Rebecca L; Farid, Hanieh; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    The use of oral antineoplastic agents in nonmedical settings continues to increase. There are limited data available on pediatric exposures to these agents. We sought to identify characteristics of such exposures. We performed a retrospective review of database of a statewide poison system from 2000 to 2009 for all cases of pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic agents, which took place in a nonmedical setting. Data collected include gender, age, agent of exposure, dose, drug concentration, reason for exposure, symptoms, outcomes, interventions, and length of hospital stay. There were a total of 328 patients. The mean average age was 4.1 years. Eighty-nine percentage (n = 293) was unintentional. Exposures to 21 different antineoplastic agents were identified. Methotrexate (n = 91) and 6-mercaptopurine (n = 47) were the most common agents encountered. Two hundred ninety-nine (91%) cases had no symptoms reported. When reported, gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 17) and central nervous system sedation (n = 6) were most common. One case of pancytopenia was reported. No deaths were reported in this series. Sixty-seven percent (n = 220) were managed at home, whereas 19 (6%) were admitted to a health care facility. Cases were followed by the poison control center for 0.34 days (SD = 1.40). In this study, exposures to oral antineoplastics were primarily unintentional, asymptomatic, and managed at home. Study limitations include possible reporting bias, inability to objectively confirm exposures, and limited duration of monitoring by the poison control center. In this retrospective review, no significant morbidity or mortality was reported from pediatric exposures to oral antineoplastic drugs in the nonmedical setting. PMID:23884076

  1. Surgical results of cranioplasty with a polymethylmethacrylate customized cranial implant in pediatric patients: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Pietro; Pavanello, Marco; Imperato, Alessia; Dallolio, Villiam; Accogli, Andrea; Capra, Valeria; Consales, Alessandro; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Cranioplasty is a reconstructive procedure used to restore skull anatomy and repair skull defects. Optimal skull reconstruction is a challenge for neurosurgeons, and the strategy used to achieve the best result remains a topic of debate, especially in pediatric patients for whom the continuing skull growth makes the choice of material more difficult. When the native bone flap, which is universally accepted as the preferred option in pediatric patients, is unavailable, the authors' choice of prosthetic material is a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implant designed using a custom-made technique. In this paper the authors present the results of their clinical series of 12 custom-made PMMA implants in pediatric patients. METHODS A retrospective study of the patients who had undergone cranioplasty at Gaslini Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2013 was conducted. A total of 12 consecutive cranioplasties in 12 patients was reviewed, in which a patient-specific PMMA implant was manufactured using a virtual 3D model and then transformed into a physical model using selective laser sintering or 3D printing. All patients or parents were administered a questionnaire to assess how the patient/parent judged the aesthetic result. RESULTS Patient age at craniectomy ranged from 5 months to 12.5 years, with a mean age of 84.33 months at cranioplasty. The mean extension of the custom-made plastic was 56.83 cm(2). The mean time between craniectomy and cranioplasty was 9.25 months. The mean follow-up duration was 55.7 months. No major complications were recorded; 3 patients experienced minor/moderate complications (prosthesis dislocation, granuloma formation, and fluid collection). CONCLUSIONS In this patient series, PMMA resulted in an extremely low complication rate and the custom-made technique was associated with an excellent grade of patient or parent satisfaction on long-term follow up. PMID:26824593

  2. Presentation, Management, and Outcome of Thyroglossal Duct Cysts in Adult and Pediatric Populations: A 14-Year Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Sulaiti, Maryam Al; El-Mabrok, Jamela; Hajaji, Khairi; Elgohary, Hesham; Asim, Mohammad; Taha, Ibrahim; Tabeb, Abdelhakem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a frequent congenital midline anomaly of the neck that usually manifests during the first decade of life. We aimed to describe the presentation, management, and outcome of TDC in pediatric and adult cases. Methods A retrospective observational analysis was conducted for all patients diagnosed and treated for TDC between 2000 and 2014 in a single center in Qatar. Data included patients’ demographics, presentations, preoperative investigations, anesthesia type, histopathological findings, surgical management, recurrences, and complications. Results We identified 102 patients, of which 57% were males. The mean age of patients was 20.2±15.6 years. A bimodal distribution of TDC has been observed, which peaked between the ages of 6–13 years and at ≥19 years. The preoperative evaluation mainly includes ultrasonography (66%), thyroid function test (44%), and fine-needle aspiration cytology (10%). The median size of the cyst was 25 (2–60) mm. Patients mainly presented with an asymptomatic midline neck mass at or below the hyoid bone (82%), followed by fistula (9%), infection (2%), and dysphagia (2%). Eighty-nine cases were identified preoperatively as TDC. The histopathological findings confirmed TDC with hyoid bone in 61 cases, and TDC alone in 38 cases. Eighty patients underwent the Sistrunk procedure while excision of TDC alone was observed in 18 cases. Five cases of recurrent disease were also treated. Adults had a greater median cyst size (30 (9–60) vs. 22 (2–55) mm; p = 0.005) and required prolonged operation time (69 (1–169) vs. 32.5 (1–140) mins; 
p = 0.004) compared to the pediatric group. Conclusion The occurrence of TDC shows a bimodal age distribution. Preoperative evaluation and time for surgery vary whereas clinical presentations, surgical management, and postoperative outcomes are comparable among adult and pediatric groups. Ultrasonography is the preferred diagnostic modality, and the Sistrunk

  3. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association and latency profile in pediatric Burkitt's lymphoma: experience of a single institution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lara, Julia; Cohen, Melina; De Matteo, Elena; Aversa, Luis; Preciado, Maria Victoria; Chabay, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize EBV expression and latency pattern in pediatric Burkitt's lymphoma in a single institution in Argentina. EBV-encoded RNA or protein was analyzed in 27 patients. EBERs was expressed in 37% of patients (29% of immunocompetent and 100% of immunosuppressed patients). EBV-positive cases were observed exclusively in patients younger than 5 years old. EBV association with immunocompetent patients exhibits the sporadic pattern in region under study, while its presence in patients infected with HIV was higher than described previously. EBV latency I profile was present in most of the patients, except for two immunosuppressed patients who displayed LMP1 expression. PMID:24027016

  4. Pediatric sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Adrienne G; McCulloh, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Although the diagnosis and management of sepsis in infants and children is largely influenced by studies done in adults, there are important considerations relevant for pediatrics. This article highlights pediatric-specific issues related to the definition of sepsis and its epidemiology and management. We review how the capacity of the immune system to respond to infection develops over early life. We also bring attention to primary immune deficiencies that should be considered in children recurrently infected with specific types of organisms. The management of pediatric sepsis must be tailored to the child’s age and immune capacity, and to the site, severity, and source of the infection. It is important for clinicians to be aware of infection-related syndromes that primarily affect children. Although children in developed countries are more likely to survive severe infections than adults, many survivors have chronic health impairments. PMID:24225404

  5. A conceptual framework for advanced practice nursing in a pediatric tertiary care setting: the SickKids' experience.

    PubMed

    LeGrow, Karen; Hubley, Pam; McAllister, Mary

    2010-05-01

    Advanced practice nurses (APNs) at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) are pediatric healthcare providers who integrate principles and theories of advanced nursing with specialty knowledge to provide autonomous, independent, accountable, ethical and developmentally appropriate care in complex, often ambiguous and rapidly changing healthcare environments. Caring for children and adolescents requires culturally sensitive and family-centred approaches to care that incorporate a unique body of knowledge. Family-centred care is an approach to planning, delivery and evaluation of healthcare that is governed by the establishment of mutually beneficial partnerships among APNs, health professionals and children/families. The cornerstone of APN practice at SickKids is the recognition of "family" as the recipients of care. By valuing and developing relationships with families, APNs promote excellence in healthcare across the care continuum to optimize the child's and family's physical, emotional, social, psychological and spiritual well-being. This paper outlines the evolution of advanced practice nursing at SickKids, beginning with the introduction of APN roles in the 1970s and culminating in the current critical mass of APNs who have been integrated throughout the hospital's infrastructure. We describe the process used to create a common vision and a framework to guide pediatric advanced nursing practice. PMID:20530994

  6. Determinants of graft survival in pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, Amr A; Foda, Mohamed A; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shehab El-Din, Ahmed B; Sobh, Mohamed A; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2005-12-01

    To study the independent determinants of graft survival among pediatric and adolescent live donor kidney transplant recipients. Between March 1976 and March 2004, 1600 live donor kidney transplants were carried out in our center. Of them 284 were 20 yr old or younger (mean age 13.1 yr, ranging from 5 to 20 yr). Evaluation of the possible variables that may affect graft survival were carried out using univariate and multivariate analyses. Studied factors included age, gender, relation between donor and recipient, original kidney disease, ABO blood group, pretransplant blood transfusion, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, pretransplant dialysis, height standard deviation score (SDS), pretransplant hypertension, cold ischemia time, number of renal arteries, ureteral anastomosis, time to diuresis, time of transplantation, occurrence of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), primary and secondary immunosuppression, total dose of steroids in the first 3 months, development of acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. Using univariate analysis, the significant predictors for graft survival were HLA matching, type of primary urinary recontinuity, time to diuresis, ATN, acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The multivariate analysis restricted the significance to acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. The independent determinants of graft survival in live-donor pediatric and adolescent renal transplant recipients are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. PMID:16269048

  7. Pediatric rosacea.

    PubMed

    Kellen, Roselyn; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-07-01

    Because rosacea is uncommon in the pediatric population, care must be taken to exclude other papulopustular disorders. Children can present with vascular, papulopustular, and/or ocular findings. Importantly, ocular symptoms can appear before the cutaneous symptoms of rosacea, leading to misdiagnosis. Rosacea is a clinical diagnosis, but histopathologic examination typically reveals dilated vessels, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the upper dermis, elastosis, and disorganization of the upper dermal connective tissue. Treatment involves avoiding known triggers and utilizing topical and/or systemic therapies. Although treatment can control flares, pediatric rosacea often persists into adulthood. PMID:27529708

  8. Pediatric Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Williams, Regan F; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Gosain, Ankush

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors accounting for approximately 10% of childhood solid tumors. Treatment is focused on multimodality therapy, which has improved the prognosis over the past two decades. Current regimens focus on decreasing treatment for low-risk patients to decrease the long-term side effects while maximizing therapy for patients with metastatic disease to improve survival. Pediatric sarcomas can be divided into soft tissue sarcomas and osseous tumors. Soft tissue sarcomas are further delineated into rhabdomyosarcomas, which affect young children and nonrhabdomyosarcomas, which are most common in adolescents. The most common bone sarcomas are osteosarcomas and Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:27542645

  9. 20-Year Experience With Intraoperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma: Outcomes, Toxicity, and Practice Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Folkert, Michael R.; Tong, William Y.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Chou, Alexander J.; Magnan, Heather; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess outcomes and toxicity of high-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) in the management of pediatric sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-five pediatric patients underwent HDR-IORT for sarcoma from May 1993 to November 2013. The median age was 9 years old (36 patients were ≤6 years old). HDR-IORT was part of initial therapy in 37 patients (49%) and for recurrent disease in 38 patients (51%). Forty-one patients (55%) received HDR-IORT and postoperative external beam RT (PORT), and 22 patients (29%) were previously treated with external beam radiation therapy to the IORT site. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: At a median follow-up of 7.8 years for surviving patients, 5-year projected rates of LC, EFS, and OS were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-76%), 33% (95% CI 21%-45%), and 43% (95% CI 30%-55%), with a median survival of 3.1 years. The 5-year LC, EFS, and OS rates for patients with recurrent disease were 46% (95% CI, 28%-64%), 30% (95% CI, 13%-46%), and 36% (95% CI, 18%-54%). Acute toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 2 (2.5%) treatments; late toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 4 (5.3%) patients 0.3-9.9 years after HDR-IORT. The incidence of toxicity ≥grade 3 was not associated with HDR-IORT applicator size, HDR-IORT dose, prior RT or PORT, or prior or postoperative chemotherapy, but all toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in patients ≤6 years treated with HDR-IORT doses ≥12 Gy. Conclusions: HDR-IORT is a well-tolerated component of multimodality therapy for pediatric sarcoma, allowing additional local treatment while reducing external beam exposure. Taking clinical considerations into account, doses between 8-12 Gy are appropriate for HDR-IORT in patients ≤6 years of age.

  10. Pediatric ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two leading experts explore the benefits and limitations of pediatric ultrasonography, explaining the latest techniques for optimal imaging of specific body regions: the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and soft tissues. Numerous illustrations emphasize significant points and combine with the text to show specifically what to look for when imaging children.

  11. Pediatric Trichotillomania

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Julie P.; Franklin, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is an impulse control disorder characterized by chronic hair-pulling, distress, and impairment. Although the negative effects of TTM are documented and often readily evident, there remains a paucity of psychopathology and treatment research on this disorder, particularly in pediatric populations. In an effort to improve assessment of pediatric TTM, several TTM-specific instruments for youth have now been developed to reliably identify symptoms and examine related phenomenology. Instrument development has now yielded instruments to evaluate TTM and related symptoms in the context of clinical trials of youth, and the first randomized controlled trial of any treatment for pediatric TTM was recently published. Using the initial pediatric TTM studies as building blocks, future research is now needed to create a stronger body of knowledge about the relative and combined efficacy of potential interventions for TTM in youth, as well as to examine the effects of TTM phenomenology and comorbidity on treatment outcome. Dissemination efforts must also be heightened for this knowledge to best reach these vulnerable populations. PMID:22437627

  12. Traumatic spinal injuries in children at a single level 1 pediatric trauma centre: report of a 23-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Vassilyadi, Michael; Forbes, Jason K.; Moroz, Nicholas W.P.; Camacho, Alexandra; Moroz, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Background With a reported incidence of up to 10% compared to all spinal trauma, spinal injuries in children are less common than in adults. Children can have spine fractures with or without myelopathy, or spinal cord injuries without radiological abnormalities (SCIWORA). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of children with spinal injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric trauma centre between 1990 and 2013. Results A total of 275 children were treated during the study period. The mean age at admission was 12 ± 4.5 years, and the male:female ratio was 1.4:1. Spinal injuries were more common in children of ages 12–16 years, with most injuries among ages 15–16 years. The top 3 mechanisms of spinal injury were motor vehicle–related trauma (53%), sports (28%) and falls (13%). Myelopathy occurred in 12% and SCIWORA occurred in 6%. The most common spine levels injured were L2–sacrum, followed by O–C2. Associated injuries, including head injuries (29%), and fractures/dislocations (27%) occurred in 55% of children. Overall mortality was 3%. Surgical intervention was required in 14%. Conclusion The creation of a pediatric spinal injury database using this 23-year retrospective review helped identify important clinical concepts; we found that active adolescent boys had the highest risk of spine injury, that noncontiguous spine injuries occured at a rate higher than reported previously and that nonaccidental spine injuries in children are under-reported. Our findings also emphasize the importance of maintaining a higher index of suspicion with trauma patients with multiple injuries and of conducting detailed clinical and radiographic examinations of the entire spine in children with a known spinal injury. PMID:27240286

  13. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Keane JF, Lock JE, Fyler DC, eds. Nadas' Pediatric Cardiology . 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO; WB Saunders; ...

  14. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  15. Using Information Technology and Social Networking for Recruitment of Research Participants: Experience From an Exploratory Study of Pediatric Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smaldone, Arlene; Fennoy, Ilene; Reame, Nancy; Grey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting pediatric samples for research may be challenging due to parental mistrust of the research process, privacy concerns, and family time constraints. Recruitment of children with chronic and genetic conditions may further complicate the enrollment process. Objective In this paper, we describe the methodological challenges of recruiting children for research and provide an exemplar of how the use of information technology (IT) strategies with social networking may improve access to difficult-to-reach pediatric research participants. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of boys between the ages of 8 and 18 years with Klinefelter syndrome. This study presented unique challenges for recruitment of pediatric participants. These challenges are illustrated by the report of recruitment activities developed for the study. We reviewed the literature to explore the issues of recruiting children for research using conventional and IT approaches. Success rates of conventional recruitment approaches, such as brochures, flyers in medical offices, and physician referrals, are compared with IT-based outreach. The IT approaches included teleconferencing via a Klinefelter syndrome support group, services of a Web-based commercial recruitment-matching company, and the development of a university-affiliated research recruitment website with the use of paid advertising on a social networking website (Facebook). Results Over a 3-month period, dissemination of over 150 recruitment brochures and flyers placed in a large urban hospital and hospital-affiliated clinical offices, with 850 letters to physicians and patients were not successful. Within the same period, face-to-face recruitment in the clinical setting yielded 4 (9%) participants. Using Web-based and social networking approaches, 39 (91%) agreed to participate in the study. With these approaches, 5 (12%) were recruited from the national Klinefelter syndrome advocacy group, 8 (19%) from local

  16. Pediatric Neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Nithya; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children over 1 year of age. Knowledge about the age-specific types of injury and how to manage children with neurotrauma is essential to understanding and recognizing the extent and degree of injury and to optimize outcomes. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of pediatric neurotrauma. PMID:25024940

  17. Pediatric Virology

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Bernard

    1965-01-01

    Pediatric virology is not an isolàted discipline. Rather, the syndromes associated with viral infection are modified by the unique characteristics of infancy and childhood. Fortunately for the pediatrician, and certainly for children, viral infections in childhood are rarely fatal, and are almost never serious. Future efforts of the pediatrician and virologist should be directed toward increased fetal salvage as with rubella and the prevention of severe, viral lower respiratory tract disease. PMID:14298871

  18. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  19. Neurocognitive deficits and neuroimaging abnormalities are prevalent in children with lupus: clinical and research experiences at a US pediatric institution.

    PubMed

    Muscal, E; Bloom, D R; Hunter, J V; Myones, B L

    2010-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairments and neuroimaging abnormalities are frequently observed in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. There is a paucity of similar data in childhood-onset disease. We hypothesized that neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities would be prevalent in children undergoing neuropsychological evaluations. We reviewed patient neurocognitive evaluations performed at a large United States pediatric institution during the period 2001 to 2008. Records were retrieved from 24 children referred to neuropsychology due to clinical indications. Data from 15 children enrolled in a prospective structure-function association study were also analyzed. Subjects were predominantly African-American and Hispanic adolescent girls of average intelligence. aPL positivity and aspirin use was prevalent. Neurocognitive impairment was designated in 70.8% of retrospective, and 46.7% of prospective cohort patients. Deficits were seen at times of wellness, without previous neuropsychiatric lupus, and early in disease courses. Scores >1.5 standard deviations below published age-matched norms were common in tests of executive functioning, visual memory and visual-spatial planning. Features of depression were seen in 33.3% of the children in the retrospective cohort (clinical referrals). Cerebral and cerebellar volume loss was observed in a majority of blinded prospective cohort research magnetic resonance images (73.3% and 67.7% respectively). White matter hyperintensities were observed in retrospective and prospective cohort magnetic resonance images (36.6% and 46.7% respectively). Larger prospective studies that elucidate structure-function associations in children with systemic lupus erythematosus are planned. PMID:20026519

  20. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    SciTech Connect

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  1. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease: initial experience with ferumoxytol.

    PubMed

    Luhar, Aarti; Khan, Sarah; Finn, J Paul; Ghahremani, Shahnaz; Griggs, Rachel; Zaritsky, Joshua; Salusky, Isidro; Hall, Theodore R

    2016-08-01

    Ferumoxytol is an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particle that is FDA-approved for parenteral treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Because of the association between gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe chronic kidney disease, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic role of ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography in children with chronic kidney disease. Twenty children underwent 22 high-resolution ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography examinations at 3.0 T. High-resolution 3-D contrast-enhanced imaging was performed at a minimum of 3 time points following injection of ferumoxytol at a total dose of 4 mg/kg. Two blinded pediatric radiologists independently scored six named veins on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography examinations according to a three-point subjective score, where a score ≥2 was considered diagnostic. Additionally, all relevant venous structures in the included field of view were analyzed for occlusive or non-occlusive thrombosis, compression and presence of collaterals. All patients underwent ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography successfully and without adverse event. The overall scores of the reviewing radiologists for all venous structures were 2.7-2.9. In all cases, the reviewers were confident basing their diagnoses on the ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography findings. In 12 of 22 examinations, findings on follow-up imaging or invasive procedures were available to correlate with the findings on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography. There was complete concordance between the findings from follow-up imaging and invasive procedures with findings from ferumoxytol-enhanced MR venography. Ferumoxytol holds promise as a powerful alternative to gadolinium-based contrast agents for reliable, high-resolution MR venography in children with chronic kidney disease. PMID:27059620

  2. Pediatric Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelly M; Malow, Beth A

    2016-05-01

    Insomnia in children is complex and frequently multifactorial. This review discusses the major categories of insomnia as well as common causes. The consequences of insomnia, including issues with mood, behavior, and cognition, are discussed. Sleep disorders are much more prevalent in certain pediatric populations, such as children with autism spectrum disorders. The evaluation of insomnia in children includes a focused history and examination and occasionally actigraphy or polysomnography. Behavioral and pharmacological therapies are discussed, as are future directions for research and clinical practice. PMID:26378738

  3. Pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, F.N.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review with 186 references of diagnostic pediatric radiology, a speciality restricted to an age group rather than to an organ system or technique of examination, is presented. In the present chapter topics follow the basic organ system divisions with discussions of special techniques within these divisions. The diagnosis of congenital malformations, infectious diseases and neoplasms are a few of the topics discussed for the head and neck region, the vertebrae, the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary tract, and the skeleton. (KRM)

  4. The impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on survival in pediatric patients with respiratory and heart failure: review of our experience.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yuta; Osanai, Ai; Aoki, Kaori; Yamazaki, Akio; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2011-11-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is widely used for circulatory support in pediatric cardiac patients with low cardiac output and hypoxemia. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of ECMO support for respiratory and heart failure in infants and children. From April 2002 to February 2011, 14 patients aged 19 days to 20 years old (average 44 months), with body weight 2.6 kg to 71 kg (median 14.1 kg), underwent ECMO support for failing cardiac function, hypoxemia, and low cardiac output syndrome. In 12 patients, ECMO was introduced after operation for congenital heart disease (four with complete repair including Fontan circulation, and eight with palliative repair). In one patient, ECMO was introduced after partial pulmonary resection for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation because of respiratory failure. ECMO was introduced in a patient with severe heart failure caused by fulminant myocarditis. Patients' demographics, duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, additional support, and outcomes were analyzed. Ten patients (71%) were successfully weaned from ECMO, and eight patients (57%) were discharged from the hospital. The mean duration of ECMO support was 332 h (range 11-2030 h). Although management of the ECMO circuit, including anticoagulation (activated clotting time: 150-250), was conducted following the institutional practice guidelines, it was difficult to control the bleeding. Seven patients required renal replacement therapy during ECMO support using peritoneal dialysis or continuous hemodiafiltration. Five patients had additional operative procedures: systemic-pulmonary shunt in two, bidirectional Glenn takedown with right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, total cavopulmonary connection takedown, and redo ECMO in one patient each. The patient who had the longest ECMO support for respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome after lung surgery was successfully weaned from ECMO because high-frequency oscillation (HFO

  5. Pediatric palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Benini, Franca; Spizzichino, Marco; Trapanotto, Manuela; Ferrante, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The WHO defines pediatric palliative care as the active total care of the child's body, mind and spirit, which also involves giving support to the family. Its purpose is to improve the quality of life of young patients and their families, and in the vast majority of cases the home is the best place to provide such care, but for cultural, affective, educational and organizational reasons, pediatric patients rarely benefit from such an approach. In daily practice, it is clear that pediatric patients experience all the clinical, psychological, ethical and spiritual problems that severe, irreversible disease and death entail. The international literature indicates a prevalence of incurable disease annually affecting 10/10,000 young people from 0 to 19 years old, with an annual mortality rate of 1/10,000 young people from birth to 17 years old. The needs of this category of patients, recorded in investigations conducted in various parts of the world, reveal much the same picture despite geographical, cultural, organizational and social differences, particularly as concerns their wish to be treated at home and the demand for better communications between the professionals involved in their care and a greater availability of support services. Different patient care models have been tested in Italy and abroad, two of institutional type (with children staying in hospitals for treating acute disease or in pediatric hospices) and two based at home (the so-called home-based hospitalization and integrated home-based care programs). Professional expertise, training, research and organization provide the essential foundations for coping with a situation that is all too often underestimated and neglected. PMID:19490656

  6. Pediatric Palliative Care: A Personal Story

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Pediatric Palliative Care: A Personal Story NINRnews Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 250 ... and her family. The story demonstrates how palliative care can positively influence a patient's and family's experience ...

  7. An integrated knowledge translation experience: use of the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada to facilitate the development of the University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP v1.0).

    PubMed

    Moodie, Sheila T; Bagatto, Marlene P; Miller, Linda T; Kothari, Anita; Seewald, Richard; Scollie, Susan D

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric audiologists lack evidence-based, age-appropriate outcome evaluation tools with well-developed normative data that could be used to evaluate the auditory development and performance of children aged birth to 6 years with permanent childhood hearing impairment. Bagatto and colleagues recommend a battery of outcome tools that may be used with this population. This article provides results of an evaluation of the individual components of the University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP) version 1.0 by the audiologists associated with the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada. It also provides information regarding barriers and facilitators to implementing outcome measures in clinical practice. Results indicate that when compared to the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) Diary, audiologists found the PEACH Rating Scale to be a more clinically feasible evaluation tool to implement in practice from a time, task, and consistency of use perspective. Results also indicate that the LittlEARS(®) Auditory Questionnaire could be used to evaluate the auditory development and performance of children aged birth to 6 years with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI). The most cited barrier to implementation is time. The result of this social collaboration was the creation of a knowledge product, the UWO PedAMP v1.0, which has the potential to be useful to audiologists and the children and families they serve. PMID:22194315

  8. Pediatric tracheomalacia.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jose Carlos; Jennings, Russell W; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-06-01

    Tracheomalacia (TM) is defined as an increased collapsibility of the trachea due to structural anomalies of the tracheal cartilage and/or posterior membrane. Tracheomalacia has a wide range of etiologies but is most commonly present in children born with esophageal atresia and tracheal esophageal fistula. Clinical symptoms can range from minor expiratory stridor with typical barking cough to severe respiratory distress episodes to acute life-threatening events (ALTE). Although the majority of children have mild-to-moderate symptoms and will not need surgical intervention, some will need life-changing surgical treatment. This article examines the published pediatric literature on TM, discusses the details of clinical presentation, evaluation, diagnosis, and a variety of treatments. PMID:27301602

  9. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  10. [Indications and complications of central venous catheters in hematologic oncology: report of 81 cases].

    PubMed

    Abdelkefi, A; Ladeb, S; Ben Othman, T; Torjman, L; Jeddi, R; Ben Hassen, A; Ben Abdeladhim, A

    2000-11-01

    From february 1998 to july 1999, 81 central venous catheters were placed in 41 patients 28 years old (5 to 51 years). We used the subclavicular anatomic way (Aubaniac) in all cases. The total duration of catheter placement was 2905 days (median of 31 days, range 1 to 165 days). We observed 1 pneumothorax (1.2%), 3 venous thrombosis (3.7%) and 1 arterial puncture (1.2%). Catheter-related infections were seen in 8 catheters (2.7 per 1000 catheter-days). Candida was encountered in 4 cases (50%), Gram-positive cocci in 2 cases (25%), and Gram-negative bacilli in 2 cases (25%). The improvement of preventive ways, diagnosis techniques (simultaneous quantitative cultures, differential positivity time), and therapeutic methods (treatment without removal of the catheter, antibiotic lock technique, catheter exchange by guidewire) should allow a better treatment of catheter-related infections. PMID:11155387

  11. Integrative medicine in hematology/oncology: benefits, ethical considerations, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David S; Dean-Clower, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Integrative Medicine (IM), a newly emerging field, has evolved from Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). CAM refers to diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered part of conventional medicine and generally have limited scientific evidence. In the US, CAM is a multi-billion dollar, unregulated industry with potential benefits and risks to consumers, including cancer patients, who are high utilizers of complementary therapies. Patients' CAM use often is unsupervised by physicians, yet patients need the advice and guidance of their hematologists/oncologists as part of total cancer care. Ethical and legal issues physicians need to address include inquiring about and educating patients regarding potential interactions (e.g., drug-herb, radiation-antioxidant) or product contaminants, while discussing other therapies that may alleviate symptoms and/or improve quality of life. Administratively, CAM offerings in medical settings require relevant policies and procedures, such as properly credentialing practitioners and providing financial assistance counseling for those who cannot afford fee-for-service. Unlike "Alternative Medicine," the goal of IM is to combine mainstream medical therapies and CAM therapies (e.g., acupuncture, meditation, music therapy) that have some high-quality scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness. The Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO), a new international organization of oncology professionals studying and integrating effective complementary therapies in cancer care, serves as a forum for presenting scientific data on these therapies while emphasizing the importance of developing infrastructure that promotes IM principles and practices. The ultimate goal is to develop multidisciplinary expertise and therapeutic synergy between conventional and complementary therapies. PMID:16304425

  12. Pediatric diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gyll, C.; Blake, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book treats the practical problems of pediatric radiography and radiological procedures. Written jointly by a radiographer and a radiologist, it covers pediatric positioning and procedures. An extended chapter covers neonatal radiography and radiology.

