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1

Oleanane Triterpenes from the Flowers of Camellia japonica Inhibit Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Replication.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infections have resulted in a severe economic loss in the swine industry in many countries due to no effective treatment approach. Fifteen oleanane triterpenes (1-15), including nine new ones (1-4 and 10-14), were isolated from the flowers of Camellia japonica, and their molecular structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against PEDV replication, and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were discussed. Compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 showed most potent inhibitory effects on PEDV replication. They were found to inhibit PEDV genes encoding GP6 nucleocapsid, GP2 spike, and GP5 membrane protein synthesis based on RT-PCR data. Western blot analysis also demonstrated their inhibitory effects on PEDV GP6 nucleocapsid and GP2 spike protein synthesis during viral replication. The present study suggested the potential of compounds 6, 9, 11, and 13 as promising scaffolds for treating PEDV infection via inhibiting viral replication. PMID:25568928

Yang, Jun-Li; Ha, Thi-Kim-Quy; Dhodary, Basanta; Pyo, Euisun; Nguyen, Ngoc Hieu; Cho, Hyomoon; Kim, Eunhee; Oh, Won Keun

2015-02-12

2

Isolation and characterization of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of diarrhea in pigs started in Guangdong, South China in January 2011. Cases were characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting, with 80–100% morbidity and 50–90% mortality in suckling piglets. The causative agent of the diarrhea was ultimately identified as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we isolated a PEDV strain designated CHGD-01 from piglet intestines using Vero cell cultures, and its specific cytopathic effects were confirmed in susceptible cells by direct immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy. The complete genome of CHGD-01 was shown to be 28,035 nucleotides in length, with a similar structure to that of PEDV reference strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome revealed that CHGD-01 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 98.2–98.4% with two other Chinese isolates reported in the same year, thus constituting a new cluster. Amino acid sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the spike protein gene of CHGD-01 and the field strain KNU0802 in Korea. Its ORF3 and nucleoprotein genes, however, were divergent from all other sequenced PEDV isolate clusters and therefore formed a new group, suggesting a new variant PEDV isolate in China. Further studies will be required to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of this new variant. PMID:22967434

2012-01-01

3

PORCINE EPIDEMIC DIARRHEA VIRUS (PEDV) TESTING SUMMARY REPORT This report summarizes NAHLN laboratory testing for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and covers testing through  

E-print Network

swine samples from different age classes; therefore the monthly sum of accessions from this table may positive in each week Figure 2. Number of swine biological samples positive for PEDV in each week Figure 3. Number of positive environmental samples positive for PEDV in each week *Does not include testing on feed

Blanchette, Robert A.

4

Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines bearing Spike gene of PEDV combined with porcine IL-18  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, a highly contagious enteric disease of swine. The Spike (S) protein is one of the main structural proteins of PEDV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Herein, we generated three distinct DNA ...

5

Distinct Characteristics and Complex Evolution of PEDV Strains, North America, May 2013–February 2014  

PubMed Central

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which emerged in the United States in 2013, has spread throughout North America. Limited availability of PEDV complete genomes worldwide has impeded our understanding of PEDV introduction into the United States. To determine the relationship between the North American strains and global emerging and historic PEDV strains, we sequenced and analyzed complete genomes of 74 strains from North America; the strains clustered into 2 distinct clades. Compared with the initially reported virulent US PEDV strains, 7 (9.7%) strains from 4 states contained insertions and deletions in the spike gene (S INDELs). These S INDEL strains share 99.8%–100% nt identity with each other and 96.2%–96.7% nt identity with the initial US strains. Furthermore, the S INDEL strains form a distinct cluster within North American clade II, sharing 98.6%–100% nt identity overall. In the United States, the S INDEL and original PEDV strains are co-circulating and could have been introduced simultaneously. PMID:25279722

Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Wang, Qiuhong; Culhane, Marie R.; Rossow, Kurt D.; Rovira, Albert; Collins, James; Saif, Linda J.

2014-01-01

6

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced chlamydial persistence/stress does not require viral replication  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae may exist at the site of infection in an alternative replicative form, called the aberrant body (AB). ABs are produced during a viable but non-infectious developmental state termed “persistence” or “chlamydial stress.” As persistent/stressed chlamydiae: (i) may contribute to chronic inflammation observed in diseases like trachoma; and (ii) are more resistant to current anti-chlamydial drugs of choice, it is critical to better understand this developmental stage. We previously demonstrated that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced Chlamydia pecorum persistence/stress in culture. One critical characteristic of persistence/stress is that the chlamydiae remain viable and can reenter the normal developmental cycle when the stressor is removed. Thus, we hypothesized that PEDV-induced persistence would be reversible if viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, we performed time course experiments in which Vero cells were C. pecorum/PEDV infected in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which inhibits viral but not chlamydial protein synthesis. CHX-exposure inhibited PEDV replication, but did not inhibit induction of C. pecorum persistence at 24 h post-PEDV infection, as indicated by AB formation and reduced production of infectious EBs. Interestingly, production of infectious EBs resumed when CHX-exposed, co-infected cells were incubated 48–72 h post-PEDV co-infection. These data demonstrate that PEDV co-infection-induced chlamydial persistence/stress is reversible and suggest that this induction (i) does not require viral replication in host cells; and (ii) does not require de novo host or viral protein synthesis. These data also suggest that viral binding and/or entry may be required for this effect. Because the PEDV host cell receptor (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) stimulates cellular signaling pathways in the absence of PEDV infection, we suspect that PEDV co-infection might alter CD13 function and induce the chlamydiae to enter the persistent state. PMID:24660163

Schoborg, Robert V.; Borel, Nicole

2014-01-01

7

Survivability of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in bovine plasma submitted to spray drying processing and held at different time by temperature storage conditions.  

PubMed

Bovine plasma was inoculated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at an average final titer of 4.2 log10 TCID50/mL to determine the effect of spray drying on viral inactivation. Using a laboratory scale drier, inoculated plasma was spray dried at 200°C inlet temperature and either 70 or 80°C throughout substance. Both liquid and dried samples were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. Results indicated liquid samples contained infective virus, but none of the spray dried samples were infectious. Also, survivability of PEDV inoculated on spray dried bovine plasma (SDBP) and stored at 4, 12 or 22°C was determined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Commercial SDBP powder was inoculated with PEDV to an average final titer of 2.8 log10 TCID50/g. Five samples per time and temperature conditions were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. The virus was non-infectious for all samples stored at 22°C at 7, 14 and 21 days. PEDV was infective in 1 out of 5 samples stored at 12°C at 7 days, but none of the samples stored for 14 and 21 days were infectious in cell culture. For samples stored at 4°C, 4 out of 5 samples were infectious at 7 days, 1 out of 5 samples were infectious at 14 days, but none were infectious at 21 days. In summary, PEDV was not infectious on cell culture within 7 days when stored at room temperature and within 21 days when stored at refrigerated temperature. PMID:25465663

Pujols, Joan; Segalés, Joaquim

2014-12-01

8

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

1999-01-01

9

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOEpatents

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

Ernst, W.D.

1999-06-15

10

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

2004-01-01

11

Temperature field in rubber vibration isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature field inside a vibrating rubber solid cylinder is investigated. The rubber cylinder, a specimen of a vibration isolator rubber (Neoprene GR), is subjected to a repeatedly cyclic compressive force by means of an electrodynamic shaker. In the experimental investigation the temperatures at 16 different locations inside the cylinder have been measured by means of copper-constantan thermocouples. After the estimation of the heat generated per unit volume per unit time with the help of the estimated damping and stiffness coefficients of rubber, one can attempt the solution of the heat conduction equation describing the temperature field inside the rubber specimen. The values of the temperature found from the analytical investigation compare fairly well with the experimental measurements.

Abdulhadi, M. Issa

1985-02-01

12

Competitive Fitness of Phytophthora infestans Isolates Under Semiarid Field Conditions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Spread of US-1 and US-8 isolates of Phytophthora infestans were observed in field plots of potato (cv. Russet Burbank) grown in Pullman, WA, in 1996 and 1997. Infected greenhouse-grown potato plants with similar lesion numbers for both strains were transplanted to field plots with four replications. Spread of the pathogen was favored by sprinkler irrigation during evening hours. Diseased leaves and stems were sampled over time to determine the spread of US-1 and US-8 isolates. In 1996, late blight developed in two of the four replications (105 and 87 total isolates recovered). From those two replications, two US-1 isolates were recovered, both from the same replication. Nine isolates from one replication and six isolates from another displayed a phenotype different from the initial isolates, as determined by compatibility type, allozyme genotype, and restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype. These putative recombinant isolates may have arisen from sexual recombination between the US-1 and US-8 isolates. The remaining isolates were of the US-8 strain. In 1997, late blight developed in all four replications (123, 122, 81, and 34 total isolates recovered). One US-1 isolate was recovered (out of 123) from one replication and three (out of 122) from another, and the remaining isolates were of the US-8 strain. Isolates with phenotypes differing from the initial isolates were not recovered in 1997. In both years, oospores were not observed in the plant tissue examined. The low number of putative recombinant isolates in 1996 and their absence in 1997 suggests that sexual reproduction between US-8 and US-1 isolates in a field setting is a rare event. The predominance of US-8 isolates recovered is a measure of the increased fitness and aggressiveness of the US-8 isolates relative to the US-1 isolate used in this study. This further substantiates the increased aggressiveness of the US-8 genotype observed on excised tissues and potted plants in previous laboratory and greenhouse studies. PMID:18944612

Miller, J S; Johnson, D A

2000-03-01

13

Expression and Purification of the scFv from Hybridoma Cells Secreting a Monoclonal Antibody Against S Protein of PEDV  

PubMed Central

The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were amplified by RT-PCR from the hybridoma 6E6, which secretes the monoclonal antibody against PEDV S protein. The VL and VH amplicons were combined using SOE-PCR by a 12 amino acid flexible linker (SSGGGGSGGGGS), which produced the scFv gene (named scFv/6E6). After sequence analysis, the scFv/6E6 gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 with a GST-tag. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was successfully expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. Moreover, the recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was purified from the inclusion body form by the gel-cutting measure followed by electroelution and dialysis. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein reported here will provide some basis for further antiviral drug research based on the scFv molecule. PMID:23600505

Zhu, Qinghe; Guo, Donghua; Feng, Li

2013-01-01

14

Pathogenesis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolate (US/Iowa/18984/2013) in 3-week-old weaned pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is associated with clinical diarrhea in naïve swine of all ages. This report describes timing of antibody generation and disease progression following infection with a US PEDV isolate by assessing fecal viral shedding, morphometric analysis of intestinal lesions, and magnitude of immunohistochemical staining. Sixty-three, 3-week-old pigs were randomly allocated into control (n=27) and challenged (n=36) groups. Challenged pigs were administered 1 mL of 1 × 10(3) PFU/mL of US/Iowa/18984/2013 PEDV isolate by oro-gastric gavage. Three control and four challenged pigs were necropsied on days post-inoculation (dpi) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and weekly thereafter, until study termination on dpi 35. Clinical disease, fecal shedding, body weight, and temperature were monitored during the study period. Diarrhea was observed in challenged pigs beginning for some on dpi 2, affecting a majority of pigs by dpi 6 and subsiding by dpi 10. Average daily gain was significantly lower (P<0.001) for one week post-infection in challenged pigs. PEDV was detected in feces by PCR on dpi 1 and continued in a subset of pigs until dpi 24. PEDV-specific antigen was detected in villous enterocytes of challenged pigs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on dpi 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14. Microscopic lesions included severe diffuse atrophic enteritis with significantly reduced (P<0.001) villous length observed on dpi 3, 4, and 7. Under the conditions of this study, fecal shedding of PEDV and IHC staining can precede and continue beyond the observation of clinical signs, thus increasing the risk of viral transmission. PMID:25278366

Madson, D M; Magstadt, D R; Arruda, P H E; Hoang, H; Sun, D; Bower, L P; Bhandari, M; Burrough, E R; Gauger, P C; Pillatzki, A E; Stevenson, G W; Wilberts, B L; Brodie, J; Harmon, K M; Wang, C; Main, R G; Zhang, J; Yoon, K J

2014-11-01

15

Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field  

E-print Network

Isolated attosecond pulses using a detuned second-harmonic field Hamed Merdji,1,2, * Thierry to be efficient using two intense beams, one producing a strong field at and the other a strong field detuned from 2 . The slight detuning of the second harmonic is used to break the symmetry of the electric field

Neumark, Daniel M.

16

Isolated Attosecond Pulses using a Detuned Second-harmonic Field  

SciTech Connect

Calculations are presented for the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse in a multicycle two-color strong-field regime. We show that the recollision of the electron wave packet can be confined to half an optical cycle using pulses of up to 40 fs in duration. The scheme is proven to be efficient using two intense beams, one producing a strong field at {omega} and the other a strong field detuned from 2{omega}. The slight detuning {delta}{omega} of the second harmonic is used to break the symmetry of the electric field over many optical cycles and provides a coherent control for the formation of an isolated attosecond pulse.

Merdji, Hamed; /Saclay /SLAC, PULSE; Auguste, Thierry; Boutu, Willem; Caumes, J.-Pascal; Carre, Bertrand; /Saclay; Pfeifer, Thomas; Jullien, Aurelie; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.; /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley

2007-11-07

17

Evaluation of virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates.  

PubMed

The course of enzootic pneumonia, caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is strongly influenced by management and housing conditions. Other factors, including differences in virulence between M. hyopneumoniae strains, may also be involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the virulence of six M. hyopneumoniae field isolates and link it to genetic differences as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Ninety, conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were inoculated intratracheally with the field isolates, a virulent reference strain or sterile culture medium. Animals were examined daily for the presence of disease signs and a respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed per pig. Twenty-eight days post infection, pigs were euthanized, blood sampled and a lung lesion score was given. Lung samples were processed for histopathology, immunofluorescence testing for M. hyopneumoniae and isolation of M. hyopneumoniae. RAPD analysis was performed on all M. hyopneumoniae strains. Significant differences between isolates were found for the RDS, lung lesion score, histopathology, immunofluorescence and serology. Based on the results of the different parameters, isolates were divided into three "virulence" groups: low, moderately and highly virulent strains. Typically, a 5000 bp RAPD fragment was associated with the highly and moderately virulent strains whereas it was absent in low virulent strains. It was concluded that high variation in virulence exists between M. hyopneumoniae strains isolated from different swine herds. Further studies are required to determine whether the 5000 bp fragment obtained in the RAPD analysis can be used as a virulence marker. PMID:14654289

Vicca, J; Stakenborg, T; Maes, D; Butaye, P; Peeters, J; de Kruif, A; Haesebrouck, F

2003-12-30

18

Geographic Diversity among Genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica Field Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been known that only 5 to 10% of those infected with Entamoeba histolytica develop symptomatic disease. However, the parasite and the host factors that determine the onset of disease remain undetermined. Molecular typing by using polymorphic genetic loci has been proven to aid in the close examination of the population structure of E. histolytica field isolates in nature.

Ali Haghighi; Seiki Kobayashi; Tsutomu Takeuchi; Nitaya Thammapalerd; Tomoyoshi Nozaki

2003-01-01

19

Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water  

PubMed Central

Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting. PMID:16535247

Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

1996-01-01

20

Geographic Diversity among Genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

It has been known that only 5 to 10% of those infected with Entamoeba histolytica develop symptomatic disease. However, the parasite and the host factors that determine the onset of disease remain undetermined. Molecular typing by using polymorphic genetic loci has been proven to aid in the close examination of the population structure of E. histolytica field isolates in nature. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of two noncoding loci (locus 1-2 and locus 5-6) and two protein-coding loci (chitinase and serine-rich E. histolytica protein [SREHP]) among 79 isolates obtained from different geographic regions, mainly Japan, Thailand, and Bangladesh. When the genotypes of the four loci were combined for all isolates that we have analyzed so far (overlapping isolates from mass infection events were excluded), a total of 53 different genotypes were observed among 63 isolates. The most remarkable and extensive variations among the four loci was found in the SREHP locus; i.e., 34 different genotypes were observed among 52 isolates. These results demonstrate that E. histolytica has an extremely complex genetic structure independent of geographic location. Our results also show that, despite the proposed transmission of other sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, from Thailand to Japan, the spectra of the genotypes of the E. histolytica isolates from these two countries are distinct, suggesting that the major E. histolytica strains prevalent in Japan at present were likely introduced from countries other than Thailand. Although the genetic polymorphism of the SREHP locus was previously suggested to be closely associated with the clinical presentation, e.g., colitis or dysentery and liver abscess, no association between the clinical presentation and the SREHP genotype at either the nucleotide or the predicted amino acid level was demonstrated. PMID:12904386

Haghighi, Ali; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Thammapalerd, Nitaya; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

2003-01-01

21

Formation, evolution and properties of isolated field elliptical galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties, evolution and formation mechanisms of isolated field elliptical (IfE) galaxies. We create a `mock' catalogue of IfE galaxies from the Millennium Simulation Galaxy Catalogue, and trace their merging histories. The formation, identity and assembly redshifts of simulated isolated and non-isolated elliptical galaxies are studied and compared. Observational and numerical data are used to compare age, mass and the colour-magnitude relation. Our results, based on simulation data, show that almost 7 per cent of all elliptical galaxies brighter than -19mag in B band can be classified as IfE galaxies. Results also show that isolated elliptical galaxies have a rather flat luminosity function; a number density of ~3 × 10-6h3Mpc-3mag-1, throughout their B-band magnitudes. IfE galaxies show bluer colours than non-isolated elliptical galaxies and they appear younger, in a statistical sense, according to their mass-weighted age. IfE galaxies also form and assemble at lower redshifts compared to non-isolated elliptical galaxies. About 46 per cent of IfE galaxies have undergone at least one major merging event in their formation history, while the same fraction is only ~33 per cent for non-isolated ellipticals. Almost all (~98 per cent) isolated elliptical galaxies show merging activity during their evolution, pointing towards the importance of mergers in the formation of IfE galaxies. The mean time of the last major merging is at z ~ 0.6 or 6Gyr ago for isolated ellipticals, while non-isolated ellipticals experience their last major merging significantly earlier at z ~ 1.1 or 8Gyr ago. After inspecting merger trees of simulated IfE galaxies, we conclude that three different, yet typical, formation mechanisms can be identified: solitude, coupling and cannibalism. Our results also predict a previously unobserved population of blue, dim and light galaxies that fulfil observational criteria to be classified as IfE galaxies. This separate population comprises ~26 per cent of all IfEs.

Niemi, Sami-Matias; Heinämäki, Pekka; Nurmi, Pasi; Saar, Enn

2010-06-01

22

Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters  

PubMed Central

A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 ?m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images PMID:16349231

Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kåre; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

1994-01-01

23

Studies of resistance to anticoccidials in Eimeria field isolates and pure Eimeria strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten Eimeria field isolates from North Germany were studied in battery tests for sensitivity to selected anticoccidials. A high percentage of the Eimeria field isolates (9 out of 10) showed resistance to anticoccidials, mostly multiple resistance. Partial or complete resistance to maduramicin was found in 7 field isolates, to monensin in 6, to salinomycin in 5, to nicarbazin in 8,

B. Stephan; M. Rommel; A. Daugschies; A. Haberkorn

1997-01-01

24

Simulations of magnetic fields in isolated disc galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields are known to be dynamically important in the interstellar medium of our own Galaxy, and they are ubiquitously observed in diffuse gas in the haloes of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Yet, magnetic fields have typically been neglected in studies of the formation of galaxies, leaving their global influence on galaxy formation largely unclear. Here we extend our magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) implementation in the moving-mesh code AREPO to cosmological problems which include radiative cooling and the formation of stars. In particular, we replace our previously employed divergence cleaning approach with a Powell eight-wave scheme, which turns out to be significantly more stable, even in very dynamic environments. We verify the improved accuracy through simulations of the magneto-rotational instability in accretion discs, which reproduce the correct linear growth rate of the instability. Using this new MHD code, we simulate the formation of isolated disc galaxies similar to the Milky Way using idealized initial conditions with and without magnetic fields. We find that the magnetic field strength is quickly amplified in the initial central starburst and the differential rotation of the forming disc, eventually reaching a saturation value. At this point, the magnetic field pressure in the interstellar medium becomes comparable to the thermal pressure, and a further efficient growth of the magnetic field strength is prevented. The additional pressure component leads to a lower star formation rate at late times compared to simulations without magnetic fields, and induces changes in the spiral arm structures of the gas disc. In addition, we observe highly magnetized fountain-like outflows from the disc. These results are robust with numerical resolution and are largely independent of the initial magnetic seed field strength assumed in the initial conditions, as the amplification process is rapid and self-regulated. Our findings suggest an important influence of magnetic fields on galaxy formation and evolution, cautioning against their neglect in theoretical models of structure formation.

Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker

2013-06-01

25

Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain from Eastern China  

PubMed Central

A field porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, JS2008, was isolated from stool samples of a piglet with acute diarrhea on a vaccinated farm in eastern China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain JS2008, which will help increase our understanding of the molecular characteristics of the epidemic PEDV in China. PMID:23599287

Liu, Haofei; He, Kongwang; Guo, Rongli; Ni, Yanxiu; Du, Luping; Wen, Libin; Zhang, Xuehan; Yu, Zhengyu; Zhou, Junming; Mao, Aihua; Lv, Lixin; Hu, Yiyi; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Haodan; Wang, Xiaomin

2013-01-01

26

Incipient fault detection and isolation of sensors and field devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to develop a robust fault detection and isolation method, for detecting faults in process sensors, actuators, controllers and other field devices. The approach to the solution to this problem is summarized below. A novel approach for the validation of control system components and sensors was developed in this research. The process is composed of detecting a system anomaly, isolating the faulty component (such as sensors, actuators, and controllers), computing its deviation from expected value for a given system's normal condition, and finally reconstructing its output when applicable. A variant of the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) was developed in this research for generating analytical redundancy from relationships among different system components. A rational function approximation was used for the data-driven modeling scheme. This analytical redundancy is necessary for detecting system anomalies and isolating faulty components. A rule-base expert system was developed in order to isolate the faulty component. The rule-based was established from model-simulated data. A fuzzy-logic estimator was implemented to compute the magnitude of the loop component fault so that the operator or the controller might take corrective actions. This latter engine allows the system to be operated in a normal condition until the next scheduled shutdown, even if a critical component were detected as degrading. The effectiveness of the method developed in this research was demonstrated through simulation and by implementation to an experimental control loop. The test loop consisted of a level control system, flow, pressure, level and temperature measuring sensors, motor-operated valves, and a pump. Commonly observed device faults were imposed in different system components such as pressure transmitters, pumps, and motor-operated valves. This research has resulted in a framework for system component failure detection and isolation, allowing easy implementation of this method in any process control system (power plants, chemical industry, and other manufacturing industry). The technique would also aid the plant personnel in defining the minimal number of sensors to be installed in a process system, necessary for reliable component validation.

Ferreira, Paulo Brasko

27

Molecular characterisation of virulence graded field isolates of myxoma virus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxoma virus (MV) has been endemic in Europe since shortly after its deliberate release in France in 1952. While the emergence of more resistant hosts and more transmissible and attenuated virus is well documented, there have been relatively few studies focused on the sequence changes incurred by the virus as it has adapted to its new host. In order to identify regions of variability within the MV genome to be used for phylogenetic studies and to try to investigate causes of MV strain attenuation we have molecularly characterised nine strains of MV isolated in Spain between the years 1992 and 1995 from wide ranging geographic locations and which had been previously graded for virulence by experimental infection of rabbits. Results The findings reported here show the analysis of 16 genomic regions accounting for approximately 10% of the viral genomes. Of the 20 genes analysed 5 (M034L, M069L, M071L, M130R and M135R) were identical in all strains and 1 (M122R) contained only a single point mutation in an individual strain. Four genes (M002L/R, M009L, M036L and M017L) showed insertions or deletions that led to disruption of the ORFs. Conclusions The findings presented here provide valuable tools for strain differentiation and phylogenetic studies of MV isolates and some clues as to the reasons for virus attenuation in the field. PMID:20187925

2010-01-01

28

Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant S1 domain of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious enteric pathogen of swine. Acute PEDV outbreaks have continually emerged in most swine-producing Asian countries and, recently, in the United States, causing significant economic losses in the pig industry. The spike (S) protein of PEDV is a type 1 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein and consists of the S1 and S2 domains, which are responsible for virus binding and fusion, respectively. Since the S1 domain is involved in a specific high-affinity interaction with the cellular receptor and induction of neutralizing antibody in the natural host, it is a primary target for the development of effective vaccines against PEDV. In this study, a codon-optimized PEDV S1 gene containing amino acid residues 25-738 was synthesized based on a multiple alignment of the S amino acid sequences of PEDV field isolates and used to establish a stable porcine cell line constitutively expressing the PEDV S1 protein. The purified recombinant S1 protein was found to mediate highly potent antibody responses in immunized rabbits. The antibodies strongly recognized the recombinant S1 protein from cell lysates and supernatants of S1-expressing cells, whereas they bound weakly to the authentic S protein of PEDV vaccine strain SM98-1. Furthermore, a serum neutralization test revealed that the rabbit antisera completely inhibit infection of the PEDV vaccine strain at a serum dilution of 1:16. We then tested the ability of vaccination with the recombinant S1 protein to protect piglets against PEDV. Late-term pregnant sows were inoculated intramuscularly with the purified S1 protein, and the outcome was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets after a virulent PEDV challenge. The results showed that vaccination with S1 protein efficiently protected neonatal piglets against PEDV. Our data suggest that the recombinant S1 protein shows potential as an effective and safe subunit vaccine for PED prevention. PMID:25008896

Oh, Jongsuk; Lee, Kyung-Won; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lee, Changhee

2014-11-01

29

Flavobacterium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from field soil.  

PubMed

A novel strain, D3T, isolated from a field-soil sample obtained from Anhui Province, PR China, was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. The cells were Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented rods devoid of flagella, but showing gliding motility. The organism was able to grow at 5-37 degrees C and at pH 4.0-10.0. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain D3T is a member of the genus Flavobacterium, sharing highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Flavobacterium defluvii (96.7 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 omega 7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.4 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strain D3T represents a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium anhuiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D3T (=KCTC 22128T = CGMCC 1.6859T). PMID:18398165

Liu, Huan; Liu, Rui; Yang, Shou-Yun; Gao, Wei-Kai; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Zhang, Ke-Yun; Lai, Ren

2008-04-01

30

Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov., isolated from a paddy field soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain positive, facultative aerobic bacterium, designated as strain GSS03(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil. The cells were observed to be endospore forming, rod-shaped and motile with flagella. The organism was found to grow optimally at 35 °C at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl. The strain was classified as a novel taxon within the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus DSM 6(T) (97.61 %), Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.55 %), Bacillus asahii JCM 12112(T) (97.48 %), Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) (97.48 %) and "Bacillus frigoritolerans" DSM 8801(T) (97.38 %). The menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty acid was identified as anteiso-C15:0 and the major cellular polar lipids as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and three unknown polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness with the closest relatives was below 48 %. Therefore, on the basis of all the results, strain GSS03(T) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS03(T) (=KCTC 33172(T) =CCTCC AB 2013237(T)). PMID:24903955

Li, Jibing; Yang, Guiqin; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Shungui

2014-08-01

31

A New Record of Pseudallescheria boydii Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea  

PubMed Central

Pseudallescheria boydii KNU13-2 was isolated from crop field soil and identified by analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA and morphological characteristics. In the literature, P. boydii has been mentioned as a human pathogen. This is the first record of P. boydii isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25606013

Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadhav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm

2014-01-01

32

Characterization of Isolates of Meloidogyne from Rice-Wheat Production Fields in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Thirty-three isolates of root-knot nematode were recovered from soil samples from rice-wheat fields in Nepal and maintained on rice cv. BR 11. The isolates were characterized using morphology, host range and DNA sequence analyses in order to ascertain their identity. Results indicated phenotypic similarity (juvenile measurements, perennial pattern, host range and gall shape) of the Nepalese isolates with Meloidogyne graminicola, with minor variations. The rice varieties LA 110 and Labelle were susceptible to all of the Nepalese isolates, but differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of partial internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA genes indicated that all Nepalese isolates formed a distinct clade with known isolates of M. graminicola with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, two groups were identified within the M. graminicola clade. No correlation between ITS haplotype and aggressiveness or host range was found among the tested isolates. PMID:19259491

Pokharel, Ramesh R.; Abawi, George S.; Zhang, Ning; Duxbury, John M.; Smart, Christine D.

2007-01-01

33

Characterization of isolates of meloidogyne from rice-wheat production fields in Nepal.  

PubMed

Thirty-three isolates of root-knot nematode were recovered from soil samples from rice-wheat fields in Nepal and maintained on rice cv. BR 11. The isolates were characterized using morphology, host range and DNA sequence analyses in order to ascertain their identity. Results indicated phenotypic similarity (juvenile measurements, perennial pattern, host range and gall shape) of the Nepalese isolates with Meloidogyne graminicola, with minor variations. The rice varieties LA 110 and Labelle were susceptible to all of the Nepalese isolates, but differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of partial internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA genes indicated that all Nepalese isolates formed a distinct clade with known isolates of M. graminicola with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, two groups were identified within the M. graminicola clade. No correlation between ITS haplotype and aggressiveness or host range was found among the tested isolates. PMID:19259491

Pokharel, Ramesh R; Abawi, George S; Zhang, Ning; Duxbury, John M; Smart, Christine D

2007-09-01

34

Comparative Analysis of the Genomes of Two Field Isolates of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of rice worldwide. The fungal pathogen is notorious for its ability to overcome host resistance. To better understand its genetic variation in nature, we sequenced the genomes of two field isolates, Y34 and P131. In comparison with the previously sequenced laboratory strain 70-15, both field isolates had a similar genome size but slightly more genes. Sequences from the field isolates were used to improve genome assembly and gene prediction of 70-15. Although the overall genome structure is similar, a number of gene families that are likely involved in plant-fungal interactions are expanded in the field isolates. Genome-wide analysis on asynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates revealed that many infection-related genes underwent diversifying selection. The field isolates also have hundreds of isolate-specific genes and a number of isolate-specific gene duplication events. Functional characterization of randomly selected isolate-specific genes revealed that they play diverse roles, some of which affect virulence. Furthermore, each genome contains thousands of loci of transposon-like elements, but less than 30% of them are conserved among different isolates, suggesting active transposition events in M. oryzae. A total of approximately 200 genes were disrupted in these three strains by transposable elements. Interestingly, transposon-like elements tend to be associated with isolate-specific or duplicated sequences. Overall, our results indicate that gain or loss of unique genes, DNA duplication, gene family expansion, and frequent translocation of transposon-like elements are important factors in genome variation of the rice blast fungus. PMID:22876203

Li, Zhigang; Hu, Songnian; Yao, Nan; Dean, Ralph A.; Zhao, Wensheng; Shen, Mi; Zhang, Haiwang; Li, Chao; Liu, Liyuan; Cao, Lei; Xu, Xiaowen; Xing, Yunfei; Hsiang, Tom; Zhang, Ziding; Xu, Jin-Rong; Peng, You-Liang

2012-01-01

35

Genetic variation of nucleocapsid genes of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus field strains in China.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a great threat to the Chinese swine industry. During 2006-2011, 74.0 % (94/127) of samples from 32 swine-raising farms in 15 provinces were positive for PEDV by reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). The sequences of nucleocapsid (N) genes of 32 representative field strains were determined, and the open reading frames (ORFs) of these N genes were 1326 nucleotides long. The N gene sequences were found to be more than 95 % identical to each other. The number of potential phosphorylation sites in the N protein varied from 5 to 12. A phylogenetic tree based on the N genes showed that the 32 Chinese field strains formed three groups. PMID:23381394

Chen, Jianfei; Liu, Xiaozhen; Lang, Hongwu; Wang, Zhongtian; Shi, Da; Shi, Hongyan; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Li

2013-06-01

36

Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme versus Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing Mycobacterium abscessus Isolates  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus. PMID:24899019

Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; de Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate

2014-01-01

37

A GIGABIT scalable SILO field isolation using Rapid Thermal Nitridation (RTN) of silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a SILO\\/RTN type isolation [1] so-called SUPERSILO\\/RTN [2] (fig. 1) shrinkable for 0.25 ¿m CMOS device generation: this process can improve drastically the field oxide thinning and active area corner effects. Experimental 64 Mbit CMOS EPROM devices are fabricated for electrical characterization. The NMOS devices performances and isolation are ultimately optimized by the use of a retrograde

S. Deleonibus

1992-01-01

38

Molecular Characterization of Acquired Enrofloxacin Resistance in Mycoplasma synoviae Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of enrofloxacin against 73 Mycoplasma synoviae field strains isolated in Israel and Europe was determined by broth microdilution. Decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin was identified in 59% of strains, with the MICs ranging from 1 to >16 ?g/ml. The estimated MIC50 and MIC90 values for enrofloxacin were 2 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. Moreover, this study showed that 92% of recent Israeli field isolates (2009 to 2011) of M. synoviae have MICs of ?2 ?g/ml to enrofloxacin. Comparison of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in M. synoviae isolates revealed a clear correlation between the presence of one of the amino acid substitutions Asp79-Asn, Thr80-Ala/Ile, Ser81-Pro, and Asp84-Asn/Tyr/His of the ParC QRDR and decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin (MIC, ?1 ?g/ml). Amino acid substitutions at positions GyrA 87, GyrB 401/402, and ParE 420/454 were also identified, but there was no clear-cut correlation with susceptibility to enrofloxacin. Comparison of vlhA molecular profiles revealed the presence of 9 different genotypes in the Israeli M. synoviae field isolates and 10 genotypes in the European isolates; only one vlhA genotype (type 4) was identified in both cohorts. Based on results of vlhA molecular typing, several mechanisms for emergence and dissemination of Israeli enrofloxacin-resistant M. synoviae isolates are suggested. PMID:23612192

Gerchman, I.; Mikula, I.; Gobbo, F.; Catania, S.; Levisohn, S.

2013-01-01

39

Isolated short attosecond pulse generation in an orthogonally polarized multicycle chirped laser field  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically demonstrate the generation of a high-order harmonic and isolated attosecond pulse in an orthogonally polarized laser field, which is synthesized by an 800-nm chirped laser pulse and an 800-nm chirp-free laser pulse. Owing to the instantaneous frequency increasingly reducing close to the center of the driving pulse, the extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum for the chirped synthesized field is even broader than that for an orthogonal chirp-free two-color laser field. It is found that the broadband supercontinuum spectrum can be achieved for the driving pulse with ten and above optical cycles. After phase compensation an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of {approx}16 as is produced. Furthermore, the optimization of the chirping rate parameters is investigated to achieve cutoff extension and an isolated short attosecond pulse.

Xu Junjie [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2011-03-15

40

Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production  

PubMed Central

A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

2014-01-01

41

Molecular detection, epidemiology, and genetic characterization of novel European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus.  

PubMed

The application of molecular diagnostic techniques along with nucleotide sequence determination to permit contemporary phylogenetic analysis of European field isolates of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has not been widely reported. As a result, of extensive testing instigated following the 2006 outbreak of equine infectious anemia in Italy, 24 farms with a history of exposure to this disease were included in this study. New PCR-based methods were developed, which, especially in the case of DNA preparations from peripheral blood cells, showed excellent correlation with OIE-approved agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests for identifying EIAV-infected animals. In contrast, the OIE-recommended oligonucleotide primers for EIAV failed to react with any of the Italian isolates. Similar results were also obtained with samples from four Romanian farms. In addition, for the first time complete characterization of gag genes from five Italian isolates and one Romanian isolate has been achieved, along with acquisition of extensive sequence information (86% of the total gag gene) from four additional EIAV isolates (one Italian and three Romanian). Furthermore, in another 23 cases we accomplished partial characterization of gag gene sequences in the region encoding the viral matrix protein. Analysis of this information suggested that most Italian isolates were geographically restricted, somewhat reminiscent of the "clades" described for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Collectively this represents the most comprehensive genetic study of European EIAV isolates conducted to date. PMID:21084503

Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Cook, Frank R; Felicetti, Michela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Coppola, Giacomo; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

2011-01-01

42

Molecular epidemiologic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

Isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor from two well-defined cholera outbreaks in Malaysia were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from sporadic cases occurring during the same time period were also studied. Digestion of chromosomal DNA from these isolates of V. cholerae O1 with restriction endonucleases NotI (5'-GCGGCCGC-3') and SfiI (5'-GGCCNNNN-3'), followed by PFGE, produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 13 to 24 bands (ranging in size from 46 to 398 kbp). Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with NotI and SfiI suggested the clonal nature and close genetic identity of the isolates obtained during each of the two outbreaks (Dice coefficient, 0.93 to 1.0). Although they had very similar REA patterns, the two outbreak clones were not identical. Isolates of V. cholerae O1 from sporadic cases, on the other hand, appeared to be much more heterogeneous (five different REA patterns detected in the five isolates tested; Dice coefficient, 0.31 to 0.81) than those obtained during the two outbreaks. We conclude that PFGE of V. cholerae O1 chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for molecular typing of V. cholerae isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7883885

Mahalingam, S; Cheong, Y M; Kan, S; Yassin, R M; Vadivelu, J; Pang, T

1994-01-01

43

Are there any isolated old neutron stars in the ROSAT Wide Field Camera survey?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations to predict the number of isolated old neutron stars (IONs) that are observed in the ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey as a result of accretion-powered extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission. Magnetic field strengths of 10^9 to 10^12 G are considered along with different models for the local interstellar medium. The most recent

R. A. Manning; R. D. Jeffries; A. P. Willmore

1996-01-01

44

Increased levels of thiols protect antimony unresponsive Leishmania donovani field isolates against reactive oxygen  

E-print Network

Increased levels of thiols protect antimony unresponsive Leishmania donovani field isolates against reactive oxygen species generated by trivalent antimony G. MANDAL1 , S. WYLLIE2 , N. SINGH3 , S. SUNDAR4 (Received 28 February 2007; revised 8 May 2007; accepted 10 May 2007) SUMMARY The current trend of antimony

Schnaufer, Achim

45

Evaluating the Resistance of Eimeria Spp. Field Isolates to Anticoccidial Drugs Using Three Different Indices  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, the presence of resistance to diclazuril, amprolium+ethopabate and salinomycin, representing some of the commonest anticoccidials in Iran's poultry industry, against three mixed Eimeria field isolates were investigated. Methods Three Eimeria field isolates, collected from typical broiler farms in Iran, were propagated once, inoculated to 480 broilers, comprising 30 chicks in each treatment. The non-medicated or medicated diets containing one of the above mentioned anticoccidials were provided ad-lib. Drug efficacy was determined using the Global index (GI), Anticoccidial Sensitivity Test (AST) and Optimum Anticoccidial Activity (OAA). Results None of the field isolates were fully sensitive to the selected anticoccidials. All isolates showed reduced sensitivity/partial resistance to salinomycin. Resistance to amprolium+ethopabate was evident and partial to complete resistance was recorded for diclazuril. Conclusion Limited efficacy of the selected anticoccidials is obvious. Considering the cost of continuous use of anticoccidials in the field, altering the prevention strategy and rotation of the anticoccidials with better efficacy, would prevent further economic losses induced by coccidiosis. PMID:23914236

Arabkhazaeli, F; Modrisanei, M; Nabian, S; Mansoori, B; Madani, A

2013-01-01

46

Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses  

E-print Network

Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated experiments (e.g., in gases or dense plasmas) enables the production of attosecond lighthouses, i.e., sources a collection of single attosecond pulses in angularly well-separated light beams--an attosecond lighthouse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Optimum design of bridges with superelastic-friction base isolators against near-field earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic response of a multi-span continuous bridge isolated with novel superelastic-friction base isolator (S-FBI) is investigated under near-field earthquakes. The isolation system consists of a flat steel-Teflon sliding bearing and a superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) device. Sliding bearings limit the maximum seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure to a certain value that is a function of friction coefficient of sliding interface. Superelastic SMA device provides restoring capability to the isolation system together with additional damping characteristics. The key design parameters of an S-FBI system are the natural period of the isolated, yielding displacement of SMA device, and the friction coefficient of the sliding bearings. The goal of this study is to obtain optimal values for each design parameter by performing sensitivity analyses of the isolated bridge. First, a three-span continuous bridge is modeled as a two-degrees-of-freedom with S-FBI system. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate-dependent nonlinear behavior of SMA device. A time-dependent method which employs wavelets to adjust accelerograms to match a target response spectrum with minimum changes on the other characteristics of ground motions is used to generate ground motions used in the simulations. Then, a set of nonlinear time history analyses of the isolated bridge is performed. The variation of the peak response quantities of the isolated bridge is shown as a function of design parameters. Also, the influence of temperature variations on the effectiveness of S-FBI system is evaluated. The results show that the optimum design of the isolated bridge with S-FBI system can be achieved by a judicious specification of design parameters.

Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

2010-04-01

48

Streptacidiphilus oryzae sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from rice-field soil in Thailand.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of ten acidophilic actinomycetes isolated from an acidic rice-field soil was established using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences determined for the isolates were aligned with corresponding sequences of representatives of the genera Kitasatospora, Streptacidiphilus and Streptomyces and phylogenetic trees were inferred using four tree-making algorithms. The isolates had identical sequences and formed a distinct branch at the periphery of the Streptacidiphilus 16S rRNA gene tree. The chemotaxonomic and morphological properties of representative isolates were consistent with their assignment to the genus Streptacidiphilus. The isolates shared nearly identical phenotypic profiles that readily distinguished them from representatives of the established species of Streptacidiphilus. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that the isolates form a homogeneous group that corresponds to a novel species in the genus Streptacidiphilus. The name proposed for this new taxon is Streptacidiphilus oryzae sp. nov.; the type strain is strain TH49(T) (=CGMCC 4.2012(T) = JCM 13271(T)). PMID:16738101

Wang, Liming; Huang, Ying; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Rodríguez, Carlos

2006-06-01

49

The impact of a magnetic field on ferromagnetic materials isolated using ultraviolet laser ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation technology is used to isolate magnetic material to generate a local magnetic field effect. The impact of an induced magnetic field is enhanced by using the external magnetic field and can be widely employed to collect magnetic particles and position biomolecular in the bio-examination field. In addition, the magnetic field is affected and induced by the thermal stress produced after energy is exerted on the materials. Therefore, this study presents the phase of induced magnetic field (PIMF) of ferromagnetic film (Ni—1-?m thick) isolated using a 355-nm pulsed ultraviolet laser. In the experiment, three patterns comprising the following shapes and various isolated angle were designed for testing: hexagon (type I, 120°), L shape (type II, 90°), and cross shape (type III, 90°). The magnetic force microscopy image showed that when the isolating angle decreased, the PIMF increased, the value of which at the periphery of the corner of the type I and II patterns was -3.96° and -4.09°, respectively. In addition, by increasing the ablation time and residual thermal stress remaining in the material to increase the impact of the material's properties when laser scanning speed was reduced from 1,000 to 500 mm/s, the PIMF value increased from -4.09° to -5.82°. The PIMF value of the type III pattern increased to -9.87° because the residual thermal stress was twice that of the type II pattern. In the future, the experimental results can be used as a helpful reference for controlling magnetic particles in biomedical chips.

Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Ching Ching; Yang, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

2014-10-01

50

Quantum path controlling in the presence of a low frequency field to generate isolated attosecond pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, an efficient method is presented to generate an isolated attosecond pulse based on synthesized laser field. The 1D time-dependent Schrödinger equation is numerically solved for a helium atom exposed in a strong laser field. Two color fields containing a chirped laser pulse and its half harmonic as control pulse are modulated by a low frequency field to construct the configuration of strong laser field. The effect of low frequency field dominates the effect of the chirp parameter and extremely affects the acceleration step of high-order harmonic generation process. The low frequency field, in the optimized conditions, eliminates the long quantum path completely and only the short quantum path contributes in the higher harmonics emission mechanism. With such scheme, an extra supercontinuum with 700 eV bandwidth can be generated which supports the creation of a 64 attosecond isolated pulse. Moreover, the classical electron dynamics and the time-frequency analysis for explaining the underlying physics of atom-pulse interaction are also presented.

Dashcasan, M.

2014-05-01

51

Turning Points in the Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars' Magnetic Fields  

E-print Network

During the life of isolated neutron stars (NSs) their magnetic field passes through a variety of evolutionary phases. Depending on its strength and structure and on the physical state of the NS (e.g. cooling, rotation), the field looks qualitatively and quantitatively different after each of these phases. Three of them, the phase of MHD instabilities immediately after NS's birth, the phase of fallback which may take place hours to months after NS's birth, and the phase when strong temperature gradients may drive thermoelectric instabilities, are concentrated in a period lasting from the end of the proto--NS phase until 100, perhaps 1000 years, when the NS has become almost isothermal. The further evolution of the magnetic field proceeds in general inconspicuous since the star is in isolation. However, as soon as the product of Larmor frequency and electron relaxation time, the so-called magnetization parameter, locally and/or temporally considerably exceeds unity, phases, also unstable ones, of dramatic changes of the field structure and magnitude can appear. An overview is given about that field evolution phases, the outcome of which makes a qualitative decision regarding the further evolution of the magnetic field and its host NS.

U. Geppert

2006-11-22

52

On the Generation of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulses by Many-Cycle Laser Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in all states of matter requires temporal resolution on the atomic unit of time (24.189 asec) (1 asec = 1{0}^{-18} s). Tools for tracking such ultrafast dynamics are ultrashort light pulses. During the last decade, continuous efforts in ultrashort pulse engineering led to the development of light pulses width duration close to the atomic unit of time. Attosecond (asec) pulses have been synthesized by broadband coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation generated by the interaction of gases or solids with an intense IR fs pulse. Asec pulse trains can be generated when the medium interacts with many-cycle driving IR fs laser fields. In this case, a broadband XUV frequency comb is emitted from the medium. The Fourier synthesis of a part of the comb results in an asec pulse train. Isolated asec pulses are generated when the medium is forced to emit XUV radiation only during few cycles of the driving laser field. This leads to the emission of a broadband quasicontinuum XUV radiation. The Fourier synthesis of the continuum part of the spectrum results in an isolated asec pulse. For the realization of studies of ultrafast dynamics, intense asec pulses are preferable. If the pulses are intense enough to induce a nonlinear process in a target system, they can be used for ultrafast dynamic studies in an XUV pump-probe configuration. Although trains of intense asec pulses are commonly produced nowadays, the generation of intense isolated asec pulses remains a challenge. Here, we review a recently developed approach for the generation of intense asec pulses using high-peak-power many-cycle laser fields. The approach is based on controlling, with asec precession, the response of the atomic dipole to an external many-cycle driving field in such a way as to emit an isolated asec XUV burst. This approach has been implemented by using the inteferometric polarization gating (IPG) technique. The bandwidth of the generated XUV radiation is large enough to enable the synthesis of isolated XUV pulses with durations of a few hundred asec. The technique paves the way for the generation of intense isolated asec pulses, tuneable in duration and frequency, for carrier-envelope phase (CEP) variation studies of many-cycle driving fields, and it offers exciting opportunities for multiphoton XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments.

Tzallas, Paris; Skantzakis, Emmanouil; Kruse, Jann E.; Charalambidis, Dimitrios

53

Molecular Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis: Comparison of Isolates from Avian Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and the Environment in Norway  

PubMed Central

The molecular epidemiology of 142 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from avian wildlife, domestic animals, and the environment in Norway was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and computerized numerical analysis of the data. The bacterial isolates comprised 79 isolates from wild-living birds, including 46 small passerines and 26 gulls, and 63 isolates of nonavian origin, including 50 domestic animals and 13 environmental samples. Thirteen main clusters were discernible at the 90% similarity level. Most of the isolates (83%) were grouped into three main clusters. These were further divided into 20 subclusters at the 95% similarity level. Isolates from passerines, gulls, and pigeons dominated within five subclusters, whereas isolates from domestic animals and the environment belonged to many different subclusters with no predominance. The results support earlier results that passerines constitute an important source of infection to humans in Norway, whereas it is suggested that gulls and pigeons, based on PFGE analysis, represent only a minor source of human serovar Typhimurium infections. Passerines, gulls, and pigeons may also constitute a source of infection of domestic animals and feed plants or vice versa. Three isolates from cattle and a grain source, of which two were multiresistant, were confirmed as serovar Typhimurium phage type DT 104. These represent the first reported phage type DT 104 isolates from other sources than humans in Norway. PMID:12406755

Refsum, Thorbjørn; Heir, Even; Kapperud, Georg; Vardund, Traute; Holstad, Gudmund

2002-01-01

54

Vacuum type N space-times admitting homothetic vector fields with isolated fixed points  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider vacuum space-times (M, g) which are of Petrov type N on an open dense subset ofM, and which admit (proper) homothetic vector fields with isolated fixed points. We prove that if such is the case then, at the fixed point, (M,g) is flat and the homothetic bivector,X[a;b], is necessarily simple-timelike. Furthermore, we prove that if the homothetic bivector

J. da Costa; E. G. L. R. Vaz

1992-01-01

55

Isolated Electrostatic Structures Observed Throughout the Cluster Orbit: Relationship to Magnetic Field Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated electrostatic structures are observed throughout much of the 4 Re by\\u000a19.6 Re Cluster orbit. These structures are observed in the Wideband plasma\\u000awave instrument's waveform data as bipolar and tripolar pulses. These\\u000astructures are observed at all of the boundary layers, in the solar wind and\\u000amagnetosheath, and along auroral field lines at 4.5-6.5 Re. Using the Wideband

J. S. Pickett; L.-J. Chen; S. W. Kahler; O. Santolik; D. A. Gurnett; B. T. Tsurutani; A. Balogh

2004-01-01

56

Comparison of visually evoked local field potentials in isolated turtle brain: Patterned versus blank stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated turtle brain\\/eye preparation has recently been used as a bloodless animal model for detecting the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes produced by visually evoked neuronal currents. The present work aims to determine whether checkerboard-patterned or full field flash (blank) stimulation should be used in order to achieve stronger neuronal responses in turtle brain\\/eye preparation. The knowledge gained in

Qingfei Luo; Huo Lu; Hanbing Lu; Yihong Yang; Jia-Hong Gao

2010-01-01

57

Measurement of weak magnetic field of corrosion current of isolated corrosion center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very small magnetic field of corrosion current, of the order of 10-4 Oe, generated by isolated zinc inclusion in a copper platelet placed in electrolyte has been measured for the first time with a highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance magnetometer. The total corrosion current of the inclusion is estimated comparing the measured magnetic field distribution with corresponding theoretical calculation. The estimated value of the total corrosion current turns out to be in reasonable agreement with that one obtained in the standard gravimetric measurement.

Bardin, I. V.; Bautin, V. A.; Gudoshnikov, S. A.; Ljubimov, B. Ya.; Usov, N. A.

2015-01-01

58

Hy-wire and fast electric field change measurements near an isolated thunderstorm, appendix C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric field measurements near an isolated thunderstorm at 6.4 km distance are presented from both a tethered balloon experiment called Hy-wire and also from ground based fast and slow electric field change systems. Simultaneous measurements were made of the electric fields during several lightning flashes at the beginning of the storm which the data clearly indicate were cloud-to-ground flashes. In addition to providing a comparison between the Hy-wire technique for measuring electric fields and more traditional methods, these data are interesting because the lightning flashes occurred prior to changes in the dc electric field, although Hy-wire measured changes in the dc field of up to 750 V/m in the direction opposite to the fair weather field a short time later. Also, the dc electric field was observed to decay back to its preflash value after each flash. The data suggest that Hy-wire was at the field reversal distance from this storm and suggest the charge realignment was taking place in the cloud with a time constant on the order of 20 seconds.

Holzworth, R. H.; Levine, D. M.

1983-01-01

59

Do Botanophila flies provide reproductive isolation between two species of Epichloë fungi? A field test.  

PubMed

Epichloë spp., fungal endophytes of cool season grasses, produce collars of mycelium (stromata) on host stems that Botanophila flies visit for egg laying. Flies transfer fungal gametes among stromata and thereby serve to cross-fertilize fungi. Hence, the interaction is analogous to insect pollination in angiosperms. While most Epichloë species are not interfertile, Epichloë typhina and Epichloë clarkii can hybridize. We investigated whether Botanophila flies play a role in the reproductive isolation of the two Epichloë species at a field site in southwestern Switzerland. We estimated the density of stromata and collected fly larvae and stromata occurring on plants. While most ascospores collected from both species indicated intraspecific mating, 9.3% of fungal fruiting bodies contained spores of hybrid origin. Two species of Botanophila larvae occurred on stromata and both preferred E. typhina. Yet, both fly species laid eggs on both fungal species. While preferences by Botanophila flies should influence reproductive isolation between the fungi, other mechanisms are likely more important. Our data, which show hybrid ascospores are produced, suggest postzygotic isolating mechanisms are an important means of reproductive isolation. PMID:21244433

Bultman, Thomas L; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Sullivan, T J; Dreyer, Austin P

2011-04-01

60

AquaPathogen X--A template database for tracking field isolates of aquatic pathogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

AquaPathogen X is a template database for recording information on individual isolates of aquatic pathogens and is available for download from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) website (http://wfrc.usgs.gov). This template database can accommodate the nucleotide sequence data generated in molecular epidemiological studies along with the myriad of abiotic and biotic traits associated with isolates of various pathogens (for example, viruses, parasites, or bacteria) from multiple aquatic animal host species (for example, fish, shellfish, or shrimp). The simultaneous cataloging of isolates from different aquatic pathogens is a unique feature to the AquaPathogen X database, which can be used in surveillance of emerging aquatic animal diseases and clarification of main risk factors associated with pathogen incursions into new water systems. As a template database, the data fields are empty upon download and can be modified to user specifications. For example, an application of the template database that stores the epidemiological profiles of fish virus isolates, called Fish ViroTrak (fig. 1), was also developed (Emmenegger and others, 2011).

Emmenegger, Evi; Kurath, Gael

2012-01-01

61

Device Isolation in Hybrid Field-Effect Transistors by Semiconductor Micropatterning Using Picosecond Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solid-state picosecond laser is used to ablate semiconductor thin films in spatially localized areas, providing an alternative to device isolation strategies based on chemical or ion etching techniques. Field-effect transistors (FETs) of emerging organic and inorganic materials often utilize a continuous semiconductor film and an array of top-contact electrodes. Electrically isolating individual FET components from other circuit elements is essential in order to reduce parasitic capacitances and unwanted current pathways, both to improve device performance and to enable the observation of new or enhanced physical phenomena. We pattern FET arrays with ultrafast-pulse-duration (1.5 ps) and low-fluence (0.09 J cm-2) optical pulses using the fundamental wavelength (1030 nm) of an Yb-YAG laser. We investigate two representative semiconductor materials. First, zinc oxide (ZnO) is deposited onto Si /SiO2 substrates by sol-gel methods and used to create n-channel FETs with aluminum top electrodes. Isolation of individual FETs enables the clear observation of photomodulation of the FET device parameters via photoinduced electron donation from an adsorbed chromophore. The second system comprises thin-film bilayers of tellurium and organic semiconductor molecules sequentially vapor-deposited onto Si /SiO2 substrates, with gold electrodes deposited last. Charge carrier mobility is maintained for devices isolated by picosecond lasers, but leakage currents through the FET dielectric are drastically reduced.

Ireland, Robert M.; Liu, Yu; Spalenka, Josef W.; Jaiswal, Supriya; Fukumitsu, Kenshi; Oishi, Shingo; Saito, Hiroshi; Ryosuke, Mochizuki; Evans, Paul G.; Katz, Howard E.

2014-10-01

62

Modelling of isolated radio pulsars and magnetars on the fossil field hypothesis  

E-print Network

We explore the hypothesis that the magnetic fields of neutron stars are of fossil origin. For parametrised models of the distribution of magnetic flux on the Main Sequence and of the birth spin period of the neutron stars, we calculate the expected properties of isolated radio pulsars in the Galaxy using as our starting point the initial mass function and star formation rate as a function of galacto-centric radius. We then use the 1374 MHz Parkes Multi-Beam Survey of isolated radio pulsars to constrain the parameters in our model and to deduce the required distribution of magnetic fields on the main sequence. We find agreement with observations for a model with a star formation rate that corresponds to a supernova rate of 2 per century in the Galaxy from stars with masses in the range 8 - 45 solar masses and predict 447,000 active pulsars in the Galaxy with luminosities greater than 0.19 mJy kpc^2. The progenitor OB stars have a field distribution which peaks near 46 Gauss with about 8 percent of stars having fields in excess of 1,000 Gauss. The higher field progenitors yield a population of 24 neutron stars with fields in excess of 10^14 Gauss, periods ranging from 5 to 12 seconds, and ages of up to 100,000 years, which we identify as the dominant component of the magnetars. We also predict that high field neutron stars (log B>13.5) originate preferentially from higher mass progenitors and have a mean mass of 1.6 solar masses, which is significantly above the mean mass of 1.4 solar masses calculated for the overall population of radio pulsars.

Lilia Ferrario; Dayal Wickramasinghe

2006-01-12

63

Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

Mba, Caroline C.

1994-03-01

64

A multiplex RT-PCR assay for rapid and differential diagnosis of four porcine diarrhea associated viruses in field samples from pig farms in East China from 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

Since October 2010, clinical outbreaks of diarrhea in suckling piglets have reemerged in pig-producing areas of China, causing an acute increase in the morbidity and mortality in young piglets. Four viruses, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine group A rotaviruses (GAR), and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), are the major causative agents of enteric disease in piglets. A novel multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed for simultaneous detection of the four viruses in field samples from piglets. A mixture of four previously published pairs of primers were used for amplification of viral gene, yielding four different amplicons with sizes of 481 bp for PCV2, 651 bp for PEDV, 859 bp for TGEV, and 309 bp for GAR, respectively. The sensitivity of the mRT-PCR using plasmids containing the specific viral target fragments was 2.17 × 10(3), 2.1 × 10(3), 1.74 × 10(4) and 1.26 × 10(4)copies for the four viruses, respectively. A total of 378 field samples were collected from suckling piglets with diarrhea in East China from October 2010 to December 2012, and detected by mRT-PCR. The PEDV-positive rates of the three years were 69.2%, 62.8% and 54.9%, respectively, suggesting that PEDV was a major pathogen in these diarrheal outbreaks. Taken together, all data indicated that this mRT-PCR assay was a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection method for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of porcine diarrhea associated viruses. PMID:23988656

Zhao, Jin; Shi, Bao-jun; Huang, Xiao-guo; Peng, Ming-yi; Zhang, Xiao-min; He, Dan-ni; Pang, Ran; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Pu-yan

2013-12-01

65

Generation of isolated sub-10-attosecond pulses in spatially inhomogenous two-color fields.  

PubMed

We present a theoretical investigation of high-order harmonic generation in spatially inhomogeneous two-color laser fields by solving three dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equation. The cutoff in the harmonic spectra can be significantly extended by means of our proposed method (i.e., from helium interacting with the plasmon-enhanced two-color laser fields), and an ultrabroad supercontinuum up to 1.5 keV is generated by selecting proper carrier-envelope phase of the controlling field. Moreover, classical trajectory extraction, time-dependent ionization and recombination rates, and time-frequency analyses are used to explain the generation of this ultrabroadband supercontinuum. As a result, an isolated 8.8 attosecond pulse can be generated directly by the superposition of the supercontinuum harmonics. PMID:25401647

Cao, Xu; Jiang, Shicheng; Yu, Chao; Wang, Yunhui; Bai, Lihua; Lu, Ruifeng

2014-10-20

66

Induction of avirulence by AVR-Pita1 in virulent U.S. field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The AVR-Pita1 gene, from the Chinese isolate O-137 of Magnaporthe oryzae, is an effector that determines the efficacy of the Pi-ta rice blast resistance gene. In the present study, the avirulence function of AVR-Pita1 was induced by transformation of field isolates (TM2, ZN19, B2 and B8) that origin...

67

Induction of avirulence in U.S. virulent field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae by AVR-Pita 1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The AVR-Pita1 gene, from the Chinese isolate O-137 of Magnaporthe oryzae, is an effector that determines the efficacy of the Pi-ta rice blast resistance gene. In the present study, the avirulence function of AVR-Pita1 was induced in field isolates (TM2, ZN19, B2 and B8) that originally were virule...

68

Nanoscale Stress Field Evaluation with Shallow Trench Isolation Structure Assessed by Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Finite Element Method Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress engineering related to the LSI process is required. With shallow trench isolation (STI) structures, a high stress field causes a variation in electrical characteristics. Although stress fields in a Si substrate can be detected by Raman spectroscopy, no effective technique has been reported for the measurement of nanoscale stress fields in a dielectric material used for STI filling. Recently,

Masako Kodera; Tadashi Iguchi; Norihiko Tsuchiya; Mizuki Tamura; Shigeru Kakinuma; Nobuyuki Naka; Shinsuke Kashiwagi

2008-01-01

69

Field isolation for GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with boron ion implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the investigation of boron ion implantation as a device field isolation process for GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. In the mesa isolation region of a bar-type MOSFET, a parasitic MOS-channel existed and widened the designed channel width, which would result in an overestimated mobility compared with a ring-type MOSFET. After boron ions implantation in the isolation region, the overestimation of field-effect mobility of bar-type MOSFETs was eliminated. The sub-threshold characteristics and on-state drain current of the bar-type MOSFETs coincide with the ring-type devices. Long-channel ring-type MOSFETs, with and without ion implantation, were fabricated on the recess region to evaluate the sub-threshold characteristics. The MOSFETs with boron ions implanted into the recess region showed a low drain current up to the gate bias of 10V. The result indicated that boron ion implantation prevented the formation of parasitic MOS-channel in the isolation region and achieved field isolation. The current-voltage characteristics of MOSFETs with the normal recess condition demonstrated no degradation of device performance after boron ions implanted into the isolation region. Boron ion implantation by further optimization can be a field isolation method for GaN MOSFETs.

Jiang, Y.; Wang, Q. P.; Tamai, K.; Li, L. A.; Shinkai, S.; Miyashita, T.; Motoyama, S.-I.; Wang, D. J.; Ao, J.-P.; Ohno, Y.

2014-05-01

70

Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Myanmar  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) and MSP-2 of Plasmodium falciparum are potential vaccine candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development. However, extensive genetic polymorphism of the antigens in field isolates of P. falciparum represents a major obstacle for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, genetic polymorphism of MSP-1 and MSP-2 among P. falciparum field isolates from Myanmar was

Jung-Mi Kang; Sung-Ung Moon; Jung-Yeon Kim; Shin-Hyeong Cho; Khin Lin; Woon-Mok Sohn; Tong-Soo Kim; Byoung-Kuk Na

2010-01-01

71

Breakdown characteristics of an isolated conducting object in a uniform electric field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physical processes involved in the electrical breakdown of a particular spark gap arrangement. The gap consists of an isolated conducting ellipsoid located midway between two large flat electrodes. Gradual increase of the applied electric field, E, in the gap produces corona on the ellipsoid tips followed by flashover in a leader-arc sequence. The leader phase consists of the abrupt formation of ionized channels which partially bridge the gap and then decay prior to the arc. Measurements of dE/dt and of current were made, and photographs were taken with an image converter. Experimental parameters are listed.

Grothaus, M. G.; Trost, T. F.