  13. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement ... PENS@kellencompany.com • Copyright © 2016 Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Privacy Policy • Admin

  14. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  15. An Academic Multihealth System PGY2 Pediatric Pharmacy Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Theresa; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936

  16. An Academic Multihealth System PGY2 Pediatric Pharmacy Residency Program.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Theresa; Meyers, Rachel; Siu, Anita; Shah, Pooja; Kimler, Katelin; Sturgill, Marc; Robinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel multihealth system pediatric pharmacy residency program through the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University. Pediatric clinical pharmacy is a growing field that has seen an increase in demand for practitioners. Practice sites include freestanding children's hospitals, children's hospitals within adult hospitals, and pediatric units within adult hospitals. To accommodate a residency program in a region with no freestanding children's hospital, the pediatric faculty members at the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers University developed a multihealth system postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pediatric pharmacy residency program with 6 pediatric faculty members functioning as preceptors at their 5 respective practice sites. The multihealth system setup of the program provides the resident exposure to a multitude of patient populations, pediatric specialties, and pediatric pharmacy practices. In addition, the affiliation with Rutgers University allows an emphasis on academia with opportunities for the resident to lecture in small and large classrooms, facilitate discussion periods, assist with clinical laboratory classes, and precept pharmacy students. The resident has the unique opportunity to develop a research project with a large and diverse patient population owing to the multihealth system rotation sites. A multihealth system PGY2 residency in pediatric pharmacy provides the resident a well-rounded experience in pediatric clinical practice, research, and academia that will enhance the resident's ability to build his or her own pediatric pharmacy practice. PMID:26766936

  17. Re-envisioning pediatric nursing education.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    A majority of children are healthy and never hospitalized in acute care settings. With the challenges faced in the delivery of pediatric nursing education, is it reasonable to continue to insist that all nursing students have an acute care pediatric nursing experience? This article presents arguments for the need to re-envision pediatric nursing education to use limited pediatric nursing faculty and pediatric clinical sites in innovative ways to maintain high-quality outcomes for undergraduate nursing students. The article outlines issues, provides ideas, and advocates for increased use of available innovations. Virtual learning communities and a wealth of other new technologies provide new and inventive ways to deliver essential content. Pediatric nursing leaders need to demonstrate new pedagogies and discourage teaching specialty content in the same manner it has been taught for more than 40 years. The challenges are important to practicing nurses as well as academic faculty because of the implications for the future nursing workforce in pediatric settings and healthcare of children. PMID:23073251

  18. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for pediatric urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ganpule, Arvind P.; Mishra, Shashikant; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric urolithiasis is a management dilemma as a number of treatment options are available such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). PCNL offers good clearance rates in a single hospital stay. The concerns with PCNL include the use of large instrument in pediatric kidneys, parenchymal damage and the associated effects on renal function, radiation exposure with fluoroscopy, and the risk of major complications including sepsis and bleeding. Evolution of pediatric PCNL technique such as miniaturization of instruments, limitation of tract size and advanced intracorporeal lithotripters have resulted in this technique being widely utilized for achieving stone-free status in appropriate patients. Many of the patients in our country come from remote areas thereby requiring special considerations during treatment. This also necessitates complete clearance in a single shorter hospital stay. PCNL appears to be the optimal option available in this scenario. The literature suggests that even complex and staghorn calculi can be tackled with this approach. The choice of the method to gain access is a matter of experience and personal preference. Ultrasound offers the advantage of visualization of spleen, liver and avoids injury. Miniaturization of instruments, particularly smaller nephroscopes and the potential to use lasers will decrease the morbidity and improve the clearance rates further. In this article, we analyze the management of pediatric urolithiasis with PCNL. We discuss our technique and analyze the results, complications and technique mentioned in the contemporary literature. PMID:21369389

  19. Role of Quantitative Clinical Pharmacology in Pediatric Approval and Labeling.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Nitin; Bhattaram, Atul; Earp, Justin C; Florian, Jeffry; Krudys, Kevin; Lee, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo Yeon; Liu, Jiang; Mulugeta, Yeruk; Yu, Jingyu; Zhao, Ping; Sinha, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    Dose selection is one of the key decisions made during drug development in pediatrics. There are regulatory initiatives that promote the use of model-based drug development in pediatrics. Pharmacometrics or quantitative clinical pharmacology enables development of models that can describe factors affecting pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics in pediatric patients. This manuscript describes some examples in which pharmacometric analysis was used to support approval and labeling in pediatrics. In particular, the role of pharmacokinetic (PK) comparison of pediatric PK to adults and utilization of dose/exposure-response analysis for dose selection are highlighted. Dose selection for esomeprazole in pediatrics was based on PK matching to adults, whereas for adalimumab, exposure-response, PK, efficacy, and safety data together were useful to recommend doses for pediatric Crohn's disease. For vigabatrin, demonstration of similar dose-response between pediatrics and adults allowed for selection of a pediatric dose. Based on model-based pharmacokinetic simulations and safety data from darunavir pediatric clinical studies with a twice-daily regimen, different once-daily dosing regimens for treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected pediatric subjects 3 to <12 years of age were evaluated. The role of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) in predicting pediatric PK is rapidly evolving. However, regulatory review experiences and an understanding of the state of science indicate that there is a lack of established predictive performance of PBPK in pediatric PK prediction. Moving forward, pharmacometrics will continue to play a key role in pediatric drug development contributing toward decisions pertaining to dose selection, trial designs, and assessing disease similarity to adults to support extrapolation of efficacy. PMID:27079249

  20. Insulin pump treatment in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: experiences of the German working group for insulin pump treatment in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kapellen, Thomas M; Klinkert, Christoph; Heidtmann, Bettina; Jakisch, Bela; Haberland, Holger; Hofer, Sabine E; Holl, Reinhard W

    2010-05-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is frequently used in children and adolescents. This review discusses pump treatment, as analyzed by the German Working Group for Insulin Pump Treatment in Pediatric Patients. This group has published several papers, in collaboration with the DPV-Wiss (Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdaten) group. The review includes practical aspects of pump treatment and recent results of CSII in Germany, and compares these with American pump treatment. PMID:20463419

  1. Exposure of early pediatric trainees to blood and marrow transplantation leads to higher recruitment to the field.

    PubMed

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-09-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) in the United States as 10,000 per year. Although the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by the year 2015, there are several barriers to meeting this goal, including the need to recruit more health care personnel, including BMT physicians. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we examined why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter the field and why others did not. We conducted a Web-based survey among pediatric hematology/oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to identify the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. Out of 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin), 94 self-identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians, and 53 as PHO trainees. The PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than two-thirds of PHO providers reported providing BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in training was significantly higher among BMT providers compared with PHO providers (51% versus 18% in medical school [P < .0001]; 70% versus 50% during residency [P < .005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ between the 2 groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) by 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers than PHO providers reported current involvement in the education of medical students and residents (76% versus 98%; P < .0001). Of the 53 trainees who responded, 64% reported not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% identified inadequate exposure to BMT before PHO fellowship as the reason behind this decision. Only 26% reported receiving exposure to the BMT field while in medical school, and 43% reported exposure during residency. The 2 most

  2. Exposure of Early Pediatric Trainees to Blood and Marrow Transplantation Leads to Higher Recruitment to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Shereck, Evan; Shenoy, Shalini; Pulsipher, Michael; Burns, Linda; Bracey, Arthur; Chell, Jeffrey; Snyder, Edward; Nemecek, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) projects the need for allogeneic unrelated blood and marrow transplants (BMT) in the United States is 10,000 per year. While the NMDP is preparing to facilitate that number by 2015, there are a number of barriers to meeting this need including recruiting additional health care personnel including BMT providers. To learn how best to recruit BMT physicians, we sought to understand why practicing BMT physicians chose to enter BMT, and why others did not. We conducted a web-based survey amongst Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (PHO) and BMT physician providers and trainees to determine the factors influencing their decision to choose or not choose a career in BMT. There were 259 respondents (48% male, 74% of Caucasian origin); 94 identified as BMT physicians, 112 as PHO physicians and 53 as PHO trainees. PHO and BMT providers spent an average of 53% of their time in clinical activities. More than 2/3 of PHO providers stated that they provide BMT services at their institutions, most commonly for inpatient coverage (73%). The proportion of providers exposed to BMT early in their training was significantly higher amongst BMT providers than PHO providers (51% vs. 18% during medical school [p<0.0001] and 70% vs. 50% during residency [p < 0.005]). Exposure during fellowship (94%) did not differ amongst groups. The decision to pursue a career in BMT was made before fellowship (medical school or residency) in 50% of the respondents. A lower proportion of BMT providers reported currently being involved in education of medical students and residents compared to PHO providers (98% vs. 76%, p<0.0001). Of 53 trainees, 64% reported that they were not contemplating a career in BMT. Of these, 68% stated that inadequate exposure to BMT prior to PHO fellowship was the reason. Only 26% reported BMT exposure in medical school and 43% during residency. The two most common reasons for the choice of a BMT career were the degree of intellectual and

  3. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 5th communication: a single-blind study on antipyretic effect and tolerability of suprofen syrup versus metamizole drops in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, M; Longhi, R; Besana, R; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    In a single-blind study, 60 children in two age groups (30 patients: 6 months to 3 years; 30 patients: 3 years to 12 years), were orally treated with either alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup 10 mg/ml or metamizole drops 50% for a maximum period of 4 days, up to 4 times a day. The children presented with high fever due to bacterial or virus infections. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated at the beginning and then 30 min, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first administration of the respective drug. Significant differences between the drugs were found for all variables; this demonstrated that with suprofen the antipyretic effect set in more rapidly than with the reference drug. No side-effects were observed in children treated with suprofen syrup. Two patients showed adverse effects, i.e. sweating and hypotension, during the treatment with metamizole. Due to its good antipyretic effect and good tolerability, suprofen appears to be particularly useful for symptomatic treatment of pediatric patients with fever caused by bacterial or virus infections. PMID:3527181

  4. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  5. Use of Weighted Vests in Pediatric Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Laurette J.; Moulton, Heather J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate pediatric occupational therapists' general experience and practice with weighted vests and their impressions about whether weighted vests are effective in changing specific behaviors of children with whom they have used weighted vests. A survey was mailed to a random sample of 514 pediatric occupational…

  6. Laparoscopic exploration in pediatric surgery emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Drăghici, L; Popescu, M; Liţescu, M

    2010-01-01

    The laparoscopic approach of pediatric surgery emergencies represents a specific preoccupation in hospitals everywhere in the world. Nowadays, when confronted with this pathology, pediatric surgeons are able to apply certain well–defined therapeutic protocols, depending on the technical equipment at their disposal and their laparoscopic expertise and training. We hereby present some of the surgical pediatric emergencies that have been subjected to minimally invasive celioscopic techniques, in the Department of Pediatric Surgery ‘Maria Sklodowska Curie’ Hospital, from August 1999 to July 2007. Out of 83 exploratory laparoscopies, 12 were performed for emergency pathology, other than acute appendicitis (in its various forms, including peritonitis) or acute cholecystitis. However, during the above–mentioned period, the number of therapeutic laparoscopies for emergencies has grown significantly (239 from a total of 663 laparoscopies), reflecting to a large extent the activity of a clinic with an emergency surgery profile. The authors conclude that exploratory laparoscopies in pediatric surgery emergencies are suited for surgical teams with a solid experience in celioscopy and a certain professional maturity, necessary to correctly appreciate the surgical and anesthetic risks involved by each individual case. It is not recommended that inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons embark on the ‘adventure’ of this minimally invasive approach for this type of pathology. Only when the training and learning process is fully and correctly completed, specialists are offered the advantage of continuing a celioscopic exploration by performing a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure, even for a pediatric emergency case. PMID:20302204

  7. Systemic Treatment of Pediatric Psoriasis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Balato, Anna; Ayala, Fabio; Lembo, Serena; Villani, Alessia; Balato, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory skin disease, affecting 1-3% of the white population. Although the existence of two psoriasis incidence peaks has been suggested (one in adolescence before 20 years of age and another in adulthood), its onset may occur at any age, including childhood and adolescence, in which the incidence is now estimated at 40.8 per 100,000. As for adult psoriasis, pediatric psoriasis has recently been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased waist circumference percentiles and metabolic laboratory abnormalities, warranting early monitoring and lifestyle modifications. In addition, due to psoriasis' chronic nature and frequently occurring relapses, psoriatic patients tend to have an impaired quality of life, often requiring long-term treatment. Therefore, education of both pediatric patients and their parents is essential to successful and safe disease management. Given the lack of officially approved therapies, the very limited evidence-based data from randomized controlled trials, and the absence of standardized guidelines, to date, pediatric psoriasis treatment is primarily based on published case reports, case series, guidelines for adult psoriasis, expert opinions and experience with these drugs in other pediatric disorders coming from the disciplines of rheumatology, gastroenterology and oncology. This review focuses on the use of systemic treatments in pediatric psoriasis and their specific features, analyzing the few literature evidences available, expanding the treatment repertoire and guiding dermatologists in better managing of recalcitrant pediatric psoriasis. PMID:27085539

  8. Compassion fatigue in pediatric palliative care providers.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Mary T

    2007-10-01

    The experience of compassion fatigue is an expected and common response to the professional task of routinely caring for children at the end of life. Symptoms of compassion fatigue often mimic trauma reactions. Implementing strategies that span personal, professional, and organizational domains can help protect health care providers from the damaging effects of compassion fatigue. Providing pediatric palliative care within a constructive and supportive team can help caregivers deal with the relational challenges of compassion fatigue. Finally, any consideration of the toll of providing pediatric palliative care must be balanced with a consideration of the parallel experience of compassion satisfaction. PMID:17933615

  9. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  10. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  11. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  12. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  13. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H. Theodore

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasound is ideally suited to the evaluation of the pediatric musculoskeletal system because of the increased ratio of cartilage to bone in the immature skeleton. The purpose of this article is to review the current uses of musculoskeletal ultrasound in pediatric patients. Hip sonography is widely accepted; other applications are increasing in popularity. PMID:11387111

  14. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  15. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  16. Pediatric Care Online: A Pediatric Point-of-Care Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric Care Online is the American Academy of Pediatrics' point-of-care tool designed for health care providers. Pediatric Care Online builds on content from Red Book Online and Pediatric Patient Education and features Quick Reference topic pages for more than 250 pediatric health care topics. The multitude of resources available within Pediatric Care Online will be reviewed in this column, and a sample search will be used to illustrate the type of information available within this point-of-care pediatric resource. PMID:27054536

  17. Incidence and long-term outcome of postradiotherapy moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors: a single institute experience in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Hung; Chang, Feng-Chi; Liang, Muh-Lii; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Wong, Tai-Tong; Yen, Sang-Hue; Chen, Yi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the incidence and long-term outcome of moyamoya syndrome in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors after receiving cranial radiotherapy (RT) in a single institute in Taiwan. The complete medical records, medical images, and RT notes of 391 pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with cranial RT between January 1975 and December 2005 in Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH), Taiwan, were entered into an electronic registry and reviewed. Eight (2%) cases of post-RT moyamoya syndrome were identified in the sample of 391 patients. The median latency was 3 years post-RT. Among the eight patients, three had craniopharyngioma, two had optic glioma, two had medulloblastoma, and one had a suprasellar astrocytoma. The prescribed physical doses of RT were in the range of 40-54 Gy. The incidence was highest in those with optic glioma (0.039/person-year), followed by craniopharyngioma (0.013/person-year), astrocytoma (0.003/person-year), and medulloblastoma (0.002/person-year). No patients died of vasculopathy. No difference in crude incidence was found between our results and those of other series. The incidence of moyamoya syndrome was diagnosis dependent, with the highest incidence among patients with optic glioma. No regional difference in incidence was found. Long-term, stable neurological function may be achieved following timely surgical intervention. PMID:27265024

  18. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - USP (HRAC-USP) - Part 2: Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, José Alberto de Souza; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; OLIVEIRA, Thais Marchini; LAURIS, Rita de Cássia Moura Carvalho; de ALMEIDA, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; NEVES, Lucimara Teixeira; TRINDADE-SUEDAM, Ivy Kiemle; YAEDÚ, Renato Yassutaka Faria; SOARES, Simone; PINTO, João Henrique Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the pediatric dentistry and orthodontic treatment protocol of rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate patients performed at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP). Pediatric dentistry provides oral health information and should be able to follow the child with cleft lip and palate since the first months of life until establishment of the mixed dentition, craniofacial growth and dentition development. Orthodontic intervention starts in the mixed dentition, at 8-9 years of age, for preparing the maxillary arch for secondary bone graft procedure (SBGP). At this stage, rapid maxillary expansion is performed and a fixed palatal retainer is delivered before SBGP. When the permanent dentition is completed, comprehensive orthodontic treatment is initiated aiming tooth alignment and space closure. Maxillary permanent canines are commonly moved mesially in order to substitute absent maxillary lateral incisors. Patients with complete cleft lip and palate and poor midface growth will require orthognatic surgery for reaching adequate anteroposterior interarch relationship and good facial esthetics. PMID:22666849

  19. Debriefing in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Debriefing is a conversational session that revolves around the sharing and examining of information after a specific event has taken place. Debriefing may follow a simulated or actual experience and provides a forum for the learners to reflect on the experience and learn from their mistakes. Originating from the military and aviation industry, it is used on a daily basis to reflect and improve the performance in other high-risk industries. Expert debriefers may facilitate the reflection by asking open-ended questions to probe into the framework of the learners and apply lessons learned to future situations. Debriefing has been proven to improve clinical outcomes such as the return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest and the teaching of teamwork and communication in pediatrics. Incorporating debriefing into clinical practice would facilitate the cultural change necessary to talk more openly about team performance and learn from near misses, errors, and successes that will improve not only clinical outcome but also patient safety. PMID:25774195

  20. Odontogenic lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi-Gen; Shi, Shuang; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate our 20-year experience of pediatric odontogenic lesions. Pediatric patients with a diagnosis of odontogenic lesion were identified. Three hundred ten patients were odontogenic; dentigerous cyst was seen in 62.0% of the cases. Most (70.2%) of them occurred in mixed dentition period, and it had a male preponderance. Odontogenic keratocystic tumor occurred in the permanent dentition period. It had an equal site distribution. Odontoma was seen in 20.0% of the cases. Its site of predilection was the mandible. Ameloblastoma was the most common odontogenic tumor. Most of the cases occurred in the permanent dentition period. It affected the male and female equally. Calcifying epithelioma odontogenic tumor was seen in 11.8% of the cases. All the lesions occurred in the primary dentition period. It had no sex or site preponderance. Myxoma was seen in 3.6% of the cases. It was most common in the permanent dentition period, and it was more frequent in the male. Iliac crest bone graft was successfully performed in 28 patients, postoperative infection occurred in 2 patients, and no donor-site dysfunctions were reported. The observed differences in lesion type and distribution in this study compared with previous researches may be attributable to genetic and geographic variation in the populations studied. Iliac crest bone graft was suggested for pediatric mandible reconstruction. PMID:24785745

  1. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Y; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurologic disease that is challenging to diagnose and treat. Although there are many clinical parallels between pediatric-onset MS and adult-onset MS, there is also accumulating evidence of distinguishing clinical features that may, in part, arise from development-specific, neuroimmune processes governing MS pathogenesis in children. Here the authors describe the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric MS, with a particular focus on describing clinical features and highlighting new developments that promise a better understanding of pediatric MS pathogenesis. An important task that lies ahead for pediatric neurologists is better understanding the early gene-environment interaction that precipitates the first demyelinating event in pediatric MS. This area is of particular importance for understanding the MS etiology and the natural history of pediatric MS. Such understanding should in turn inform new developments in diagnostic tools, long-term therapies, and much-needed biomarkers. Such biomarkers are not only valuable for defining the disease onset, but also for monitoring both the treatment response and a disease evolution that spans multiple decades in children with MS. PMID:27116721

  2. Pediatric ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Iki; Burki, Sarah; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David Luis Simon

    2015-12-01

    The domain of pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has recently gained considerable attention. Despite the fact that, historically, the practice of pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has lagged behind that of adult patients, this gap between the two groups is narrowing. Currently, the Berlin EXCOR VAD is the only pediatric-specific durable VAD approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The prospective Berlin Heart trial demonstrated a successful outcome, either bridge to transplantation (BTT), or in rare instances, bridge to recovery, in approximately 90% of children. Also noted during the trial was, however, a high incidence of adverse events such as embolic stroke, bleeding and infection. This has incentivized some pediatric centers to utilize adult implantable continuous-flow devices, for instance the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD, in children. As a result of this paradigm shift, the outlook of pediatric VAD support has dramatically changed: Treatment options previously unavailable to children, including outpatient management and even destination therapy, have now been becoming a reality. The sustained demand for continued device miniaturization and technological refinements is anticipated to extend the range of options available to children-HeartMate 3 and HeartWare MVAD are two examples of next generation VADs with potential pediatric application, both of which are presently undergoing clinical trials. A pediatric-specific continuous-flow device is also on the horizon: the redesigned Infant Jarvik VAD (Jarvik 2015) is undergoing pre-clinical testing, with a randomized clinical trial anticipated to follow thereafter. The era of pediatric VADs has begun. In this article, we discuss several important aspects of contemporary VAD therapy, with a particular focus on challenges unique to the pediatric population. PMID:26793341

  3. Pediatric ventricular assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Burki, Sarah; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David Luis Simon

    2015-01-01

    The domain of pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has recently gained considerable attention. Despite the fact that, historically, the practice of pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has lagged behind that of adult patients, this gap between the two groups is narrowing. Currently, the Berlin EXCOR VAD is the only pediatric-specific durable VAD approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The prospective Berlin Heart trial demonstrated a successful outcome, either bridge to transplantation (BTT), or in rare instances, bridge to recovery, in approximately 90% of children. Also noted during the trial was, however, a high incidence of adverse events such as embolic stroke, bleeding and infection. This has incentivized some pediatric centers to utilize adult implantable continuous-flow devices, for instance the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD, in children. As a result of this paradigm shift, the outlook of pediatric VAD support has dramatically changed: Treatment options previously unavailable to children, including outpatient management and even destination therapy, have now been becoming a reality. The sustained demand for continued device miniaturization and technological refinements is anticipated to extend the range of options available to children—HeartMate 3 and HeartWare MVAD are two examples of next generation VADs with potential pediatric application, both of which are presently undergoing clinical trials. A pediatric-specific continuous-flow device is also on the horizon: the redesigned Infant Jarvik VAD (Jarvik 2015) is undergoing pre-clinical testing, with a randomized clinical trial anticipated to follow thereafter. The era of pediatric VADs has begun. In this article, we discuss several important aspects of contemporary VAD therapy, with a particular focus on challenges unique to the pediatric population. PMID:26793341

  4. Pediatric autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Chelimsky, Gisela G; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2006-07-01

    The scope of pediatric autonomic disorders is not well recognized. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. PMID:16818580

  5. Genetic pediatric retinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Say, Emil Anthony T.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary pediatric retinal diseases are a diverse group of disorders with pathologies affecting different cellular structures or retinal development. Many can mimic typical pediatric retinal disease such as retinopathy of prematurity, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema. Multisystem involvement is frequently seen in hereditary pediatric retinal disease. A thorough history coupled with a good physical examination can oftentimes lead the ophthalmologist or pediatrician to the correct genetic test and correct diagnosis. In some instances, evaluation of parents or siblings may be required to determine familial involvement when the history is inconclusive or insufficient and clinical suspicion is high.

  6. Efficacy and safety of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine for the treatment of meningeal relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: experience of two pediatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Parasole, Rosanna; Menna, Giuseppe; Marra, Nicoletta; Petruzziello, Fara; Locatelli, Franco; Mangione, Argia; Misuraca, Aldo; Buffardi, Salvatore; Di Cesare-Merlone, Alessandra; Poggi, Vincenzo

    2008-08-01

    The treatment of meningeal relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a challenging clinical problem. Liposomal cytarabine (DepoCyte) permits to decrease frequency of lumbar punctures, without loss of efficacy, because intrathecal levels of the drug remain cytotoxic for up to 14 days. We investigated the efficacy and safety of intrathecal DepoCyte in six children with meningeal relapse, treated in two pediatric institutions. DepoCyte was well tolerated in all patients, who achieved complete clearance of blasts from the cerebrospinal fluid after the first three intrathecal drug administrations. Five of the six patients were concurrently treated with high-dose administration of systemic cytarabine, without additional neurological side effects. Our results suggest that DepoCyte is a valid option for children with ALL experiencing meningeal relapse; it deserves further investigation in intensive treatment regimens, taking into due consideration potential neurotoxicity. PMID:18766969

  7. Posttraumatic Growth in Parents and Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Picoraro, Joseph A.; Womer, James W.; Kazak, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric medical experiences are potentially traumatic but may lead to psychological growth. Objective: The study objective was to synthesize the published literature regarding posttraumatic growth (PTG) in parents and patients with serious pediatric illness (SPI) into a conceptual model. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Sociological Abstracts in December 2012 to identify articles on stress or trauma caused by medical events with PTG as an outcome, reviewing articles pertaining to the pediatric population. We additionally reviewed articles outside pediatric medicine that described a model of PTG. Results: Of the 605 articles identified, 55 met inclusion criteria, 26 of which examined parents or pediatric patients. Parents and children may experience PTG following medical trauma through a combination of cognitive and affective processing of their subjective experience. Components of SPI-PTG are unclear, but may include greater appreciation of life, improved interpersonal relationships, greater personal strength, recognition of new possibilities in one's life course, spiritual or religious growth, and reconstruction of a positive body image. Individual characteristics, and the level of social support, may affect the likelihood that SPI-PTG will occur. SPI-PTG in siblings and other family members has not been well studied. Conclusions: SPI-PTG is an important but understudied and inadequately understood phenomenon affecting children with SPI and their family members. Research should focus on clarifying SPI-PTG domains, creating measurement instruments, assessing SPI-PTG across the pediatric age range and among family members, and improving our understanding of and ability to positively intervene regarding the cognitive processes of rumination, sense making, and benefit finding. PMID:24443768

  8. Radiofrequency catheter ablation in pediatric patients with supraventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, L A; Lobban, J H; Schmidt, S B

    1995-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of foci leading to abnormal cardiac rhythms is rapidly becoming the procedure of choice in the management of arrhythmias in adults. This report reviews our initial experience with RF ablation in the pediatric population. PMID:8533398

  9. Global health training for pediatric residents.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bonita; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Armstrong, Robert W; Sectish, Theodore C; Palfrey, Judith; Nelson, Brett D; Herlihy, Julie M; Alden, Errol; Keenan, William; Szilagyi, Peter

    2008-12-01

    The FOPO Global Health Working Group concludes that global health experiences are important for pediatric residency training and offers five recommendations: 1) There is a need to articulate clearly the rationale supporting the creation of global health experiences in pediatric residency programs. 2) A core curriculum needs to be established for a consistent and meaningful educational experience. The curriculum should include the underlying principles discussed above and should engage representatives from potential host countries in the development of the curriculum. 3) Promoting the opportunity for a global health experience in all residency programs will require a collaborative effort across programs, perhaps at the national level through the Association of Pediatric Program Directors or through the already established Global Health Education Consortium (GHEC).34 A clearinghouse for curricula and for host organizations/institutions both abroad and within the United States and Canada should be established. 4) Global health training needs to be studied rigorously, and lessons learned should be shared. 5) Pediatric residency programs should respect the rights, autonomy, and confidentiality of patients and families in clinical care, research, and operational programs. The FOPO Global Health Working Group looks forward to serving as a focal point to promote discussion on this important issue to the health of our world's children. PMID:19143329

  10. Types and Treatment of Pediatric Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gloria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of pediatric sleep disturbances with emphases on types and treatments. Relationships between sleep disorders and comorbid conditions function to exacerbate and maintain both disorders. An estimated 20% of teenagers experience chronic partial sleep deprivation, resulting in problems with memory, attention, and…

  11. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  12. A Rural Primary Care Pediatric Residency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kairys, Steven; Newell, Priscilla

    1985-01-01

    The primary care pediatric residency program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center has developed a training program in rural primary care. Residents experience the many facets of rural practice and are introduced to community-oriented approaches to child health care. (Author/MLW)

  13. Compassion Fatigue in Pediatric Nurses.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jill; Polivka, Barbara; Smoot, Elizabeth Ann; Owens, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Compassion fatigue in nursing has been shown to impact the quality of patient care and employee satisfaction and engagement. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and severity of compassion fatigue among pediatric nurses and variations in prevalence based on respondent demographics using a cross-sectional survey design. Nurses under 40 years of age, with 6-10 years of experience and/or working in a medical-surgical unit had significantly lower compassion satisfaction and higher levels of burnout. Secondary traumatic stress from caring for children with severe illness or injury or end of life was a key contributor to compassion fatigue. PMID:25800590

  14. Pediatric sciatic neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M.M.; Escolar, D.M.; Darras, B.; Jones, H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The incidence, cause, and prognosis of sciatic neuropathy in children is not well understood. We report our 30-year experience of 53 patients with pediatric sciatic neuropathies (SN). Methods: Prospective review of the history, physical examination, electrophysiologic findings, and clinical course of children with SN. Results: The etiology of SN injury was varied and included trauma (13), iatrogenic causes (13) (8 orthopedic surgeries and 5 miscellaneous surgeries), prolonged extrinsic compression and immobilization (6), tumors (7), vascular (5), idiopathic and progressive (4), infantile and nonprogressive (2), and unknown, presumed postviral (3). Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated abnormalities in motor conduction studies of the peroneal nerve in 44/53 (83%) or tibial nerve in 35/51 (67%). Sensory conduction studies were abnormal in sural nerve in 34 of 43 cases (79%), and superficial peroneal nerves in 15/25 (60%). Needle EMG was abnormal in peroneal innervated muscles in all subjects, in tibial nerve innervated muscles in 43/51 (84%), and in the hamstrings in 18/29 (62%). Prognosis for recovery was variable and depended on the etiology and the severity of the nerve injury. Conclusions: SN is an uncommon mononeuropathy in children. The causes of SN are varied in children compared to adults. Electrophysiologic studies in children may be limited by poor tolerance but play an important role in establishing the diagnosis. PMID:21403109

  15. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduced appetite Alternate Names Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - ... of the aorta Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery Patent ductus arteriosus Pediatric heart surgery Tetralogy of Fallot ...

  16. American Academy of Pediatrics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bright Futures Medical Home Clinical Support Pediatric Care Online Patient Education Online Bright Futures Medical Home Connected Kids Red Book ... Finding a Job Career Support Professional Education PediaLink/Online Education Maintenance of Certification Professional Education Publications MOC | ...

  17. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  18. Pediatric oncology in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Shamvil

    2012-03-01

    Pediatric oncology in Pakistan has developed over last decade with substantial increase in the facility for treatment and number of expertise. Though large numbers of children still do not reach treatment center more children have now access to quality cancer treatment. There has been gradual improvement in Pediatric oncology nursing and allied services. Pediatric Palliative care in Pakistan is in initial phase of development. Pediatric Oncology services are largely supported by philanthropists. Children Cancer Hospital a project of Children Cancer Foundation Pakistan Trust is not only providing quality treatment to every child regardless of paying ability but also playing a pivotal role in capacity building and creating awareness about childhood cancer in Pakistan. PMID:22357147

  19. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  20. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  1. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  2. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sprue Association/USA Gluten Intoloerance Group of North America NASPGHAN Foundation Supporters Educational support for the NASPGHAN ... NASPGHAN) Celiac Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pediatric IBD Nutrition & Obesity Reflux & GERD Research & Grants Our Supporters Site Map © ...

  3. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... after the baby is born. For others, your child may be able to safely wait for months ...

  4. NIH Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, ethnic group, citizenship, or residence. We can provide ... studies to help understand pediatric rheumatic diseases. Natural history studies, for example, are designed to study how ...

  5. Integrative Nutrition for Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Erlichman, Jessi; Hall, Amanda; Dean, Amy; Godwin, Bridget; Mascarenhas, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Food is essential for life. Yet, poor food choices may cause poor health. Dietary manipulation is frequently integrated into the management of common chronic pediatric conditions. Parents seek dietary information to have more control over child's condition and to avoid side effects of medicine. This article reviews selected diets for a few common pediatric disorders including eczema, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, headache and migraine, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:26832886

  6. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nuclear medicine as applied in pediatric patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of scintigraphy of organ systems for diagnostic purposes. The topics covered are: scintigraphy of skeleton, bone marrow spleen, liver, thyroid, lungs, urinary tract, brain, heart and cerebrospinal fluid. The pathology and scintigraphy of lacrimal glands is also covered. Other diagnostic techniques of radiology in pediatrics are also briefly discussed for comparative evaluation.

  7. Correlative pediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Delbeke, D.; Sandler, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered ideal imaging modalities for pediatric patients. The future is even more promising for pediatric imaging with the development of newer and improved radiopharmaceuticals, instrumentation and diagnostic modalities such as positron emission tomography, labeled monoclonal antibodies, and faster dynamic and contrast enhanced MRI methods. However, correlation of more conventional imaging modalities with nuclear medicine, ultrasound and MRI remain essential for optimal patient care. 43 references.

  8. Pediatric Open Fractures.

    PubMed

    Trionfo, Arianna; Cavanaugh, Priscilla K; Herman, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    Open fractures in children are rare and are typically associated with better prognoses compared with their adult equivalents. Regardless, open fractures pose a challenge because of the risk of healing complications and infection, leading to significant morbidity even in the pediatric population. Therefore, the management of pediatric open fractures requires special consideration. This article comprehensively reviews the initial evaluation, classification, treatment, outcomes, and controversies of open fractures in children. PMID:27241379

  9. Pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies.

    PubMed

    Odgren, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal examinations are common procedures in many radiology departments. Performing this examination on pediatric patients requires understanding the formation of the gastrointestinal tract and the various disease processes and anatomical variances that can occur. The examination also requires a thorough patient history. This article discusses embryologic development and anatomy of the small bowel and colon, disease processes and conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal tract examinations performed on the pediatric and neonatal patient. PMID:24806054

  10. Organizing national responses for rare blood disorders: the Italian experience with sickle cell disease in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent hemoglobinopathy worldwide but remains a rare blood disorder in most western countries. Recommendations for standard of care have been produced in the United States, the United Kingdom and France, where this disease is relatively frequent because of earlier immigration from Africa. These recommendations have changed the clinical course of SCD but can be difficult to apply in other contexts. The Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology (AIEOP) decided to develop a common national response to the rising number of SCD patients in Italy with the following objectives: 1) to create a national working group focused on pediatric SCD, and 2) to develop tailored guidelines for the management of SCD that could be accessed and practiced by those involved in the care of children with SCD in Italy. Methods Guidelines, adapted to the Italian social context and health system, were developed by 22 pediatric hematologists representing 54 AIEOP centers across Italy. The group met five times for a total of 128 hours in 22 months; documents and opinions were circulated via web. Results Recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of the most relevant complications of SCD in childhood adapted to the Italian context and health system were produced. For each topic, a pathway of diagnosis and care is detailed, and a selection of health management issues crucial to Italy or different from other countries is described (i.e., use of alternatives for infection prophylaxis because of the lack of oral penicillin in Italy). Conclusions Creating a network of physicians involved in the day-to-day care of children with SCD is feasible in a country where it remains rare. Providing hematologists, primary and secondary care physicians, and caregivers across the country with web-based guidelines for the management of SCD tailored to the Italian context is the first step in building a sustainable response to a rare but

  11. Pediatric integrative medicine: pediatrics' newest subspecialty?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrative medicine is defined as relationship-centered care that focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, healthcare professionals and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing, including evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine. Pediatric integrative medicine (PIM) develops and promotes this approach within the field of pediatrics. We conducted a survey to identify and describe PIM programs within academic children’s hospitals across North America. Key barriers and opportunities were identified for the growth and development of academic PIM initiatives in the US and Canada. Methods Academic PIM programs were identified by email and eligible for inclusion if they had each of educational, clinical, and research activities. Program directors were interviewed by telephone regarding their clinical, research, educational, and operational aspects. Results Sixteen programs were included. Most (75%) programs provided both inpatient and outpatient services. Seven programs operated with less than 1 FTE clinical personnel. Credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers varied substantially across the programs and between inpatient and outpatient services. Almost all (94%) programs offered educational opportunities for residents in pediatrics and/or family medicine. One fifth (20%) of the educational programs were mandatory for medical students. Research was conducted in a range of topics, but half of the programs reported lack of research funding and/or time. Thirty-one percent of the programs relied on fee-for-service income. Conclusions Pediatric integrative medicine is emerging as a new subspecialty to better help address 21st century patient concerns. PMID:22894682

  12. Molecular analysis of Fanconi anemia: the experience of the Bone Marrow Failure Study Group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Onco-Hematology

    PubMed Central

    De Rocco, Daniela; Bottega, Roberta; Cappelli, Enrico; Cavani, Simona; Criscuolo, Maria; Nicchia, Elena; Corsolini, Fabio; Greco, Chiara; Borriello, Adriana; Svahn, Johanna; Pillon, Marta; Mecucci, Cristina; Casazza, Gabriella; Verzegnassi, Federico; Cugno, Chiara; Locasciulli, Anna; Farruggia, Piero; Longoni, Daniela; Ramenghi, Ugo; Barberi, Walter; Tucci, Fabio; Perrotta, Silverio; Grammatico, Paola; Hanenberg, Helmut; Della Ragione, Fulvio; Dufour, Carlo; Savoia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease characterized by congenital malformations, pancytopenia, cancer predisposition, and sensitivity to cross-linking agents. The molecular diagnosis of Fanconi anemia is relatively complex for several aspects including genetic heterogeneity with mutations in at least 16 different genes. In this paper, we report the mutations identified in 100 unrelated probands enrolled into the National Network of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematoly and Oncology. In approximately half of these cases, mutational screening was carried out after retroviral complementation analyses or protein analysis. In the other half, the analysis was performed on the most frequently mutated genes or using a next generation sequencing approach. We identified 108 distinct variants of the FANCA, FANCG, FANCC, FANCD2, and FANCB genes in 85, 9, 3, 2, and 1 families, respectively. Despite the relatively high number of private mutations, 45 of which are novel Fanconi anemia alleles, 26% of the FANCA alleles are due to 5 distinct mutations. Most of the mutations are large genomic deletions and nonsense or frameshift mutations, although we identified a series of missense mutations, whose pathogenetic role was not always certain. The molecular diagnosis of Fanconi anemia is still a tiered procedure that requires identifying candidate genes to avoid useless sequencing. Introduction of next generation sequencing strategies will greatly improve the diagnostic process, allowing a rapid analysis of all the genes. PMID:24584348

  13. Molecular analysis of Fanconi anemia: the experience of the Bone Marrow Failure Study Group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Onco-Hematology.

    PubMed

    De Rocco, Daniela; Bottega, Roberta; Cappelli, Enrico; Cavani, Simona; Criscuolo, Maria; Nicchia, Elena; Corsolini, Fabio; Greco, Chiara; Borriello, Adriana; Svahn, Johanna; Pillon, Marta; Mecucci, Cristina; Casazza, Gabriella; Verzegnassi, Federico; Cugno, Chiara; Locasciulli, Anna; Farruggia, Piero; Longoni, Daniela; Ramenghi, Ugo; Barberi, Walter; Tucci, Fabio; Perrotta, Silverio; Grammatico, Paola; Hanenberg, Helmut; Della Ragione, Fulvio; Dufour, Carlo; Savoia, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Fanconi anemia is an inherited disease characterized by congenital malformations, pancytopenia, cancer predisposition, and sensitivity to cross-linking agents. The molecular diagnosis of Fanconi anemia is relatively complex for several aspects including genetic heterogeneity with mutations in at least 16 different genes. In this paper, we report the mutations identified in 100 unrelated probands enrolled into the National Network of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematoly and Oncology. In approximately half of these cases, mutational screening was carried out after retroviral complementation analyses or protein analysis. In the other half, the analysis was performed on the most frequently mutated genes or using a next generation sequencing approach. We identified 108 distinct variants of the FANCA, FANCG, FANCC, FANCD2, and FANCB genes in 85, 9, 3, 2, and 1 families, respectively. Despite the relatively high number of private mutations, 45 of which are novel Fanconi anemia alleles, 26% of the FANCA alleles are due to 5 distinct mutations. Most of the mutations are large genomic deletions and nonsense or frameshift mutations, although we identified a series of missense mutations, whose pathogenetic role was not always certain. The molecular diagnosis of Fanconi anemia is still a tiered procedure that requires identifying candidate genes to avoid useless sequencing. Introduction of next generation sequencing strategies will greatly improve the diagnostic process, allowing a rapid analysis of all the genes. PMID:24584348

  14. Rituximab Desensitization in Pediatric Patients: Results of a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joyce P.; Platt, Craig D.

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) primarily used to treat oncologic and autoinflammatory conditions. Although hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) and desensitization protocols to mAbs have been well described in adults, the experience in the pediatric population is very limited. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of desensitization to rituximab in the pediatric population at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the experience with HSRs and desensitization to rituximab during a 5-year period in our tertiary care pediatric center, including reaction evaluation, premedication regimens, and desensitization procedures and protocols. A total of 17 desensitizations to rituximab were performed in three patients. A 14-year-old patient underwent successful desensitization to rituximab using a published adult protocol without incident. Two younger patients (ages 7 years and 23 months) experienced significant reactions during initial desensitization attempts. Therefore, we designed a modified desensitization protocol to rituximab, with particular attention to the rate of infusion as mg/kg/h. This new patient weight-based protocol was successfully used in a total of 13 desensitizations in these two patients. Desensitization to rituximab was a safe and effective procedure in our pediatric population. We present a new patient weight-based desensitization protocol for pediatric patients who develop HSRs to rituximab, with particular usefulness for younger pediatric patients and potential utility in pediatric patients with HSRs to other mAbs.

  15. Simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of pediatric cancer: Preliminary experience and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pugmire, Brian S; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Lim, Ruth; Friedmann, Alison M; Huang, Mary; Ebb, David; Weinstein, Howard; Catalano, Onofrio A; Mahmood, Umar; Catana, Ciprian; Gee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe our preliminary experience with simultaneous whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) in the evaluation of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, and institutional review board approved. To be eligible, a patient was required to: (1) have a known or suspected cancer diagnosis; (2) be under the care of a pediatric hematologist/oncologist; and (3) be scheduled for clinically indicated 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) examination at our institution. Patients underwent PET-CT followed by PET-MRI on the same day. PET-CT examinations were performed using standard department protocols. PET-MRI studies were acquired with an integrated 3 Tesla PET-MRI scanner using whole body T1 Dixon, T2 HASTE, EPI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and STIR sequences. No additional radiotracer was given for the PET-MRI examination. Both PET-CT and PET-MRI examinations were reviewed by consensus by two study personnel. Test performance characteristics of PET-MRI, for the detection of malignant lesions, including FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin), were calculated on a per lesion basis using PET-CT as a reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 10 whole body PET-MRI exams were performed in 7 pediatric oncology patients. The mean patient age was 16.1 years (range 12-19 years) including 6 males and 1 female. A total of 20 malignant and 21 benign lesions were identified on PET-CT. PET-MRI SUVmax had excellent correlation with PET-CT SUVmax for both benign and malignant lesions (R = 0.93). PET-MRI SUVmax > 2.5 had 100% accuracy for discriminating benign from malignant lesions using PET-CT reference. Whole body DWI was also evaluated: the mean ADCmin of malignant lesions (780.2 + 326.6) was

  16. Pediatric Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) Applications

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jennifer N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: 1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, 2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and pre-excitation, 3) ECGI in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and 4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25722754

  17. Rituximab in combination with multiagent chemotherapy for pediatric follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Riten; Galardy, Paul J; Dogan, Ahmet; Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Khan, Shakila P

    2011-08-01

    Given the rarity of follicular lymphoma (FL) in children, there is limited data on which to base treatment recommendations. Herein, we report our institutional experience of using rituximab with multiagent chemotherapy for pediatric FL. Six pediatric patients were diagnosed with FL from 2000 to 2009. All patients received rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) for varying durations. Five of the six patients remain in remission with a median follow-up of 31 months. Larger randomized trials are indicated to establish the efficacy of this regimen for pediatric FL patients. PMID:21462303

  18. Outcome of refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia in children treated during 2005–2011 – experience of the Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (PPLLSG)

    PubMed Central

    Wachowiak, Jacek; Skalska-Sadowska, Jolanta; Wachowiak, Jacek; Zając-Spychała, Olga; Niewiadomska-Wojnałowicz, Izabela; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Balwierz, Walentyna; Pawińska-Wąsikowska, Katarzyna; Goździk, Jolanta; Chybicka, Alicja; Potocka, Kinga; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Muszyńska-Rosłan, Katarzyna; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Maciejka-Kapuścińska, Lucyna; Karolczyk, Grażyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy; Wójcik, Beata; Badowska, Wanda; Urasiński, Tomasz; Ociepa, Tomasz; Matysiak, Michał; Sikorska-Fic, Barbara; Szczepański, Tomasz; Tomaszewska, Renata; Sobol, Grażyna; Wieczorek, Maria; Karpińska-Derda, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study Recent studies showed relatively better outcome for children with refractory (refAML) and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (relAML). Treatment of these patients has not been unified within Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (PPLLSG) so far. The goal of this study is to analyze the results of this therapy performed between 2005–2011. Material and methods The outcome data of 16 patients with refAML and 62 with relAML were analyzed retrospectively. Reinduction was usually based on idarubicine, fludarabine and cytarabine with allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) in 5 refAML and 30 relAML children. Results Seventy seven percent relAML patients entered second complete remission (CR2). Five-year OS and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated at 16% and 30%. The outcome for patients after alloHSCT in CR2 (63%) was better than that of those not transplanted (36%) with 5-year OS of 34% vs. 2-year of 7% and 5-year DFS of 40% vs. 12.5%. Second complete remission achievement and alloHSCT were the most significant predictors of better prognosis (p = 0.000 and p = 0.024). The outcome of refAML children was significantly worse than relAML with first remission (CR1) rate of 33%, OS and DFS of 25% at 3 years and 53% at 2 years, respectively. All survivors of refAML were treated with alloHSCT after CR1. Conclusions The uniform reinduction regimen of the documented efficacy and subsequent alloHSCT in remission is needed to improve the outcome for ref/relAML children treated within PPLLSG. The focus should be on the future risk-directed both front and second line AML therapy. PMID:24876821

  19. What Is a Pediatric Endocrinologist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dealing with children and in treating children with endocrine disorders and hormonal problems. If your pediatrician suggests that your child see a pediatric endocrinologist, you can be assured that your child will receive the best possible care. To find a pediatrician or pediatric specialist in ... © Copyright 2016 American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved.

  20. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  1. Integrative Pediatrics: Looking Forward

    PubMed Central

    McClafferty, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Increase in the prevalence of disease and illness has dramatically altered the landscape of pediatrics. As a result, there is a demand for pediatricians with new skills and a sharper focus on preventative health. Patient demand and shifting pediatric illness patterns have accelerated research in the field of pediatric integrative medicine. This emerging field can be defined as healing-oriented medicine that considers the whole child, including all elements of lifestyle and family health. It is informed by evidence and carefully weighs all appropriate treatment options. This Special Issue of Children, containing a collection of articles written by expert clinicians, represents an important educational contribution to the field. The goal of the edition is to raise awareness about integrative topics with robust supporting evidence, and to identify areas where more research is needed.

  2. Ethics in pediatric dermatology.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John B; Makkar, Hanspaul S

    2012-01-01

    The patient-parent-physician relationship is central to studying medical ethics in pediatric dermatology. The rights of children in medical decision making are ambiguous, and parents and physicians will often override the autonomy of a child when a particular treatment is deemed to be in the child's best interest. The use of physical restraint to enforce a treatment should be justified, and a reasonable attempt should be made to ensure the cooperation of the child, if possible. Medical photography is central to the practice of pediatric dermatology in that it allows for serial observation of cutaneous lesions over time. Established guidelines and standards should be followed. Pediatric dermatologists frequently prescribe medications off-label; if following established professional standards, and prescribing with good intention, off-label prescribing can be appropriate and rational. PMID:22902215

  3. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  4. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  5. Pediatric microdose and microtracer studies using 14C in Europe.

    PubMed

    Turner, M A; Mooij, M G; Vaes, W H J; Windhorst, A D; Hendrikse, N H; Knibbe, C A J; Kõrgvee, L T; Maruszak, W; Grynkiewicz, G; Garner, R C; Tibboel, D; Park, B K; de Wildt, S N

    2015-09-01

    Important information gaps remain on the efficacy and safety of drugs in children. Pediatric drug development encounters several ethical, practical, and scientific challenges. One barrier to the evaluation of medicines for children is a lack of innovative methodologies that have been adapted to the needs of children. This article presents our successful experience of pediatric microdose and microtracer studies using (14) C-labeled probes in Europe to illustrate the strengths and limitations of these approaches. PMID:26095095

  6. Pediatric Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ellen M; Pavio, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Lymphoma is the third most common pediatric neoplasm. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for nearly half of cases and commonly involves extranodal sites. Compared with adults, this histologic spectrum of pediatric NHL is very narrow and consists of aggressive tumors. Patients typically present with widespread disease. Generally, NHL occurring in children includes Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Staging and assessment of therapeutic response are usually based on FDG-PET/CT. Due to the increased susceptibility of young patients to the effects of ionizing radiation, alternative methods of imaging are being explored. PMID:27265605

  7. Pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Moody, Karen; Siegel, Linda; Scharbach, Kathryn; Cunningham, Leslie; Cantor, Rabbi Mollie

    2011-06-01

    Progress in pediatric palliative care has gained momentum, but there remain significant barriers to the appropriate provision of palliative care to ill and dying children, including the lack of properly trained health care professionals, resources to finance such care, and scientific research, as well as a continued cultural denial of death in children. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric palliative care, special communication concerns, decision making, ethical and legal considerations, symptom assessment and management, psychosocial issues, provision of care across settings, end-of-life care, and bereavement. Educational and supportive resources for health care practitioners and families, respectively, are included. PMID:21628042

  8. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity. PMID:23766572

  9. The development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Krister; Ekström-Jodal, Barbro; Meretoja, Olli; Valentin, Niels; Wagner, Kari

    2015-05-01

    The initiation and development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care have much in common in the Scandinavian countries. The five countries had to initiate close relations and cooperation in all medical disciplines. The pediatric anesthesia subspecialty took its first steps after the Second World War. Relations for training and exchange of experiences between Scandinavian countries with centers in Europe and the USA were a prerequisite for development. Specialized pediatric practice was not a full-time position until during the 1950s, when the first pediatric anesthesia positions were created. Scandinavian anesthesia developed slowly. In contrast, Scandinavia pioneered both adult and certainly pediatric intensive care. The pioneers were heavily involved in the teaching and training of anesthetists and nurses. This was necessary to manage the rapidly increasing work. The polio epidemics during the 1950s initiated a combination of clinical development and technical innovations. Blood gas analyses technology and interpretation in combination with improved positive pressure ventilators were developed in Scandinavia contributing to general and pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice. Scandinavian specialist training and accreditation includes both anesthesia and intensive care. Although pediatric anesthesia/intensive care is not a separate specialty, an 'informal accreditation' for a specialist position is obtained after training. The pleasure of working in a relatively small group of devoted colleagues and staff has persisted from the pioneering years. It is still one of the most inspiring and pleasant gifts for those working in this demanding specialty. PMID:25641001

  10. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. PMID:26447061

  11. The future of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Boat, Thomas F

    2007-11-01

    The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities. PMID:17950318

  12. Narcolepsy in pediatric age - Experience of a tertiary pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Barreto, Maria Inês; Clemente, Vanda; Vasconcelos, Mónica; Estêvão, Maria Helena; Madureira, Núria

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy, a chronic disorder of the sleep-wake cycle of multifactorial etiology, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, often associated with cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Both early clinical suspicion and therapeutic approach are essential for promotion of cognitive development and social integration of these children. The authors present a descriptive retrospective study of a series of eight children in whom symptoms first started between 6.8 and 10.5 years of age. Diagnostic delay ranged from 4 months to 2 years. One child had H1N1 flu vaccination eight months before the clinical onset. The first multiple sleep latency test was positive in 6 of 8 cases. All cases were treated with methylphenidate, and venlafaxine was associated in 4 of them. In one case the initial therapy was exclusively behavioral. In all cases, symptomatic improvement, better school performance and social integration were achieved after therapeutic adjustment. PMID:26483902

  13. Current challenges in pediatric pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Ivy, David Dunbar

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the pediatric population is associated with a variety of underlying diseases and causes, significantly morbidity and mortality. In the majority of patients, PAH in children is idiopathic or associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), with pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with connective tissue disease, a rare cause in children. Classification of pediatric PH has generally followed the WHO classification, but recognition of the importance of fetal origins of PH and developmental abnormalities have led to the formation of a new pediatric-specific classification. Incidence data from the Netherlands has revealed an annual incidence and point prevalence of 0.7 and 4.4 for idiopathic PAH and 2.2 and 15.6 for associated pulmonary arterial hypertension-CHD cases per million children. Although the treatment with new selective pulmonary vasodilators offers hemodynamic and functional improvement in pediatric populations, the treatments in children largely depend on results from evidence-based adult studies and experience of clinicians treating children. A recent randomized clinical trial of sildenafil and its long-term extension has led to disparate recommendations in the United States and Europe. PMID:24037630

  14. Strategic Plan for Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Mario; Ramirez, Maria I.; Gern, James E.; Cutting, Garry; Redding, Greg; Hagood, James S.; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Abman, Steve; Raj, J. Usha; Barst, Robyn; Kato, Gregory J.; Gozal, David; Haddad, Gabriel G.; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Gauda, Estelle; Martinez, Fernando D.; Tepper, Robert; Wood, Robert E.; Accurso, Frank; Teague, W. Gerald; Venegas, Jose; Cole, F. Sessions; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recently held a workshop to identify gaps in our understanding and treatment of childhood lung diseases and to define strategies to enhance translational research in this field. Leading experts with diverse experience in both laboratory and patient-oriented research reviewed selected areas of pediatric lung diseases, including perinatal programming and epigenetic influences;mechanisms of lung injury, repair, and regeneration; pulmonary vascular disease (PVD); sleep and control of breathing; and the application of novel translational methods to enhance personalized medicine. This report summarizes the proceedings of this workshop and provides recommendations for emphasis on targeted areas for future investigation. The priority areas identified for research in pediatric pulmonary diseases included: (1) epigenetic and environmental influences on lung development that program pediatric lung diseases, (2) injury, regeneration, and repair in the developing lung, (3) PVD in children, (4) development and adaptation of ventilatory responses to postnatal life, (5) nonatopic wheezing: aberrant large airway development or injury? (6) strategies to improve assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric respiratory diseases, and (7) predictive and personalizedmedicine for children. PMID:19086051

  15. Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Piepsz, A

    1995-04-01

    This review is devoted to some controversial topics in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine. In most cases, drug sedation can be avoided and the nuclear medicine procedure can be successfully achieved simply by taking the emotional life of the child into account. Factors such as past negative experiences (painful procedures, hospitalizations), unfamiliar environment (frightening examination room), physical aggressions related to the nuclear medicine procedure (intravenous injections, cystography), and the feeling of loss of parents' protection all contribute to the child's anxiety. People in charge of pediatric procedures should be adequately trained to be aware of these factors and to create the best environmental conditions to avoid unnecessarily frightening the child. Methods for measuring renal clearance in children are numerous. It is my aim to review the different methods proposed in the literature, including the nonradioisotopic methods, the reference radioisotopic methods, the various simplified algorithms using blood samples, and the gamma-camera methods. Gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy is a well-established procedure for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. However, despite the numerous advantages of this technique, it has not gained wide acceptance in the field of pediatric gastroenterology. This review focuses mainly on the comparison between scintigraphy and pH metry. Finally, the applications of 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylenamine brain single photon emission computer tomography in the field of pediatric neurology are still under development; this part of the review is an attempt to summarize the real contribution of this technique. PMID:7597419