1986-01-01

72

Comparison of Haemophilus parasuis reference strains and field isolates by using random amplified polymorphic DNA and protein profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer’s disease and is a pathogen of swine in high-health status herds. Reports on serotyping of field strains from outbreaks describe that approximately 30% of them are nontypeable and therefore cannot be traced. Molecular typing methods have been used as alternatives to serotyping. This study was done to compare random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles and whole cell protein (WCP) lysate profiles as methods for distinguishing H. parasuis reference strains and field isolates. Results The DNA and WCP lysate profiles of 15 reference strains and 31 field isolates of H. parasuis were analyzed using the Dice and neighbor joining algorithms. The results revealed unique and reproducible DNA and protein profiles among the reference strains and field isolates studied. Simpson’s index of diversity showed significant discrimination between isolates when three 10mer primers were combined for the RAPD method and also when both the RAPD and WCP lysate typing methods were combined. Conclusions The RAPD profiles seen among the reference strains and field isolates did not appear to change over time which may reflect a lack of DNA mutations in the genes of the samples. The recent field isolates had different WCP lysate profiles than the reference strains, possibly because the number of passages of the type strains may affect their protein expression. PMID:22703293

2012-01-01

73

Epitope analysis of capsid and matrix proteins of North American ovine lentivirus field isolates.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against two phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus (OvLV) strains were generated by fusion of BALB/c SP2/0-Ag 14 myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with purified OvLV. Hybridomas were selected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analysis of reactivity on immunoblots. The majority (17 of 21) of the MAbs recognized the gag-encoded capsid protein, CA p27, of both strains. Four other MAbs recognized a smaller structural protein, presumably a matrix protein, MA p17. Three distinct epitopes on CA p27 and one on MA p17 were distinguished by the MAbs with competition ELISA. MAbs from each epitope group were able to recognize 17 North American field isolates of OvLV and the closely related caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Analysis of the data indicated that these epitopes were highly conserved among naturally occurring isolates. A representative MAb from each epitope group of anti-CA p27 MAbs reacted with four field strains of OvLV and CAEV on immunoblots. An anti-MA p17 MAb recognized the same OvLV strains on immunoblots but failed to recognize CAEV. MAbs which recognize conserved epitopes of gag-encoded lentivirus proteins (CA p27 and MA p17) are valuable tools. These MAbs can be used to develop sensitive diagnostic assays and to study the pathogenesis of lentivirus infections in sheep and goats. Images PMID:1715884

Marcom, K A; Pearson, L D; Chung, C S; Poulson, J M; DeMartini, J C

1991-01-01

74

Sulfur oxidation in rice field soil: activity, enumeration, isolation and characterization of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

In rice paddy fields the bulk soil is anoxic, but oxygenated zones occur in the surrounding of the rice roots to where oxygen is transported via the aerenchyma system of the rice plants. In the anaerobic soil compartments sulfate is consumed by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the rhizosphere the reduced sulfur compounds can be reoxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Measurements of the potential activity of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria in soil slurries derived from planted rice soil microcosms showed turnover rates of 2-6 mumol d-1 g-dw-1. Thiosulfate was oxidized to sulfate with tetrathionate as intermediate. Most probable number (MPN) enumeration with three aerobic media and one anaerobic nitrate-amended medium showed that thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria were abundant in paddy soil and in rhizosphere soil at numbers of 10(5) to 10(6) per gram dry weight soil. Nine isolates of S-oxidizing bacteria were obtained from enrichment cultures or from the highest dilutions of the MPN series and were affiliated to four different phylogenetic groups. These isolates were characterized by physiological properties and by comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Three isolates (TA1-AE1, TA1-A1 and TA12-21) were shown to be facultatively chemolithoautotrophic strains of Ancylobacter aquaticus. Three further isolates (Tv6-2b, Z2A-6A and Z4A-2A) were also facultatively chemolithoautotrophic and were affiliated with the Xanthobacter sp. group, probably representing new strains of X. flavus or X. tagetidis. Strain SZ-2111 was phylogenetically related to Bosea thiooxidans. However, the genus Bosea is described as obligately heterotrophic, whereas strain 5Z-2111 was able to grow autotrophically. The isolates 5Z-C1 and TBW3 were obligate chemolithoautotrophs and were closely affiliated with Thiobacillus thioparus. Our results showed that S-oxidizing bacteria were abundant and active in rice paddy soil and consisted of physiologically and phylogenetically diverse populations. PMID:9924825

Stubner, S; Wind, T; Conrad, R

1998-12-01

75

Relationship between clinical manifestations and pulsed-field gel profiles of Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Little is known regarding the degree of genotypic relatedness between Streptococcus canis isolates from dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether correlations existed between the genotypes of canine and feline S. canis isolates as determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and different clinical manifestations of disease. Eighty-two isolates of S. canis were examined that had been collected from dogs and cats presenting to the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) between 1998 and 2005. Associated clinical manifestations included sepsis, otitis, pyometra, skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis, respiratory disease, and urinary tract infections. In addition, 9 feline isolates from a southern California shelter that experienced an outbreak of S. canis infection manifesting as necrotizing fasciitis and death were examined. Bacterial isolates were characterized by PFGE analysis using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The relationships between banding patterns were analyzed using gel analysis software combined with visual interpretation. The feline shelter isolates of S. canis were 99% similar in bacterial PFGE profile. The remainder of samples had less than 80% similarity in PFGE banding patterns. The relatedness of the PFGE profile in the feline shelter isolates suggested a clonal origin. In the isolates from the VMTH population, there was no relationship between specific disease manifestations and PFGE profile. PFGE typing does not appear to be useful for identifying isolates associated with specific disease presentations; however may be more useful to identify outbreaks of S. canis infections or to detect clonal populations in outbreaks. PMID:20605376

Kruger, E Freya; Byrne, Barbara A; Pesavento, Patricia; Hurley, Kate F; Lindsay, Leanne L; Sykes, Jane E

2010-11-20

76

Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for each) were examined for chlorhexidine digluconate effects on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. In all of the examined strains in the presence of chlorhexidine digluconate, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of the disinfectant. Results: Chlorhexidine digluconate inhibited the planktonic growth of different bacterial species at sub-MICs. But they were able to induce biofilm development of the E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and Str. agalactiae strains. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against chlorhexidine is increasing. Sub-MIC doses of chlorhexidine digluconate can stimulate the formation of biofilm strains. PMID:24872940

Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

2014-01-01

77

Comparative complete genome analysis of Indian type A foot-and-mouth disease virus field isolates.  

PubMed

Comparative complete genome analysis of 17 serotype A Indian field isolates representing different genotypes and sub-lineages is presented in this report. Overall 79% of amino acids were invariant in the coding region. Chunk deletion of nucleotide was observed in S and L fragment of 5'-UTR. More variability which is comparable to that of capsid coding region was found in L and 3A region. Functional motifs and residues critical for virus biology were conserved most. Polyprotein cleavage sites accepted few changes. Many sites were detected to be under positive selection in L, P1, 2C, 3A, 3C, and 3D region and of which some are functionally important and antigenically critical. Genotype/lineage specific signature residues could be identified which implies evolution under different selection pressure. Transmembrane domain could be predicted in 2B, 2C, 3A, and 3C proteins in agreement with their membrane binding properties. Phylogenetic analysis at complete coding region placed the isolates in genotype IV, VI, and VII and two broad clusters comprising VP3(59)-deletion and non-deletion group within genotypes VII. The VP3(59)-deletion group has diversified genetically with time giving rise to three lineages. Incongruence in tree topology observed for different non structural protein coding region and UTRs-based phylogeny indicate suspected recombination. PMID:21604149

Subramaniam, Saravanan; Sanyal, Aniket; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Hemadri, Divakar; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

2011-10-01

78

Epilithonimonas ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated DCY78(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Yeon-cheon province (38° 04' 00? N 126° 57' 00? E), Republic of Korea. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DCY78(T) belonged to the genus Epilithonimonas and was most closely related to Epilithonimonas lactis DSM 19921(T) (98.5?% sequence similarity) and Epilithonimonas tenax DSM 16811(T) (97.8?%). Growth occurred at 10-30 °C with an optimum temperature of 28 °C. The pH range for growth was pH 5.5-8.0. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine three unidentified amino lipids and one unidentified polar lipid. The only predominant quinone was MK-6. The major polyamines were sym-homospermidine and spermidine. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic analysis, the isolate is classified as representative of a novel species in the genus Epilithonimonas, for which the name Epilithonimonas ginsengisoli is proposed. The type strain is DCY78(T) (?=?KCTC 32174(T)?=?JCM 19896(T)). PMID:25298379

Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Ponnuraj, Shree Priya; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Hwang, Kyu-Hyon; Yang, Deok-Chun

2015-01-01

79

Comparison of visually evoked local field potentials in isolated turtle brain: patterned versus blank stimulation.  

PubMed

Isolated turtle brain/eye preparation has recently been used as a bloodless animal model for detecting the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes produced by visually evoked neuronal currents. The present work aims to determine whether checkerboard-patterned or full field flash (blank) stimulation should be used in order to achieve stronger neuronal responses in turtle brain/eye preparation. The knowledge gained in this study is essential for optimizing the visual stimulation methods in functional neuroimaging studies using turtle brain/eye preparation. In this study, visually evoked local field potentials (LFPs) were measured and compared in turtle visual cortex and optic tectum elicited by checkerboard and full field flash stimuli with three different inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs=5, 10, and 16s). It was found that the behavior of neuronal adaptation in the cortical and tectal LFP signals for checkerboard stimulation was comparable to flash stimulation. In addition, there was no significant difference in the LFP peak amplitudes (ISI=16s) between these two stimuli. These results indicate that the intensity of neuronal responses to checkerboard is comparable to flash stimulation. These two stimulation methods should be equivalent in functional neuroimaging studies using turtle brain/eye preparation. PMID:20034520

Luo, Qingfei; Lu, Huo; Lu, Hanbing; Yang, Yihong; Gao, Jia-Hong

2010-03-15

80

A Phase-Field Model for the Diffusive Melting of Isolated Dendritic Fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal phase-field model constructed in the "thin-interface" limit and incorporating a number of advanced numerical techniques such as adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time stepping, and a multigrid solver has been used to study the isolated diffusive melting of dendritic fragments. The results of the simulations are found to be fully consistent with the experimental observation of such melting in microgravity during the Isothermal Dendrite Growth Experiment. It is found that the rate at which the ratio of semi-major to semi-minor axes changes is a function of the melt Stefan number, which may help explain why both melting at (approximately) constant ratio and melting at slowly increasing ratio have been observed.

Mullis, Andrew M.

2014-06-01

81

Isolated horizons, p-form matter fields, topology, and the black-hole/string correspondence principle  

SciTech Connect

We study the mechanics of D-dimensional isolated horizons (IHs) for Einstein gravity in the presence of arbitrary p-form matter fields. This generalizes the analysis of Copsey and Horowitz to nonstationary spacetimes and therefore the local first law in D>4 dimensions to include nonmonopolar (dipole) charges. The only requirement for the local first law to hold is that the action has to be differentiable. The resulting conserved charges are all intrinsic to the horizon and are independent of the topology of the horizon cross sections. We explicitly calculate the local charges for five-dimensional black holes and black rings that are relevant within the context of superstring theory. We conclude with some comments on the black-hole/string correspondence principle and argue that IHs (or some other quasilocal variant) should play a fundamental role in superstring theory.

Liko, Tomas [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2009-04-15

82

Attosecond Lighthouses: How To Use Spatiotemporally Coupled Light Fields To Generate Isolated Attosecond Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the effect of even simple optical components, the spatial properties of femtosecond laser beams can vary over the duration of the light pulse. We show how using such spatiotemporally coupled light fields in high harmonic generation experiments (e.g., in gases or dense plasmas) enables the production of attosecond lighthouses, i.e., sources emitting a collection of angularly well-separated light beams, each consisting of an isolated attosecond pulse. This general effect opens the way to a new generation of light sources, particularly suitable for attosecond pump-probe experiments, and provides a new tool for ultrafast metrology, for instance, giving direct access to fluctuations of the carrier-envelope relative phase of even the most intense ultrashort lasers.

Vincenti, H.; Quéré, F.

2012-03-01

83

De novo assembly of a field isolate genome reveals novel Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte invasion genes.  

PubMed

Recent sequencing of Plasmodium vivax field isolates and monkey-adapted strains enabled characterization of SNPs throughout the genome. These analyses relied on mapping short reads onto the P. vivax reference genome that was generated using DNA from the monkey-adapted strain Salvador I. Any genomic locus deleted in this strain would be lacking in the reference genome sequence and missed in previous analyses. Here, we report de novo assembly of a P. vivax field isolate genome. Out of 2,857 assembled contigs, we identify 362 contigs, each containing more than 5 kb of contiguous DNA sequences absent from the reference genome sequence. These novel P. vivax DNA sequences account for 3.8 million nucleotides and contain 792 predicted genes. Most of these contigs contain members of multigene families and likely originate from telomeric regions. Interestingly, we identify two contigs containing predicted protein coding genes similar to known Plasmodium red blood cell invasion proteins. One gene encodes the reticulocyte-binding protein gene orthologous to P. cynomolgi RBP2e and P. knowlesi NBPXb. The second gene harbors all the hallmarks of a Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding protein, including conserved Duffy-binding like and C-terminus cysteine-rich domains. Phylogenetic analysis shows that this novel gene clusters separately from all known Plasmodium Duffy-binding protein genes. Additional analyses showing that this gene is present in most P. vivax genomes and transcribed in blood-stage parasites suggest that P. vivax red blood cell invasion mechanisms may be more complex than currently understood. The strategy employed here complements previous genomic analyses and takes full advantage of next-generation sequencing data to provide a comprehensive characterization of genetic variations in this important malaria parasite. Further analyses of the novel protein coding genes discovered through de novo assembly have the potential to identify genes that influence key aspects of P. vivax biology, including alternative mechanisms of human erythrocyte invasion. PMID:24340114

Hester, James; Chan, Ernest R; Menard, Didier; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Barnwell, John; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

2013-01-01

84

De Novo Assembly of a Field Isolate Genome Reveals Novel Plasmodium vivax Erythrocyte Invasion Genes  

PubMed Central

Recent sequencing of Plasmodium vivax field isolates and monkey-adapted strains enabled characterization of SNPs throughout the genome. These analyses relied on mapping short reads onto the P. vivax reference genome that was generated using DNA from the monkey-adapted strain Salvador I. Any genomic locus deleted in this strain would be lacking in the reference genome sequence and missed in previous analyses. Here, we report de novo assembly of a P. vivax field isolate genome. Out of 2,857 assembled contigs, we identify 362 contigs, each containing more than 5 kb of contiguous DNA sequences absent from the reference genome sequence. These novel P. vivax DNA sequences account for 3.8 million nucleotides and contain 792 predicted genes. Most of these contigs contain members of multigene families and likely originate from telomeric regions. Interestingly, we identify two contigs containing predicted protein coding genes similar to known Plasmodium red blood cell invasion proteins. One gene encodes the reticulocyte-binding protein gene orthologous to P. cynomolgi RBP2e and P. knowlesi NBPXb. The second gene harbors all the hallmarks of a Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding protein, including conserved Duffy-binding like and C-terminus cysteine-rich domains. Phylogenetic analysis shows that this novel gene clusters separately from all known Plasmodium Duffy-binding protein genes. Additional analyses showing that this gene is present in most P. vivax genomes and transcribed in blood-stage parasites suggest that P. vivax red blood cell invasion mechanisms may be more complex than currently understood. The strategy employed here complements previous genomic analyses and takes full advantage of next-generation sequencing data to provide a comprehensive characterization of genetic variations in this important malaria parasite. Further analyses of the novel protein coding genes discovered through de novo assembly have the potential to identify genes that influence key aspects of P. vivax biology, including alternative mechanisms of human erythrocyte invasion. PMID:24340114

Hester, James; Chan, Ernest R.; Menard, Didier; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Barnwell, John; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David

2013-01-01

85

Integrative conjugative elements are widespread in field isolates of Mycoplasma species pathogenic for ruminants.  

PubMed

Comparative genomics have revealed massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between Mycoplasma species sharing common ruminant hosts. Further results pointed toward an integrative conjugative element (ICE) as an important contributor of HGT in the small-ruminant-pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae. To estimate the prevalence of ICEs in ruminant mycoplasmas, we surveyed their occurrence in a collection of 166 field strains representing 4 (sub)species that are recognized as major pathogens. Based on available sequenced genomes, we first defined the conserved, minimal ICE backbone as composed of 4 coding sequences (CDSs) that are evenly distributed and predicted to be essential for ICE chromosomal integration-excision and horizontal transfer. Screening of the strain collection revealed that these 4 CDSs are well represented in ruminant Mycoplasma species, suggesting widespread occurrence of ICEs. Yet their prevalence varies within and among species, with no correlation found with the individual strain history. Extrachromosomal ICE forms were also often detected, suggesting that ICEs are able to circularize in all species, a first and essential step in ICE horizontal transfer. Examination of the junction of the circular forms and comparative sequence analysis of conserved CDSs clearly pointed toward two types of ICE, the hominis and spiroplasma types, most likely differing in their mechanism of excision-integration. Overall, our data indicate the occurrence and maintenance of functional ICEs in a large number of field isolates of ruminant mycoplasmas. These may contribute to genome plasticity and gene exchanges and, presumably, to the emergence of diverse genotypes within pathogenic mycoplasmas of veterinary importance. PMID:25527550

Tardy, Florence; Mick, Virginie; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Marenda, Marc Serge; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Blanchard, Alain; Citti, Christine

2015-03-01

86

Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from South America Use an Atypical Red Blood Cell Invasion Pathway Associated with Invasion Ligand Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple one size fits all type of vaccine. PMID:23118907

Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L. D.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Blair, Silvia; Gamboa, Dionicia; Lustigman, Sara

2012-01-01

87

Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Dogs by Use of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis ?  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Risk of Campylobacter infection in humans has been associated with many sources, including dogs. This study aimed to investigate whether C. jejuni carried by dogs could potentially be a zoonotic risk for humans and if there were common sources of C. jejuni infection for both humans and dogs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA using SmaI and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were both used to analyze 33 C. jejuni isolates obtained from various dog populations, including those visiting veterinary practices and from different types of kennels. MLST data suggested that there was a large amount of genetic diversity between dog isolates and that the majority of sequence types found in isolates from these dogs were the same as those found in isolates from humans. The main exception was ST-2772, which was isolated from four samples and could not be assigned to a clonal complex. The most commonly identified clonal complex was ST-45 (11 isolates), followed by ST-21 (4 isolates), ST-508 (4 isolates), and ST-403 (3 isolates). The profiles obtained by macrorestriction PFGE were largely in concordance with the MLST results, with a similar amount of genetic diversity found. The diversity of sequence types found within dogs suggests they are exposed to various sources of C. jejuni infection. The similarity of these sequence types to C. jejuni isolates from humans suggests there may be common sources of infection for both dogs and humans. Although only a small number of household dogs may carry C. jejuni, infected dogs should still be considered a potential zoonotic risk to humans, particularly if the dogs originate from kennelled or hunt kennel dog populations, where the prevalence may be higher. PMID:19794053

Parsons, B. N.; Cody, A. J.; Porter, C. J.; Stavisky, J. H.; Smith, J. L.; Williams, N. J.; Leatherbarrow, A. J. H.; Hart, C. A.; Gaskell, R. M.; Dingle, K. E.; Dawson, S.

2009-01-01

88

[Investigation of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis isolates by plasmid profile analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis].  

PubMed

In this study a total of 122 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis stock strains selected from the culture collection of Enterobacteriaceae Laboratory of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, were investigated by plasmid profile analysis with the method defined by Kado and Liu and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) according to World Health Organization protocols using SpeI and XbaI macrorestriction enzymes, for better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of S. Enteritidis. The study strains were selected from a collection of previously isolated epidemic (n= 13) and sporadic (n= 109) strains (103 stool, 16 blood and one each bile, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) obtained from 10 different cities after the year 2000. PFGE patterns were analyzed with Gene Directory software (Syngene, UK) and a similarity index was determined by using Dice coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with mathematical averaging (UPGMA). Plasmid-carrying 110 (90%) strains that harbored 1-4 plasmids with sizes ranging from 2.0 to 100 kb were separated into patterns more than 14 (p1-p14). A total of 85 (69.7%) isolates harbored the 57 kb plasmid solely or in combination with other plasmids. By PFGE, 11 distinct patterns were shown with each enzyme SpeI and XbaI. S. Enteritidis strains after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI generated 11 different PFGE patterns (A to K), whereas XbaI generated also 11 different PFGE patterns (a to k). PFGE pattern A consisted of 93 strains (76.2%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI, while PFGE pattern a consisted 53 (43.4%) and PFGE pattern b 42 strains (34.4%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme XbaI. Using two macrorestriction enzymes two PFGE cluster profiles Aa (50 strains, 40.9%) and Ab (42 strains, 34.4%) were found to be predominating among 17 different PFGE clusters. Our results confirmed the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis strains in Turkey. The use of two enzymes in PFGE analysis appeared to increase the discriminatory power of PFGE, leading to greater diversity among strains. PFGE analysis performed by SpeI and XbaI enzymes combined with plasmid profiling could be established as a useful tool for detection of genetic relationship between isolates. PMID:21644064

Us, Ebru; Erdem, Birsel; Tekeli, Alper; Gerçeker, Devran; Saran, Begüm; Bayramova, Mehseti; Sahin, Fikret

2011-04-01

89

Improved protocol for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat and use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for the typing of isolates.  

PubMed

To improve the detection of Campylobacter spp. in retail broiler meat, a reference method (R subsamples) based on the enrichment of 25 g of meat in Bolton broth at 42°C under microaerobiosis was compared with an alternative method (A subsamples) consisting in the rinsing of meat samples for 30s in buffered peptone water with antimicrobials with incubation at 42°C under aerobiosis. One piece of meat (breasts, tenderloins and thighs) was rinse in experiment 1 (A1) and two pieces in experiment 2 (A2). Campylobacter spp. were isolated on agar plates and identified by PCR. Retail samples in Alabama had less prevalence (P ? 0.05) than samples in the state of Washington. The percentage of positive was higher (P ? 0.05) in A than in R subsamples and rinsing two pieces of meat yielded the highest percentage of positive subsamples. R subsamples showed variations in the prevalence by product. However, A subsamples had similar prevalence of positives among products compare to the result from reference method. More Campylobacter coli isolates were collected in A2 subsamples. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used as subtyping method to study the genome similarity among the isolates from all methods. A larger diversity of isolates were detected by PFGE in A2 subsamples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested that the initial bacterial populations of the meat samples impact the final bacterial profile after enrichment. Rinsing broiler meats was less time consuming, required less sample preparation and was more sensitive than the reference method for the isolation of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. This new method could help with epidemiological and intervention studies to control Campylobacter spp. PMID:23545445

Oyarzabal, Omar A; Williams, Aretha; Zhou, Ping; Samadpour, Mansour

2013-10-01

90

Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food and humans in Italy by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type 90 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from clinical cases and from meat products in Italy in the period 1987–95. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the genetic profiles to determine the existence of predominant clones and to evaluate their association with the sporadic cases of listeriosis reported in recent

M Gianfranceschi; M Pourshaban; A Gattuso; C Wedell-Neergaard; P Aureli

2002-01-01

91

Size effects on switching field of isolated and interactive arrays of nanoscale single-domain Ni bars fabricated using  

E-print Network

Size effects on switching field of isolated and interactive arrays of nanoscale single-domain Ni bars fabricated using electron-beam nanolithography Mark S. Wei and Stephen Y. Chou Department magneticstateof bars with a width smallerthan 150nm wassingledomainandotherwisemultidomain.It alsoshowedthat

92

Studies on the bacteria isolated anaerobically from paddy field soil III. Production of fatty acids and ammonia by Clostridium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile fatty acids produced by the representative strains of clostridia isolated from paddy field soil were surveyed. All the strains, except Cl. tertium, utilized only amino acids as the sole source of energy for growth. All of them produced acetic and butyric acids, and some of them produced propionic acid in addition. Iso-valeric and iso-butyric acids were also produced,

Kiyoshi Takeda; Choseki Furusaka

1975-01-01

93

Understanding the molecular mechanism of instability of the avirulence gene AVR-Pita1 in field isolates of Maganporthe oryzae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The avirulence gene AVR-Pita1 in Magnaporthe oryzae triggers a resistance response in rice plants that contain the resistance gene Pi-ta. Understanding the evolution of the AVR-Pita1 gene in field isolates should benefit the deployment of Pi-ta for the control of rice blast disease. A total of 187 f...