  16. Pediatric Low Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  17. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  18. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  19. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  20. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Alexandra L; Lakhani, Saquib A; Hsu, Benson S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of pediatric traumatic brain injury and its management. Within the pediatric age group, ages 1 to 19, injuries are the number one cause of death with traumatic brain injury being involved in almost 50 percent of these cases. This, along with the fact that the medical system spends over $1 billion annually on pediatric traumatic brain injury, makes this issue both timely and relevant to health care providers. Over the course of this article the epidemiology, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the early responder and the immediate interventions that should be considered and/or performed. The management discussed in this article follows the most recent recommendations from the 2012 edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Despite the focus of this article, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound--or, to be more precise and use the average human's brain measurements, just above three pounds--of cure. PMID:26630835

  1. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    General guidelines for the use of medication to treat pediatric insomnia are presented. It should be noted that medication is not the first treatment choice and should be viewed within the context of a more comprehensive treatment plan. The pharmacological and clinical properties of over the counter medications and FDA-approved insomnia drugs are…

  2. Pediatric head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2011-01-01

    Head injury in children accounts for a large number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Falls are the most common type of injury, followed by motor-vehicle-related accidents. In the present study, we discuss the evaluation, neuroimaging and management of children with head trauma. Furthermore, we present the specific characteristics of each type of pediatric head injury. PMID:21887034

  3. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma. PMID:27093864

  4. Pediatric psoriasis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric psoriasis consists broadly of 3 age groups of psoriatic patients: infantile psoriasis, a self-limited disease of infancy, psoriasis with early onset, and pediatric psoriasis with psoriatic arthritis. About one-quarter of psoriasis cases begin before the age of 18 years. A variety of clinical psoriasis types are seen in childhood, including plaque-type, guttate, erythrodermic, napkin, and nail-based disease. Like all forms of auto-immunity, susceptibility is likely genetic, but environmental triggers are required to initiate disease activity. The most common trigger of childhood is an upper respiratory tract infection. Once disease has occurred, treatment is determined based on severity and presence of joint involvement. Topical therapies, including corticosteroids and calcipotriene, are the therapies of choice in the initial care of pediatric patients. Ultraviolet light, acitretin and cyclosporine can clear skin symptoms, while methotrexate and etanercept can clear both cutaneous and joint disease. Concern for psychological development is required when choosing psoriatic therapies. This article reviews current concepts in pediatric psoriasis and a rational approach to therapeutics. PMID:19898649

  5. Sample Preparation and Extraction in Small Sample Volumes Suitable for Pediatric Clinical Studies: Challenges, Advances, and Experiences of a Bioanalytical HPLC-MS/MS Method Validation Using Enalapril and Enalaprilat

    PubMed Central

    Burckhardt, Bjoern B.; Laeer, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In USA and Europe, medicines agencies force the development of child-appropriate medications and intend to increase the availability of information on the pediatric use. This asks for bioanalytical methods which are able to deal with small sample volumes as the trial-related blood lost is very restricted in children. Broadly used HPLC-MS/MS, being able to cope with small volumes, is susceptible to matrix effects. The latter restrains the precise drug quantification through, for example, causing signal suppression. Sophisticated sample preparation and purification utilizing solid-phase extraction was applied to reduce and control matrix effects. A scale-up from vacuum manifold to positive pressure manifold was conducted to meet the demands of high-throughput within a clinical setting. Faced challenges, advances, and experiences in solid-phase extraction are exemplarily presented on the basis of the bioanalytical method development and validation of low-volume samples (50 μL serum). Enalapril, enalaprilat, and benazepril served as sample drugs. The applied sample preparation and extraction successfully reduced the absolute and relative matrix effect to comply with international guidelines. Recoveries ranged from 77 to 104% for enalapril and from 93 to 118% for enalaprilat. The bioanalytical method comprising sample extraction by solid-phase extraction was fully validated according to FDA and EMA bioanalytical guidelines and was used in a Phase I study in 24 volunteers. PMID:25873972

  6. Cerebral radiation necrosis in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Plimpton, S Reed; Stence, Nicholas; Hemenway, Molly; Hankinson, Todd C; Foreman, Nicholas; Liu, Arthur K

    2015-02-01

    Radiation necrosis is a well-described toxicity following radiation therapy in the brain. There is little data regarding the incidence of radiation necrosis in pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with 101 children with solid brain tumors. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed by examination of magnetic resonance imaging. Median follow-up for all patients was 13 months (range 3-51). Radiation necrosis occurred in 5% (5/101) of cases with a median time to onset of 1.2 months. In three of these children, the child was symptomatic, requiring management with steroids and bevacizumab. Radiation necrosis did not correlate with the administration of chemotherapy, age at treatment, or planning treatment volume. Our experience with pediatric patients treated with radiotherapy for solid brain tumor suggests that children may have an increased likelihood to develop radiation necrosis compared to adults. PMID:23647507

  7. Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Ariel U.; Neaga, Andreea; West, Brady; Safran, Jared; Brown, Pamela; Btaiche, Imad; Kuzma-O'Reilly, Barbara; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine predictors of survival and of weaning off parenteral nutrition (PN) in pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. Summary Background Data: Pediatric SBS carries extensive morbidity and high mortality, but factors believed to predict survival or weaning from PN have been based on limited studies. This study reviews outcomes of a large number of SBS infants and identifies predictors of success. Methods: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was conducted on 80 pediatric SBS patients. Primary outcome was survival; secondary outcome was ability to wean off PN. Nonsignificant covariates were eliminated. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Over a mean of 5.1 years of follow-up, survival was 58 of 80 (72.5%) and 51 weaned off PN (63.8%). Cholestasis (conjugated bilirubin ≥2.5 mg/dL) was the strongest predictor of mortality (relative risk [RR] 22.7, P = 0.005). Although absolute small bowel length was only slightly predictive, percentage of normal bowel length (for a given infant's gestational age) was strongly predictive of mortality (if <10% of normal length, RR of death was 5.7, P = 0.003) and of weaning PN (if ≥10% of normal, RR of weaning PN was 11.8, P = 0.001). Presence of the ileocecal valve (ICV) also strongly predicted weaning PN (RR 3.9, P < 0.0005); however, ICV was not predictive of survival. Conclusions: Cholestasis and age-adjusted small bowel length are the major predictors of mortality in pediatric SBS. Age-adjusted small bowel length and ICV are the major predictors of weaning from PN. These data permit better prediction of outcomes of pediatric SBS, which may help to direct future management of these challenging patients. PMID:16135926

  8. Pediatric hip sonography. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H T; Grissom, L E

    1999-07-01

    As with any sonographic study, the accuracy of the examination is related to the skill and experience of the examiner. In this review of pediatric hip sonography, we have reviewed pitfalls and differential diagnoses for the infant suspected of DDH and for the older child presenting with a painful hip. The learning process for DDH evaluation is prolonged and more difficult than learning to assess the hip for effusion. PMID:10442081

  9. The art of a pediatric exam.

    PubMed

    Riley, Debra

    2014-06-15

    This article discusses incorporating "artistry" into a primary care pediatric exam, a technique that considers a child's cognitive developmental stage, previous medical experiences, and the family's general stressors and fears. Benefits of using the artistic exam technique include decreased fear and anxiety for both the child and parent and fewer unnecessary diagnostic tests. The artistic exam has also been shown to improve adherence to pre- and postcare instructions and improved quality outcomes. PMID:24841465

  10. Essentials for starting a pediatric clinical study (4): Clinical pediatric safety planning based on preclinical toxicity studies and pediatric pharmacovigilance guidance.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Neha

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile toxicology studies in animals provide useful information to guide monitoring of potential adverse effects in children especially on growth and development. In order to continue to gain knowledge and build upon these preclinical studies, recent experience has suggested that additional approaches for monitoring of safety concerns in the pediatric population may be required. Recently, pediatric guidance has become available from the health authorities which provide pharmacovigilance concepts as they specifically relate to drugs being developed for pediatric indications. Clinical trials are typically not robust enough to detect rare or delayed safety effects as the pediatric trials are relatively short-term. Furthermore, such long term or rare effects may not be detected via standard voluntary postmarketing surveillance. Safety monitoring of children with Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis (JIA) taking nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)s will be used as an example to describe a post-marketing risk management and pharmacovigilance program that serves to better evaluate safety data from various sources. The intent of this program is to identify adverse events (AE), including events with longer latency, which may be associated with NSAID use in a pediatric population. In this presentation, the 4 major components of the program are to be addressed. Such a program may serve as a model to proactively generate and monitor safety data in order to identify AEs that may be associated with new therapeutics for a pediatric population. PMID:19571487

  11. Pediatric free-tissue transfer.

    PubMed

    Upton, Joseph; Guo, Lifei; Labow, Brian I

    2009-12-01

    Free-tissue transfer has facilitated and refined the reconstructive surgeon's ability to repair or reconstruct acquired or congenital defects in children. Although parallels exist between indications for free-tissue transfer in adults and children, the technical challenges and surgical skill required in pediatric patients are much greater and the level of complexity can escalate tremendously. Although this operation is difficult, the success rate is high and the results are often outstanding, with the benefit of growth and functional adaptation of the transferred tissue. Experience in this field is cumulative and creative thinking is often required. This article outlines the specific features unique to children, the most commonly used flaps, the expected results in specific regions, and the potential pitfalls to be avoided. PMID:19952700

  12. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Tieder, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Methods Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. Results One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Conclusions Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use. PMID:26512215

  13. Use of Simulation to Enhance Learning in a Pediatric Elective

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Kim W.; Worthington, Mary A.; Zinkan, Lynn; White, Marjorie Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact on learning of adding a pediatric human patient simulation to a pharmacy course. Design Pharmacy students enrolled in a pediatric elective participated in 1 inpatient and 1 outpatient scenario using a pediatric patient simulator. Immediately following each case, reflective debriefing occurred. Assessment Forty-two students participated in the simulation activity over 2 academic years. A pretest and posttest study design was used, with average scores 4.1 ± 1.2 out of 9 on pretest and average 7.0 ± 1.5 out of 9 on posttest (p < 0.0001). Ninety-five percent (40/42) of students' scores improved. Students felt the learning experiences were positive and realistic. Conclusions Pharmacy students' knowledge and application skills improved through use of pediatric simulation exercises. PMID:20414434

  14. Dressings and Products in Pediatric Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    King, Alice; Stellar, Judith J.; Blevins, Anne; Shah, Kara Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The increasing complexity of medical and surgical care provided to pediatric patients has resulted in a population at significant risk for complications such as pressure ulcers, nonhealing surgical wounds, and moisture-associated skin damage. Wound care practices for neonatal and pediatric patients, including the choice of specific dressings or other wound care products, are currently based on a combination of provider experience and preference and a small number of published clinical guidelines based on expert opinion; rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines for wound management in these populations is lacking. Recent Advances: Advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of wound healing have contributed to an ever-increasing number of specialized wound care products, most of which are predominantly marketed to adult patients and that have not been evaluated for safety and efficacy in the neonatal and pediatric populations. This review aims to discuss the available data on the use of both more traditional wound care products and newer wound care technologies in these populations, including medical-grade honey, nanocrystalline silver, and soft silicone-based adhesive technology. Critical Issues: Evidence-based wound care practices and demonstration of the safety, efficacy, and appropriate utilization of available wound care dressings and products in the neonatal and pediatric populations should be established to address specific concerns regarding wound management in these populations. Future Directions: The creation and implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of common wounds in the neonatal and pediatric populations is essential. In addition to an evaluation of currently marketed wound care dressings and products used in the adult population, newer wound care technologies should also be evaluated for use in neonates and children. In addition, further investigation of the specific pathophysiology of wound healing in

  15. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  16. What Is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teens. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialists Have? Pediatric sports medicine specialists are medical ...

  17. What Is a Pediatric Critical Care Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Critical Care Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... PICU. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Critical Care Specialists Have? Pediatric critical care specialists are medical ...

  18. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  19. Sonography of the Pediatric Chest.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yonggeng; Kapur, Jeevesh

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, pediatric chest diseases are evaluated with chest radiography. Due to advancements in technology, the use of sonography has broadened. It has now become an established radiation-free imaging tool that may supplement plain-film findings and, in certain cases, the first-line modality for evaluation of the pediatric chest. This pictorial essay will demonstrate the diagnostic potential of sonography, review a spectrum of pediatric chest conditions, and discuss their imaging features and clinical importance. PMID:27009313

  20. Medical Comorbidities in Pediatric Headache.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Howard; Singhi, Samata; Gladstein, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Comorbid conditions frequently occur in pediatric headaches and may significantly affect their management. Comorbidities that have been associated with pediatric headaches include attention-deficit or hyperactivity disorder, autism, developmental disabilities, depression, anxiety, epilepsy, obesity, infantile colic, atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The goal of this article is to review these comorbidities associated with pediatric headache, thereby empowering child neurologists to identify common triggers and tailor management strategies that address headache and its comorbidities. PMID:27017024

  1. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood and with current treatment modalities, the survival is more than 95%. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant fashion and hence the offsprings of all patients with the germline retinoblastoma need to be screened from birth. This review discusses the various pediatric genetic ocular tumors discussing the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Pediatric digital chest imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, R.D.; Cohen, M.; Broderick, N.J.; Conces, D.J. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology.

  3. Hippocrates on Pediatric Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Giatsiou, Styliani; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    Hippocrates of Kos is well known in medicine, but his contributions to pediatric dermatology have not previously been examined. A systematic study of Corpus Hippocraticum was undertaken to document references of clinical and historical importance of pediatric dermatology. In Corpus Hippocraticum, a variety of skin diseases are described, along with proposed treatments. Hippocrates rejected the theory of the punishment of the Greek gods and supported the concept that dermatologic diseases resulted from a loss of balance in the body humors. Many of the terms that Hippocrates and his pupils used are still being used today. Moreover, he probably provided one of the first descriptions of skin findings in smallpox, Henoch-Schönlein purpura (also known as anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, allergic purpura), and meningococcal septicemia. PMID:26058689

  4. Acupuncture for Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Golianu, Brenda; Yeh, Ann Ming; Brooks, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a growing problem in children, with prevalence as high as 30.8%. Acupuncture has been found to be useful in many chronic pain conditions, and may be of clinical value in a multidisciplinary treatment program. The basic principles of acupuncture are reviewed, as well as studies exploring basic mechanisms of acupuncture and clinical efficacy. Conditions commonly treated in the pediatric pain clinic, including headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain, as well as perioperative pain studies are reviewed and discussed. Areas in need of further research are identified, and procedural aspects of acupuncture practice and safety studies are reviewed. Acupuncture can be an effective adjuvant in the care of pediatric patients with painful conditions, both in a chronic and an acute setting. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, as well as trials of comparative effectiveness are needed. PMID:27417472

  5. Pediatric Biliary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Atchie, Benjamin; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Josephs, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    An interventional radiologist is frequently called to evaluate and treat biliary diseases in children; a tailored approach specific to this population is required. Imaging with an emphasis on minimizing ionizing radiation is used not only in the initial workup but also to guide interventions. The most common form of intervention generally consists of transhepatic biliary drainage to treat either biliary obstruction or bile leakage, a scenario frequently encountered after pediatric liver transplantation. Other pathologies referred for evaluation and management include biliary atresia and, rarely, symptomatic choledochal cysts. Biliary complications caused by an underlying malignancy are not a frequently encountered problem in the pediatric population. The initial evaluation, role of preprocedural imaging, and interventional management with an emphasis on technique are discussed regarding these common biliary pathologies in children. PMID:26615168

  6. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  7. Pediatric parafalcine empyemas

    PubMed Central

    Niklewski, Franziska; Petridis, Athanasios K.; Al Hourani, Jasmin; Blaeser, Klaus; Ntoulias, Georgios; Bitter, Andrej; Rosenbaum, Thorsten; Scholz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Subdural intracranial empyemas and brain abscesses are a rare complication of bacterial sinusitis. Pediatric parafalcine abscesses are a rare entity with different treatment compared with other brain abscesses. We present two pediatric cases with falcine abscess as a sinusitis complication and introduce our department’s treatment management. In addition a review of literature is performed. Surgical cases of our department and their management are compared with the current literature. In our cases, both of the children showed a recurrent empyema after the first surgical treatment and antibiotic therapy. A second surgical evacuation was necessary. The antibiotic therapy was given for 3 months. Short-time follow-up imaging is necessary irrespective of infection parameters in blood and patient's clinical condition. Especially in parafalcine abscesses a second look may be an option and surgical treatment with evacuation of pus is the treatment of choice if abscess remnants are visualized. PMID:24964473

  8. Pediatric parafalcine empyemas.

    PubMed

    Niklewski, Franziska; Petridis, Athanasios K; Al Hourani, Jasmin; Blaeser, Klaus; Ntoulias, Georgios; Bitter, Andrej; Rosenbaum, Thorsten; Scholz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Subdural intracranial empyemas and brain abscesses are a rare complication of bacterial sinusitis. Pediatric parafalcine abscesses are a rare entity with different treatment compared with other brain abscesses. We present two pediatric cases with falcine abscess as a sinusitis complication and introduce our department's treatment management. In addition a review of literature is performed. Surgical cases of our department and their management are compared with the current literature. In our cases, both of the children showed a recurrent empyema after the first surgical treatment and antibiotic therapy. A second surgical evacuation was necessary. The antibiotic therapy was given for 3 months. Short-time follow-up imaging is necessary irrespective of infection parameters in blood and patient's clinical condition. Especially in parafalcine abscesses a second look may be an option and surgical treatment with evacuation of pus is the treatment of choice if abscess remnants are visualized. PMID:24964473

  9. Pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Wirrell, Elaine; Nickels, Katherine C

    2010-06-01

    Epilepsy syndromes denote specific constellations of clinical seizure type(s), EEG findings, and other characteristic clinical features. Most syndromes recognized in epilepsy are genetic and developmental disorders that begin in the pediatric years. Epilepsy syndromes are divided into idiopathic (primary) types, in which the presumed etiology is genetic, versus symptomatic (secondary) types, in which there is either an underlying etiology that is known or presumed based on other evidence of brain dysfunction. Epilepsies are also classified by those with generalized seizures and those with localization-related seizures. Identification of a specific syndrome is important to define the best treatment and accurately prognosticate long-term outcome for children with epilepsy. In this chapter, clinical and electrographic features as well as inheritance patterns of common pediatric epilepsy syndromes are discussed. PMID:22810315

  10. Immunotherapy for Pediatric Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali N.; Dave, Hema; Wayne, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of leukemia in childhood. Despite this, leukemia remains a leading cause of pediatric cancer-related mortality and the prognosis is guarded for individuals with relapsed or refractory disease. Standard therapies are associated with a wide array of acute and long-term toxicities and further treatment intensification may not be tolerable or beneficial. The curative potential of allogeneic stem cell transplantation is due in part to the graft-versus-leukemia effect, which provides evidence for the therapeutic capacity of immune-based therapies. In recent years there have been significant advances in the development and application of immunotherapy in the treatment of leukemias, including the demonstration of activity in chemotherapy-resistant cases. This review summarizes immunotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of pediatric leukemia including current results and future directions. PMID:23847759

  11. MR in pediatric neuroimaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, S.M. ); Barnes, P.; Strand, R. )

    1990-01-01

    The multitude of modern imaging techniques has made pediatric neuroradiology increasingly complex. The practitioner must have a thorough understanding of each possible diagnostic study in order to achieve the best results at the least expense and with minimal risk. In this book, MRI is emphasized; correlative CT, ultrasound, angiographic, and conventional x-ray studies assist in establishing effective diagnostic protocols and reaching accurate diagnoses.

  12. Modelling Pediatric Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    van Ratingen, M.R.; Wismans, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of pediatric biomechanics, crash dummy and numerical model development suffers from too limited human subject data to directly establish response and injury values. In order to create child crash dummies and numerical models it is necessary to combine the results from real world accident and reconstruction data, scaled adult data and data from animal testing with limited child volunteer data. This paper presents the functional and biomechanical targets for child crash dummies and numerical models.

  13. Common Pediatric Urological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068

  14. Psittacine incubation and pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Romagnano, April

    2012-05-01

    Psittacine pediatric medicine and surgery can only continue to be practiced by avian veterinarians if psittacine aviculture (the successful captive breeding of parrot species) is active and thriving. Although beautiful, intelligent parrots are popular as beloved pets and reside in zoo and private collections around the world, private psittacine aviculture is in a transition period recovering from difficult economic times. Many of the larger aviculturists have left and the rise of the small aviculturist has significantly changed the industry. PMID:22640534

  15. Introduction to pediatric oncology

    SciTech Connect

    McWhirter, W.R.; Masel, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the varied and complex aspects of management in pediatric oncology. Emphasis is placed on a team approach and on establishing and maintaining an individualized, humanistic relationships with the patient. Numerous illustrations show modern imaging techniques that are proving most valuable in the investigation of suspected or confirmed childhood cancer. Physical and psychological side effects of short-term and long-term treatment are also discussed.

  16. [Opportunistic mycoses in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Dupont, B

    1985-12-01

    The two most important pathologic conditions leading to mycotic opportunistic infections in children are impairment of mechanisms of defense due to immunosuppressive drugs and congenital defects of immunity. Other circumstances belong to pediatrics such as prematurity or cystic fibrosis. A few examples are chosen to illustrate these situations: congenital candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic dermatophytic disease, neonatal candidemia, mycotic infections in chronic granulomatous disease and aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis. PMID:3833106

  17. Acupuncture in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brittner, Mindy; Le Pertel, Noemie; Gold, Melanie A

    2016-06-01

    There has been extensive research on the use of acupuncture in adults with a wide array of conditions. Much less research has been conducted on the use of acupuncture in children. In this article, we review the history and philosophy of acupuncture, and the literature on its effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, giving special attention to the pediatric and adolescent conditions that have been most studied in high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PMID:26867822

  18. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. PMID:26652336

  19. Imaging of Pediatric Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Aashim; Pruthi, Sumit

    2016-09-01

    Despite being as common as brain tumors in children, lack of awareness of pediatric stroke presents unique challenges, both in terms of diagnosis and management. Due to diverse and overlapping risk factors, as well as variable clinical presentations, the diagnosis can be either missed or frequently delayed. Early recognition and treatment of pediatric stroke is however critical in optimizing long-term functional outcomes, reducing morbidity and mortality, and preventing recurrent stroke. Neuroimaging plays a vital role in achieving this goal. The advancements in imaging over the last two decades have allowed for multiple modality options for suspected stroke with more accurate diagnosis, as well as quicker turnaround time in imaging diagnosis, especially at primary stroke centers. However, with the multiple imaging possibilities, referring physicians can be overwhelmed with the best option for each clinical situation and what the literature recommends. Here the authors review the etiology of pediatric stroke in the settings of arterial ischemia, hemorrhage, and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), with emphasis on the best diagnostic tools available, including advanced imaging techniques. PMID:26920396

  20. Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

  1. Pediatric suprasellar lesions

    PubMed Central

    Deopujari, C. E.; Kumar, Ashish; Karmarkar, V. S.; Biyani, N. K.; Mhatre, M.; Shah, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumors have always been challenging as well as intriguing in their anatomical, surgical, and postsurgical management-related issues. They are a heterogeneous set of pathologies involving different age groups in childhood and also differ widely from their adult counterparts as far as adjuvant therapies are concerned. Though neurosurgeons across the world are radical in surgery for most of the pediatric tumors, it can often be at the cost of future quality of life in suprasellar tumors. As the time has gone by, the pendulum has swung toward rather conservative and maximal safe surgical resections with adjuvant therapies coming to the forefront. Hence, the aim is to achieve a good quality of life for these children along with a control of tumor growth (rather than cure) and to again tackle the tumors, if required, once these children reach adolescence or adulthood. We have reviewed the literature for different pediatric suprasellar tumors and discussed their current management giving our perspective with illustrative cases. PMID:22069431

  2. Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Prescription Privileges: Implications and Opportunities for School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature on pediatric psychopharmacology practice, lack of empirical support for efficacy and safety of most psychotropics for pediatric use, and need for further basic and clinical trials research and evaluation. Identifies shortcomings in training and experience that must be addressed if school psychology is to meet demands of three…

  3. Aortic complications following pediatric heart transplantation: A case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sean M; Frazier, Elizabeth A; Collins, R Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aortic complications occur rarely after pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation, but are typically accompanied by catastrophic events. We describe the three cases of major aortic complications in our experience of 329 pediatric heart transplants. This case series and review highlight the important risk factors for aortic complications after heart transplantation. PMID:27011691

  4. A rural primary care pediatric residency program.

    PubMed

    Kairys, S; Newell, P

    1985-10-01

    Rural primary care is often reported in the medical literature as frustrating, lonely, and nonrewarding. Many graduating residents who choose small town practice become quickly disenchanted with the life-style and leave for a more populous territory or subspecialty training. Opportunities to learn how to take advantage of rural settings and establish rewarding community practices are few. The Primary Care Pediatric Residency Program at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center has developed a training program in rural primary care. Residents experience over a three-year period the many facets of rural practice and are introduced to community-oriented approaches to child health care. Selected rural pediatric practices within a 45-mile radius of the medical center serve as teaching laboratories in which residents develop the skills necessary to manage children's problems related to school, behavioral disorders, and chronic diseases. PMID:4045973

  5. MTA applications in pediatric dentistry

    PubMed Central

    MATURO, P.; COSTACURTA, M.; BARTOLINO, M.; DOCIMO, R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this paper is to show and asses the clinical applications of the Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in pediatric dentistry, either on primary teeth or on immature apex permanent teeth. We have described the primary tooth pulpotomy technique using MTA, that is characterized by a superior biocompatibility and a sealing ability that make it a more suitable compound compared to other materials in terms of result prediction on a long-term basis. We have also reported the direct capping technique using MTA on immature apex teeth; in these particular cases, MTA is undoubtedly preferable to conventional materials, especially in what its sealing characteristics concern. Furthermore, we have explained the apexogenesis clinical procedure, in which after a chamber pulpotomy on incomplete root development teeth, MTA is used in direct contact with the pulpar stump in order to save the root pulp vitality, allowing the apex and relative canal walls physiological maturation to take place. In case of necrotic teeth with immature apex, we describe the possibility of using MTA as an apical barrier making the apexification treatment faster and predictable, taking profit from its biocompatibility quality, its sealing ability and setting characteristic in humid environments. In all described applications, MTA has demonstrated to be a very versatile and extremely trustworthy material. Either literature and results obtained from the present experience, show how the use of MTA in Pediatric Dentistry, compared to commonly used materials, translates into pulp or periapical tissues being less swollen and, thus, guaranteeing a higher prediction of the therapeutic result on a short-term basis and on a long-term one. PMID:23285367

  6. Trends in pediatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Burkett, K W

    1989-03-01

    The 1980s have been declared the decade of the disabled. Surgeon General Koop has stated that "it is profoundly important for our own society that we tend to these issues of disabled children, that these children not be forgotten or pushed aside, and that we retain our belief in the strength of the American family". The field of pediatric rehabilitation, unheard of as recently as the late 1970s, has become a recognized specialty. The definition of pediatric rehabilitation has expanded to include the care and treatment of children with congenital and acquired disabilities. The pediatric rehabilitation nurse is challenged to keep abreast of new developments in the field while seeking and implementing innovative ways to assist the child and family in their adjustment to the child's disability. A knowledge base of normal growth and development is essential when assessing abnormal patterns in the child with a disability. Complete assessment of the child with a disability includes a parent-child interview and physical assessment, with particular focus on the child's developmental age, movement patterns, and functional activities of daily living. The reaction of the child and family to the disability is all too often viewed as lack of "acceptance" of the child's disability. A continuum of "adjustment" to the disability for both family and child describes normal coping mechanisms for living with and managing the needs of a disabled child. It is important for the pediatric rehabilitation nurse to develop a partnership with parents in which they serve as consultants to families, not as directors of the child's care. Cerebral palsy and spina bifida are the two most common childhood disabilities. With advanced technologic equipment and refined surgical procedures, the child's potential for independence is reaching new heights. Computerized technology has aided the motor-impaired child to progress through normal developmental processes of exploration and discovery. Specialized

  7. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization. PMID:27254976

  8. Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Program: Theories for Extended Pediatric Nursing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Margaret A.

    A description is provided of "Theories for Extended Pediatric Nursing Practice," a required course for pediatric and family nurse practitioner students in a California state university program. The course description presents information on the curricular placement of the course, prerequisites, in-class time allotments, and the focus of the course…

  9. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  10. Educational Preparation of Pediatric Audiologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric audiologists play a vital role in detection, diagnosis, and intervention for young children with hearing loss and their families. Preparing the next generation of pediatric audiologists necessitates a creative approach that balances the requirements of a broad curriculum with the special skills needed to serve a unique and varied…

  11. Pediatric imaging for the technologist

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, D.M.; Sharko, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides an accessible store of information on pediatric imaging procedures, with clearly described techniques and instructions. The aim is to simplify the pediatric examination. Extensively illustrated, this work describes in detail correct positioning, radiation protection, and methods of immobilization. The concluding chapters clarify what is required in the final image for accurate diagnosis.