94

Co-transmission of the non-transmissible South African Babesia bovis S24 vaccine strain during mixed infection with a field isolate.  

PubMed

The South African Babesia bovis live blood vaccine, originating from a field isolate attenuated by 23 serial syringe passages in splenectomized calves, has lost the ability to infect the natural vector Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. In this study, infection with mixed parasites from the vaccine strain and a field isolate, resulted in transmission of both genotype populations. Comparing the field isolate and transmitted combination indicated no significant difference in their virulence, while challenge of vaccinated cattle with these isolates showed the ability of the vaccine to protect against both. Limiting dilution of the transmitted combination, followed by infection of splenectomized cattle (n=34) yielded no single infections for the vaccine strain genotype, seven clonal lines of the field isolate and one mixture of vaccine strain and field isolate. Only one of two field isolate clonal lines selected for vector transmission study was transmitted. Showing that B. bovis isolates can contain both tick transmissible and non-transmissible subpopulations. The findings of this study also indicate the probability of vaccine co-infection transmission occurring in the field, which may result in new genotype populations of B. bovis. However, the impact of this recombination with field isolates is considered negligible since a genotypically diverse population of B. bovis is already present in South Africa. PMID:25544307

Combrink, M P; Troskie, P C; de Klerk, D G; Pienaar, R; Latif, A A; Mans, B J

2015-03-01

95

Biodegradation of buprofezin by Rhodococcus sp. strain YL-1 isolated from rice field soil.  

PubMed

A buprofezin-degrading bacterium, YL-1, was isolated from rice field soil. YL-1 was identified as Rhodococcus sp. on the basis of the comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The strain could use buprofezin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth and was able to degrade 92.4% of 50 mg L(-1) buprofezin within 48 h in liquid culture. During the degradation of buprofezin, four possible metabolites, 2-tert-butylimino-3-isopropyl-1,3,5-thiadiazinan-4-one, N-tert-butyl-thioformimidic acid formylaminomethyl ester, 2-isothiocyanato-2-methyl-propane, and 2-isothiocyanato-propane, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was strongly induced during the degradation of buprofezin. A novel microbial biodegradation pathway for buprofezin was proposed on the basis of these metabolites. The inoculation of soils treated with buprofezin with strain YL-1 resulted in a higher degradation rate than that observed in noninoculated soils, indicating that strain YL-1 has the potential to be used in the bioremediation of buprofezin-contaminated environments. PMID:22335821

Li, Chao; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Zhi-Guo; Cao, Li; Yan, Xin; Li, Shun-Peng

2012-03-14

96

Paludibacter jiangxiensis sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, propionate-producing bacterium isolated from rice paddy field.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, propionate-producing fermentative bacterium, designated strain NM7(T), was isolated from rural rice paddy field. Cells of strain NM7(T) are Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rods, and negative for catalase. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (the range for growth 15-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 5.0-7.5). The strain could grow fermentatively on various sugars, including arabinose, xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, pectin and starch. The main end products of glucose fermentation were acetate and propionate. Yeast extract was not required but stimulated the growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, and Fe(III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 42.8 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and C17:0. The most abundant polar lipid of strain NM7(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it belongs to the family Porphyromonadaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The closest recognized species was Paludibacter propionicigenes (91.4 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). A novel species, Paludibacter jiangxiensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain NM7(T) (=JCM 17480(T) = CGMCC 1.5150(T) = KCTC 5844(T)). PMID:24419224

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Kuang, Xiao-Zhu; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Guo, Rong-Bo

2014-03-01

97

Arthrobacter ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, non-flagellate and rod-shaped bacterium, was designated as DCY81(T), and isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon province, Republic of Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DCY81(T) belonged to the genus Arthrobacter. Major fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0, while major polar lipids were diphosphatidyglycerol, phatidyglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (GL1), and dimannosyldiacylglycerol (GL2). The dominant quinone was MK-9(H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3? with an L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Thr-L-Ala interpeptide bridge. The DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain DCY81(T) and Arthrobacter siccitolerans LMG 27359(T) (98.2 %), Arthrobacter sulfonivorans JCM 13520(T) (97.81 %), Arthrobacter scleromae DSM 17756(T) (97.59 %), Arthrobacter oxydans KCTC 3383(T) (97.3 %) was 39.1 ± 0.2, 62.2 ± 1.6, 36.8 ± 1.1 and 48.3 ± 1.6 %, respectively which show that the genotypic separation of strain DCY81(T) from the closest reference strain of the genus Arthrobacter. The DNA G+C content was 65.2 mol%. The genotypic analysis, physiological, and chemotaxonomic results indicate that strain DCY81(T) represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter. Therefore, Arthrobacter ginsengisoli sp. nov., is proposed as the type strain (=KCTC 29225(T) = JCM 19357(T)). PMID:25150449

Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Huq, Md Amdadul; Yang, Deok-Chun

2014-12-01

98

Curtobacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, non-motile, pale-yellow, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain DCY26(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in South Korea and was investigated to determine its taxonomic position. The organism grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C. The G+C content of its DNA was 65.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DCY26(T) was related most closely to species of the genus Curtobacterium, in the family Microbacteriaceae. Strain DCY26(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Curtobacterium pusillum DSM 20527(T) (96.3 %), Curtobacterium luteum DSM 20542(T) (96.2 %), Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens LMG 3645(T) (96.2 %), Curtobacterium citreum DSM 20528(T) (96.1 %), Curtobacterium albidum DSM 20512(T) (96.1 %) and Curtobacterium herbarum DSM 14013(T) (95.3 %). The predominant menaquinone of strain DCY26(T) was MK-9. Other chemotaxonomic data also supported the affiliation of strain DCY26(T) to the genus Curtobacterium. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain DCY26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Curtobacterium, for which the name Curtobacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY26(T) (=KCTC 13163(T) =JCM 14773(T)). PMID:18842862

Kim, Myung Kyum; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Ho-Bin; Kim, Se-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Yang, Deok-Chun

2008-10-01

99

Purification and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulase from Bacillus sp. isolated from a paddy field.  

PubMed

A microorganism hydrolyzing carboxymethyl cellulose was isolated from a paddy field and identified as Bacillus sp. Production of cellulase by this bacterium was found to be optimal at pH 6.5, 37 degrees C and 150 rpm of shaking. This cellulase was purified to homogeneity by the combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE cellulose, and sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The cellulase was purified up to 14.5 fold and had a specific activity of 246 U/mg protein. The enzyme was a monomeric cellulase with a relative molecular mass of 58 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme exhibited its optimal activity at 50 degrees C and pH 6.0. The enzyme was stable in the pH range of 5.0 to 7.0 and its stability was maintained for 30 min at 50 degrees C and its activity got inhibited by Hg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Na2+, and Ca2+. PMID:22708346

Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Vincent, S G Prakash

2012-01-01

100

Degradation of phenanthrene by bacterial strain isolated from soil in oil refinery fields in Shanghai China.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri ZP2 was identified with phenanthrene-degrading ability based on Gram staining, oxydase reaction, biochemical tests, FAME analysis, G+C content and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. It is the first time that P. stutzeri is reported to process the capability for phenanthrene degradation. The strain was isolated from soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-containing waste from an oil refinery field in Shanghai, China. Strain P sp. ZP2 can utilize naphthalene, phenanthrene and Tween 80 as its sole carbon source and can degrade phenanthrene very fast, 6 days for 96% phenanthrene at 250 ppm concentration. The optimal growth conditions of strain ZP2 was determined to be at pH 8.0, 37 degrees C, respectively. The results also indicate that strain ZP2 can remove more than 90% of phenanthrene at any concentrations ranged from 250 to 1000 ppm in 6 days. It suggests that strain ZP2 can endure high concentrations of phenanthrene. Besides, the effects of non-ionic surfactants such as Brij 30, Triton X100 and Tween 80, on the phenanthrene degradation were examined. Therefore, this strain may find great application in bioremediation practices. PMID:18930349

Zhao, He-Ping; Wu, Qing-Sheng; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xue-Tao; Gao, Hong-Wen

2009-05-30

101

Susceptibility of GT1-7 cells to mouse-passaged field scrapie isolates with a long incubation period.  

PubMed

A typical feature of scrapie in sheep and goats is the accumulation of disease-associated prion protein. Scrapie consists of many strains with different biological properties. Nine natural sheep scrapie cases were transmitted to wild-type mice and mouse-passaged isolates were classified into two types based on incubation time: short and long. These two types displayed a distinct difference in their pathology. We attempted to transmit these mouse-passaged isolates to two murine cell lines (GT1-7 and L929) to compare their properties. All of the isolates were transmitted to L929 cells. However, only mouse-passaged field isolates with a long incubation time were transmitted to GT1-7 cells. This specific susceptibility of GT1-7 cells was also confirmed with a primary-passaged isolate that was not completely adapted to the new host species. Characterization of the mechanisms of the specific susceptibility of GT1-7 cells to isolates with a long incubation time may lead to a greater understanding of the differences among prion strains. PMID:25247400

Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

2014-08-13

102

Susceptibility of GT1-7 cells to mouse-passaged field scrapie isolates with a long incubation.  

PubMed

A typical feature of scrapie in sheep and goats is the accumulation of disease-associated prion protein. Scrapie consists of many strains with different biological properties. Nine natural sheep scrapie cases were transmitted to wild-type mice and mouse-passaged isolates were classified into 2 types based on incubation time: short and long. These 2 types displayed a distinct difference in their pathology. We attempted to transmit these mouse-passaged isolates to 2 murine cell lines (GT1-7 and L929) to compare their properties. All of the isolates were transmitted to L929 cells. However, only mouse-passaged field isolates with a long incubation time were transmitted to GT1-7 cells. This specific susceptibility of GT1-7 cells was also confirmed with a primary-passaged isolate that was not completely adapted to the new host species. Characterization of the mechanisms of the specific susceptibility of GT1-7 cells to isolates with a long incubation time may lead to a greater understanding of the differences among prion strains. PMID:25482605

Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

2014-07-01

103

Heterogeneity of molecular resistance patterns in antimony-resistant field isolates of Leishmania species from the western Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

Antimonials remain the first-line treatment for the various manifestations of leishmaniasis in most areas where the disease is endemic, and increasing cases of therapeutic failure associated with parasite resistance have been reported. In this study, we assessed the molecular status of 47 clinical isolates of Leishmania causing visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis from Algeria, Tunisia, and southern France. In total, we examined 14 genes that have been shown to exhibit significant variations in DNA amplification, mRNA levels, or protein expression with respect to resistance to antimonials. The gene status of each clinical isolate was assessed via qPCR and qRT-PCR. We then compared the molecular pattern against the phenotype determined via an in vitro sensitivity test of the clinical isolates against meglumine antimoniate, which is considered the reference technique. Our results demonstrate significant DNA amplification and/or RNA overexpression in 56% of the clinical isolates with the resistant phenotype. All clinical isolates that exhibited significant overexpression of at least 2 genes displayed a resistant phenotype. Among the 14 genes investigated, 10 genes displayed either significant amplification or overexpression in at least 1 clinical isolate; these genes are involved in several metabolic pathways. Moreover, various gene associations were observed depending on the clinical isolates, supporting the multifactorial nature of Leishmania resistance. Molecular resistance features were found in the 3 Leishmania species investigated (Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the involvement of molecular resistance genes in field isolates of Leishmania major and Leishmania killicki with the resistance phenotype. PMID:24913173

Jeddi, Fakhri; Mary, Charles; Aoun, Karim; Harrat, Zoubir; Bouratbine, Aïda; Faraut, Françoise; Benikhlef, Rezika; Pomares, Christelle; Pratlong, Francine; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

2014-08-01

104

Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site  

SciTech Connect

Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also characterizing the plasmid populations at the molecular level. Isolates cultured from the background control site exhibited the lowest occurrence of plasmids (10%). Aliquots of samples were also used in enrichment assays to isolate metal resistant subsurface isolates. Samples were subjected to three different metals (chromium, mercury and cadmium) at two different concentrations and incubated following a conditioning period in which samples were amended with a carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus source. Isolates were plated on metal selection, purified to single isolates and plasmid content determined.

Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

2004-03-17

105

Responses of broiler chickens orally challenged with Clostridium perfringens isolated from field cases of necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

The present study examines the responses of broiler chickens to oral administration of Clostridium perfringens freshly isolated from field cases of necrotic enteritis (NE). The challenge studies included long-term exposure and short-term exposure, factored in with dietary and management variables including high levels of dietary components such as fish meal, meat meal, abrupt change of feed, and fasting. In the long-term exposure trials, the birds were orally inoculated daily, with 1 ml (1.0 or 2 x 10(8) CFU/ml) of an overnight culture of C. perfringens for 7 days. Short-term exposure trials involved challenge with 1 ml (3 x 10(10) CFU/ml) administered as a single dose. The responses of broilers to orally administered C. perfingens under laboratory controlled conditions are presented and discussed in the context of authentic field cases of necrotic enteritis. None of the challenge trials produced overt clinical signs of NE and there were no mortalities associated with oral exposure to high doses of C. perfringens. However, many of the challenged birds showed distinctly pronounced pathological changes in the intestinal tissue. On gross examination the responses in birds challenged orally with C. perfringens could be placed into two categories: (1) no apparent pathological changes in the intestinal tissue and (2) sub-clinical inflammatory responses with focal, multi-focal, locally extensive, or disseminated distribution throughout various sections of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca. In birds that responded with intestinal lesions, hyperemia and occasional hemorrhages were the main gross changes. In some birds, the mucosa was covered with a brownish material, but typically, the mucosa was lined by yellow or greenish, loosely adherent material. Mild gross changes were seen in some control birds, but both qualitatively and quantitatively, the lesions were distinctly more pronounced in the challenged birds. Upon histological examination, none of the experimentally exposed birds showed overt mucosal necrosis typical of field cases of NE, but typically the lamina propria was hyperemic and infiltrated with numerous inflammatory cells. Most significant changes were seen at the interface of the basal domain of enterocytes and lamina propria. Multifocally, these areas were extensively edematous, allowing for the substantial disturbance of the structural integrity between the lamina propria and the enterocytes. The lesions observed in the present study were consistently reproduced in all of our challenge trials, hence these responses may signify newly emerging patterns of sub-clinical enteric disorders in contemporary strains of poultry. The pathological changes observed in broilers challenged orally with C. perfringens in the present study, differ significantly from those reported previously, and must be clearly differentiated from those described in cases of NE or ulcerative enteritis. Although no overt necrosis of the intestinal mucosa typical of field cases of NE were observed in the present study, the birds challenged with C. perfringens showed strong inflammatory reaction to the introduced pathogens. The distinct features of the microscopic lesions were changes involving apparently normal enterocytes at the interface of the basal domain of villar epithelia and lamina propria. Although the pathological changes in the intestinal tissues observed in our trials appear to be rather subtle when compared to field cases of NE, the nature of these lesions suggest a significant negative effect on the digestive physiology of intestinal mucosa. PMID:16337982

Olkowski, A A; Wojnarowicz, C; Chirino-Trejo, M; Drew, M D

2006-08-01

106

Isolation and Characterization of Strains CVO and FWKO B, Two Novel Nitrate-Reducing, Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from Oil Field Brine  

PubMed Central

Bacterial strains CVO and FWKO B were isolated from produced brine at the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for FWKO B, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for CVO. Neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source. Both strains are microaerophiles (1% O2). In addition, CVO grows by denitrification of nitrate or nitrite whereas FWKO B reduces nitrate only to nitrite. Elemental sulfur is the sole product of sulfide oxidation by FWKO B, while CVO produces either elemental sulfur or sulfate, depending on the initial concentration of sulfide. Both strains are capable of growth under strictly autotrophic conditions, but CVO uses acetate as well as CO2 as its sole carbon source. Neither strain reduces sulfate; however, FWKO B reduces sulfur and displays chemolithoautotrophic growth in the presence of elemental sulfur, hydrogen, and CO2. Both strains grow at temperatures between 5 and 40°C. CVO is capable of growth at NaCl concentrations as high as 7%. The present 16s rRNA analysis suggests that both strains are members of the epsilon subdivision of the division Proteobacteria, with CVO most closely related to Thiomicrospira denitrifcans and FWKO B most closely related to members of the genus Arcobacter. The isolation of these two novel chemolithotrophic sulfur bacteria from oil field brine suggests the presence of a subterranean sulfur cycle driven entirely by hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and nitrate. PMID:10831429

Gevertz, Diane; Telang, Anita J.; Voordouw, Gerrit; Jenneman, Gary E.

2000-01-01

107

Symbiotic Characteristics of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Isolates Which Represent Major and Minor Nodule-Occupying Chromosomal Types of Field-Grown Subclover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) †  

PubMed Central

The symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii soil isolates were evaluated under nonsoil greenhouse conditions. The isolates which we used represented both major and minor nodule-occupying chromosomal types (electrophoretic types [ETs]) recovered from field-grown subclover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Isolates representing four ETs (ETs 2, 3, 7, and 8) that were highly successful field nodule occupants fixed between 2- and 10-fold less nitrogen and produced lower herbage dry weights and first-harvest herbage protein concentrations than isolates that were minor nodule occupants of field-grown plants. Despite their equivalent levels of abundance in nodules on field-grown subclover plants, ET 2 and 3 isolates exhibited different competitive nodulation potentials under nonsoil greenhouse conditions. ET 3 isolates generally occupied more subclover nodules than isolates belonging to other ETs when the isolates were mixed in 1:1 inoculant ratios and inoculated onto seedlings. In contrast, ET 2 isolates were less successful at nodulating under these conditions. In many cases, ET 2 isolates required a numerical advantage of at least 6:1 to 11:1 to occupy significantly more nodules than their competitors. We identified highly effective isolates that were as competitive as the ET 3 isolates despite representing serotypes that were rarely recovered from nodules of field-grown plants. When one of the suboptimally effective isolates (ET2-1) competed with an effective and competitive isolate (ET31-5) at several different inoculant ratios, the percentages of nodules occupied by the former increased as its numerical advantage increased. Although subclover yields declined as nodule occupancy by ET2-1 increased, surprisingly, this occurred at inoculant ratios at which large percentages of nodules were still occupied by ET31-5. PMID:16349172

Leung, K.; Wanjage, F. N.; Bottomley, P. J.

1994-01-01

108

Phycicoccus ginsenosidimutans sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic, coccoid-shaped bacterium, designated BXN5-13(T), was isolated from the soil of a ginseng field from Baekdu Mountain in Jilin district, China. Strain BXN5-13(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 6.5-7.5 with 0-2? % (w/v) NaCl. Strain BXN5-13(T) had ?-glucosidase activity that was connected with ginsenoside-converting ability, so that it was able to convert ginsenoside Rb(1) to ginsenoside F2. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic relatives of strain BXN5-13(T) were Phycicoccus aerophilus 5516T-20(T) (98.4? % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), P. bigeumensis MSL-03(T) (98.3? %), P. dokdonensis DS-8(T) (97.9? %) and P. jejuensis KSW2-15(T) (96.9? %). Lower sequence similarity (<97.0 ?%) was found with the type strains of other recognized species of the family Intrasporangiaceae. The predominant quinone was MK-8(H?). The major fatty acids (>10? %) were iso-C??:?, C??:?, anteiso-C??:? and iso-C??:?. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The chemotaxonomic data and the high genomic DNA G+C content of strain BXN5-13(T) (70.8l %) supported its affiliation with the genus Phycicoccus. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain BXN5-13(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbours was below 16? %. Strain BXN5-13(T) represents a novel species within the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccus ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BXN5-13(T) (=KCTC 19419(T)=DSM 21006(T)=LMG 24462(T)). PMID:20382795

Wang, Liang; An, Dong-Shan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Lee, Sung-Taik; Im, Wan-Taek; Bae, Heon-Meen

2011-03-01

109

Antitrypanosomal activity of aloin and its derivatives against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need for the development of new, cheap, safe and highly effective drugs against African trypanosomiasis that affects both man and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. In the present study the exudate of Aloe gilbertii, an endemic Aloe species of Ethiopia, aloin, aloe-emodin and rhein were tested for their in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal activities against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Aloin was prepared from the leaf exudate of A. gilbertii by acid catalyzed hydrolysis. Aloe-emodin was obtained by oxidative hydrolysis of aloin, while rhein was subsequently derived from aloe-emodin by oxidation. In vitro trypanocidal activity tests were conducted on parasites obtained from infected mice, while mice infected with T. congolense were used to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of the test substances. Results Results of the study showed that all the test substances arrested parasites motility at effective concentration of 4.0 mg/ml within an incubation period ranging from 15 to 40 min. Moreover, the same concentration of the test substances caused loss of infectivity of the parasites to mice during 30 days observation period. Among the tested substances, rhein showed superior activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.4 mg/ml. No adverse reactions were observed when the test substances were administered at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. Rhein at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, and the exudate, aloin and aloe-emodin at a dose of 400 mg/kg reduced the level of parasitaemia significantly (P?

2014-01-01

110

Sphingomonas kyeonggiense sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining negative bacterium, THG-DT81(T), which was isolated from soil of a ginseng field, was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells were oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile with one polar flagellum. Strain THG-DT81(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl on trypticase soy agar. Its optimum growth temperature was 25-28 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain THG-DT81(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae and was related to Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (98.0 % similarity), S. leidyi ATCC 15260(T) (97.8 %), S. trueperi LMG 2142(T) (97.1 %), S. azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (97.1 %), S. koreensis JSS26 (T) (97.1 %) and S. dokdonensis DS-4(T) (97.0 %). Strain THG-DT81(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1 ?7c and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 66.8 mol %. The major component in the polyamine pattern was identified as sym-homospermidine. The major polar lipids detected in strain THG-DT81(T) were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of the strain THG-DT81(T) and its closest phylogenetically neighbors were below 21 %. The phenotypic characteristics and genotypic data demonstrated the affiliation of strain THG-DT81(T) to the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data presented, strain THG-DT81(T) is described as a novel species of genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas kyeonggiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-DT81(T) (= KACC 17173(T) = JCM 18825(T)). PMID:24496756

Son, Heung-Min; Kook, Moochang; Tran, Hanh T H; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2014-04-01

111

Pusillimonas ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

Two novel strains of Gram-negative, non-sporulating, short rod-shaped, motile bacteria, designated DCY25T and DCY28, were isolated from soil of a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized in order to determine their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strains DCY25T and DCY28 belonged to the Betaproteobacteria, the highest sequence similarities being found with Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9T (96.9%), Bordetella trematum DSM 11334(T) (95.9%), Achromobacter denitrificans DSM 30026T (95.9%), Achromobacter insolitus LMG 6003T (95.8%) and Pigmentiphaga kullae K24T (95.5%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that both strains DCY25T and DCY28 possessed ubiquinone Q-8. Fatty acid analysis of strain DCY25T demonstrated the presence of 19:0 cyclo omega8c (22.8%) and 16:0 (16.6%). The polar lipid profiles of strains DCY25T and DCY28 included phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown aminolipids and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C contents of strains DCY25T and DCY28 were 57.3 and 57.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values, biochemical and physiological characteristics strongly supported the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains DCY25T and DCY28 from Pusillimonas noertemannii. Therefore, strains DCY25T and DCY28 should be classified in a novel species, for which the name Pusillimonas ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY25T (=KCTC 22046T =JCM 14767T); strain DCY28 (=KCTC 22047=JCM 14768) is a reference strain. PMID:19749028

Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum; Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok-Chun

2010-08-01

112

Isolated sub-30-attosecond pulse generation using a multicycle two-color chirped laser and a static electric field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical investigation of high-order harmonic generation in a chirped two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a 10-fs/800-nm fundamental chirped pulse and a 10-fs/1760-nm subharmonic pulse. It is shown that a supercontinuum can be produced using the multicycle two-color chirped field. However, the supercontinuum reveals a strong modulation structure, which is not good for the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse. By adding a static electric field to the multicycle two-color chirped field, not only the harmonic cutoff is extended remarkably, but also the quantum paths of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are modified significantly. As a result, both the extension of the supercontinuum and the selection of a single quantum path are achieved, producing an isolated 23-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.6 eV. Furthermore, the influences of the laser intensities on the supercontinuum and isolated attosecond pulse generation are investigated.

Zhang, Gang-Tai

2014-04-01

113

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli strains isolated from foods.  

PubMed

Bacterial contamination in foods and antimicrobial resistance levels of common pathogenic strains causing food-borne disease are important in human health. Thus, typing technologies are important tools to determine primary sources of bacterial contamination. In this study, 40 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 85 food samples were evaluated in terms of genetic diversity, susceptibility to certain antibiotics, and plasmid profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to identify the genetic relations of E. coli isolates. It was determined that the 40 E. coli strains revealed 32 different pulsotypes represented by 6 subtypes. Antibiotic susceptibility tests conducted by using a disc diffusion method against 15 antibiotics showed that although the isolates revealed 14 different types of resistance profiles, the strains showed the greatest resistance to ampicillin (77.5%), followed by ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (30%), tetracycline (22.5%), and cephalothin (14.5%). Plasmid isolations studies of the strains conducted by the method of alkaline lysis revealed that 18 (45%) of 40 E. coli strains contain 31 different plasmid bands ranging between 64.4 and 1 kb. The results showed that PFGE was a powerful method in tracking sources of food contamination and that the antibiotic resistance levels of food isolates were high and should be monitored. PMID:23145825

Uysal, Ahmet; Durak, Yusuf

2012-11-01

114

Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of cereulide-producing isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is an important foodborne pathogen causing diarrhoea, emesis and in, rare cases, lethal poisonings. The emetic syndrome is caused by cereulide, a heat-stable toxin. Originally considered as a rather homogenous group, the emetic strains have since been shown to display some diversity, including the existence of two clusters of mesophilic B. cereus and psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, this research aimed to better understand the diversity and spatio-temporal occurrence of emetic strains originating from environmental or food niches vs. those isolated from foodborne cases. The diversity was evaluated using a set of 52 B. cereus and B. weihenstephanensis strains isolated between 2000 and 2011 in ten countries. PFGE analysis could discriminate 17 distinct profiles (pulsotypes). The most striking observations were as follows: (1) more than one emetic pulsotype can be observed in a single outbreak; (2) the number of distinct isolates involved in emetic intoxications is limited, and these potentially clonal strains frequently occurred in successive and independent food poisoning cases; (3) isolates from different countries displayed identical profiles; and (4) the cereulide-producing psychrotolerant B. weihenstephanensis were, so far, only isolated from environmental niches. PMID:24627989

Castiaux, Virginie; N'guessan, Elise; Swiecicka, Izabela; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Dierick, Katelijne; Mahillon, Jacques

2014-04-01

115

Effect of the exogenous glutamate and the NMDA on electric field-stimulated contractions of isolated rat ileum.  

PubMed

While neurotransmitter role of glutamate in gastrointestinal intrinsic nervous system was shown, its effects in various segments of gastrointestinal tract were not yet understood completely. In our study, we have investigated effects of exogenous glutamate on electric field-stimulated contractions of isolated rat ileum. The ilea from forty Wistar rats of both sexes were isolated in an organ bath, according to the Magnus mounting method, and exposed to field stimulation with square wave pulses (20 V over the electrodes, 400 mA, 1 ms duration, frequency 16 Hz, pulse trains for 30 s with 30 s pause). The stimulation produced tonic contractions and relaxations recorded with an isometric system. Atropine (2.3 x 10(-6) M/l) completely abolished contractions of isolated rat ileum produced by the field stimulation, while relaxations remained unaffected. Glutamate (from 7.8 x 10(-6) to 3.5 x 10(-3) M/l) and N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) (from 9.1 x 10(-9) to 1.3 x 10(-5) M/l) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the field-stimulated contractions of isolated rat ileum (EC50 was 90.17 +/- 1.81 x 10(-5) and 53.51 +/- 3.68 x 10(-9) M/l, respectively) while not affecting the field-stimulated relaxations. On the other hand, (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (from 6.0 x 10(-9) to 9.3 x 10(-6) M/l), kainic acid (from 5.8 x 10(-9) to 8.3 x 10(-6) M/l) and (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid ((+/-)-trans-ACPD) (from 7.0 x 10(-9) to 1.1 x 10(-5) M/l) did not influence both the field-stimulated contractions and the field-stimulated relaxations of isolated rat ileum. The results of our study suggest inhibitory effect of glutamate on acetylcholine release from intrinsic neurons of rat ileum, mediated through NMDA receptors. PMID:15458775

Jankovic, Slobodan M; Jankovic, Snezana V; Milovanovic, Dragan R

2004-11-01

116

Nocardioides panaciterrulae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field, with ginsenoside converting activity.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, coccoid to rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated Gsoil 958(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field located in Pocheon province in South Korea. This bacterium was characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position by using a polyphasic approach. Strain Gsoil 958(T) was observed to grow well at 25-30 °C and at pH 7.0 on R2A and nutrient agar without NaCl supplementation. Strain Gsoil 958(T) was determined to have ?-glucosidase activity and the ability to transform ginsenoside Rb1 (one of the dominant active components of ginseng) to F2 via gypenoside XVII and Rd. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain Gsoil 958(T) was shown to belong to the family Nocardioidaceae and related most closely to Nocardioides koreensis MSL-09(T) (97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Nocardioides aquiterrae GW-9(T) (97.0 %), and Nocardioides sediminis MSL-01(T) (97.0 %). The sequence similarities with other validly named species within the genus Nocardioides were less than 96.8 %. Strain Gsoil 958(T) was characterized chemotaxonomically as having LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-8(H4) as the predominant menaquinone, and iso-C16:0, iso-C16:1 H, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 were identified as the major fatty acids. The G + C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 70.8 mol %. The chemotaxonomic properties and phenotypic characteristics supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 958(T) to the genus Nocardioides. The results of both physiological and biochemical tests allowed for differentiation of strain Gsoil 958(T) from the recognized Nocardioides species. Therefore, strain Gsoil 958(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides panaciterrulae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Gsoil 958(T) (KACC 14271(T) = KCTC 19471(T) = DSM 21350(T)). PMID:23553363

Kim, Jin-Kwang; Liu, Qing-Mei; Park, Hye-Yoon; Kang, Myung-Suk; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek; Yoon, Min-Ho

2013-06-01

117

Flavobacterium kyungheensis sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining negative, strictly aerobic, motile by gliding, non-spore-forming, pale yellow pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium designated strain THG-107(T) was isolated from soil of a ginseng field on Ganghwa Island in the Republic of Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic study. Growth of strain THG-107(T) was found to occur at 4-37 °C (optimum, 20-30 °C), at pH 5.5-10 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, absence) on R2A agar. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain THG-107(T) was shown to belong to the family Flavobacteriaceae and was related to Flavobacterium denitrificans ED5(T) (99.1 % similarity). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 34.2 mol%. These results are consistent with characteristics of members of the genus Flavobacterium. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-107(T) was menaquinone-6 (MK-6) and the major polyamine was identified as homospermidine (82.9 %). The major polar lipid detected was phosphatidylethanolamine and the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0 (26.3 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (12.6 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c; 11.6 %). Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. Strain THG-107(T) has ?-glucosidase activity to convert ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd into Gyp17 and F2. DNA-DNA hybridization with F. denitrificans ED5(T) was 52 %. Strain THG-107(T) could be distinguished from F. denitrificans ED5(T) and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. Therefore, strain THG-107(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium kyungheensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain THG-107(T) = KACC 16219(T) = LMG 26575(T)). PMID:24068452

Son, Heung-Min; Kook, Moochang; Park, Sang-Yong; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2013-12-01

118

Brachybacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-staining-positive, aerobic bacterium, designed DCY80(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in the Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DCY80(T) belonged to the genus Brachybacterium (95.8-98.2?% similarity) and was most closely related to Brachybacterium faecium DSM 4810(T) (98.2?%). Colonies were circular, entire, low-convex, opaque and 0.5-1.0 mm in diameter after growth for 2 days on TSA at 30 °C. Growth occurred at 4-34 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.0) and in the presence of 0-7.0?% NaCl. Strain DCY80(T) produced siderophores and was sensitive to penicillin G, erythromycin, cefazolin, oleandomycin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, tetracycline, novobiocin, carbamicillin, rifampicin and neomycin. The DNA G+C content was 71.0 mol%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY80(T) and B. faecium DSM 4810(T), B. paraconglomeratum KCTC 9916(T), B. saurashtrense DSM 23186(T) and B. conglomeratum KCTC 9915(T) were 46.9±0.5, 28.9±0.6, 20.4±0.9 and 17.3±0.4?%, respectively. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain DCY80(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The menaquinones were MK-7 (85.8?%) and MK-8 (14.2?%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15?:?0 (69.1?%) and anteiso-C17?:?0 (12.2?%). Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, two unidentified phospholipids and five unidentified polar lipids were found. On the basis of our phenotypic and genotypic analyses, strain DCY80(T) represents a novel species of the genus Brachybacterium, for which the name Brachybacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed (type strain DCY80(T)?=?KCTC 29226(T)?=?JCM 19356(T)). PMID:24944333

Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Yang, Deok-Chun

2014-09-01

119

Isolated few-attosecond emission in a multi-cycle asymmetrically nonhomogeneous two-color laser field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we present a theoretical investigation of helium-based high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in both symmetric and asymmetric spatially nonhomogeneous laser fields. It is determined that the harmonic cutoff is extended in both symmetric and asymmetric nonhomogeneous laser fields, and the spatial symmetry of the nonhomogeneous field greatly influences the movement of electronic wave packets, which subsequently affect harmonic emission. In particular, the spatially asymmetric distribution of the laser field will induce asymmetric recombination of electronic wave packets between the two sides of a helium atom, which could reduce the interference in HHG emission for every optical cycle. In combination with the two-color technique, multi-cycle laser pulses with asymmetric spatially nonhomogeneous characteristics are capable of generating a coherent extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum, which can be used to produce isolated few-attosecond pulses.

Yu, Chao; Wang, Yunhui; Cao, Xu; Jiang, Shicheng; Lu, Ruifeng

2014-11-01

120

Isolation and characterization of strains CVO and FWKO B, two novel nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from oil field brine.  

PubMed

Bacterial strains CVO and FWKO B were isolated from produced brine at the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for FWKO B, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for CVO. Neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source. Both strains are microaerophiles (1% O(2)). In addition, CVO grows by denitrification of nitrate or nitrite whereas FWKO B reduces nitrate only to nitrite. Elemental sulfur is the sole product of sulfide oxidation by FWKO B, while CVO produces either elemental sulfur or sulfate, depending on the initial concentration of sulfide. Both strains are capable of growth under strictly autotrophic conditions, but CVO uses acetate as well as CO(2) as its sole carbon source. Neither strain reduces sulfate; however, FWKO B reduces sulfur and displays chemolithoautotrophic growth in the presence of elemental sulfur, hydrogen, and CO(2). Both strains grow at temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C. CVO is capable of growth at NaCl concentrations as high as 7%. The present 16s rRNA analysis suggests that both strains are members of the epsilon subdivision of the division Proteobacteria, with CVO most closely related to Thiomicrospira denitrifcans and FWKO B most closely related to members of the genus Arcobacter. The isolation of these two novel chemolithotrophic sulfur bacteria from oil field brine suggests the presence of a subterranean sulfur cycle driven entirely by hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and nitrate. PMID:10831429

Gevertz, D; Telang, A J; Voordouw, G; Jenneman, G E

2000-06-01

121

Overexpression of Ubiquitin and Amino Acid Permease Genes in Association with Antimony Resistance in Leishmania tropica Field Isolates  

PubMed Central

The mainstay therapy against leishmaniasis is still pentavalent antimonial drugs; however, the rate of antimony resistance is increasing in endemic regions such as Iran. Understanding the molecular basis of resistance to antimonials could be helpful to improve treatment strategies. This study aimed to recognize genes involved in antimony resistance of Leishmania tropica field isolates. Sensitive and resistant L. tropica parasites were isolated from anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and drug susceptibility of parasites to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) was confirmed using in vitro assay. Then, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) approaches were utilized on mRNAs from resistant and sensitive L. tropica isolates. We identified 2 known genes, ubiquitin implicated in protein degradation and amino acid permease (AAP3) involved in arginine uptake. Also, we identified 1 gene encoding hypothetical protein. Real-time RT-PCR revealed a significant upregulation of ubiquitin (2.54-fold), and AAP3 (2.86-fold) (P<0.05) in a resistant isolate compared to a sensitive one. Our results suggest that overexpression of ubiquitin and AAP3 could potentially implicated in natural antimony resistance. PMID:24039283

Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza

2013-01-01

122

Increased levels of thiols protect antimony unresponsive Leishmania donovani field isolates against reactive oxygen species generated by trivalent antimony  

PubMed Central

Summary The current trend of antimony (Sb) unresponsiveness in the Indian subcontinent is a major impediment to effective chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Although contributory mechanisms studied in laboratory raised Sb-R parasites include an up regulation of drug efflux pumps and increased thiols, their role in clinical isolates is not yet substantiated. Accordingly, our objectives were to study the contributory role of thiols in generation of Sb unresponsiveness in clinical isolates. Promastigotes were isolated from VL patients who were either Sb responsive (n = 2) or unresponsive (n = 3). Levels of thiols as measured by HPLC and flow cytometry showed higher basal levels of thiols and a faster rate of thiol regeneration in Sb unresponsive strains as compared with sensitive strains. The effects of antimony on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal and thiol depleted conditions as also their H2O2 scavenging activity indicated that in unresponsive parasites, Sb mediated ROS generation was curtailed which could be reversed by depletion of thiols and was accompanied by a higher H2O2 scavenging activity. Higher levels of thiols in Sb unresponsive field isolates from patients with VL protects parasites from Sb mediated oxidative stress, thereby contributing to the antimony resistance phenotype. PMID:17612420

Mandal, G.; Wyllie, S.; Singh, N.; Sundar, S.; Fairlamb, A.H.; Chatterjee, M.

2012-01-01

123

Overexpression of ubiquitin and amino acid permease genes in association with antimony resistance in Leishmania tropica field isolates.  

PubMed

The mainstay therapy against leishmaniasis is still pentavalent antimonial drugs; however, the rate of antimony resistance is increasing in endemic regions such as Iran. Understanding the molecular basis of resistance to antimonials could be helpful to improve treatment strategies. This study aimed to recognize genes involved in antimony resistance of Leishmania tropica field isolates. Sensitive and resistant L. tropica parasites were isolated from anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis patients and drug susceptibility of parasites to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®) was confirmed using in vitro assay. Then, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) approaches were utilized on mRNAs from resistant and sensitive L. tropica isolates. We identified 2 known genes, ubiquitin implicated in protein degradation and amino acid permease (AAP3) involved in arginine uptake. Also, we identified 1 gene encoding hypothetical protein. Real-time RT-PCR revealed a significant upregulation of ubiquitin (2.54-fold), and AAP3 (2.86-fold) (P<0.05) in a resistant isolate compared to a sensitive one. Our results suggest that overexpression of ubiquitin and AAP3 could potentially implicated in natural antimony resistance. PMID:24039283

Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Heidari, Mansour

2013-08-01

124

Frequencies of virulence genes and pulse field gel electrophoresis fingerprints in Escherichia coli isolates from canine pyometra.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial agent isolated from canine pyometra. The frequencies of 24 virulence genes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were determined for 23 E. coli isolates from cases of canine pyometra in Brazil. The frequencies of virulence genes were 91.3% fimH, 91.3% irp-2, 82.6% fyuA, 56.5% iroN, 47.8% traT, 39.1% usp, 34.8% sfaD/E, 34.8% tsh, 30.4% papC, 30.4% hlyA, 26.1% papGIII, 26.1% cnf-1, 21.7% papE/F, 21.7% iss, 17.4% iutA, 17.4% ompT, 17.4% cvaC, 17.4% hlyF, 17.4% iucD, 13.0% iucC, 13.0% astA, 4.3% papGII, 0% afaB/C and 0% papGI. The high frequency of yersiniabactin (fyuA and irp2) and salmochelin (iroN) genes suggests that iron uptake systems might be important in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. PFGE profiles of 19 isolates were heterogeneous, confirming that E. coli isolates from canine pyometra are unlikely to be epidemic clones. PMID:25201253

Maluta, Renato P; Borges, Clarissa A; Beraldo, Lívia G; Cardozo, Marita V; Voorwald, Fabiana A; Santana, André M; Rigobelo, Everlon C; Toniollo, Gilson H; Avila, Fernando A

2014-11-01

125

Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP approach.  

PubMed

Pentavalent antimonial compounds have been the first line therapy for leishmaniasis; unfortunately the rate of treatment failure of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is increasing due to emerging of drug resistance. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operating in antimony resistance is critical for development of new strategies for treatment. Here, we used a cDNA-AFLP approach to identify gene(s) which are differentially expressed in resistant and sensitive Leishmania tropica field isolates. We identified five genes, aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) acts in drug uptake, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (MRPA) involved in sequestration of drug, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) implicated in glycolysis metabolism, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) responsible for phosphorylation pathway. The results were confirmed using real time RT-PCR which revealed an upregulation of MRPA, PTP and PGK genes and downregulation of AQP1 and MAPK genes in resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of PTP and PGK genes potentially implicated in resistance to antimonials. Our findings support the idea that distinct biomolecules might be involved in antimony resistance in L. tropica field isolates. PMID:23928349

Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khadem-Erfan, Mohammad Bagher; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Hajjaran, Homa; Hadighi, Ramtin; Khamesipour, Ali; Rezaie, Sassan; Abedkhojasteh, Hoda; Heidari, Mansour

2013-10-01

126

Isolation and identification of atrazine-degrading bacteria from corn field soil in Fars province of Iran.  

PubMed

In this study several agricultural fields with a long history of atrazine application in Fars province of Iran have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. After several subculturing for a period of 300 days acclimation, leads to an enhancement of atrazine biodegradation rate. A successful enrichment culture with a high capability for atrazine degradation was obtained (88%). A combination of enrichment culture technique, in a basal salt medium containing atrazine and carbon sources under nitrogen limitation and plating on indicator atrazine agar, have permitted the isolation of bacterial consortium with high capability of using atrazine as a nitrogen source. Seven gram-negative and one gram-positive bacterial strain, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated from Darehasalouie Kavar corn field soil. Based on physiological, biochemical and nutritional characteristics, the isolated bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Acidovorax sp., Pseudomonas putida, Ralstonia eutrophus, Pseudomonas syiringe, Erwinia tracheiphila, Entrobacter agglomerans and Micrococcus varians. Therefore, the bacterial consortium in liquid culture containing carbon sources and atrazine as a sole source of nitrogen, degrade added atrazine more than 80%. PMID:19069990

Dehghani, M; Nasseri, S; Amin, S; Naddafee, K; Taghavi, M; Yunesian, M; Maleky, N

2007-01-01

127

The evolution of core and surface magnetic field in isolated neutron stars  

E-print Network

We apply the model of flux expulsion from the superfluid and superconductive core of a neutron star, developed by Konenkov & Geppert (2000), both to neutron star models based on different equations of state and to different initial magnetic field structures. When initially the core and the surface magnetic field are of the same order of magnitude, the rate of flux expulsion from the core is almost independent of the equation of state, and the evolution of the surface field decouples from the core field evolution with increasing stiffness. When the surface field is initially much stronger than the core field, the magnetic and rotational evolution resembles to those of a neutron star with a purely crustal field configuration; the only difference is the occurence of a residual field. In case of an initially submerged field significant differences from the standard evolution occur only during the early period of neutron star's life, until the field has been rediffused to the surface. The reminder of the episode of submergence is a correlation of the residual field strength with the submergence depth of the initial field. We discuss the effect of the rediffusion of the magnetic field on to the difference between the real and the active age of young pulsars and on their braking indices. Finally, we estimate the shear stresses built up by the moving fluxoids at the crust--core interface and show that preferentially in neutron stars with a soft equation of state these stresses may cause crust cracking.