  12. Intravenous acetaminophen use in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Nirav

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used pediatric medication that has recently been approved for intravenous use in the United States. The purpose of this article was to review the pharmacodynamics, indications, contraindications, and precautions for the use of intravenous acetaminophen in pediatrics. PMID:26035501

  13. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  14. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  15. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  16. 78 FR 48438 - Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee of the Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee of the Pediatric Advisory... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Subcommittee: Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee... recommendations to the Pediatric Advisory Committee on pediatric ethical issues. Date and Time: The meeting...

  17. Neuroprognostication After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Topjian, Alexis A.; Hammond, Rachel; Illes, Judy; Abend, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Management decisions and parental counseling after pediatric cardiac arrest depend on the ability of physicians to make accurate and timely predictions regarding neurological recovery. We evaluated neurologists and intensivists performing neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest to determine prediction agreement, accuracy, and confidence. METHODS Pediatric neurologists (n = 10) and intensivists (n = 9) reviewed 18 cases of children successfully resuscitated from a cardiac arrest and managed in the pediatric intensive care unit. Cases were sequentially presented (after arrest day 1, days 2–4, and days 5–7), with updated examinations, neurophysiologic data, and neuroimaging data. At each time period, physicians predicted outcome by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category and specified prediction confidence. RESULTS Predicted discharge Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category versus actual hospital discharge Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category outcomes were compared. Exact (Predicted Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category – Actual Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category = 0) and close (Predicted Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category – Actual Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category = ±1) outcome prediction accuracies for all physicians improved over successive periods (P < 0.05). Prediction accuracy did not differ significantly between physician groups at any period or overall. Agreement improved over time among neurologists (day 1 Kappa [κ], 0.28; days 2–4 κ, 0.43; days 5–7 κ, 0.68) and among intensivists (day 1 κ, 0.30; days 2–4 κ, 0.44; days 5–7 κ, 0.57). Prediction confidence increased over time (P < 0.001) and did not differ between physician groups. CONCLUSIONS Inter-rater agreement among neurologists and among intensivists improved over time and reached moderate levels. For all physicians, prediction accuracy and confidence improved over time. Further prospective research is needed to better characterize how physicians

  18. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  19. Social pediatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J

    1978-01-01

    A social pediatric emergency invokes the concept of a crisis situation, which often reflects an acute temporary state, the culmination of problems of long duration. The needs demonstrated in child abuse, neglect and deprivation, sexual abuse, the handling of the crisis of birth, pregnancy and abnormality, death and dying, adoption and learning disabilities are related to the family psychodynamic relationships and the doctor team approach. The social pediatrician can play his role as the physician, advocate, activist and educationalist in the many complex situations revealed within family, community and society. PMID:569270

  20. Pediatric Respiratory Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Richards, Amber M

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory emergencies are 1 of the most common reasons parents seek evaluation for the their children in the emergency department (ED) each year, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in pediatric patients. Whereas many respiratory illnesses are mild and self-limiting, others are life threatening and require prompt diagnosis and management. Therefore, it is imperative that emergency clinicians be able to promptly recognize and manage these illnesses. This article reviews ED diagnosis and management of foreign body aspiration, asthma exacerbation, epiglottitis, bronchiolitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and pertussis. PMID:26614243

  1. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  2. Pediatric Genitourinary Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Francisco Tibor; Duarte, Ricardo Jordão; Cristófani, Lílian Maria; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testis, and adrenal represent a large part of the adult urologic practice, but are relatively infrequent in children. The natural history and management of these tumors in the pediatric age is different from that of the adults. As result of the successful work of several clinical trial groups in recent decades, there has been a significant improvement in their cure rates. The aim of this article is to review their most significant clinical aspects, as well as to present an update in their management. PMID:24400293

  3. Epigenetics in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Puumala, Susan E; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are external modifications of DNA that cause changes in gene function and are involved in many diseases. Specific examples of pediatric diseases with a known or suspected epigenetic component include Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, childhood leukemia, allergies, asthma, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, childhood obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Currently, epigenetically active treatments are being used to treat childhood leukemia. Potential epigenetically active treatments and preventive regimens are under study for other diseases. Pediatricians need to be aware of the epigenetic basis of disease to help inform clinical decision making in the future. PMID:25554107

  4. 21 CFR 601.27 - Pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pediatric studies. 601.27 Section 601.27 Food and... LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.27 Pediatric studies. (a) Required assessment. Except as provided in... pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation...

  5. 21 CFR 601.27 - Pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pediatric studies. 601.27 Section 601.27 Food and... LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.27 Pediatric studies. (a) Required assessment. Except as provided in... pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation...

  6. 21 CFR 601.27 - Pediatric studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pediatric studies. 601.27 Section 601.27 Food and... LICENSING Biologics Licensing § 601.27 Pediatric studies. (a) Required assessment. Except as provided in... pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation...

  7. Confronting pediatric brain tumors: parent stories.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    This narrative symposium brings to light the extreme difficulties faced by parents of children diagnosed with brain tumors. NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Gigi McMillan and Christy A. Rentmeester, developed a call for stories that was distributed on several list serves and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The call asks parents to share their personal experience of diagnosis, treatment, long-term effects of treatment, social issues and the doctor-patient-parent dynamic that develops during this process. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. One change readers may notice is that the story authors are not listed in alphabetical order. The symposium editors had a vision for this issue that included leading readers through the timeline of this topic: diagnosis-treatment-acute recovery-recurrence-treatment (again)-acute recovery (again)-long-term quality of life-(possibly) end of life. Stories are arranged to help lead the reader through this timeline.Gigi McMillan is a patient and research subject advocate, co-founder of We Can, Pediatric Brain Tumor Network, as well as, the mother of a child who suffered from a pediatric brain tumor. She also authored the introduction for this symposium. Christy Rentmeester is an Associate Professor of Health Policy and Ethics in the Creighton University School of Medicine. She served as a commentator for this issue. Other commentators for this issue are Michael Barraza, a clinical psychologist and board member of We Can, Pediatric Brain Tumor Network; Lisa Stern, a pediatrician who has diagnosed six children with brain tumors in her 20 years of practice; and Katie Rose, a pediatric brain tumor patient who shares her special insights about this world. PMID:24748242

  8. Pediatric optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Graves, Jennifer S; Benson, Leslie A; Wassmer, Evangeline; Waldman, Amy

    2016-08-30

    Optic neuritis (ON) is a common presenting symptom in pediatric CNS demyelinating disorders and may be associated with dramatic visual loss. Knowledge regarding clinical presentation, associated diseases, therapy, and outcomes in ON in children has grown over the past decade. These studies have shown that younger children (<10 years of age) are more likely to present with bilateral ON and older children with unilateral ON. Furthermore, studies focusing on visual recovery have shown excellent recovery of high-contrast visual acuity in the majority of children, but functional and structural studies have shown evidence of irreversible injury and functional decline after ON in children. Although randomized controlled treatment trials have not been performed in children and adolescents with ON, standard of care suggests that the use of high-dose pulse steroids is safe and likely effective. This article reviews current knowledge about the clinical presentation and management of pediatric ON, with attention to associated syndromes and evaluative tools that may inform diagnosis and interventions. PMID:27572862

  9. Pediatric DXA: clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Sparke, Paul; Henwood, Maria J.

    2007-01-01

    Normal bone mineral accrual requires adequate dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients; hepatic and renal activation of vitamin D; normal hormone levels (thyroid, parathyroid, reproductive and growth hormones); and neuromuscular functioning with sufficient stress upon the skeleton to induce bone deposition. The presence of genetic or acquired diseases and the therapies that are used to treat them can also impact bone health. Since the introduction of clinical DXA in pediatrics in the early 1990s, there has been considerable investigation into the causes of low bone mineral density (BMD) in children. Pediatricians have also become aware of the role adequate bone mass accrual in childhood has in preventing osteoporotic fractures in late adulthood. Additionally, the availability of medications to improve BMD has increased with the development of bisphosphonates. These factors have led to the increased utilization of DXA in pediatrics. This review summarizes much of the previous research regarding BMD in children and is meant to assist radiologists and clinicians with DXA utilization and interpretation. PMID:17431606

  10. Immunotherapy for pediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Stephan A; Verneris, Michael; Sondel, Paul M; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in adult cancer survivorship can be achieved from behavioral changes and adopting screening programs. Yet, these approaches cannot be readily applied to lower the morbidity and mortality from childhood cancers. Rather, pediatric oncologists must rely on procedures and therapies to treat, rather than prevent malignancies. The systematic application of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery has led to remarkable advances in survival but these improvements have come at a cost. Children routinely receive chemotherapy agents that were designed decades ago, and these drugs have predictable side effects that result in the loss of potential for long-term survivors. The advent of targeted applications of immune-based therapies offers children with cancer a new class of oncolytic therapies that may be used to treat disease refractory to conventional approaches and lessen the toxicity of current treatment regimens without compromising remission. This review explores how 3 components of the immune system--T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and antibodies--can be used for therapy of pediatric malignancies. PMID:18162219

  11. Updates in pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Oken, E; Lightdale, J R

    2001-06-01

    Ongoing research in several areas of pediatric nutrition has new practical applications for community-based pediatricians. For example, a fresh understanding of risk factors for rickets persuades pediatricians to recognize and treat this disease, which was thought to be nearly extinct in the modern industrialized world. Similarly, an expanded awareness of the antibacterial components of breast milk encourages a more complete dialogue between pediatricians and new mothers about the potential benefits of breast-feeding. For those infants with feeding intolerance, new data help to refine the indications for hypoallergenic formulas, which are increasingly recommended for children with a variety of symptoms. The past year also has seen breakthroughs in our understanding of supplemental nutrition for children. Vitamin A may provide direct benefits for the most vulnerable of children, namely premature infants at high risk for lung disease. At the other end of the pediatric spectrum, adolescent athletes seeking to enhance their performance are consuming poorly studied sports supplements that may not be beneficial and may even be toxic. Finally, a greater appreciation for the epidemic of obesity that is sweeping the United States and other countries suggests that children at high risk may represent a far more diverse population than had been recognized previously. PMID:11389365

  12. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control. PMID:20826990

  13. Pediatric heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stiasny, Brian; Dave, Hitendu; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Balmer, Christian; Kretschmar, Oliver; Bürki, Christoph; Klauwer, Dietrich; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplantation (pHTx) represents a small (14%) but very important and particular part in the field of cardiac transplantation. This treatment has lifelong impact on children. To achieve the best short and especially long-term survival with adequate quality of life, which is of crucial importance for this young patient population, one has to realize and understand the differences with adult HTx. Indication for transplantation, waitlist management including ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplantation and immunosuppression differ. Although young transplant recipients are ultimately likely to be considered for re-transplantation. One has to distinguish between myopathy and complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The differences in anatomy and physiology make the surgical procedure much more complex and create unique challenges. These recipients need a well-organized and educated team with pediatric cardiologists and intensivists, including a high skilled surgeon, which is dedicated to pHTx. Therefore, these types of transplants are best concentrated in specialized centers to achieve promising outcome. PMID:25922739

  14. Pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:18650717

  15. [New horizons in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Grossman, Zachi

    2012-06-01

    The profession of pediatrics is constantLy changing. New morbidities are replacing old ones, as a reflection of the changes in society. Even today, old and rare morbidities, like scurvy or acute urinary retention, can be encountered in special settings and populations such as handicapped and developmentally delayed children. The availability of ever newer genetic tests highlights the duty of pediatricians to constantly update families for carrier detection, but also raises questions on the cLinical significance of asymptomatic mutations. Vaccination is one of the most effective pubLic health measures, but failure of medical staff to follow self vaccination recommendations might jeopardize protecting the children. Anti vaccination movement is rapidly growing due to the Internet. However, we must acknowledge the benefits inherent in Internet forums, for example, adolescents consulting anonymously regarding pubertal issues. A new and most needed aspect of care is treatment of pain in children. Increased staff awareness concerning anaLgesia is needed as well as promoting the use of medical clowns for anxiety and pain provoking procedures. Delivering appropriate healthcare to different societal demographic sectors is a challenge for pediatricians. The approach to fever phobia among ultra orthodox parents and advocacy for safety recommendations in the Arab population are two such exampLes. Finally, we shouLd always strive for innovative approaches in pediatric diseases affecting quality of life, and celiac disease is certainly promising in this direction. PMID:22991856

  16. CHIEF PEDIATRIC RESIDENTS TRAINING - A TRAINING PROGRAM OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Academy of Pediatrics will convene workshops at four meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies for incoming pediatric chief residents. The residents receive an overview of childen's environmental health issues, will create a powerpoint presentation on a specific ...

  17. Imaging in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Monti, L; Soglia, G; Tomà, P

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation has become an established curative treatment in adult patients with acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases. In pediatric cases the number of cadaveric donor livers is not sufficient and to overcome the shortage of appropriate-sized whole liver grafts, technical variants of liver transplantation have been practiced. Reduced-size cadaveric and split cadaveric allografts have become an important therapeutic option, expanding the availability of size-appropriate organs for pediatric recipients with terminal liver disease. The number of pediatric deaths awaiting liver transplantation has been reduced by the introduction of living-related liver transplantation, developed to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children. It is important for radiologists to know that children have distinct imaging of liver transplantation that distinguish them from adults. A multidisciplinary pediatric liver transplantation team should be skilled in pediatric conditions and in associated processes, risks and complications. Radiologists should know the common pediatric liver diseases that lead to liver transplantation, the anastomotic techniques and the expected postoperative imaging findings. The aim of this study is to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging such us ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric liver transplantation and in potential liver donors. PMID:26909515

  18. Pediatric drug development: formulation considerations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Areeg Anwer; Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Abdallah, Daud Baraka

    2014-10-01

    Absence of safe, effective and appropriate treatment is one of the main causes of high mortality and morbidity rates among the pediatric group. This review provides an overview of pharmacokinetic differences between pediatric and adult population and their implications in pharmaceutical development. Different pediatric dosage forms, their merits and demerits are discussed. Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997 and the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act 2002 added 6 months patent extension and exclusivity incentives to pharmaceutical companies for evaluation of medicinal products in children. Prescription Drug User Fee Act and Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 made it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to perform pediatric clinical studies on new drug products. Drug development program should include additional clinical bridge studies to evaluate differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in adult and child populations. Additionally, pharmaceutical development should consider ease of administration, palatability, appropriate excipients, stability and therapeutic equivalency of pediatric dosage forms. Pediatric population is diverse with individual preferences and demand for custom made dosage formulations. Practically it is not feasible to have different pharmaceutical dosage forms for each group. Hence, an appropriate dosage form that can be administered across pediatric population is warranted. PMID:24483293

  19. Effect of Intravenous (IV) Assistive Device (VeinViewer) on IV Access Attempts, Procedural Time, and Patient and Nurse Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Lois; Hunt, Pauline; Ortega, Erin; Knowlton, Jessica; Briggs, Raymond; Hirokawa, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of VeinViewer for peripheral vascular accessing a pediatric hematology oncology clinic. After obtaining consent, 53 patients were randomly assigned to either the VeinViewer group (n = 27) or standard methods group (n = 26). Data on number of attempts, procedural time, access complications, and patient and nurse satisfaction were collected. Patients randomized to the VeinViewer group required significantly less time to access a vein as compared with the standard methods group (P ≤ .05). Additionally, these patients rated nurses as having significantly more skill than nurses who did not use VeinViewer (P ≤ .05) and assigned significantly higher scores for "overall experience"(P ≤ .05). Responses by nurses using VeinViewer overall saw the device in a positive light. PMID:26510643

  20. Pediatric Cancer Genetics Research and an Evolving Preventive Ethics Approach for Return of Results after Death of the Subject.

    PubMed

    Scollon, Sarah; Bergstrom, Katie; McCullough, Laurence B; McGuire, Amy L; Gutierrez, Stephanie; Kerstein, Robin; Parsons, D Williams; Plon, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    The return of genetic research results after death in the pediatric setting comes with unique complexities. Researchers must determine which results and through which processes results are returned. This paper discusses the experience over 15 years in pediatric cancer genetics research of returning research results after the death of a child and proposes a preventive ethics approach to protocol development in order to improve the quality of return of results in pediatric genomic settings. PMID:26479562

  1. Septorhinoplasty in the Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Bhuskute, Aditi; Sumiyoshi, Mika; Senders, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric septorhinoplasty has been an area of controversy because early surgical intervention can prevent normal growth. There are certain conditions where early correction of the nose is indicated, such as in cleft lip nasal deformities, severe traumatic deformities, and congenital nasal lesions. Animal and clinical studies have been helpful in elucidating certain areas of the nose that are potential growth zones that should be left undisturbed when performing nasal surgeries on pediatric patients. We discuss the timing, indications, and surgical technique in pediatric septorhinoplasty. PMID:27400839

  2. Radiation Safety in Pediatric Orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Caird, Michelle S

    2015-01-01

    Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety. PMID:26049299

  3. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  4. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the isolation of German medicine in World War II accompanied by the destruction of many hospitals, German pediatricians did not show any serious interest in the treatment of children with congenital heart diseases, nor did they take notice of the progress achieved by Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock and other cardiologists and surgeons in the western world. This problem was even worse in East Germany. Only a few German internists and forward-looking surgeons were able and ready to take care of this group of principally operable children in places like Bonn/Düsseldorf, Marburg/Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. However, in the early 1950s some directors of pediatrics at university hospitals--largely motivated by the cardiac surgeons--allowed or even encouraged younger colleagues to concentrate on pediatric cardiology and to begin application of heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In 1960 a group of colleagues interested in pediatric cardiology met for the first time in Frankfurt and became the nucleus of the future "working group" (1969) and finally the "German Society of Pediatric Cardiology" (1974). By 1972 pediatric cardiology had been approved as an independent (sub)specialty. Colleagues and friends from surrounding countries (Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Netherlands) and also from the US and some eastern countries were either members or regular guests during or between the meetings. Pediatric cardiology is now represented in Germany by specialized practitioners, trainees and assistants who work in both community and university hospitals, and in specialized departments. Due to the foresightedness of the Chief of Pediatrics, Prof. G. Joppich, the first Chair of Pediatric Cardiology was founded in Göttingen in 1960 under the direction of A. Beuren. Another model of interdisciplinary cooperation between pediatric cardiologists, bioengineers, mathematicians and computer scientists was established in Kiel in 1966. In other places

  5. Cultural and religious considerations in pediatric palliative care

    PubMed Central

    WIENER, LORI; MCCONNELL, DENICE GRADY; LATELLA, LAUREN; LUDI, ERICA

    2012-01-01

    Objective A growing multicultural society presents healthcare providers with a difficult task of providing appropriate care for individuals who have different life experiences, beliefs, value systems, religions, languages, and notions of healthcare. This is especially vital when end-of-life care is needed during childhood. There is a dearth of literature addressing cultural considerations in the pediatric palliative care field. As members of a specific culture often do not ascribe to the same religious traditions, the purpose of this article was to explore and review how culture and religion informs and shapes pediatric palliative care. Method Comprehensive literature searches were completed through an online search of nine databases for articles published between 1980 and 2011: PsychINFO, MEDLINE®, Journal of Citation Reports-Science Edition, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL®, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), EBSCO, and Ovid. Key terms included: culture, transcultural, spiritual, international, ethnic, customs or religion AND end-of-life, palliative care, death, dying, cancer, or hospice, and children, pediatrics, or pediatric oncology. Reference lists in the retrieved articles were examined for additional studies that fit the inclusion criteria, and relevant articles were included for review. In addition, web-based searches of specific journals were conducted. These included, but were not limited to: Qualitative Health Research, Psycho-Oncology, Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Journal of Pediatric Health Care, Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, Omega, Social Work in Health Care, and Journal of Palliative Medicine. Results Thirty-seven articles met eligibility criteria. From these, seven distinct themes emerged that have implications for pediatric palliative care. These include the role of culture in decision-making, faith and the involvement of clergy, communication (spoken and unspoken language), communicating to children

  6. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center... by pediatric heart transplant patients. Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience, and... Requirements for Specialty Hospitals General Requirements for Transplant Centers § 482.76 Condition...

  7. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center... by pediatric heart transplant patients. Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience, and... Requirements for Specialty Hospitals General Requirements for Transplant Centers § 482.76 Condition...

  8. 42 CFR 482.76 - Condition of participation: Pediatric Transplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of participation at §§ 482.72 through 482.74 and §§ 482.80 through 482.104, a heart transplant center... by pediatric heart transplant patients. Transplant Center Data Submission, Clinical Experience, and... Requirements for Specialty Hospitals General Requirements for Transplant Centers § 482.76 Condition...

  9. Sedation in pediatric imaging using intranasal midazolam.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H T; Grissom, L E; Meister, M A

    1995-01-01

    Intranasal midazolam offers an attractive alternative for use as a sedative agent for medical imaging studies in children. Its convenient administration and rapid onset are significant advantages over intravenous and oral agents. Because of its short duration, it is effective only for short procedures and as an adjunct to other sedative agents. When younger children present with such requirements, a dose of 0.2 mg/kg has been safe and effective in our experience. We advocate its use with adherence to guidelines for sedation published by the American Academy of Pediatrics. PMID:7567258

  10. Pediatric Coccidioidomycosis Patients: Perceptions, Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gaab, Erin Mary; Naeem, Fouzia

    2015-01-01

    Research investigating the effects of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) on children and the psychosocial implications of this disease in general is lacking. This study reviews what is known about pediatric coccidioidomycosis patients. It documents the psychological functioning, quality of life, and illness perceptions of a sample of coccidioidomycosis patient families. Primary caregivers of pediatric patients and patients from a major hospital in the San Joaquin Valley of California were interviewed regarding their perceptions of disease detection, access to care and the patient/family experience. PMID:27417796

  11. MO-E-18A-01: Imaging: Best Practices In Pediatric Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, C; Strauss, K; MacDougall, R; Sammet, C

    2014-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children's hospitals. Areas of focus will include general radiography, the use of manual and automatic dose management in computed tomography, and enterprise-wide radiation dose management in the pediatric practice. The educational program will begin with a discussion of the complexities of exposure factor control in pediatric projection radiography. Following this introduction will be two lectures addressing the challenges of computed tomography (CT) protocol optimization in the pediatric population. The first will address manual CT protocol design in order to establish a managed radiation dose for any pediatric exam on any CT scanner. The second CT lecture will focus on the intricacies of automatic dose modulation in pediatric imaging with an emphasis on getting reliable results in algorithmbased technique selection. The fourth and final lecture will address the key elements needed to developing a comprehensive radiation dose management program for the pediatric environment with particular attention paid to new regulations and obligations of practicing medical physicists. Learning Objectives: To understand how general radiographic techniques can be optimized using exposure indices in order to improve pediatric radiography. To learn how to establish diagnostic dose reference levels for pediatric patients as a function of the type of examination, patient size, and individual design characteristics of the CT scanner. To learn how to predict the patient's radiation dose prior to the exam and manually adjust technique factors if necessary to match the patient's dose to the department's established dose reference levels. To learn how to utilize manufacturer-provided automatic dose modulation technology to consistently achieve patient doses within the

  12. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  13. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties. PMID:27292845

  14. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  15. Advances in pediatrics. Volume 32

    SciTech Connect

    Barness, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on pediatrics. Topics include: the biological role and clinical implications of taurine; human milk nonprotein nitrogen; monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diseases; and human immune responses to polysaccharide antigens.

  16. What Is a Pediatric Gastroenterologist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  17. What Is a Pediatric Rheumatologist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  18. What Is a Pediatric Geneticist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  19. What Is a Pediatric Urologist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Life Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ...

  20. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  1. Neonatal and pediatric respiratory care

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, P.B. ); Eitzman, D.V.; Nev, J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiographic evaluations; Neonatal parenchymal diseases: physiologic development; Oxygen therapy; Pediatric parenchymal diseases; and Care of the neurologically injured child.

  2. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies. PMID:27104813

  3. Comparing Pediatric Rotations at Two University of Queensland Clinical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Park, Julie; Kantrow, Charles M.; Coulthard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The University of Queensland (UQ), Ochsner Clinical School (OCS) is a partnership between Ochsner Health System in New Orleans, LA, and UQ in Brisbane, Australia. OCS medical students are trained on both continents, receiving their didactic education in Australia and their clinical education in the United States. Methods: We review the OCS experience and compare the pediatric rotations at OCS and UQ. Results: Students in the pediatric rotations in Australia and in the United States receive their clinical instruction in the real-world learning environment of hospitals and clinics. In addition, lectures, online learning modules, case-based tutorials, and rigorous assessment at the end of the rotation help prepare medical students for future contact with pediatric patients. Sixty-nine third-year OCS students and 499 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation in 2014. In 2015, 105 third-year OCS students and approximately 400 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation. Conclusion: In a unique educational collaboration, OCS has used e-learning and face-to-face tutorials to produce a well-rounded curriculum that assimilates global healthcare and international medicine. This article demonstrates the feasibility of delivering a standardized curriculum across two continents using modern e-learning tools. PMID:27046407

  4. Pediatric teledermatology: a survey of usage, perspectives, and practice.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Alexander L; Teng, Joyce M C

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dermatology is one of the smallest subspecialties, and expanding the availability of care is of great interest. Teledermatology has been proposed as a way to expand access and improve care delivery, but no current assessment of pediatric teledermatology exists. The objective of the current study was to assess usage and perspectives on pediatric teledermatology. Surveys were distributed electronically to all 226 board-certified U.S. pediatric dermatologists; 44% (100/226) responded. Nearly all respondents (89%) have experience with teledermatology. Formal teledermatology reimbursement success rates have increased to 35%. Respondents were positive about teledermatology's present and future prospects, and 41% want to use teledermatology more often, although they viewed teledermatology as somewhat inferior to in-person care regarding accuracy of diagnosis and appropriation of management plans. Significant differences were found between formal teledermatology users and nonusers in salary structure, practice environment, sex, and region. Substantial increases in pediatric teledermatology have occurred in the last 5 to 10 years, and there remains cause for optimism for teledermatology's future. Concerns about diagnostic confidence and care quality indicate that teledermatology may be best for care of patients with characteristic clinical presentations or management of patients with established diagnoses. PMID:25691131

  5. Education changes Mexican nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain.

    PubMed

    Huth, Myra Martz; Gregg, Theresa L; Lin, Li

    2010-12-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of a pain education intervention on Mexican nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pediatric pain. A convenience sample of 106 registered nurses from three hospitals in Mexico City was recruited. A Pediatric Pain Education Program (PPEP) was developed, implemented, and evaluated by a nurse researcher, clinical nurse specialist, and a child life specialist. The 4-hour program, which was translated into Spanish, consisted of pain assessment, physiology, and management, including pharmacology and nonpharmacology. The effects of PPEP were measured in a one-group pretest-posttest design using a translated Spanish version of the Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (PNKAS). A total of 79 nurses completed both tests. A paired t test indicated significant differences between pre- and posttest results (p < .0001) on the PNKAS. The hospital site and years of nursing experience were significantly related to nurses' pre- and post-PNKAS scores. One test item on children's ability to reliably report their pain had a significantly lower score after the intervention (p = .016). The intervention was effective in improving Mexican pediatric nurses' knowledge and attitudes. However, it is not known how long this effect was maintained. Health care professionals can share a common vision for pain management by increasing international collaborative efforts and by advancing pediatric pain knowledge. PMID:21095595

  6. Therapeutic Approach to the Management of Pediatric Demyelinating Disease: Multiple Sclerosis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Banwell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    Acquired pediatric demyelinating diseases manifest acutely with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or with various other acute deficits in focal or polyfocal areas of the central nervous system. Patients may experience a monophasic illness (as in the case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or one that may manifest as a chronic, relapsing disease [e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS)]. The diagnosis of pediatric MS and other demyelinating disorders of childhood has been facilitated by consensus statements regarding diagnostic definitions. Treatment of pediatric MS has been modeled after data obtained from clinical trials in adult-onset MS. There are now an increasing number of new therapeutic agents for MS, and many will be formally studied for use in pediatric patients. There are important efficacy and safety concerns regarding the use of these therapies in children and young adults. This review will discuss acute management as well as chronic immunotherapies in acquired pediatric demyelination. PMID:26496907

  7. Innovation in pediatric surgical education.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Matthew S; Wulkan, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric surgical training in the United States remained basically unchanged from the model developed by Ladd and Gross in the 1930s until recently. Standardized curriculum and novel evaluation methods are now being implemented. Pediatric Surgical education is currently undergoing a transition to competency-based evaluation and promotion. Unfortunately, there is little data on the efficacy of these changes. This presents an opportunity for further study of how we conduct training, and how we evaluate and promote our trainees. PMID:25976147

  8. Pharmacogenomics and its importance in pediatric medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Barkur S.

    2012-01-01

    Individual variation in drug response and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a serious problem in medicine. This individual variation in drug response could be due to multiple factors but there is strong evidence that genetic factors play a significant role in drug response variability and toxicity. Although substantial studies that link genetic variants to inter-individual difference in drug response in adults have been reported, such studies are comparatively rare in pediatric medicine. The ultimate goal of medical research is to improve human health in every disease and every patient. Many diseases such as asthma, autism, epilepsy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder develop during childhood. Human development is a rapidly changing process. In children, there are differences in absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolizing capabilities of a drug compared with adults. Therefore, many pharmacological and toxicological actions of drugs in children are not predictable from adult experience. It is also possible that children may experience a different range of ADRs that may have long-term implications for their development. Therefore, an improved understanding of the drug transformation pathways for all age groups is necessary. Such studies could provide insight into the susceptibility of a child to ADRs. The availability of the complete sequence of human genome and the biochip technology may help in identifying the polymorphic variations in drug related genes. In this regard, pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic studies may play an important role in providing markers of increased risk or susceptibility. Based on this genetic information, children at risk can be identified before therapy is initiated and pediatric ADRs may be minimized. In this short article, an attempt has been made to emphasize the importance of pharmacogenomics in pediatrics.