D. Konenkov; U. Geppert

2001-03-04

128

Comparison of Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry and Humans: Association between In Vitro Virulence Properties, Biotypes, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters  

PubMed Central

The in vitro virulence properties of 197 temporally and geographically related Campylobacter isolates from chicken broilers and humans were compared. Comparisons of the virulence properties associated with genotypes and biotypes were made. All isolates adhered to, and 63% invaded, INT-407 cells, whereas 13% were cytotoxic for CHO cells. CHO cell-cytotoxic extracts were also cytotoxic for INT-407 cells, but the sensitivity for Vero cells was variable. The proportion of isolates demonstrating a high invasiveness potential (>1,000 CFU ml?1) or Vero cell cytotoxicity was significantly higher for human than for poultry isolates. Invasiveness was associated with Campylobacter jejuni isolates of biotypes 1 and 2, whereas CHO and INT-407 cell cytotoxicity was associated with C. jejuni isolates of biotypes 3 and 4. Cytotoxic isolates were also clustered according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. PMID:14532099

Nadeau, Éric; Messier, Serge; Quessy, Sylvain

2003-01-01

129

Effect of different isolates of Beauveria bassiana on field populations of Lygus hesperus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lygus hesperus (Knight) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a particularly damaging pest of many crops in the Western United States. Current control tactics are chemically based and there is some concern over resistance building up in populations. Based on previous laboratory studies conducted in California and Mississippi, USA, two new isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) were

Michael R. McGuire; Jarrod E. Leland; Surendra Dara; Young-Hoon Park; Mauricio Ulloa

2006-01-01

130

7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...1 7 1 23 0 1,000 0.2 Grasses: Cross-pollinated 57 5 4 18...301.76m). The minimum isolation from grass sorghum or broomcorn with the same...the common border with other varieties of grass by the average width of the...

2014-01-01

131

7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 7 1 23 0 1,000 0.2 Grasses: Cross-pollinated 57 5 4...301.76m). The minimum isolation from grass sorghum or broomcorn with the same...the common border with other varieties of grass by the average width of the...

2013-01-01

132

7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1 7 1 23 0 1,000 0.2 Grasses: Cross-pollinated 57 5 4...301.76m). The minimum isolation from grass sorghum or broomcorn with the same...the common border with other varieties of grass by the average width of the...

2012-01-01

133

7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 7 1 23 0 1,000 0.2 Grasses: Cross-pollinated 57 5 4...301.76m). The minimum isolation from grass sorghum or broomcorn with the same...the common border with other varieties of grass by the average width of the...

2010-01-01

134

7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 7 1 23 0 1,000 0.2 Grasses: Cross-pollinated 57 5 4...301.76m). The minimum isolation from grass sorghum or broomcorn with the same...the common border with other varieties of grass by the average width of the...

2011-01-01

135

Degradation of Phenanthrene by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Soil in Oil Refinery Fields in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of phenanthrene, a model PAH compound, by microorganisms either in the mixed culture or individual strain, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in oil refinery vicinity sites, was examined. The effects of pH, temperature, initial concentration of phenanthrene, and the addition of carbon sources on biodegradation potential were also investigated. Results showed that soil samples collected from four oil refinery

JEONG-DONG KIM; SU-HYEUN SHIM; CHOUL-GYUN LEE

2005-01-01

136

Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from areas of repeated emergence of drug resistant malaria show no evidence of hypermutator phenotype.  

PubMed

Multiple transcontinental waves of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have originated in Southeast Asia before spreading westward, first into the rest of Asia and then to sub-Saharan Africa. In vitro studies have suggested that hypermutator P. falciparum parasites may exist in Southeast Asia and that an increased rate of acquisition of new mutations in these parasites may explain the repeated emergence of drug resistance in Southeast Asia. This study is the first to test the hypermutator hypothesis using field isolates. Using genome-wide SNP data from human P. falciparum infections in Southeast Asia and West Africa and a test for relative rate differences we found no evidence of increased relative substitution rates in P. falciparum isolates from Southeast Asia. Instead, we found significantly increased substitution rates in Mali and Bangladesh populations relative to those in populations from Southeast Asia. Additionally we found no association between increased relative substitution rates and parasite clearance following treatment with artemisinin derivatives. PMID:25514047

Brown, Tyler S; Jacob, Christopher G; Silva, Joana C; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Djimdé, Abdoulaye; Dondorp, Arjen M; Fukuda, Mark; Noedl, Harald; Nyunt, Myaing Myaing; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Mayxay, Mayfong; Hien, Tran Tinh; Plowe, Christopher V; Cummings, Michael P

2015-03-01

137

Propagation effects of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field  

SciTech Connect

We present a theoretical study of isolated attosecond pulse generation with a multicycle chirped and chirped-free two-color field. We show that the bandwidth of the extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum can be extended by combining a multicycle chirped pulse and a multicycle chirped-free pulse. Also, the broadband supercontinuum can still be generated when the macroscopic effects are included. Furthermore, the macroscopic effects can ameliorate the temporal characteristic of the broadband supercontinuum of the single atom, and eliminate the modulations of the broadband supercontinuum. Thus a very smooth broadband supercontinuum and a pure isolated 102-as pulse can be directly obtained. Moreover, the structure of the broadband supercontinuum can be steadily maintained for a relative long distance after a certain distance.

Du Hongchuan; Hu Bitao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-08-15

138

POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF YOUNG ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: THE EFFECT OF FALLBACK DISK ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range.

Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-10-01

139

Genetic Analysis of Fenhexamid-Resistant Field Isolates of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea? †  

PubMed Central

The hydroxyanilide fenhexamid, one of the latest antibotrytis fungicides, active especially against leotiomycete plant-pathogenic fungi, inhibits 3-ketoreductase of the C-4-demethylation enzyme complex during ergosterol biosynthesis. We isolated Botrytis cinerea strains resistant to various levels of fenhexamid from French and German vineyards. The sequence of the gene encoding 3-ketoreductase, erg27, varied according to levels of resistance. Highly resistant isolates, termed HydR3+, all presented a modification of the phenylalanine at the C terminus of the putative transmembrane domain at position 412, either to serine (85% of the isolates), to isoleucine (11.5% of the isolates), or to valine (3.5% of the isolates). The introduction of the \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}erg27^{HydR3^{+}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} allele into a fenhexamid-sensitive strain by means of a replicative plasmid conferred fenhexamid resistance on the resulting transformants, showing that the mutations at position 412 are responsible for fenhexamid resistance. Weakly to moderately resistant isolates, termed HydR3?, showed different point mutations between the strains in the sequenced regions of the erg27 gene, corresponding to amino acid changes between positions 195 and 400 of the protein. The \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}erg27^{HydR3^{-}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} alleles on the replicative vector introduced into a sensitive strain did not confer resistance to fenhexamid. Genetic crosses between HydR3? and sensitive strains showed strict correlation between the sequenced mutation in the erg27 gene and the resistance phenotypes, suggesting that these mutations are linked to fenhexamid resistance. The HydR3 mutations possibly modify the affinity of the 3-ketoreductase enzyme for its specific inhibitor, fenhexamid. PMID:18779358

Fillinger, Sabine; Leroux, Pierre; Auclair, Christiane; Barreau, Christian; Al Hajj, Charbel; Debieu, Danièle

2008-01-01

140

An algorithm to detect isolated anomalies in three-dimensional stratified data fields with an application to density fields from four deep basins of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to describe the mesoscale variability caused by eddies in terms of the integral properties of all eddies contained in a certain ocean volume is suggested. For this purpose a pattern recognition algorithm to detect isolated anomalies in three-dimensional stratified data fields was developed and is introduced in detail. An application to 12 eddy-resolving density fields acquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea, namely, the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin, demonstrates that the algorithm works properly. The most remarkable finding of this application is that the volume fraction occupied by the isolated anomalies or eddies is constant. It amounts to about 12% of the total volume for each data field no matter whether the stratification corresponds to a summer or a winter situation. Many possible applications of the pattern recognition are proposed to document its general usefulness. Finally, the main features of the algorithm and possible extensions are discussed extensively.

ReißMann, Jan H.

2005-12-01

141

Identification of a novel equine infectious anemia virus field strain isolated from feral horses in southern Japan.  

PubMed

Although equine infectious anemia (EIA) was described more than 150 years ago, complete genomic sequences have only been obtained from two field strains of EIA virus (EIAV), EIAV(Wyoming) and EIAV(Liaoning). In 2011, EIA was detected within the distinctive feral Misaki horse population that inhabits the Toi-Cape area of southern Japan. Complete proviral sequences comprising a novel field strain were amplified directly from peripheral blood of one of these EIAV-infected horses and characterized by nucleotide sequencing. The complete provirus of Miyazaki2011-A strain is 8208 bp in length with an overall genomic organization typical of EIAV. However, this field isolate possesses just 77.2 and 78.7?% nucleotide sequence identity with the EIAV(Wyoming) and EIAV(Liaoning) strains, respectively, while similarity plot analysis suggested all three strains arose independently. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies using sequences obtained from all EIAV-infected Misaki horses against known viral strains strongly suggests these Japanese isolates comprise a separate monophyletic group. PMID:23100364

Dong, Jian-Bao; Zhu, Wei; Cook, Frank R; Goto, Yoshitaka; Horii, Yoichiro; Haga, Takeshi

2013-02-01

142

Extent of high-affinity iron transport systems in field isolates of rhizobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Uruguayan rhizobia collection (67 isolates) obtained from nodules of Medicago sativa, Melilotus albus, Medicago polymorpha, Trifolium subterraneum, Trifolium repens, Trifolium vesiculosum, Lotus\\u000a corniculatus, Lotus subbiflorus, Lotus pedunculatus, Ornithopus sp. and Adesmia sp. has been examined to assess the occurrence of high affinity iron uptake systems.\\u000a \\u000a CAS (Chrome-azurol S)-assay results suggested that most of the free-living form of these microsymbionts

E. Fabiano; G. Gualtieri; C. Pritsch; G. Polla; A. Arias

1994-01-01

143

Growth promoting effects of corn ( Zea mays) bacterial isolates under greenhouse and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizer costs are a major component of corn production. The use of biofertilizers may be one way of reducing production costs. In this study we present isolation and identification of three plant growth promoting bacteria that were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (CR1), Pseudomonas putida (CR7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR3). All bacterial strains produced IAA in the presence of 100mgl?1 of

Samina Mehnaz; Tom Kowalik; Bruce Reynolds; George Lazarovits

2010-01-01

144

Degradation of phenanthrene by bacterial strain isolated from soil in oil refinery fields in Shanghai China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri ZP2 was identified with phenanthrene-degrading ability based on Gram staining, oxydase reaction, biochemical tests, FAME analysis, G+C content and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. It is the first time that P. stutzeri is reported to process the capability for phenanthrene degradation. The strain was isolated from soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-containing waste

He-Ping Zhao; Qing-Sheng Wu; Lei Wang; Xue-Tao Zhao; Hong-Wen Gao

2009-01-01

145

Field method for isolation of trichostrongyle larvae from vegetation of natural pastures of Arctic ruminants.  

PubMed

The extent to which wild ruminant populations are exposed to infective helminth larvae on their natural pastures is relatively undetermined. In the present study, a modified method for sampling of herbage and isolation of trichostrongyle infective third-stage larvae from natural pastures was used successfully in a muskox habitat in low-Arctic Greenland. The method, a revision of the Macro-Baermann method, is particularly aimed at fieldwork under primitive conditions. PMID:12760673

Raundrup, K; Clemmensen, S; Forchhammer, M C; Kapel, C M O

2003-04-01

146

MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE ISOLATED MASSIVE DENSE CLUMP IRAS 20126+4104  

SciTech Connect

We measured polarized dust emission at 350 {mu}m toward the high-mass star-forming massive dense clump IRAS 20126+4104 using the SHARC II Polarimeter, SHARP, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Most of the observed magnetic field vectors agree well with magnetic field vectors obtained from a numerical simulation for the case when the global magnetic field lines are inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the dense clump. The results of the numerical simulation show that rotation plays an important role on the evolution of the massive dense clump and its magnetic field. The direction of the cold CO 1-0 bipolar outflow is parallel to the observed magnetic field within the dense clump as well as the global magnetic field, as inferred from optical polarimetry data, indicating that the magnetic field also plays a critical role in an early stage of massive star formation. The large-scale Keplerian disk of the massive (proto)star rotates in an almost opposite sense to the clump's envelope. The observed magnetic field morphology and the counterrotating feature of the massive dense clump system provide hints to constrain the role of magnetic fields in the process of high-mass star formation.

Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G. [California Institute of Technology Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Novak, Giles [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kataoka, Akimasa [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tomisaka, Kohji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Department of Astronomy, School of Physical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Davidson, Jacqueline; Houde, Martin [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009, Perth (Australia); Dowell, C. Darren [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-506, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Leeuw, Lerothodi [SETI Institute, 515 North Whisman Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2012-05-10

147

Kitasatospora sampliensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from soil of a sugar-cane field in India.  

PubMed

Polyphasic characterization of an actinomycete strain VT-36(T) isolated from a sugar-cane field soil sample collected in Punjab State, India, revealed that the strain belongs to the genus Kitasatospora. The strain's chemotaxonomic characters and G+C content of DNA (76.5 mol%) were typical of members of the genus. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supported the generic affiliation of the strain and showed that its closest phylogenetic relative was Kitasatospora putterlickiae F18-98T (= DSM 44665T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The similarities with type strains of all other Kitasatospora species were in the range 95.1-97.0 %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization showed 54 % relatedness of the isolate and K. putterlickiae F18-98T. Based on the above data and the phenotypic differences from K. putterlickiae and other Kitasatospora species, it is proposed that the isolate should be classified as the type strain of a novel species, Kitasatospora sampliensis sp. nov., with strain VT-36T (= MTCC 6546T = DSM 44898T = JCM 13010T) as the type strain. PMID:16514020

Mayilraj, S; Krishnamurthi, S; Saha, P; Saini, H S

2006-03-01

148

Manipulation of the recombination channels and isolated attosecond pulse generation from HeH2+ with multicycle combined field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to manipulate the recombination channels in harmonic emission from HeH2+ via combing a multicycle trapezoidal laser field and a static electric field. By solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we find that the positive peak intensity can steer the electron localization by controlling the electron transfer at the time of laser polarization direction antiparallel to the permanent dipole of HeH2+. With appropriate laser parameters, the recombination channels originating from the nucleus He2+ are effectively controlled by enhancing electron localization around the nucleus H+. Additionally, an isolated 48-as pulse can be obtained by superposing proper harmonics. Time-frequency maps, electronic wave packet probability density and a laser dressed picture of the Coulomb potential are adopted to provide the underlying physical mechanism.

Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Cai-Ping

2014-11-01

149

Genetic Characterization of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Ewes' Milk, Sheep Farm Environments, and Humans by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water. PMID:23872571

Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

2013-01-01

150

Application of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis for Study of Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated From Tuberculosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping can effectively improve tuberculosis (TB) control programs by controlling disease transmission. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a particularly powerful tool for determination of clonal identity of bacteria providing information for understanding and controlling the spread of disease. Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in Khuzestan province by the PFGE technique. Patients and Methods: In total, 80 M. tuberculosis positive cultures were obtained from tuberculosis patients. PFGE was performed on 60 PCR-confirmed isolates by using DraI and XbaI restriction enzymes according to standard protocols. Plugs containing digested DNA were then loaded on agarose gels and run using contour-clamped homogenous electric fields. Results: Fifty distinct DNA banding patterns were obtained by digestion of DNA with DraI and 38 DNA banding patterns by digestion with XbaI restriction enzymes. The patterns comprised of 17 different clusters in which cluster I was the major one, containing six strains. Three clusters contained three strains each and the 13 remaining clusters comprised of two strains each. Digestion with DraI yielded 15-20 DNA fragments with 50-485 kb size, while digestion by XbaI produced DNA fragments with a size smaller than 50-242 kb. Conclusions: Despite the ability of PFGE for study of genetic diversity of many mycobacterial species and it being considered as a robust and useful tool, in this study we only found a 15% epidemiological relationship amongst the isolates. Thus, for higher discrimination of genotypic clusters among M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, the application of more sophisticated complementary techniques is required. PMID:25147723

Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Vatani, Shideh; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Abasi Montazeri, Effat; Jolodar, Abbas

2014-01-01

151

Temporal abundance, parity, survival rates, and arbovirus isolation of field-collected container-inhabiting mosquitoes in eastern Tennessee.  

PubMed

Surveillance of container-inhabiting mosquitoes was conducted from June 17 through November 9, 1998, at 2 1997 La Crosse virus (LAC) human case sites (Knox and Cocke counties, Tennessee). Mosquitoes were collected weekly with 2 dry ice-baited Centers for Disease Control miniature light traps, 2 omnidirectional Fay traps, and 40 oviposition traps at each site. A total of 8,408 mosquitoes, composed of Ochlerotatus triseriatus (n = 2,095) and Aedes albopictus (n = 6,313), were reared or collected and assayed for virus. The majority of host-seeking Ae. albopictus (n = 567) collected from July through October from both sites were dissected to determine parity status. Monthly parity rates ranged from 0.78 to 0.85 and 0.79 to 0.92 in Knox and Cocke counties, respectively. The high parity rates indicate that this population of Ae. albopictus has a high daily survival rate and may have a high vector potential. The temporal patterns in Ae. albopictus and Oc. triseriatus egg collections from both of the human case sites were significantly correlated, suggesting that the populations fluctuate in a similar manner across the eastern Tennessee region. Although LAC was not isolated from either species, one isolation of a California serogroup virus, most likely a subtype of Jamestown Canyon virus (JC), was recovered from a pool of 50 male Ae. albopictus reared from eggs collected at the Knox County site (minimum field infection rate of 1.89 per 1,000). This is the 1st report of a very closely related JC-like virus in Ae. albopictus and from Tennessee, as well as the 1st time this potential human pathogen has been isolated from transovarially infected field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:12322937

Gottfried, Kristy L; Gerhardt, Reid R; Nasci, Roger S; Crabtree, Mary B; Karabatsos, Nick; Burkhalter, Kristen L; Davis, Brent S; Panella, Nicholas A; Paulson, Dave J

2002-09-01

152

Shaped multi-cycle two-color laser field for generating an intense isolated XUV pulse toward 100 attoseconds.  

PubMed

The isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) generated from high-order harmonic (HH) radiation has been established as an important technique for the ultrafast optics over past decade. The applications of IAP in ultrafast processes can be greatly extended by further developing the high-intensity IAP. Here, we theoretically propose to shape a two-color field by performing peak amplitude-wavelength analysis. It is found that a 240-as IAP can be generated even without carrier envelop phase (CEP) stabilization using a 25 fs/800 nm fundamental field and a relative weak 25 fs/1330 nm control field, which enables us to markedly relax the requirements of the driving laser fields both in pulse duration and CEP control. On the other hand, if the CEPs of driving laser fields are stabilized, a 65-eV broadband continual harmonic, supporting a 81-as IAP, can be directly produced with the optimized intensity ratio of 0.866 and control wavelength of 1400 nm. Moreover, the propagation effect of two-color field on the macroscopic build-up of HH for generating a high-energy IAP is discussed. We found that the method of phase match still works for the efficient continuous harmonic generation as long as the ionization level and the pressure of gas medium are kept low enough. Since the phase-matched short IAP can be generated with our shaped two-color scheme in combination with a relaxed requirement of driving laser fields, the commercial available high-energy laser source with a loosely focused geometry is promising for scaling up the energy of IAP, showing the potential for the realization of IAP with high focused intensity toward 100 attoseconds. PMID:24921516

Zhang, Qingbin; He, Lixin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

2014-06-01

153

Use of Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis To Compare Historic and Contemporary Isolates of Multi-Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Newport  

PubMed Central

Recently, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Newport reemerged as a public and animal health problem. The antibiotic resistance of 198 isolates and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (PFGE) of 139 isolates were determined. Serovar Newport isolates collected between 1988 and 2001 were included in the study. One hundred seventy-eight isolates were collected from the San Joaquin valley in California and came from dairy cattle clinical samples, human clinical samples, bulk tank milk samples, fecal samples from preweaned calves, and waterways. Twenty clinical isolates from humans from various regions of the United States were also included in the study. Resistance to 18 antibiotics was determined using a disk diffusion assay. PFGE patterns were determined using a single enzyme (XbaI). The PFGE and antibiogram patterns were described using cluster analysis. Although the antibiotic resistance patterns of historic (1988 to 1995) and contemporary (1999 to 2001) isolates were similar, the contemporary isolates differed from the historic isolates by being resistant to cephalosporins and florfenicol and in their general sensitivity to kanamycin and neomycin. With few exceptions, the contemporary isolates clustered together and were clearly separated from the historic isolates. One PFGE-antibiogram cluster combination was predominant for the recent isolates, which were taken from human samples from all parts of the United States, as well as in the isolates from California, indicating a rapid dissemination of this phenotypic strain. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the reemergence of MDR serovar Newport is not simply an acquisition of further antibiotic resistance genes by the historic isolates but reflects a different genetic lineage. PMID:14711658

Berge, Anna Catharina B.; Adaska, John M.; Sischo, William M.