  9. Comprehensive training for the future pediatric cardiologist

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    India faces a huge burden of pediatric and adult congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Many acquired valvar, myocardial, and vascular diseases also need treatment in childhood and adolescence. The emergence of pediatric cardiology as an independent specialty has been a relatively recent development. A few centers of excellence in pediatric cardiology have developed. However, the requirement of pediatric cardiac care and pediatric cardiologists is far in excess of what is available. There are no guidelines at present in India for uniform training in pediatric cardiology. Many training programs are nonstructured and do not focus on the regional needs. Both core training and advanced training programs are essential to provide adequate numbers of community-level pediatric cardiologists and academic leaders respectively. This article proposes a detailed plan and curriculum for comprehensive training of future pediatric cardiologists in India. PMID:27011684

  10. Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hunmin; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records the magnetic field generated by electrical activity of cortical neurons. The signal is not distorted or attenuated, and it is contactless recording that can be performed comfortably even for longer than an hour. It has excellent and decent temporal resolution, especially when it is combined with the patient's own brain magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic source imaging). Data of MEG and electroencephalography are not mutually exclusive and it is recorded simultaneously and interpreted together. MEG has been shown to be useful in detecting the irritative zone in both lesional and nonlesional epilepsy surgery. It has provided valuable and additive information regarding the lesion that should be resected in epilepsy surgery. Better outcomes in epilepsy surgery were related to the localization of the irritative zone with MEG. The value of MEG in epilepsy surgery is recruiting more patients to epilepsy surgery and providing critical information for surgical planning. MEG cortical mapping is helpful in younger pediatric patients, especially when the epileptogenic zone is close to the eloquent cortex. MEG is also used in both basic and clinical research of epilepsy other than surgery. MEG is a valuable diagnostic modality for diagnosis and treatment, as well as research in epilepsy. PMID:24244211

  11. Pharmacogenomics in pediatric leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Steven W.; Stocco, Gabriele; Evans, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The therapeutic index of many medications, especially in children, is very narrow with substantial risk for toxicity at doses required for therapeutic effects. This is particularly relevant to cancer chemotherapy, where the risk of toxicity must be balanced against potential suboptimal (low) systemic exposure that can be less effective in patients with the higher rates of drug clearance. The purpose of this review is to discuss genetic factors that lead to interpatient differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these medications. Recent findings Genome wide agonistic studies of pediatric patient populations are revealing genome variations that may affect susceptibility to specific diseases and that influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of medications. Several genetic factors with relatively small effect may be combined in the determination of a pharmacogenomic phenotype and considering these polygenic models may be mandatory in order to predict the related drug response phenotypes. These findings have potential to yield new insights into disease pathogenesis, and lead to molecular diagnostics that can be used to optimize the treatment of childhood cancers Summary Advances in genome technology and their comprehensive and systematic deployment to elucidate the genomic basis of inter-patient differences in drug response and disease risk, hold great promise to ultimately enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of drug therapy in children. PMID:20861736

  12. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. PMID:25658216

  13. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line “gain of function” mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective. PMID:27014708

  14. Pediatric otitis media.

    PubMed

    Julien, D K; Gricar, J A; Cave, D G

    1998-12-01

    The pediatric patients with routine, easiest-to-treat otitis media utilize 2.1 office visits during the course of a PTE. This patient group also received 0.13 tests, 0.14 laboratory and pathology services, and 0.05 medical/surgical procedures during the course of a PTE. Though 29.2% of these patients did not produce a claim for prescription drug therapy, this patient group received at least 1.53 prescriptions per PTEs. One prescription drug group was used in 39.8% of all PTEs. Of the PTEs treated with a single drug group, at least 56.4% were treated with amoxicillin. Two prescription drug groups were used in 18.1% of the PTEs. The prescribing patterns of physicians using two drug groups demonstrate a wide variety of switching patterns, some of which may have cost-of-care implications. Though surgical procedures are seldom utilized in SOI-1, approximately one-half of SOI-2 PTEs undergo some type of surgical procedure. The most common surgical procedure was myringotomy with the PE-TM tubes, which represents 82% of procedures performed on SOI-2 patients. The major cost drivers in the treatment of otitis media are clinical visits and antimicrobial drugs. PMID:10338744

  15. Pediatric Arm Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Rowe, Jan; Vogtle, Laura; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although there are several validated upper-extremity measures in young children with cerebral palsy (CP), none primarily assess capacity to carry out actions and tasks with the more-affected arm. To address this need, we developed the Pediatric Arm Function Test (PAFT), which involves behavioral observation of how children use their more-affected arm during structured play in the laboratory or clinic. This paper evaluates the reliability and validity of the PAFT Functional Ability scale. Design In Study 1, 20 children between 2–8 years with a wide range of upper-extremity hemiparesis due to CP completed the PAFT on two occasions separated by three weeks. In Study 2, 41 children between 2–6 years with similar characteristics completed the PAFT and received a grade reflecting severity of more-affected arm motor impairment. Results In Study 1, the PAFT test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was 0.74. In Study 2, convergent validity was supported by a strong, inverse correlation (r = −0.6, p < .001) between PAFT scores and grade of impairment. Conclusions The PAFT Functional Ability scale is a reliable and valid measure of more-affected arm motor capacity in children with CP between 2–6 years. It can be employed to measure upper-extremity neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:23103486

  16. Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Lorts, Angela; Morales, David

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in the pediatric heart failure population has a limited history especially for infants, and neonates. It has been increasingly recognized that there is a rapidly expanding population of children diagnosed and living with heart failure. This expanding population has resulted in increasing numbers of children with medically resistant end-stage heart failure. The traditional therapy for these children has been heart transplantation. However, children with heart failure unlike adults do not have symptoms until they present with end-stage heart failure and therefore, cannot safely wait for transplantation. Many of these children were bridged to heart transplantation utilizing extracorporeal membranous oxygenation as a bridge to transplant which has yielded poor results. As such, industry, clinicians, and the government have refocused interest in developing increasing numbers of MCS options for children living with heart failure as a bridge to transplantation and as a chronic therapy. In this review, we discuss MCS options for short and long-term support that are currently available for infants and children with end-stage heart failure. PMID:24368965

  17. PEDIATRIC PROVIDERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD RETAIL CLINICS

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, Jane M.; Mandrell, Kathy M.; Sterkel, Randall; Epstein, Jay; Stahl, Kristin; Kreusser, Katherine; O’Neil, Jerome; Sitrin, Harold; Ariza, Adolfo; Reis, Evelyn Cohen; Siegel, Robert; Pascoe, John; Strunk, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe pediatric primary care providers’ attitudes toward retail clinics and their experiences of retail clinics use by their patients. Study design A 51-item, self-administered survey from four pediatric practice-based research networks from the Midwestern United States, which gauged providers’ attitudes toward and perceptions of their patients’ interactions with retail clinics, and changes to office practice to better compete. Results A total of 226 providers participated (50% response). Providers believed that retail clinics were a business threat (80%) and disrupted continuity of chronic disease management (54%). Few (20%) agreed that retail clinics provided care within recommended clinical guidelines. Most (91%) reported that they provided additional care after a retail clinic visit (median 1–2 times per week) and 37% felt this resulted from suboptimal care at retail clinics “most or all of the time.” Few (15%) reported being notified by the retail clinic within 24 hours of a patient visit. Those reporting prompt communication were less likely to report suboptimal retail clinic care (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.10 to 0.42) or disruption in continuity of care (OR 0.32, 95%CI 0.15 to 0.71). Thirty-six percent reported changes to office practice to compete with retail clinics (most commonly adjusting or extending office hours) and change was more likely if retail clinics were perceived as a threat (OR 3.70, 95%CI 1.56 to 8.76); 30% planned to make changes in the near future. Conclusions Based on the perceived business threat, pediatric providers are making changes to their practice to compete with retail clinics. Improved communication between the clinic and providers may improve collaboration. PMID:23810720

  18. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. PMID:26964551

  19. Modified functional obturator for the consideration of facial growth in the mucoepidermoid carcinoma pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Keun

    2015-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a common salivary gland tumor in a adults but is very rare in pediatric patients. The standard treatment of MEC is en bloc resection with wide safety margins and subsequent reconstruction of the jaw, but few surgeons or pediatric specialists have experience with this procedure. An 11-year-old boy received a hemi-maxillectomy with subsequent application of the modified functional obturator (MFO) by the functional matrix concept of Moss. And the patient's face showed normal growth pattern. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the novel concept of pediatric maxillary reconstruction using MFO for the consideration of facial growth. PMID:26235731

  20. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

  1. Qualitative Development of the PROMIS® Pediatric Stress Response Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, William; Pajer, Kathleen; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the qualitative development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pediatric Stress Response item banks. Methods Stress response concepts were specified through a literature review and interviews with content experts, children, and parents. A library comprising 2,677 items derived from 71 instruments was developed. Items were classified into conceptual categories; new items were written and redundant items were removed. Items were then revised based on cognitive interviews (n = 39 children), readability analyses, and translatability reviews. Results 2 pediatric Stress Response sub-domains were identified: somatic experiences (43 items) and psychological experiences (64 items). Final item pools cover the full range of children’s stress experiences. Items are comprehensible among children aged ≥8 years and ready for translation. Conclusions Child- and parent-report versions of the item banks assess children’s somatic and psychological states when demands tax their adaptive capabilities. PMID:23124904

  2. Simulation: a day in the life of a pediatric nurse.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Samantha; Stewart, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Due to the increasing number of students in nursing programs and the decreasing number of available pediatric hospital clinical sites, many academic institutions have expanded their simulation experiences to supplement the pediatric clinical experience. This article provides a synopsis of the creativity used to construct a 6- to 7-hour clinical day within a children's hospital simulation at a small rural college in the southeastern United States. From the beginning of the creation of a historic building to the finalization of a true simulation laboratory in a new state-of-the-art facility, this synopsis discusses the trials and tribulations encountered in providing students with an experience that will assist them to utilize critical thinking and maximize clinical competence in the health care setting. PMID:24530128

  3. Pharmacologic treatment of pediatric insomnia.

    PubMed

    Owens, Judith A; Moturi, Sricharan

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric insomnia is common in children and adolescents, particularly in children who have comorbid medical, psychiatric, and neurodevelopmental disorders, and may be associated with cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairments that often result in significant caregiver burden. Although several behavioral interventions for pediatric insomnia are effective, there is a relative paucity of empiric evidence supporting the use of pharmacologic treatment. Sedative/hypnotic drugs are frequently used in clinical practice to treat pediatric insomnia, and guidelines for the use of these medications in general as well as for specific medications have been developed. This review presents expert consensus guidelines for the use of these medications in clinical practice, with a focus on the different classes of pharmacologic agents that are most commonly prescribed. PMID:19836701

  4. Antibiotic resistance in pediatric urology

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are a mainstay in the treatment of bacterial infections, though their use is a primary risk factor for the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in pediatric urology as demonstrated by increased uropathogen resistance. Lack of urine testing, nonselective use of prophylaxis, and poor empiric prescribing practices exacerbate this problem. This article reviews antibiotic utilization in pediatric urology with emphasis on modifiable practice patterns to potentially help mitigate the growing rates of antibiotic resistance. This includes urine testing to only treat when indicated and tailor broad-spectrum therapy as able; selective application of antibiotic prophylaxis to patients with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux and hydronephrosis with counseling regarding the importance of compliance; and using local antiobiograms, particularly pediatric-specific antiobiograms, with inpatient versus outpatient data. PMID:24688601

  5. Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remains restriction of energy intake with lifestyle modification. There are few long-term studies of pharmacotherapeutic interventions for pediatric obesity. Bariatric surgical approaches are the most efficacious obesity treatments but, because of their potential risks, are reserved for those with the most significant complications of obesity. PMID:19717003

  6. The Genetics of Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Alessandra; Grant, Struan F A

    2015-12-01

    Obesity among children and adults has notably escalated over recent decades and represents a global major health problem. We now know that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its complex etiology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed compelling genetic signals influencing obesity risk in adults. Recent reports for childhood obesity revealed that many adult loci also play a role in the pediatric setting. Childhood GWAS have uncovered novel loci below the detection range in adult studies, suggesting that obesity genes may be more easily uncovered in the pediatric setting. Shedding light on the genetic architecture of childhood obesity will facilitate the prevention and treatment of pediatric cases, and will have fundamental implications for diseases that present later in life. PMID:26439977

  7. Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Scheller, RoseAnn L; Johnson, Laurie; Lorts, Angela; Ryan, Thomas D

    2016-09-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the pediatric population is a rare and potentially devastating occurrence. An understanding of the differential diagnosis for the etiology of the cardiac arrest allows for the most effective emergency care and provides the patient with the best possible outcome. Pediatric SCA can occur with or without prodromal symptoms and may occur during exercise or rest. The most common cause is arrhythmia secondary to an underlying channelopathy, cardiomyopathy, or myocarditis. After stabilization, evaluation should include electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, and echocardiogram. Management should focus on decreasing the potential for recurring arrhythmia, maintaining cardiac preload, and thoughtful medication use to prevent exacerbation of the underlying condition. The purpose of this review was to provide the emergency physician with a concise and current review of the incidence, differential diagnosis, and management of pediatric patients presenting with SCA. PMID:27585126

  8. Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Description and Evaluation of a Novel Intensive Training Program for Pediatric Cardiology Trainees.

    PubMed

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2016-06-01

    The transition from residency to subspecialty fellowship in a procedurally driven field such as pediatric cardiology is challenging for trainees. We describe and assess the educational value of a pediatric cardiology "boot camp" educational tool designed to help prepare trainees for cardiology fellowship. A two-day intensive training program was provided for pediatric cardiology fellows in July 2015 at a large fellowship training program. Hands-on experiences and simulations were provided in: anatomy, auscultation, echocardiography, catheterization, cardiovascular intensive care (CVICU), electrophysiology (EP), heart failure, and cardiac surgery. Knowledge-based exams as well as surveys were completed by each participant pre-training and post-training. Pre- and post-exam results were compared via paired t tests, and survey results were compared via Wilcoxon rank sum. A total of eight participants were included. After boot camp, there was a significant improvement between pre- and post-exam scores (PRE 54 ± 9 % vs. POST 85 ± 8 %; p ≤ 0.001). On pre-training survey, the most common concerns about starting fellowship included: CVICU emergencies, technical aspects of the catheterization/EP labs, using temporary and permanent pacemakers/implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), and ECG interpretation. Comparing pre- and post-surveys, there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants comfort level in 33 of 36 (92 %) areas of assessment. All participants (8/8, 100 %) strongly agreed that the boot camp was a valuable learning experience and helped to alleviate anxieties about the start of fellowship. A pediatric cardiology boot camp experience at the start of cardiology fellowship can provide a strong foundation and serve as an educational springboard for pediatric cardiology fellows. PMID:26961569

  9. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  10. Pediatric transverse myelitis.

    PubMed

    Absoud, Michael; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Lim, Ming; Lotze, Tim; Thomas, Terrence; Deiva, Kumaran

    2016-08-30

    Pediatric acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an immune-mediated CNS disorder and contributes to 20% of children experiencing a first acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). ATM must be differentiated from other presentations of myelopathy and may be the first presentation of relapsing ADS such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The tenets of the diagnostic criteria for ATM established by the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group can generally be applied in children; however, a clear sensory level may not be evident in some. MRI lesions are often centrally located with high T2 signal intensity involving gray and neighboring white matter. Longitudinally extensive ATM occurs in the majority. Asymptomatic lesions on brain MRI are seen in more than one-third and predict MS or NMO. The role of antibodies such as myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in monophasic and relapsing ATM and their significance in therapeutic approaches remain unclear. ATM is a potentially devastating condition with variable outcome and presents significant cumulative demands on health and social care resources. Children generally have a better outcome than adults, with one-half making a complete recovery by 2 years. There is need for standardization of clinical assessment and investigation protocols to enable international collaborative studies to delineate prognostic factors for disability and relapse. There are no robust controlled trials in children or adults to inform optimal treatment of ATM, with one study currently open to recruitment. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of clinical features, investigative workup, pathogenesis, and management of ATM and suggests future directions. PMID:27572861

  11. Pharmacologic Treatment of Pediatric Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dhull, Rachita S; Baracco, Rossana; Jain, Amrish; Mattoo, Tej K

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence of hypertension is increasing in children and adolescents. Uncontrolled hypertension in children not only causes end organ damage but also increases the risk of adult hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Clinical trials have proven efficacy of antihypertensive medications in children. These medications are well tolerated by children with acceptable safety profile. The choice of agent is usually driven by underlying etiology of hypertension, profile of its side effects, and clinician's preference. This article will review currently available pediatric data on mechanism of action, common adverse effects, pediatric indication, recent clinical trial, and newer drugs in the common classes of antihypertensive medications. PMID:27048353

  12. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.M.; Coulam, C.M.; Allen, J.H.; Fleischer, A.; Lee, G.S.; Kirchner, S.G.; James A.E. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Evaluation of pediatric emergencies by diagnostic imaging technics can involve both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Nuclear medicine, conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized axial tomography, and xeroradiography are the major nonangiographic diagnostic technics available for patient evaluation. We will emphasize the use of computerized axial tomography, nuclear medicine, xeroradiography, and ultrasound in the evaluation of emergencies in the pediatric age group. Since the radiologist is the primary consultant with regard to diagnostic imaging, his knowledge of these modulities can greatly influence patient care and clinical results.

  13. Medication Errors in Outpatient Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors may occur during parental administration of prescription and over-the-counter medications in the outpatient pediatric setting. Misinterpretation of medication labels and dosing errors are two types of errors in medication administration. Health literacy may play an important role in parents' ability to safely manage their child's medication regimen. There are several proposed strategies for decreasing these medication administration errors, including using standardized dosing instruments, using strictly metric units for medication dosing, and providing parents and caregivers with picture-based dosing instructions. Pediatric healthcare providers should be aware of these strategies and seek to implement many of them into their practices. PMID:27537086

  14. Reslizumab for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2010-07-01

    Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition associated with marked eosinophil accumulation in the mucosal tissues of the esophagus. Eosinophils are major proinflammatory cells thought to make a major contribution to allergic diseases that affect the upper and lower airways, skin and GI tract. IL-5 is central to eosinophil maturation and release from the bone marrow, and their subsequent accumulation, activation and persistence in the tissues. Reslizumab (Cinquil, Ception Therapeutics Inc., PA, USA) is a humanized monoclonal antibody with potent IL-5 neutralizing effects that represents a potential treatment for eosinophilic diseases. This article considers the current status of the clinical development of reslizumab for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:20636000

  15. Multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Ruble, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the significant advances in the treatment of childhood cancer and supportive care that have occurred over the last several decades and details how these advances have led to improved survival and quality of life (QOL) for children with cancer through a multidisciplinary approach to care. Advances in the basic sciences, general medicine, cooperative research protocols, and policy guidelines have influenced and guided the multidisciplinary approach in pediatric oncology care across the spectrum from diagnosis through long-term survival. Two case studies are provided to highlight the nature and scope of multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology care. PMID:21811384

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the pediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Tagge, Edward P; Natali, Elizabeth Lee; Lima, Evan; Leek, Dustin; Neece, Cameron L; Randall, Kiti Freier

    2013-08-01

    The mind-body connection is receiving increasing scrutiny in a large number of clinical settings, although research has lagged in the pediatric specialties. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a novel interdisciplinary scientific field that examines the relationship of the mind to the patient's neurologic, endocrine, and immune systems by examining critical parameters such as the effects of mental stress on wound healing and infection rates. Techniques that modify a patient's emotional and mental responses to illness and surgery have positive effects on their physiology resulting in improved recoveries and higher patient satisfaction rates. In the appropriate clinical settings, an awareness of PNI can enhance outcomes for pediatric surgical patients. PMID:23870208

  17. Final results of a single institution experience with a pediatric-based regimen, the augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and comparison to the hyper-CVAD regimen.

    PubMed

    Rytting, Michael E; Jabbour, Elias J; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Ravandi, Farhad; Franklin, Anna R; Kadia, Tapan M; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval G; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Konopleva, Marina Y; Borthakur, Gautam; Garris, Rebecca; Wang, Sa; Pierce, Sherry; Schroeder, Kurt; Kornblau, Steven M; Thomas, Deborah A; Cortes, Jorge E; O'Brien, Susan M; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2016-08-01

    Several studies reported improved outcomes of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with pediatric-based ALL regimens. This prompted the prospective investigation of a pediatric Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ABFM) regimen, and its comparison with hyper-fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) in AYA patients. One hundred and six AYA patients (median age 22 years) with Philadelphia chromosome- (Ph) negative ALL received ABFM from October 2006 through March 2014. Their outcome was compared to 102 AYA patients (median age 27 years), treated with hyper-CVAD at our institution. The complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with ABFM and 98% with hyper-CVAD. The 5-year complete remission duration (CRD) were 53 and 55%, respectively (P = 0.98). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 60 and 60%, respectively. The MRD status on Day 29 and Day 84 of therapy was predictive of long-term outcomes on both ABFM and hyper-CVAD. Severe regimen toxicities with ABFM included hepatotoxicity in 41%, pancreatitis in 11%, osteonecrosis in 9%, and thrombosis in 19%. Myelosuppression-associated complications were most significant with hyper-CVAD. In summary, ABFM and hyper-CVAD resulted in similar efficacy outcomes, but were associated with different toxicity profiles, asparaginase-related with ABFM and myelosuppression-related with hyper-CVAD. Am. J. Hematol. 91:819-823, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27178680

  18. Pediatric Urology for the General Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, David J; Vemulakonda, Vijaya M

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric urology spans the neonatal period through the transition into early adulthood. There are a variety of common pediatric urologic conditions that overlap significantly with pediatric surgery. This article reviews the pertinent pathophysiology of a few key disease processes, including the pediatric inguinal hernia and/or hydrocele, cryptorchidism, and circumcision. General surgeons may find themselves in the position of managing these problems primarily, particularly in rural areas that may lack pediatric subspecialization. An understanding of the fundamentals can guide appropriate initial management. Additional focus is devoted to the management of genitourinary trauma to guide the general surgeon in more acute, emergent settings. PMID:27261794

  19. Setting up the Pediatric Endoscopy Unit.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Diana G; Pall, Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    As pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy continues to develop and evolve, pediatric gastroenterologists are more frequently called on to develop and direct a pediatric endoscopy unit. Lack of published literature and focused training in fellowship can render decision making about design, capacity, operation, equipment purchasing, and staffing challenging. To help guide management decisions, we distributed a short survey to 18 pediatric gastroenterology centers throughout the United States and Canada. This article provides practical guidance by summarizing available expert opinions on the topic of setting up a pediatric endoscopy unit. PMID:26616893

  20. Year in Review 2015: Pediatric ARDS.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, Ira M

    2016-07-01

    Led by the work of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference, much was published on the topic of pediatric ARDS in 2015. Although the availability of definitive data to the pediatric practitioner for the management of infants and children with pediatric ARDS continues to lag behind that for the adult clinician, 2015 augmented the available medical literature with more information than had been seen for years. This article will review key pediatric ARDS publications with a focus on the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference consensus definition, sedation management, use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, diagnosis of delirium, noninvasive respiratory support, lung-protective ventilation, and adjunct management therapies. Despite the recent progress, additional investigation in each of these areas is essential to the continued advancement of our knowledge and, more importantly, improvements in the outcome for pediatric patients with ARDS. PMID:27381701

  1. Altered expression of natively glycosylated dystroglycan in pediatric solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laura T.; Glass, Matthew; Dosunmu, Eniolami; Martin, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Altered glycosylation and/or expression of dystroglycan have been reported in forms of congenital muscular dystrophy as well as in cancers of the breast, colon, and oral epithelium. To date, however, there has been no study of the expression of dystroglycan in pediatric solid tumors. Using a combination of immunostaining on tissue microarrays and immunoblotting of snap-frozen unfixed tissues, we demonstrate a significant reduction in native α dystroglycan expression in pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), embryonal RMS, neuroblastoma (NBL), and medulloblastoma, whereas expression of β dystroglycan, which is cotranslated with α dystroglycan, is largely unchanged. Loss of native α dystroglycan expression was significantly more pronounced in stage 4 NBL than in pooled samples of stage 1 and stage 2 NBL, suggesting that loss of native α dystroglycan expression increases with advancing tumor stage. Neuroblastoma and RMS samples with reduced expression of native α dystroglycan also showed reduced laminin binding in laminin overlay experiments. Expression of natively glycosylated α dystroglycan was not altered in several other pediatric tumor types when compared with appropriate normal tissue controls. These data provide the first evidence that α dystroglycan glycosylation and laminin binding to α dystroglycan are altered in certain pediatric solid tumors and suggest that aberrant dystroglycan glycosylation may contribute to tumor cell biology in patients with RMS, medulloblastoma, and NBL. PMID:17640712

  2. Prognostic Factors and Survival in Pediatric and Adolescent Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stanelle, Eric J.; Christison-Lagay, Emily R.; Sidebotham, Emma L.; Singer, Samuel; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Meyers, Paul A.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Liposarcoma is extremely rare in the pediatric population. To identify prognostic factors and determine treatment outcomes, we reviewed our institutional experience with pediatric liposarcoma. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients (age <22 years) with confirmed liposarcoma treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Histologic subtype, tumor location, margin status, recurrence, and adjuvant therapy were analyzed and correlated with overall survival. Results. Thirty-four patients (56% male) with a median age of 18.1 years were identified. Twenty-two (65%) had peripheral tumors and 12 (35%) had centrally located tumors. Histologically, 29 (85%) tumors were low grade, and 5 (15%) were high grade pleomorphic. Eleven (32%) had recurrent disease, 9 patients with central tumors and 2 patients with peripheral lesions. Eight deaths occurred, all in patients with central disease. Five-year overall survival was 78%, with a median follow-up time of 5.4 years (range, 0.3–30.3 years). Tumor grade (P = .003), histologic subtype (P = .01), and primary location (P < .001) all correlated with survival, as did stage (P < .001) and margin status (P = .001). Conclusions. Central location of the primary tumor, high tumor grade, and positive surgical margins are strongly correlated with poor survival in pediatric patients with liposarcoma. PMID:22991488

  3. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  4. Incidence and Paris Classification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eszter Müller, Katalin; Laszlo Lakatos, Peter; Papp, Maria; Veres, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    New epidemiological data suggest that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. As a result the burden of disease accounts for more strains to the health care system. The clinical variability queries whether disease characteristics are related to clinical outcome. Our aim was to delineate the latest results of incidence trends in pediatric IBD and to compare the first experiences with Paris Classification. Incidence of pediatric IBD has been increasing in Western Europe and in Eastern Europe. To better characterize IBD, Paris Classification was introduced and validated recently. Ileocolonic involvement is the most characteristic disease location in Crohn's disease (CD) based on applying Paris Classification. The rate of perianal disease and complicated behaviour in CD was similar. It is of interest that CD patients with colonic involvement were less likely to have stricturing disease compared with patients with ileal involvement. In addition, pancolitis dominated in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, most countries lack prospective, nationwide epidemiological studies to estimate incidence trends. This review emphasizes the importance of nationwide registries that enroll all pediatric IBD cases serving reliable data for “everyday practice.” These first reports have shown that Paris Classification is a useful tool to determine the pediatric IBD phenotype. PMID:24778643

  5. Pharmacists' Perceived Knowledge and Expertise in Selected Pediatric Topics

    PubMed Central

    Munzenberger, Paul J; Thomas, Ron L; Edwin, Stephanie B; Tutag-Lehr, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to determine pharmacists' perceived knowledge and expertise required to make recommendations regarding selected pediatric topics. METHODS A questionnaire was distributed to 400 pharmacists practicing in community, hospital, and home care settings. This instrument explored their perceived knowledge, expertise, and comfort in providing recommendations related to 38 pediatric topics. The impact of responder demographics on differences in perceived knowledge and expertise for each topic were evaluated. RESULTS Ninety-five of 400 (24%) questionnaires were returned completed or partially completed. Forty-seven and 36 of responders practiced in the community or inpatient hospital setting, respectively. Seventy percent of responders reported that ≤ 40% of their patients were children. In general, responders believed they had the knowledge and expertise to make recommendations for the frequently occurring conditions or topics but not for the less familiar. Formal pediatric training was the most influential responder characteristic with a larger proportion having training that they believed enables them to have knowledge and expertise to make recommendations. Although less impressive, experience of more than 5 years and a community-based practice were also important factors. CONCLUSION Additional training is beneficial in increasing the perceived knowledge and comfort of pharmacists making recommendations regarding pediatric patients. PMID:22477824

  6. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-03-31

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate. PMID:27114817

  7. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate. PMID:27114817

  8. [Tracheostomy in pediatrics patients].

    PubMed

    Fantoni, A; Ripamonti, D

    2002-05-01

    This is a case study of 79 children who under-went a tracheostomy with three different techniques, used in succession on three different groups of patients: surgical, percutaneous with progressive probes and translaryngeal technique. The pediatric patient, only under the age of 10, starts showing clear-cut anatomical differences compared to an adult, which gradually become more marked the younger the patient is. The causes of increased difficulties that can normally be found in these patients are obviously due to the reduced diameter of the airway and, above all, the high degree of pliability of the cartilaginous frame. After the discovery that even minimal external pressure can cause the collapse of the tracheal walls, it was decided to adopt the systematic use of a rigid bronchoscope, in order to be able to offer internal support to the anterior wall. The following advantages were obtained in the various techniques: In surgery it permitted the reduction, through the protrusion of the trachea, of the size of the operatory field, of the tracheal opening and consequently of the local trauma. It also caused less bleeding and reduced the risk of lesion to the pleural dome which are very frequent when a bronchoscope is not used. In the percutaneous method the bronchoscope allowed the application of the technique without complications, even in infants of only a few months' old, because it eliminated tracheal squashing, caused by the introduction of the needle, dilators and especially cannula, and the relative danger of lesion to the posterior wall of the trachea. This complication which was always impending in the original technique, which does not involve the use of a rigid bronchoscope, is the main reason which lead to the ban on PDT for patients younger than 16-18. In the translaryngeal method the advantages are of minor importance because they are limited to the initial stage of the procedure, the introduction of the needle and guide wire which are quicker and more

  9. [Cerebrolysin in pediatric neurology practice].

    PubMed

    Petrukhin, A S; Pylaeva, O A

    2014-01-01

    Мany aspects of сerebrolysin treatment in a wide range of nervous system disorders in children are described. High efficacy and well tolerated therapy are revealed. These findings expand the perspectives of using сerebrolysin in pediatric neurology. PMID:24637827

  10. Pediatric imaging for the technologist

    SciTech Connect

    Sharko, G.; Wilmont, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of radiology in pediatric patients. The topics discussed are: Computed tomography; radiography of skull, face, abdomen, skeleton; nuclear medicine; quality control of image processing and radiation doses of patients and standards of radiation protection of patients.

  11. Current concepts in pediatric endocrinology

    SciTech Connect

    Styne, D.M.; Brook, C.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains seven chapters. They are: Recombinant DNA Technology; The HLA System in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia; Neuroendocrinology; Circadian Rhythms; Basic Aspects and Pediatric Implications; New Treatment Methods in Diabetes Mellitus; The Insulin-Like Growth Factors; and Hypopituitarism: Review of Behavioral Data.

  12. Antibody Therapy for Pediatric Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Vedi, Aditi; Ziegler, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing cure rates for pediatric leukemia, relapsed disease still carries a poor prognosis with significant morbidity and mortality. Novel targeted therapies are currently being investigated in an attempt to reduce adverse events and improve survival outcomes. Antibody therapies represent a form of targeted therapy that offers a new treatment paradigm. Monoclonal antibodies are active in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are currently in Phase III trials. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are the next generation of antibodies where a highly potent cytotoxic agent is bound to an antibody by a linker, resulting in selective targeting of leukemia cells. ADCs are currently being tested in clinical trials for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and ALL. Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) antibodies are a construct whereby each antibody contains two binding sites, with one designed to engage the patient’s own immune system and the other to target malignant cells. BiTE antibodies show great promise as a novel and effective therapy for childhood leukemia. This review will outline recent developments in targeted agents for pediatric leukemia including monoclonal antibodies, ADCs, and BiTE antibodies. PMID:24795859

  13. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  14. Pulse oximetry in pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Fouzas, Sotirios; Priftis, Kostas N; Anthracopoulos, Michael B

    2011-10-01

    The introduction of pulse oximetry in clinical practice has allowed for simple, noninvasive, and reasonably accurate estimation of arterial oxygen saturation. Pulse oximetry is routinely used in the emergency department, the pediatric ward, and in pediatric intensive and perioperative care. However, clinically relevant principles and inherent limitations of the method are not always well understood by health care professionals caring for children. The calculation of the percentage of arterial oxyhemoglobin is based on the distinct characteristics of light absorption in the red and infrared spectra by oxygenated versus deoxygenated hemoglobin and takes advantage of the variation in light absorption caused by the pulsatility of arterial blood. Computation of oxygen saturation is achieved with the use of calibration algorithms. Safe use of pulse oximetry requires knowledge of its limitations, which include motion artifacts, poor perfusion at the site of measurement, irregular rhythms, ambient light or electromagnetic interference, skin pigmentation, nail polish, calibration assumptions, probe positioning, time lag in detecting hypoxic events, venous pulsation, intravenous dyes, and presence of abnormal hemoglobin molecules. In this review we describe the physiologic principles and limitations of pulse oximetry, discuss normal values, and highlight its importance in common pediatric diseases, in which the principle mechanism of hypoxemia is ventilation/perfusion mismatch (eg, asthma exacerbation, acute bronchiolitis, pneumonia) versus hypoventilation (eg, laryngotracheitis, vocal cord dysfunction, foreign-body aspiration in the larynx or trachea). Additional technologic advancements in pulse oximetry and its incorporation into evidence-based clinical algorithms will improve the efficiency of the method in daily pediatric practice. PMID:21930554

  15. Ultrasonography: Applications in Pediatric Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a valuable imaging tool for evaluation of different clinical conditions in children, in general and abdominal conditions, in particular. The interest in US derives primarily from the lack of ionizing radiation exposure, low cost, portability, real-time imaging and Doppler capabilities. In addition, US application requires no preparation or sedation, making it particularly attractive in the pediatric population. Because of these advantages, US has been adopted as the primary imaging tool for evaluation of a number of pediatric abdominal conditions that would have involved the use of ionising radiation in the past, e.g., pyloric stenosis, intussusception and various renal and bladder abnormalities, to name a few. Certain limitations, however, are inherent to US including large body habitus, excessive bowel gas, postoperative state and the learning curve. In addition, pediatric US is particularly challenging as the children are frequently unable to co-operate for breath holding and many of them are crying during the scanning. In the present review, the authors discuss the various applications of US in the evaluation of pediatric abdomen. PMID:26973334

  16. Approach to Pediatric Chest Radiograph.

    PubMed

    Jana, Manisha; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Chest radiograph remains the first line imaging modality even today, especially in ICU settings. Hence proper interpretation of chest radiographs is crucial, which can be achieved by adopting a systematic approach and proper description and identification of abnormalities. In this review, the authors describe a short and comprehensive way of interpreting the pediatric chest radiograph. PMID:26983619

  17. Pediatric melioidosis in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Eshwara, Vandana K; Kini, Pushpa; Bhat, Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Melioidosis in children is increasingly detected from the coastal region of Southern India during monsoon. We present 11 cases of melioidosis, ranging from localized to disseminated, treated successfully, barring one death. It calls for awareness and upgrading laboratory facilities for better diagnosis and management of pediatric melioidosis. PMID:26388638

  18. Advances in pediatrics. Volume 31

    SciTech Connect

    Barness, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the advances made in pediatrics. The topics discussed are--Molecular biology of thalassemia; genetic mapping of humans; technology of recombinant-DNA; DNA-sequencing and human chromosomes and etiology of hereditary diseases; acne; and T-cell abnormalities.

  19. Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This booklet outlines 18 national standards for pediatric immunizations. The standards were developed by a 35-member working group drawn from 24 different public and private sector organizations and from numerous state and local health departments and approved by the U.S. Public Health Service. The first three standards state that: immunization…

  20. Coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Christiaans, Sarah C; Duhachek-Stapelman, Amy L; Russell, Robert T; Lisco, Steven J; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Pittet, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    Trauma remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States among children aged 1 to 21 years. The most common cause of lethality in pediatric trauma is traumatic brain injury. Early coagulopathy has been commonly observed after severe trauma and is usually associated with severe hemorrhage and/or traumatic brain injury. In contrast to adult patients, massive bleeding is less common after pediatric trauma. The classical drivers of trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, acidosis, hemodilution, and consumption of coagulation factors secondary to local activation of the coagulation system after severe traumatic injury. Furthermore, there is also recent evidence for a distinct mechanism of trauma-induced coagulopathy that involves the activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Whether this new mechanism of posttraumatic coagulopathy plays a role in children is still unknown. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the incidence and potential mechanisms of coagulopathy after pediatric trauma and the role of rapid diagnostic tests for early identification of coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss different options for treating coagulopathy after severe pediatric trauma. PMID:24569507

  1. Assessing Competence in Pediatric Cardiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Apul E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In response to the need to assure physician competence, a rating scale was developed at the University of Minnesota Medical School for use in evaluating clinical competence in pediatric cardiology. It was tested on first- and second-year specialists. Development and testing procedures are described. (JT)

  2. Patient education and pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R F; Perin, G

    1985-03-01

    An overview is provided of important principles and content useful in planning educational programs for pediatric oncology patients and their families. Implementation considerations, such as assessment of the learner, selection of appropriate teaching methods, and problems with the selection process are addressed. PMID:2579366

  3. Family Functioning in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Phoebe S.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John A.; Stein, Dan J.; Loew, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how pediatric trichotillomania (TTM), a clinically significant and functionally impairing disorder, is impacted by, and impacts, family functioning. We explored dimensions of family functioning and parental attitudes in a sample of children and adolescents who participated in an Internet-based survey and satisfied…

  4. Navigating life and loss in pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thannhauser, Jennifer E

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that can cause unpredictable disability. Over the past 10 to 15 years, practitioners and researchers have come to recognize that children and adolescents are at risk for this disease. Drawing on the experiences of pediatric MS patients and their parents, I designed this study to explicate the process of adjustment to the disease. Using Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory methodology, I developed a preliminary theory that captures the experience of grief in the adjustment process of young people with MS. The core of the theoretical model focuses on two separate, yet overlapping processes: recurring loss and carrying on. Significant turning points influenced the oscillation between these two processes, highlighting the interconnection of intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics in adjustment to the disease. Results reinforce and extend current grief literature and provide an alternative perspective on adjustment to pediatric chronic illness. PMID:25079499

  5. Pathways and barriers to developing pediatric research consortia.

    PubMed

    Sorantin, Erich

    2014-10-01

    In many countries pediatric radiology is responsible for imaging of patients ranging from premature babies to 19-year-olds, thus meaning a weight range from less than 500 g to sometimes much more than 100 kg. Children are not small adults and many differences exist when comparing them to adults. Therefore pediatric radiologists face a 4-D problem: the three dimensions in space as well as time, which can be summarized as maturation. Due to this multidimensionality experience exchange, knowledge transfer and teamwork is mandatory. Research consortia represent a useful approach. According the author's experience in setting up and running international, inter-institutional academic networks, this article describes pathways and barriers of such cooperations, which can be divided into external (institutional), internal (departmental) and organizational and by the research fellows themselves. PMID:25246191

  6. Psychopharmacology in pediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Frederick J; Usher, Craigan T; Abrams, Annah N

    2006-07-01

    Psychopharmacologic treatment in pediatric critical care requires a careful child or adolescent psychiatric evaluation, including a thorough review of the history of present illness or injury, any current or pre-existing psychiatric disorder, past history, and laboratory studies. Although there is limited evidence to guide psychopharmacologic practice in this setting, psychopharmacologic treatment is increasing in critical care, with known indications for treatment, benefits, and risks; initial dosing guidelines; and best practices. Treatment is guided by the knowledge bases in pediatric physiology, psycho-pharmacology, and treatment of critically ill adults. Pharmacologic considerations include pharmacokinetic and pharmcodynamic aspects of specific drugs and drug classes, in particular elimination half-life, developmental considerations, drug interactions, and adverse effects. Evaluation and management of pain is a key initial step, as pain may mimic psychiatric symptoms and its effective treatment can ameliorate them. Patient comfort and safety are primary objectives for children who are acutely ill and who will survive and for those who will not. Judicious use of psychopharmacolgic agents in pediatric critical care using the limited but growing evidence base and a clinical best practices collaborative approach can reduce anxiety,sadness, disorientation, and agitation; improve analgesia; and save lives of children who are suicidal or delirious. In addition to pain, other disorders or indications for psychopharmacologic treatment are affective disorders;PTSD; post-suicide attempt patients; disruptive behavior disorders (especially ADHD); and adjustment, developmental, and substance use disorders. Treating children who are critically ill with psychotropic drugs is an integral component of comprehensive pediatric critical care in relieving pain and delirium; reducing inattention or agitation or aggressive behavior;relieving acute stress, anxiety, or depression; and

  7. Simulation-based medical education in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME. PMID:25748973

  8. Teamwork: a multidisciplinary pediatric-liaison service.

    PubMed

    Froese, A P; Kamin, L E; Levine, C A

    Psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers are often consulted about the same hospitalized patient. Since each may differ in their training, orientation and experience, the opinions expressed by them to the consultee may differ. The authors have described a multidisciplinary liaison team operating within a pediatric teaching hospital. The consultants work as a team in close collaboration with each other and with the psychiatric nurse clinician and an occupational therapist. The team approach has specific advantages. It allows for a concise and unified approach to the emotional and social needs of the patients. It presents a forum for informal consultations and interdisciplinary meetings. In addition, teaching opportunities are many as each discipline learns from the other. PMID:1052083

  9. Improving Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric care workflow.

    PubMed

    Soares, Neelkamal S; Baum, Rebecca A; Frick, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    : Experience and available research suggest that Developmental Behavioral Pediatric (DBP) practice is both complex and variable. Variability involves multiple aspects of DBP care, from activities before the visit (e.g. triage and collecting information) to activities during (e.g. history taking and testing) and after the visit (e.g. care coordination). Together these activities represent workflow, a series of clinical events by which health care is delivered. In complex systems, workflow variation often suggests the presence of inefficiency or inconsistent quality. Given the current environment of increasing health care costs and an increasing focus on quality, DBP practitioners must be mindful of these concepts for the field of DBP to remain viable. In order to characterize current DBP practice and identify common challenges, a workshop was developed with the ultimate goal of identifying potential solutions for improving both quality and efficiency. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and proposes future directions to foster improvements in DBP workflow. PMID:25493462

  10. Surgical Management of Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Hope T.; Kane, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in the pediatric population. Most cases represent physiologic GER and as the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) matures and a solid diet is introduced, many of these patients (>65%) experience spontaneous resolution of symptoms by two years of age. Those who continue to have symptoms and develop complications such as failure to thrive, secondary respiratory disease, and others are classified as having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Goals of GERD treatment include the resolution of symptoms and prevention of complications. Treatment options to achieve these goals include dietary or behavioral modifications, pharmacologic intervention, and surgical therapy. This paper will review the clinical presentation of GERD and discuss options for surgical management and outcomes in these patients. PMID:23762041

  11. Pediatric Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Michael V.; Cho, Patricia S.; Yu, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    The laparoscopic approach to the pyeloplasty procedure has proven to be safe and effective in the pediatric population. Multiple studies have revealed outcomes comparable to the open approach. However, a major drawback to laparoscopy is the technical challenge of precise suturing in the small working space in children. The advantages of robotic surgery when compared to conventional laparoscopy have been well established and include motion scaling, enhanced magnification, 3-dimensional stereoscopic vision, and improved instrument dexterity. As a result, surgeons with limited laparoscopic experience are able to more readily acquire robotic surgical skills. Limitations of the robotic platform include its high costs for acquisition and maintenance, as well as the need for additional robotic surgical training. In this article, we review the current status of the robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty, including a brief history, comparative outcomes, cost considerations, and training. PMID:27430017

  12. Management of hereditary angioedema in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Henriette; Varga, Lilian; Széplaki, Gábor; Visy, Beáta; Harmat, George; Bowen, Tom

    2007-09-01

    Hereditary angioneurotic edema is a rare disorder caused by the congenital deficiency of C1 inhibitor. Recurring angioedematous paroxysms that most commonly involve the subcutis (eg, extremities, face, trunk, and genitals) or the submucosa (eg, intestines and larynx) are the hallmarks of hereditary angioneurotic edema. Edema formation is related to reduction or dysfunction of C1 inhibitor, and conventional therapy with antihistamines and corticosteroids is ineffective. Manifestations occur during the initial 2 decades of life, but even today there is a long delay between the onset of initial symptoms and the diagnosis of hereditary angioneurotic edema. Although a variety of reviews have been published during the last 3 decades on the general management of hereditary angioneurotic edema, little has been published regarding management of pediatric hereditary angioneurotic edema. Thus, we review our experience and published data to provide an approach to hereditary angioneurotic edema in childhood. PMID:17724112

  13. Pediatric trauma in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges in overcoming the scourge

    PubMed Central

    Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O; Usang, Usang E; Oluwadiya, Kehinde S; Ogunlana, Dare I; Glover-Addy, Hope; Bode, Chris O; Arjan, B Van A S

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, pediatric trauma has emerged as an important public health problem. It accounts for the highest mortality in children and young adults in developed countries. Reports from Africa on trauma in the pediatric age group are few and most have been single center experience. In many low-and middle-income countries, the death rates from trauma in the pediatric age group exceed those found in developed countries. Much of this mortality is preventable by developing suitable preventive measures, implementing an effective trauma system and adapting interventions that have been implemented in developed countries that have led to significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality. This review of literature on the subject by pediatric and orthopedic surgeons from different centers in Africa aims to highlight the challenges faced in the care of these patients and proffer solutions to the scourge. PMID:22416156

  14. Predictors of Intention to Refer to Pediatric Palliative or Hospice Care.

    PubMed

    Conner, Norma E; Uddin, Nizam

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to determine whether nurse characteristics, level of comfort with care of the dying, and spirituality predict intention to refer and timing of referral to pediatric palliative/hospice care. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use served as the framework for this study. Data were collected from 105 pediatric nurses recruited from 7 patient units of one pediatric hospital. Regression analysis revealed several nurse factors (practice unit, years of experience, age, race/ethnicity) that predicted intent to refer and timing of referral to pediatric palliative/hospice care. The relationship between nurse characteristics and intent to refer was specific to certain medical conditions (HIV, extreme prematurity, brain injuries). Healthcare providers can use these findings to improve care for children with life-limiting illnesses. PMID:26150677

  15. The development of pediatric fluid resuscitation: an interview with Dr. Frederic A. 'Fritz' Berry.

    PubMed

    Berry, Fritz

    2014-02-01

    Dr. Frederic A. 'Fritz' Berry (1935), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Virginia, has played a pioneering role in the development of pediatric anesthesiology through training generations of anesthesiologists. He identifies his early advocacy of balanced electrolyte solution for perioperative fluid resuscitation as his defining contribution. Based on his clinical experiences, he pushed to extend the advances in adult fluid resuscitation into pediatric practice. He imparted these and other insights to his colleagues although textbooks, book chapters, original journal publications, and decades of Refresher Course Lectures at the American Society of Anesthesiologists' annual meetings. A model educator, clinician, and researcher, he shaped the careers of hundreds of physicians-in-training while advancing the field of pediatric anesthesiology. PMID:24251450

  16. Transition of pediatric patients to adult care: an analysis of provider perceptions across discipline and role.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan-Oliveira, Joanne; Fernandes, Susan M; Borges, Lawrence F; Fishman, Laurie N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of successfully transitioning pediatric patients to adult care is increasingly recognized as more children with chronic diseases are living to adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the current state of provider perceptions across disciplines regarding transition of pediatric patients to adult care. Focus groups made up of providers of various roles and experience levels were conducted. A total of six major themes were identified. We conclude that pediatric providers share common concerns about transitioning pediatric patients to adult care. We reinforce many of the issues raised in the literature and also discuss a sense of professional ego that was identified as a barrier to successful transition, which is not widely reported in other studies. PMID:25134224

  17. MINI PCNL in a Pediatric Population

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Tze M.; Kidger, Lizi; Kennish, Steven; Irving, Henry; Najmaldin, Azad

    2013-02-15

    We report our initial experience of MINI percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a pediatric population using a miniature nephroscope through a 16F metal access sheath. All pediatric patients who underwent PCNL from August 2007 to September 2010 using a 14F miniature nephroscope through a 16F metal access sheath for renal stone extraction were evaluated. Patients' demographic details, procedural information, and posttreatment outcomes were prospectively documented. A total of 23 MINI PCNLs were performed on 23 kidneys of 12 patients whose ages ranged from 1.6 to 14.6 years. The median stone burden was 3.44 cm{sup 2}, and there were 11 'Staghorn' stones. The procedure was primary via a single puncture in 19 kidneys and secondary using a preexisting nephrostomy tract in 4 kidneys. Access was successful in all primary and two secondary cases, for a total of success rate of 91.3%. Stones were fragmented using a Holmium laser and/or lithoclast, and fragments were irrigated or sequentially removed by various stone grasping devices. The mean procedural X-ray screening time and total stone extraction period were 4.5 and 109.4 min, respectively. The primary stone free rate was 83.6 %, which increased to 90.5 % after treating the residual fragments. Postoperative hydrothorax developed in one patient, which required a chest drain. Symptoms of chest infection and positive urine culture were detected in one and two patients, respectively. Our initial experience supports previous reports that MINI PCNL is safe and effective for the management of renal stones in children.

  18. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (Italy) that offers residents a well-articulated personalized international child’s health (ICH) elective in Africa, called “Junior Project Officer”. The elective includes: a careful candidate selection process; pre-departure educational course; preceptorship in Padua and Africa, personalized learning objectives, a personalized job description, a six-month hands-on learning experience in Africa, evaluation of the experience, and formal private and open feed-backs/reports. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 14 residents aged from 27 to 31 years, six attending the III, nine the IV and two the V year of residency completed the six-month stage in Africa. All worked in pediatric in-patient units; seven also worked in out-patient clinics, six in emergency rooms and seven in community health centers. Eleven were involved in teaching activities and four in clinical research projects. All residents claimed to have achieved their learning objectives. Conclusions A strong partnership between the NGO and the PRP, and well-articulated personalized learning objectives and job description contributed to a successful ICH elective. PMID:24499625

  19. Aeromedical Pediatric Burn Transportation: A Six-Year Review.

    PubMed

    Warner, Petra; Bailey, John K; Bowers, Laura; Hermann, Rachel; James, Laura E; McCall, John E

    2016-01-01

    Aeromedical transportation has been shown to be a safe and efficient mode of transportation for critical care patients, including adult burn patients. Common flight concerns specific to the care of the burn patient are maintenance of intravenous lines and airway access, precision of ongoing fluid resuscitation, and effective treatment of hemodynamic instability. These concerns are particularly crucial when patients are transported by flight teams with limited burn experience. The purpose of this study was to review the safety and outcomes associated with 6 years of aeromedical pediatric burn transportation and to ascertain if differences exist when using a dedicated burn pediatric flight team versus a non-dedicated burn pediatric flight teams. Through a retrospective, IRB approved, chart review from January 2007 to January 2013, all aeromedical admissions were evaluated for demographic data, flight data, complications, and medical interventions. A total of 333 patients were transported by air, of which 282 transfers occurred during the first week of burn injury. In-flight complications occurred in <10% of patients and primarily involved airway and hemodynamic issues. There were no in-flight deaths. Patients transported by alternate teams were noted to be more hypothermic and hypotensive on admission (p < .001). Alternate teams were also noted to transfer older patients, spend less time with initial patient evaluation, and travelled shorter distances (p < .05). Aeromedical transportation of the pediatric burn patient is safe and associated with minimal complications. Communications with the transferring hospitals can facilitate transfer of the pediatric burn patient. When using alternate flight teams, particular attention should focus on resuscitation and maintenance of euthermia with large burn patients. PMID:25423443

  20. Considerations in the rational design and conduct of phase I/II pediatric clinical trials: avoiding the problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, S M; Reed, M D; Wells, T G; Kearns, G L

    2007-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a heightened awareness of the need to include children in the drug development process. With this awareness has come an expansion of the infrastructure for conducting studies in children and an increase in the sponsorship of pediatric clinical trials. However, the growth in pediatric research has, in many cases, not been accompanied by an increase in the involvement of trained pediatric investigators when it comes to trial design and/or interpretation. Pediatric phase I/II protocols continue to span a spectrum from those that are carefully constructed to those that are poorly designed. This paper highlights the basic elements of phase I/II protocols that merit unique consideration when the clinical trial involves children. Illustrations are provided from our experience, which highlight problems that may arise when trials are not designed with the pediatric patient in mind. PMID:17329988

  1. Pediatric collaborative networks for quality improvement and research.

    PubMed

    Lannon, Carole M; Peterson, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts of individual clinicians, pediatric practices, and institutions to remedy continuing deficiencies in pediatric safety and health care quality, multiple gaps and disparities exist. Most pediatric diseases are rare; thus, few practices or centers care for sufficient numbers of children, particularly in subspecialties, to achieve large and representative sample sizes, and substantial between-site variation in care and outcomes persists. Pediatric collaborative improvement networks are multi-site clinical networks that allow practice-based teams to learn from one another, test changes to improve quality, and use their collective experience and data to understand, implement, and spread what works in practice. The model was initially developed in 2002 by an American Board of Pediatrics Workgroup to accelerate the translation of evidence into practice, improve care and outcomes for children, and to serve as the gold standard for the performance in practice component of Maintenance of Certification requirements. Many features of an improvement network derive from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's collaborative improvement model Breakthrough Series, including focus on a high-impact condition or topic; providing support from clinical content and quality improvement experts; using the Model for Improvement to set aims, use data for feedback, and test changes iteratively; providing infrastructure support for data collection, analysis and reporting, and quality improvement coaching; activities to enhance collaboration; and participation of multidisciplinary teams from multiple sites. In addition, they typically include a population registry of the children receiving care for the improvement topic of interest. These registries provide large and representative study samples with high-quality data that can be used to generate information and evidence, as well as to inform clinical decision making. In addition to quality improvement, networks serve as large

  2. PLANNING FOR PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE AMBULATORY PEDIATRIC ASSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Environmental Health Fellowship program is a three year fellowship which will emphasize teaching, research and mastery of scientific and grant writing skills, the development of advocacy skills, and the the ability to review pediatric environmental health literature...

  3. 75 FR 67378 - Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and.... Contact Person: Walter Ellenberg, Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, Office of Special Medical...

  4. 75 FR 7281 - Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food... of Committee: Pediatric Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... learn about possible modifications before coming to the meeting. Agenda: The Pediatric...

  5. The Ambulatory Pediatric Association Fellowship in Pediatric Environmental Health: A 5-Year Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Woolf, Alan D.; Gitterman, Ben; Lanphear, Bruce; Forman, Joel; Karr, Catherine; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Crain, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence is mounting that environmental exposures contribute to causation of disease in children. Yet few pediatricians are trained to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease of environmental origin. Objectives To develop a cadre of future leaders in pediatric environmental health (PEH), the Ambulatory Pediatric Association (APA) launched a new 3-year fellowship in 2001—the world’s first formal training program in PEH. Sites were established at Boston Children’s Hospital, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, George Washington University, University of Cincinnati, and University of Washington. Fellows are trained in epidemiology, biostatistics, toxicology, risk assessment, and preventive medicine. They gain clinical experience in environmental pediatrics and mentored training in clinical research, policy development, and evidence-based advocacy. Thirteen fellows have graduated. Two sites have secured follow-on federal funding to enable them to continue PEH training. Discussion To assess objectively the program’s success in preparing fellows for leadership careers in PEH, we conducted a mailed survey in 2006 with follow-up in 2007. Conclusions Fifteen (88%) of 17 fellows and graduates participated; program directors provided information on the remaining two. Nine graduates are pursuing full-time academic careers, and two have leadership positions in governmental and environmental organizations. Ten have published one or more first-authored papers. Seven graduates are principal investigators on federal or foundation grants. The strongest predictors of academic success are remaining affiliated with the fellowship training site and devoting < 20% of fellowship time to clinical practice. Conclusion The APA fellowship program is proving successful in preparing pediatricians for leadership careers in PEH. PMID:17938724

  6. Advances in Pediatric Pharmacology, Therapeutics, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Paul, Ian M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Significant advancements have been made in pediatric therapeutics and pharmacology over the last two years. In the United States, passage of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act has made the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and Pediatric Research Equity Act permanent, and ensured that studies will be conducted in neonates. In Europe, the Pediatric Regulation, which went into effect in early 2007, has also provided a framework encouraging an expansion of pediatric research. Because of such regulatory involvement, a greater number of studies are being performed, and more pediatric dosing, efficacy, and safety information is being incorporated into product labels. The goal of this publication is to highlight important advancements made in the field of pediatric pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics from January 2012 to December 2013. PMID:25037123

  7. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  8. Pharmacogenetics in clinical pediatrics: challenges and strategies

    PubMed Central

    Van Driest, Sara L; McGregor, Tracy L

    2013-01-01

    The use of genetic information to guide medication decisions holds great promise to improve therapeutic outcomes through increased efficacy and reduced adverse events. As in many areas of medicine, pediatric research and clinical implementation in pharmacogenetics lag behind corresponding adult discovery and clinical applications. In adults, genotype-guided clinical decision support for medications such as clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin are in use in some medical centers. However, research conducted in pediatric populations demonstrates that the models and practices developed in adults may be inaccurate in children, and some applications lack any pediatric research to guide clinical decisions. To account for additional factors introduced by developmental considerations in pediatric populations and provide pediatric patients with maximal benefit from genotype-guided therapy, the field will need to develop and employ creative solutions. In this article, we detail some concerns about research and clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in pediatrics, and present potential mechanisms for addressing them. PMID:24363766

  9. A Pediatric Case of Thelaziasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chung Hyuk; Ko, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Choi, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Wook; Ahn, Sang Ki; Ahn, Myoung Hee; Choi, Kyong Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we intended to report a clinical pediatric case of thelaziasis in Korea. In addition, we briefly reviewed the literature on pediatric cases of thelaziasis in Korea. In the present case, 3 whitish, thread-like eye-worms were detected in a 6-year-old-boy living in an urban area and contracted an ocular infection known as thelaziasis incidentally during ecological agritainment. This is the first report of pediatric thelaziasis in Seoul after 1995. PMID:27417087

  10. Pediatric Procedural Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

  11. Microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Powers, Claire E; McShane, Diana B; Gilligan, Peter H; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with drastic impacts on pediatric health. The pathogenesis of this common disease is not well understood, and the complex role of the skin microbiome in the pathogenesis and progression of atopic dermatitis is being elucidated. Skin commensal organisms promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens. Alterations in the skin microbiome may lead to increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization and atopic dermatitis progression. Despite the evidence for their important role, probiotics have not been deemed efficacious for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, although studies suggest that probiotics may be effective at preventing the development of atopic dermatitis when given to young infants. This review will cover the most recent published work on the microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis. PMID:26388516

  12. Pediatric Mixed Connective Tissue Disease.

    PubMed

    Berard, Roberta A; Laxer, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric-onset mixed connective tissue disease is among the rare disease entities in pediatric rheumatology and includes features of arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis. Accurate recognition and diagnosis of the disease is paramount to prevent long-term morbidity. Advances in the genetic and immunologic understanding of the factors involved in the etiopathogenesis provide an opportunity for improvements in prognostication and targeted therapy. The development of a multinational cohort of patients with mixed connective tissue disease would be invaluable to provide more updated data regarding the clinical presentation, to develop a standardized treatment approach, disease activity and outcome tools, and to provide data on long-term outcomes and comorbidities. PMID:27032791

  13. Pediatric Brain Tumors: An Update.

    PubMed

    Segal, Devorah; Karajannis, Matthias A

    2016-07-01

    Brain tumors collectively represent the most common solid tumors in childhood and account for significant morbidity and mortality. Until recently, pediatric brain tumors were diagnosed and classified solely based on histologic criteria, and treatments were chosen empirically. Recent research has greatly enhanced our understanding of the diverse biology of pediatric brain tumors, their molecular and genetic underpinnings, leading to improved diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification, as well as the development of novel biomarkers and molecular targeted therapies. For subsets of patients, these new treatment options have already resulted in improved survival and decreased treatment toxicity. In this article, we provide an overview of the most common childhood brain tumors, describe recent key advances in the field, and discuss the therapeutic challenges that remain. PMID:27230809

  14. The Virtual Pediatric Airways Workbench.

    PubMed

    Quammen, Cory W; Taylor Ii, Russell M; Krajcevski, Pavel; Mitran, Sorin; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Superfine, Richard; Davis, Brad; Davis, Stephanie; Zdanski, Carlton

    2016-01-01

    The Virtual Pediatric Airways Workbench (VPAW) is a patient-centered surgical planning software system targeted to pediatric patients with airway obstruction. VPAW provides an intuitive surgical planning interface for clinicians and supports quantitative analysis regarding prospective surgeries to aid clinicians deciding on potential surgical intervention. VPAW enables a full surgical planning pipeline, including importing DICOM images, segmenting the airway, interactive 3D editing of airway geometries to express potential surgical treatment planning options, and creating input files for offline geometric analysis and computational fluid dynamics simulations for evaluation of surgical outcomes. In this paper, we describe the VPAW system and its use in one case study with a clinician to successfully describe an intended surgery outcome. PMID:27046595

  15. Gender and Sexuality in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Merens, Teri A

    2016-05-01

    The terms gender and sexuality, once rarely discussed in a public forum, are now dominant topics of conversation on social media, in all forms of entertainment, politics, law, and medicine. The pediatric primary care physician, like all people and institutions involved in the delivery of health care, must be diligent about providing compassionate and competent care to patients and families contending with gender issues. The complex variety of obstacles these patients may face require a well-informed, sensitive clinician who can offer sound medical advice and appropriate referral. This article guides pediatricians through some of the challenges related to gender identity so they can assist their patients in navigating through any difficulties. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e158-e161.]. PMID:27171801

  16. Sleep in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Jonathan P; Paruthi, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of common pediatric sleep disorders encountered in the neurology clinic, including restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, parasomnias, sleep-related epilepsy, and sleep and headaches. An overview of each is provided, with an emphasis on accurate diagnosis and treatment. It is important in comprehensive neurologic care to also obtain a sleep history, because treating the underlying sleep condition may improve the neurologic disorder. PMID:26972036

  17. Differential diagnosis in pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Grunebaum, M.

    1986-01-01

    This work presents 415 tables of differential diagnosis applicable to pediatric radiology, emphasizing clinical presentation and the findings of conventional radiographs. The six chapters cover the respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, gastrointestinal, and skeletal systems, and the head. The first few tables in each chapter cover major clinical signs, the next few deal with the newborn period only, and the remainder deal with radiographic differential diagnoses seen in children. An index and brief reference list complete the book.

  18. MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy.

    PubMed

    Gulko, Edwin; Collins, Lee K; Murphy, Robyn C; Thornhill, Beverly A; Taragin, Benjamin H

    2015-02-01

    In modern times scurvy is a rarely encountered disease caused by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency. However, sporadic cases of scurvy persist, particularly within the pediatric population. Recent individual case reports highlight an increased incidence of scurvy among patients with autism or developmental delay, with isolated case reports detailing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of scurvy in these pediatric populations. We present the MRI findings of scurvy in four patients with autism or developmental delay, and review the literature on MRI findings in pediatric patients with scurvy. Despite its rarity, the radiologist must consider scurvy in a pediatric patient with a restricted diet presenting with arthralgia or myalgia. PMID:25109378

  19. Special article: 2014 Pediatric Clinical Trials Forum.

    PubMed

    Bogue, Clifford; DiMeglio, Linda A; Maldonado, Samuel; Portman, Ronald J; Smith, P Brian; Sullivan, Janice E; Thompson, Charles; Woo, Heide; Flinn, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In November 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics convened key stakeholders to discuss the feasibility of accelerating children's medical advances by creating an independent global Pediatric Clinical Trials Network. The Forum identified challenges posed by the US and global clinical trial systems regarding testing and disseminating drugs and devices for pediatric patients. Stakeholders mapped a vision to improve the safety and efficacy of pediatric drugs, biological products, and medical devices by creating a global Pediatric Clinical Trials Network. Such a Network would act as a central infrastructure for pediatric subspecialties and enable dedicated staff to provide clinical research sites with scientific, medical, and operational support. A Network would facilitate development and availability of innovative, high-quality therapies to extend and enhance the lives of neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Participants expressed strong interest in forming such a Network, since drugs and devices still come to market without adequate pediatric indications-particularly in neonatology and rare diseases. Participants developed a Consensus Statement expressing their shared vision for a Network: Attendees of the Pediatric Clinical Trials Stakeholder Forum resolved to establish a Global Pediatric Clinical Trials Network and are committed to engage in the work to create and sustain it. PMID:26650344

  20. Challenges in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bousvaros, Athos; Sylvester, Francisco; Kugathasan, Subra; Szigethy, Eva; Fiocchi, Claudio; Colletti, Richard; Otley, Anthony; Amre, Devendra; Ferry, George; Czinn, Steven J; Splawski, Judy B; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Faubion, William A; Kirschner, Barbara S; Dubinsky, Marla C

    2006-09-01

    It is estimated that of the >1 million individuals in the United States with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), approximately 100,000 are children. IBD that begins in childhood affects the individual at a critical period of growth and development. Children with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis may experience complications such as growth failure, school absence, and depression. In addition, because children with IBD have fewer environmental confounders such as smoking, children may be an excellent population to study microbial and immune interactions. Despite these opportunities, the discipline of pediatric IBD investigation is still in its infancy. In September of 2005, a group of investigators with expertise in pediatric IBD met in Boston (Massachusetts) to review the current status of childhood IBD research and to develop research priorities that warranted funding from the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America. The group included pediatricians, internists, basic scientists, clinical investigators, and members of the administrative staff and board of the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America. The research needs in respective areas were outlined by the heads of 10 focus groups, each with expertise in their respective fields (genetics, psychosocial issues, epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, quality improvement, pharmacogenomics, nutrition, growth and skeletal health, and clinical trials). Before the conference, heads of the research focus groups developed their proposals with experts in the field. At the end of the conference, members of the focus groups and members of the steering committee rated the proposed areas of study in terms of feasibility and importance. It was recommended that the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America focus its initial efforts in pediatric IBD in 5 areas: the effects of inflammation on growth and skeletal development, the genetics of early-onset IBD, the development of quality improvement interventions to standardize

  1. Priorities in pediatric epilepsy research

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Christine B.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Vickrey, Barbara G.; Dlugos, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The Priorities in Pediatric Epilepsy Research workshop was held in the spirit of patient-centered and patient-driven mandates for developing best practices in care, particularly for epilepsy beginning under age 3 years. The workshop brought together parents, representatives of voluntary advocacy organizations, physicians, allied health professionals, researchers, and administrators to identify priority areas for pediatric epilepsy care and research including implementation and testing of interventions designed to improve care processes and outcomes. Priorities highlighted were 1) patient outcomes, especially seizure control but also behavioral, academic, and social functioning; 2) early and accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment; 3) role and involvement of parents (communication and shared decision-making); and 4) integration of school and community organizations with epilepsy care delivery. Key factors influencing pediatric epilepsy care included the child's impairments and seizure presentation, parents, providers, the health care system, and community systems. Care was represented as a sequential process from initial onset of seizures to referral for comprehensive evaluation when needed. We considered an alternative model in which comprehensive care would be utilized from onset, proactively, rather than reactively after pharmacoresistance became obvious. Barriers, including limited levels of evidence about many aspects of diagnosis and management, access to care—particularly epilepsy specialty and behavioral health care—and implementation, were identified. Progress hinges on coordinated research efforts that systematically address gaps in knowledge and overcoming barriers to access and implementation. The stakes are considerable, and the potential benefits for reduced burden of refractory epilepsy and lifelong disabilities may be enormous. PMID:23966254

  2. Preventing and managing pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Plourde, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence on prevention and management of childhood obesity and to offer suggestions for family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Articles were obtained from a PubMed search. Most studies on pediatric obesity provide level II evidence. There are some level I studies on management. MAIN MESSAGE Pediatric obesity is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Prevention should be initiated as early as pregnancy. Prevention and treatment approaches should include patient and family interventions focusing on nutrition, physical activity, reduced television viewing, and behaviour modification. The effectiveness of such interventions by primary care physicians has not been totally demonstrated, but incorporating them into clinical practice routines is likely to be beneficial. CONCLUSION Family physicians have a role in promoting preventive measures and identifying and treating obesity-related comorbidity. Pediatric obesity is not an individual child’s problem, but a problem that involves the whole family and the community. Recommending a healthy diet and increased physical activity and counseling families on behaviour change is the best approach to preventing and managing childhood obesity. PMID:16572577

  3. Novel Therapies for Pediatric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Margaret E.; Sawczyn, Kelly K.; Garrington, Timothy P.; Graham, Douglas K.; Gore, Lia

    2011-01-01

    The current high cure rates for children diagnosed with cancer can in part be attributed to emphasis on large cooperative group clinical trials. The significant improvement in pediatric cancer survival over the last few decades is the result of optimized chemotherapy drug dosing, timing, and intensity; however, further alterations in traditional chemotherapy agents are unlikely to produce substantially better outcomes. Furthermore, there remains a subset of patients who have a very poor prognosis due to tumor type or stage at presentation, or who have a dismal prognosis with relapse or recurrence. As such, innovative approaches to therapy and new drugs are clearly needed for introduction into the current pediatric oncology arsenal. A variety of biologically targeted therapies which have shown promise in preclinical studies and early phase adult clinical trials are now being explored in pediatric clinical trials. These novel agents hold the promise for continuing to drive forward improvements in patient survival with potentially less toxicity than exists with traditional chemotherapy drugs. PMID:18928662

  4. Plasma substitutes therapy in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Pietrini, Domenico; De Luca, Daniele; Tosi, Federica; Luca, Ersilia; Cavaliere, Franco; Conti, Giorgio; Piastra, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Hypovolemia is the most common cause of circulatory failure in children and may lead to critical tissue perfusion and eventually multiple-organ failure. Administration of fluids to maintain or restore intravascular volume represents a common intervention after hemorrhagic shock occurring during surgical procedures or in patients with trauma. Notwithstanding, there is uncertainty whether the type of fluid may significantly influence the outcome, especially in pediatrics. Both human albumin and crystalloids are usually administered: the advantages of crystalloids include low cost, lack of effect on coagulation, no risk of anaphylactic reaction or transmission of infectious agents. However, large amount of crystalloid infusion has been correlated with pulmonary oedema, bilateral pleural effusions, intestinal intussusception, excessive bowel edema, impairing closure of surgical wounds and peripheral edema. Moreover, intravascular volume expansion obtained by crystalloids is known to be significantly shorter and less efficacious than colloids. Among synthetic colloids, gelatins have been used for many years in children, also in early infancy, to treat intravascular fluid deficits. Hydroxyethylstarch (HES) preparations have been introduced recently, becoming very popular for vascular loading both in adults and children. However, the number of pediatric studies aimed at evaluating HES efficacy and tolerance is limited. Given the ongoing controversies on the use of colloids in childhood, this review will focus on the pharmacodynamics of synthetic and non synthetic colloids for the treatment of critical blood loss in pediatrics. PMID:22512388

  5. Biomarkers and pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed

    Lubin, B; Lewis, R

    1995-09-01

    It is now possible to identify biochemical and/or cellular changes in humans due to exposure to an environmental toxin. These changes are called biomarkers and are currently used in research studies to identify individuals exposed to specific toxic substances. Advances in the field of biomarker technology may have important implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of certain diseases in children. This technology may enable physicians to screen children who have no clinically detectable illness for evidence of exposure to specific toxins. Such information could lead to implementation of preventive measures and development of new therapeutic strategies. However, several important issues, including potential adverse consequences resulting from the widespread use of this technology, must be considered prior to its utilization within a clinical setting. Leaders of the pediatric and public health communities should recognize the paucity of scientific data in the pediatric environmental health area, and new approaches to this important aspect of child health should be developed. This article will address several of the issues involved in pediatric environmental health and consider questions that should be answered as the potential for technology transfer becomes a reality. PMID:8549501

  6. Patterns of Pediatric Maxillofacial Injuries.

    PubMed

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha

    2016-05-01

    Facial trauma in children and adolescents is reported to range from 1% to 30%. Because of many anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics of the pediatric population, maxillofacial injuries in children should be treated with special consideration that is attributable to certain features inherent in facial growth patterns of children. This study evaluated maxillofacial injuries in 726 children in terms of incidence, patterns of injury, causes, and treatment modalities and compared these parameters among 3 pediatric age groups. Intergroup differences were analyzed using Z test for 2 populations' proportion. The results showed that the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries and fractures is higher than that reported elsewhere with male predominance. Soft tissue injuries are more frequently encountered in younger individuals, whereas the incidence of skeletal injuries increases with age. This study also revealed that certain etiologies, namely road traffic accidents, violence, bicycle, missiles, and industrial injures, increase with age; on the other hand, falls and puncture wounds are more common in younger children. PMID:27100637

  7. Capsule endoscopy in pediatrics: A 10-years journey

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Salvatore; Cohen, Stanley A; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Casciani, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (CE) for evaluation the esophagus (ECE), small bowel (SBCE) and the colon (CCE) is particularly useful in pediatrics, because this imaging modality does not require ionizing radiation, deep sedation or general anesthesia. The risk of capsule retention appears to be dependent on indication rather than age and parallels the adult experience by indication, making SBCE a relatively safe procedure with a significant diagnostic yield. The newest indication, assessment of mucosal change, greatly enhances and expands its potential benefit. The diagnostic role of CE extends beyond the SB. The use of ECE also may enhance our knowledge of esophageal disease and assist patient care. Colon CCE is a novel minimally invasive and painless endoscopic technique allowing exploration of the colon without need for sedation, rectal intubation and gas insufflation. The limited data on ECE and CCE in pediatrics does not yet allow the same conclusions regarding efficacy; however, both appear to provide safe methods to assess and monitor mucosal change in their respective areas with little discomfort. Moreover, although experience has been limited, the patency capsule may help lessen the potential of capsule retention; and newly researched protocols for bowel cleaning may further enhance CE’s diagnostic yield. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of the various CE procedures in pediatric populations. PMID:25469028

  8. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  9. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bryan D; Threlkeld, Brooke M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  10. Common Misconceptions, Advancements, and Updates in Pediatric Vaccination Administration.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Stewart, Rosalyn W

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are among the greatest achievements in biomedicine and public health. Yet for a variety of reasons, some vaccine-preventable illnesses have experienced resurgences during the last decade. As such, there is a particular need for pediatric providers to be aware of the newest guidelines for vaccination administration to provide consistent and evidence-based recommendations and thoughtful reassurance to families. We aimed to enhance providers' understanding of pediatric vaccinations by highlighting recent changes in vaccination guidelines and addressing common knowledge gaps. This is not a comprehensive list or systematic review of vaccination recommendations. Rather, we present a collection of new developments and misconceptions we have found particularly relevant in our own experience in providing vaccination education at a training institution. PMID:26741872

  11. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed. PMID:24823325

  12. Pediatric heart transplantation—indications and outcomes in the current era

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) remains an important treatment option in the care of children with end-stage heart disease, whether it is secondary to cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease (CHD). As surgical outcomes for CHD have improved, the indications for pediatric HTx have had to be dynamic, not only for children with CHD but also for the growing population of adults with CHD. As the field of pediatric HTx has evolved, the outcomes for children undergoing HTx have improved. This is undoubtedly due to the continued research efforts of both single-center studies, as well as research collaboratives such as the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) and the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study (PHTS) group. Research collaboratives are increasingly important in pediatric HTx as single center studies for a limited patient population may not elicit strong enough evidence for practice evolution. Similarly, complications that limit the long term graft survival may occur in a minority of patients thus pooled experience is essential. This review focuses on the indications and outcomes for pediatric HTx, with a special emphasis on studies generated by these research collaboratives. PMID:25132975

  13. Pediatric nurses’ perception of factors associated with caring self-efficacy: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses, who are considered to form the largest group of professional healthcare providers, face the challenge of maintaining, promoting, and providing quality nursing care and to prepare themselves to function confidently and to care effectively. Among the factors affecting nursing performance, self-efficacy has been expected to have the greatest influence. However, the concept of caring self-efficacy was not considered and no research has been done in this field in Iran. This study was conducted to explore and identify the factors described by pediatric nurses as related to caring self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted through content analysis in 2013 in Iran. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling method from pediatric nurses and educators. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis of the interviews in this study led to the development of four main themes: (1) Professional knowledge of children caring, (2) experience, (3) caring motivation, and (4) efficient educational system as the factors influencing caring self-efficacy perception of pediatric nurses. Conclusions: This article presents the factors associated with the perception of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses’ perspective. This finding can be used by nursing administrators and instructors, especially in the area of pediatric caring, to enhance nursing professional practice and the quality of pediatric caring. PMID:25878702

  14. Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Lynne Vernice; Ozen, Metehan; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Goh, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridum difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions. In general, pediatric AAD and CDI have a more rapid onset of symptoms, a shorter duration of disease and fewer CDI complications (required surgeries and extended hospitalizations) than in adults. Children experience more community-associated CDI and are associated with smaller outbreaks than adult cases of CDI. The ribotype NAP1/027/BI is more common in adults than children. Children and adults share some similar risk factors, but adults have more complex risk factor profiles associated with more co-morbidities, types of disruptive factors and a wider range of exposures to C. difficile in the healthcare environment. The treatment of pediatric and adult AAD is similar (discontinuing or switching the inciting antibiotic), but other treatment strategies for AAD have not been established. Pediatric CDI responds better to metronidazole, while adult CDI responds better to vancomycin. Recurrent CDI is not commonly reported for children. Prevention for both pediatric and adult AAD and CDI relies upon integrated infection control programs, antibiotic stewardship and may include the use of adjunctive probiotics. Clinical presentation of pediatric AAD and CDI are different than adult AAD and CDI symptoms. These differences should be taken into account when rating severity of disease and prescribing antibiotics. PMID:27003987

  15. Comparison of pediatric and adult antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Lynne Vernice; Ozen, Metehan; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Goh, Shan

    2016-03-21

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridum difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult patients. A systematic review of the literature using databases PubMed (June 3, 1978-2015) was conducted to compare AAD and CDI in pediatric and adult populations and determine significant differences and similarities that might impact clinical decisions. In general, pediatric AAD and CDI have a more rapid onset of symptoms, a shorter duration of disease and fewer CDI complications (required surgeries and extended hospitalizations) than in adults. Children experience more community-associated CDI and are associated with smaller outbreaks than adult cases of CDI. The ribotype NAP1/027/BI is more common in adults than children. Children and adults share some similar risk factors, but adults have more complex risk factor profiles associated with more co-morbidities, types of disruptive factors and a wider range of exposures to C. difficile in the healthcare environment. The treatment of pediatric and adult AAD is similar (discontinuing or switching the inciting antibiotic), but other treatment strategies for AAD have not been established. Pediatric CDI responds better to metronidazole, while adult CDI responds better to vancomycin. Recurrent CDI is not commonly reported for children. Prevention for both pediatric and adult AAD and CDI relies upon integrated infection control programs, antibiotic stewardship and may include the use of adjunctive probiotics. Clinical presentation of pediatric AAD and CDI are different than adult AAD and CDI symptoms. These differences should be taken into account when rating severity of disease and prescribing antibiotics. PMID:27003987

  16. Pediatric digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, G.M.; Wesenberg, R.L.; Mueller, D.L.; Reid, R.H.

    1984-12-01

    Experience with intravenous digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in infants and children is limited, although its relative rate of performance, low complication rate, and diagnostic accuracy indicate great potential. The authors performed 87 DSA examinations (74 patients) and obtained sufficient detail to facilitate diagnosis in most cases. The major problems of patient movement and overlapping vessels can be minimized by judicious use of sedation and strict attention to technique. Exposure of patients to radiation has not been a limiting factor since our system uses low exposure factors. Our results demonstrate that DSA has wide applicability to many organ systems and is especially useful in intracranial disease and for preoperative evaluation of neoplasms.

  17. Pediatric Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Kim, Jong-Eun; Ito, Yasushi; Wagner, Christina D.; Yang, King-Hay

    A computational model is a computer program that attempts to simulate a behavior of a complex system by solving mathematical equations associated with principles and laws of physics. Computational models can be used to predict the body's response to injury-producing conditions that cannot be simulated experimentally or measured in surrogate/animal experiments. Computational modeling also provides means by which valid experimental animal and cadaveric data can be extrapolated to a living person. Widely used computational models for injury biomechanics include multibody dynamics and finite element (FE) models. Both multibody and FE methods have been used extensively to study adult impact biomechanics in the past couple of decades.

  18. Pediatric pain management.

    PubMed

    Lederhaas, G

    1997-01-01

    It is now recognized that from the newborn period onwards, children are capable of experiencing pain. This includes the premature infant. The challenge for healthcare providers is to incorporate methods of pain assessment and treatment into their daily practices. The child's understanding of pain closely follows the cognitive and behavioral model developed by Jean Piaget. Based on these developmental stages, pain assessment measures have been developed. Pharmacologic advances have accompanied this improved understanding of infant, child, and adolescent psychology. While acute pain accounts for the majority of children's experiences, recurrent/chronic pain states do occur (e.g. sickle cell related and neuropathic) and can be effectively treated. PMID:9037997

  19. Evaluation of an initiative to reduce radiation exposure from CT to children in a non-pediatric-focused facility.

    PubMed

    Blumfield, Einat; Zember, Jonathan; Guelfguat, Mark; Blumfield, Amit; Goldman, Harold

    2015-12-01

    We would like to share our experience of reducing pediatric radiation exposure. Much of the recent literature regarding successes of reducing radiation exposure has come from dedicated children's hospitals. Nonetheless, over the past two decades, there has been a considerable increase in CT imaging of children in the USA, predominantly in non-pediatric-focused facilities where the majority of children are treated. In our institution, two general hospitals with limited pediatric services, a dedicated initiative intended to reduce children's exposure to CT radiation was started by pediatric radiologists in 2005. The initiative addressed multiple issues including eliminating multiphase studies, decreasing inappropriate scans, educating referring providers, training residents and technologists, replacing CT with ultrasound or MRI, and ensuring availability of pediatric radiologists for consultation. During the study period, the total number of CT scans decreased by 24 %. When accounting for the number of scans per visit to the emergency department (ED), the numbers of abdominal and head CT scans decreased by 37.2 and 35.2 %, respectively. For abdominal scans, the average number of phases per scan decreased from 1.70 to 1.04. Upon surveying the pediatric ED staff, it was revealed that the most influential factors on ordering of scans were daily communication with pediatric radiologists, followed by journal articles and lectures by pediatric radiologists. We concluded that a non-pediatric-focused facility can achieve dramatic reduction in CT radiation exposure to children; however, this is most effectively achieved through a dedicated, multidisciplinary process led by pediatric radiologists. PMID:26263878

  20. Screening and Identification in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonian, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews issues related to behavioral screening in pediatric primary care settings. Structural-organizational issues affecting the use of pediatric primary care screening are discussed. This study also reviewed selected screening instruments that have utility for use in the primary care setting. Clinical and research issues related to…