2004-01-01

154

In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of field isolates of Mycoplasma synoviae in Argentina.  

PubMed

Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in vitro for 7 antibiotics (aivlosin, enrofloxacine, tylosin, tiamulin, kitasamycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) against eight recent local Argentinean isolates and two standard strains of Mycoplasma synoviae. Aivlosin (3-acetyl-4"-isovaleryl tylosin tartrate), tylosin, and tiamulin showed the lowest MICs with MIC90s of 0.006, 0.012, and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Except one strain that showed resistant values to chlortetracycline (> or = 12.5 microg/ml), all the analyzed strains were susceptible in different degrees to all the antibiotics tested. In this study, the improved activity of the tylosin-derived drug, aivlosin, was confirmed because it showed, in most strains, MIC values half those for tylosin. PMID:11922338

Cerdá, R O; Giacoboni, G I; Xavier, J A; Sansalone, P L; Landoni, M F

2002-01-01

155

Understanding the electric and magnetic response of isolated metaatoms by means of a multipolar field decomposition.  

PubMed

We introduce a technique to decompose the scattered near field of two-dimensional arbitrary metaatoms into its multipole contributions. To this end we expand the scattered field upon plane wave illumination into cylindrical harmonics as known from Mie's theory. By relating these cylindrical harmonics to the field radiated by Cartesian multipoles, the contribution of the lowest order electric and magnetic multipoles can be identified. Revealing these multipoles is essential for the design of metamaterials because they largely determine the character of light propagation. In particular, having this information at hand it is straightforward to distinguish between effects that result either from the arrangement of the metaatoms or from their particular design. PMID:20639930

Petschulat, J; Yang, J; Menzel, C; Rockstuhl, C; Chipouline, A; Lalanne, P; Tüennermann, A; Lederer, F; Pertsch, T

2010-07-01

156

Characterisation of E. coli O157 isolates from bovine hide and beef trimming in Irish abattoirs by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157 isolates from bovine hide (n=117) and beef trimmings (n=32) from a single abattoir were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Using BioNumerics software, dendrograms of isolates from each sample type (i.e. hide and beef trimming) were produced. In assessing the genetic relatedness of isolates, a similarity criterion of 80% was applied. The 117 E. coli O157 hide isolates were grouped into 14 clusters, comprising of 109 different PFGE profiles. Of the 109 different PFGE profiles, 8 were common to multiple isolates (i.e. shared 100% similarity by PFGE). The 32 E. coli O157 beef trimming isolates produced 28 different PFGE profiles and 2 clusters. Of the 28 PFGE profiles, 2 were common to multiple isolates and the remaining 26 were distinct. On a number of sampling occasions, isolates displaying identical PFGE patterns were recovered from multiple isolates collected from a single sample type (i.e. hides or trimmings), suggesting cross contamination from contaminated hides/animals to uncontaminated hides/animals and from contaminated beef trimmings to uncontaminated beef trimmings during abattoir operations. PMID:15649539

Duffy, G; O'Brien, S B; Carney, E; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S

2005-03-01

157

From Isolation to Collaboration: Rethinking the Preservice Field Experience from a Community Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the action research that shaped the development of the Growing Career Educators project, a teacher-designed field experience for preservice teachers within a high school in the fifth-largest school district in the country. The research consisted of two cycles of action research, both of which focused on whether a…

Bower, Laura A.; Klecka, Cari L.; Silva, Susan

2010-01-01

158

Partial sequencing of recent Portuguese myxoma virus field isolates exhibits a high degree of genetic stability.  

PubMed

To study genetic changes underlying myxoma virus evolution in its new host, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), we sequenced selected genomic regions of nine recent virulent field strains and a live attenuated vaccine strain ("MAV", Germany). DNA was extracted from cell culture passaged myxoma virus. A total of 4863 bp (approximately 3% of the genome) of 10 regions spanning 12 genes of the myxoma viruses was sequenced and compared to the original virulent strain "Lausanne" and its attenuated field derivative strain "6918". The field strains displayed a maximum of three (strains C43, C95) and a minimum of one (strains CD01, CD05) nucleotide substitutions. These were distributed through all analysed coding regions, except gene M022L (major envelope protein), where all strains were identical to "Lausanne" and "6918". Two new single nucleotide insertions were observed in some of the field strains: within the intergenic region M014L/M015L and within gene M009L, where it leads to a frameshift. These insertions were located after homopolymeric regions. The vaccine strain displayed 37 nucleotide substitutions, predominantly (95%) located in genes M022L and M036L. Interestingly, regions M009L and M014L/M015L of the vaccine were not amplified successfully, suggesting major genomic changes that could account for its attenuated phenotype. Our results support a high degree of genetic stability of myxoma virus over the past five decades. None of the analysed genome regions by its own seems sufficient for the genetic characterisation of field strains. PMID:19709821

Muller, A; Silva, E; Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Ferreira, P G; Carvalheira, J C; Nowotny, N; Thompson, G

2010-01-01

159

Discovery of a candidate old, isolated neutron star in the field of a galactic cirrus cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New x-ray optical, and radio observations of the bright, unidentified x-ray source MS 0317.7-6647 are presented suggesting that this source is a likely compact stellar remnant. As part of the Einstein Extended Medium Sensivity Survey, this source was discovered serendipitously in the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter pointing towards the nearby (4.5 Mpc) spiral galaxy NGC 1313. The very high x-ray to optical flux ratio, pointlike ROSAT HRI detection, and extremely soft component in the x-ray spectrum of MS 0317.7-6647 eliminate all the usual classes of optical counterparts to faint x-ray sources except for a very massive x-ray binary (and black hole candidate) in NGC 1313, a nearby, companionless pulsar similar to Geminga, or a very nearby ( approximately 100 pc) isolated, old neutron star slowly accreting interstellar matter onto its magnetic poles. The presence of an IR cirrus cloud which shadows the approximately 0.25 keV x-ray background in this direction supports the latter possibilty.

Stocke, John T.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Perlman, Eric S.; Donahue, Megan E.; Schachter, Jonathan F.

1995-01-01

160

WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) horizon free field fluid transport characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first attempt to measure the free field brine transport characteristics of the host rock. The data, which have been used to estimate the brine permeability, also suggest free field pore pressure values. One borehole was located in a competent predominantly halite bed with the test region positioned approximately nine meters from the rib. A second borehole intersected Marker Bed 139, which is a one meter thick fractured predominantly anhydrite layer. For this second borehole, the test region was positioned approximately 12 meters from the invert/rib intersection. A description of the tests provided in Section 2. Data obtained during these tests are described in Section 3. Analysis of these data and the associated uncertainties inherent in the data interpretation are presented in Section 4. Test results are given in Section 5. Conclusions are provided in Section 6. 13 refs., 65 figs.

Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

1987-12-01

161

Biological effects of gamma-irradiation on laboratory and field isolates of Eimeriatenella (Protozoa; Coccidia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporulated oocysts of a field strain (FS-111) and a laboratory strain (WIS) of Eimeriatenella were exposed to 0, 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy of gamma-radiation from a 60Co source. Irradiated oocysts of WIS and FS-111 were not significantly more fragile after irradiation as shown by the release\\u000a of sporocysts after 5–105?s of vortex agitation with glass beads. Excystation was

J. M. Gilbert; A. L. Fuller; T. C. Scott; L. R. McDougald

1998-01-01

162

Phylogenetic Diversity of Aerobic Saprotrophic Bacteria Isolated from the Daqing Oil Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse and active microbial community in the stratal waters of the Daqing oil field (China), which is exploited with the use of water-flooding, was found to contain aerobic chemoheterotrophic bacteria (including hydrocarbon-oxidizing ones) and anaerobic fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The aerobic bacteria were most abundant in the near-bottom zones of injection wells. Twenty pure cultures of aerobic saprotrophic

T. N. Nazina; A. A. Grigor'yan; Yan-Fen Xue; D. Sh. Sokolova; E. V. Novikova; T. P. Tourova; A. B. Poltaraus; S. S. Belyaev; M. V. Ivanov

2002-01-01

163

Aggregation pheromone components of two species ofPissodes weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Isolation, identification, and field activity.  

PubMed

Two related volatile compounds were identified from each of two species ofPissodes bark weevils and implicated as components of their aggregation pheromones. Grandisol (cis-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol), and its corresponding aldehyde, grandisal, were isolated from males of bothP. strobi andP. approximatus and were found in the abdomens and hindguts of the respective species. In field tests synthetic grandisol and grandisal together with odors from cut pine acted synergistically in attracting both sexes ofP. approximatus. This response was similar to that elicited by maleP. approximatus feeding on cut pine. Males and females of natural populations ofP. strobi were more responsive to caged males feeding on leaders of white pine than they were to leaders alone. The combination of grandisol, grandisal, and leaders was less attractive than males on leaders, but more attractive than leaders alone. From isolation of pheromone components at different times of the year, it was determined that males of both species produced grandisol and grandisal only at times when cohort females were reproductively mature. PMID:24408615

Booth, D C; Phillips, T W; Claesson, A; Silverstein, R M; Lanier, G N; West, J R

1983-01-01

164

Methanolobus profundi sp. nov., a methylotrophic methanogen isolated from deep subsurface sediments in a natural gas field.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, methylotrophic methanogen, strain MobM(T), was isolated from a natural gas field in Japan. Strain MobM(T) grew on methanol and methylamines, but not on H(2)/CO(2), formate, acetate or dimethyl sulfide. The cells were motile, irregular cocci (diameter, 0.9-1.2 microm) and occurred singly, in pairs, as tetracocci or (occasionally) as aggregates. Strain MobM(T) grew at 9-37 degrees C (optimally at 30 degrees C) and at pH 6.1-7.8 (optimally at pH 6.5). Sodium and magnesium were required for growth, at 0.1-1.0 M Na(+) (optimally at 0.35 M) and 10-400 mM Mg(2+) (optimally at 15-25 mM). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolate is a member of the genus Methanolobus, but distinct from its closest neighbours, Methanolobus tindarius DSM 2278(T) (sequence similarity, 98.0 %) and Methanolobus vulcani DSM 3029(T) (98.1 %). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic features of MobM(T), it is clear that this strain represents a novel species of the genus Methanolobus, for which the name Methanolobus profundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MobM(T) (=DSM 21213(T)=NBRC 104158(T)). PMID:19329594

Mochimaru, Hanako; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Hanada, Satoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kohei; Sakata, Susumu; Kamagata, Yoichi

2009-04-01

165

Paenibacillus barcinonensis sp. nov., a xylanase-producing bacterium isolated from a rice field in the Ebro River delta.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, xylanase-producing bacterium isolated from a rice field was studied taxonomically. The strain grows at 10-40 degrees C and in the presence of lysozyme or 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone of the isolated strain, while the major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0). Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BP-23(T) fell within the radiation of the cluster comprising Paenibacillus species. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were found with Paenibacillus illinoisensis (97.4 %), Paenibacillus pabuli (97.1 %) and Paenibacillus amylolyticus (96.9 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain BP-23(T) with respect to these three species was very low (32.7, 31.6 and 23.0 %, respectively). On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain BP-23(T) should be placed in the genus Paenibacillus and designated a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus barcinonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BP-23(T) (=CECT 7022(T)=DSM 15478(T)). PMID:15774688

Sánchez, Marta M; Fritze, Dagmar; Blanco, Ana; Spröer, Cathrin; Tindall, Brian J; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Diaz, Pilar; Pastor, F I Javier

2005-03-01

166

Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate  

PubMed Central

Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018). Antibodies elicited in immunized rabbits show a broad binding pattern to HIV envelopes of different clades. An epitope mapping analysis reveals that, on average, the binding is mostly focused on the C1, C2, V3, V5 and C5 regions. Immune sera show neutralization activity to Tier 1 isolates of different clades, demonstrating cross clade neutralizing activity which needs to be further broadened by possible structural modifications of the clade A gp14094UG018. Our results provide a rationale for the design and evaluation of immunogens and the clade A gp14094UG018 shows promising characteristics for potential involvement in an effective HIV vaccine with broad activity. PMID:23835244

2013-01-01

167

Use of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis To Characterize the Heterogeneity and Clonality of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from the Carcasses and Feces of Swine at Slaughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica isolates were recovered from swine at a collaborating processing plant over a 2-month period in the spring of 2000. In the present study, molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on the 581 confirmed Salmonella isolates from the 84 Salmonella-positive samples obtained from the previous study. A total of 32 different PFGE pulsotypes were observed visually,

Laura Wonderling; Rachel Pearce; F. Morgan Wallace; Jeffrey E. Call; Ingrid Feder; Mark Tamplin; John B. Luchansky

2003-01-01

168

Genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O isolates responsible for field outbreaks in India between 1993 and 1999.  

PubMed

Partial nucleotide sequence at the 3' end of ID (VP1-encoding) gene of 90 foot-and-mouth disease virus type O isolates recovered from field outbreaks in India between 1993-9 were determined. The sequences were compared with each other and reference viruses. The published sequences of 15 type O isolates recovered from different parts of Asia and one isolate (O1BFS) from Europe and one from Egypt (O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72) were also included in the analysis for comparison. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis the viruses could be grouped into four distinct genotypes (genotypes I-IV). All 90 isolates from India were genotype-I, as were the reference isolates from Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Turkey. Genotype-I isolates were further subdivided into 16 sub-genotypes. The Indian isolates were found to be extremely heterogeneous in nature and clustered into 12 different genetic groups. In genotype-I, the nucleotide sequence difference seen between the isolates was 0-11.6%, while among the Indian isolates it is 0-8.8%. Viruses of similar genetic groups are circulating in India, Bangladesh and countries of the Middle East. Genotype-II and -III are represented by isolates from Lebanon (O1/South Lebanon) and Europe (O1-BFS), respectively. Genotype-IV is formed by isolates from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. The present study reveals the occurrence of viruses belonging to multiple genetic groups over a short period of time and persistence of single genetic group in the same geographical area over several years. This is consistent with the endemic nature of the disease in the country. PMID:11218224

Hemadri, D; Tosh, C; Venkataramanan, R; Sanyal, A; Samuel, A R; Knowles, N J; Kitching, R P

2000-12-01

169

Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine and Human Skin, Milking Equipment, and Bovine Milk by Phage Typing, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Binary Typing  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 225) from bovine teat skin, human skin, milking equipment, and bovine milk were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Strains were compared to assess the role of skin and milking equipment as sources of S. aureus mastitis. PFGE of SmaI-digested genomic DNA identified 24 main types and 17 subtypes among isolates from 43 herds and discriminated between isolates from bovine teat skin and milk. Earlier, phage typing (L. K. Fox, M. Gershmann, D. D. Hancock, and C. T. Hutton, Cornell Vet. 81:183-193, 1991) had failed to discriminate between isolates from skin and milk. Skin isolates from humans belonged to the same pulsotypes as skin isolates from cows. Milking equipment harbored strains from skin as well as strains from milk. We conclude that S. aureus strains from skin and from milk can both be transmitted via the milking machine, but that skin strains are not an important source of intramammary S. aureus infections in dairy cows. A subset of 142 isolates was characterized by binary typing with DNA probes developed for typing of human S. aureus. Typeability and overall concordance with epidemiological data were lower for binary typing than for PFGE while discriminatory powers were similar. Within several PFGE types, binary typing discriminated between main types and subtypes and between isolates from different herds or sources. Thus, binary typing is not suitable as replacement for PFGE but may be useful in combination with PFGE to refine strain differentiation. PMID:12409348

Zadoks, R. N.; van Leeuwen, W. B.; Kreft, D.; Fox, L. K.; Barkema, H. W.; Schukken, Y. H.; van Belkum, A.

2002-01-01

170

Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields  

PubMed Central

Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order) by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the ?-1,2-cyclic glucan from R. tropici CIAT 899 was co-extracted with the cytoplasmic compatible solutes and its chemical structure was determined. Conclusions The soil bacteria analyzed in this work accumulated mainly disaccharides in response to NaCl stress. We could not find a direct correlation between the trehalose content of the rhizobial strains and their osmotolerance, suggesting that additional osmoadaptive mechanism should be operating in the most NaCl-tolerant strain R. tropici CIAT 899. PMID:20633304

2010-01-01

171

Antigenic heterogeneity among influenza A(H3N2) field isolates during an outbreak in 1982/83, estimated by methods of numerical taxonomy.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen influenza A(H3N2) field isolates, mainly obtained during the first weeks of the 1982/83 influenza epidemic in The Netherlands, and nine influenza A(H3N2) reference strains were examined by means of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests with 23 polyclonal ferret sera. The resulting HI patterns were subjected to various methods of numerical taxonomy using, among others, taxonomic distance and correlation between strains for resemblance coefficients. Marked differences between distance and correlation coefficients were found in strains which differed in avidity only. The field isolates could be divided into four groups in respect of their taxonomic resemblance to the reference strains. The same grouping was found for five of the field isolates by testing these against 200 human sera. PMID:3973384

Beyer, W. E.; Masurel, N.

1985-01-01

172

Time-resolved pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry of humic material isolated from freshwater  

SciTech Connect

The thermal degradation of aquatic humics in combination with mass spectrometric analyses using field ionization (FI) as a soft ionization method is reported. Since FI mass spectra of the pyrolysis (Py) products consist almost exclusively of molecular ions and mass spectrometric fragmentation even of relatively polar substances is strongly reduced, the characterization of biomacromolecules is facilitated and the identification of direct, primary building blocks is achieved. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of characteristic classes of humic constituents is investigated by time/temperature-resolved FI mass spectrometry (MS) with the commercially available direct-probe introduction system. A general characterization of the Py products of humics and the ratios of volatilized matter and residual char are given. These methods permit insight into the thermal degradation processes of complex polymeric biomatter. In contrast to the humic acid (HA) investigated, for fulvic acid (FA) a larger amount of pyrolysates is formed, indicating less thermal stability. The Py mass spectra of the HA and FA show monomers and higher aggregated chemical species of furan, phenol, methoxyphenol, and dimethoxyphenol subunits. Chemical reactions such as alternating methylation and oxidation steps of FA lead to characteristically different results: in the Py mass spectrum of the methylated-oxidized FA the m/z values of benzenecarboxylic acids, methoxybenzene-carboxylic acids, and monobasic aliphatic acids show high intensities, whereas methyl esters of benzenecarboxylic acids and aliphatic dibasic acids dominate in the case of the mass spectrum of the oxidized-methylated FA. 32 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

Schulten, H.R.; Abbt-Braun, G.; Frimmel, F.H.

1987-04-01

173

Plasmid Profile and Pulsed–Field Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Humans in Turkey  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted for typing Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains in Turkey using pulsed–field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid DNA profile analysis. Fourty-two strains were isolated from clinical samples obtained from unrelated patients with acute diarrhea. The samples were collected from state hospitals and public health laboratories located at seven provinces in different regions of Turkey at different times between 2004 and 2010. The strains were determined to belong to 4 different serovars. The Salmonella enterica strains belonged to the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis (n?=?23), Salmonella Infantis (n?=?14), Salmonella Munchen (n?=?2), and Salmonella Typhi (n?=?3). Forty-two Salmonella enterica strains were typed with PFGE methods using XbaI restriction enzyme and plasmid analysis. At the end of typing, 11 different PFGE band profiles were obtained. Four different PFGE profiles (type 1, 4, 9, and 10) were found among serotype S. Enteritidis species, 3 different PFGE profiles (type 3, 5, 6) were found among S. Infantis species, 2 different PFGE profiles were found among S. Typhi species (type 2 and 11), and 2 different PFGE profiles were found among S. Munchen species (type 7, 8). The UPGMA dendrogram was built on the PFGE profiles. In this study, it was determined that 4 strains of 42 Salmonella enterica strains possess no plasmid, while the isolates have 1–3 plasmids ranging from 5.0 to 150 kb and making 12 different plasmid profiles (P1–P12). In this study, we have applied the analysis of the PFGE patterns and used bioinformatics methods to identify both inter and intra serotype relationships of 4 frequently encountered serotypes for the first time in Turkey. PMID:24852084

Ozdemir, Kerem; Acar, Sumeyra

2014-01-01

174

A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates on Varroa destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata)  

PubMed Central

Background: The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C) on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field. Methods: A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group). The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C) and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 106 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted. Results: Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall) as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment. Conclusion: Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping. PMID:23785691

Pirali-kheirabadi, Khodadad; Teixeira-da-Silva, Jaime A; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Nazemnia, Mehdi

2013-01-01

175

USE OF PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE HETEROGENEITY AND CLONALITY OF SALMONELLA ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM THE CARCASS AND FECES OF SWINE AT SLAUGHTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a previous study, Salmonella were recovered from swine at a collaborating processing plant over a two month period in the spring of 2000. In the present study, molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on the 581 confirmed Salmonella isolates from the 84 Salmon...

176

Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated during 2010-2014 Epidemics in Senegal  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection is expanding and results in regular epizootic activities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a field strain of PPRV isolated in Senegal (SnDk11I13) in 2013. PMID:25291758

Salami, Habib; Croville, Guillaume; Kwiatek, Olivier; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Valière, Sophie; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lo, Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Albina, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

177

Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated during 2010-2014 Epidemics in Senegal.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection is expanding and results in regular epizootic activities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a field strain of PPRV isolated in Senegal (SnDk11I13) in 2013. PMID:25291758

Salami, Habib; Croville, Guillaume; Kwiatek, Olivier; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Valière, Sophie; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lo, Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Geneviève

2014-01-01

178

Diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars, and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California Central Coast.  

PubMed

A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119 water samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella. Animals sampled were frogs (n=331), lizards (n=59), newts (n=5), salamanders (n=6), snakes (n=39), and toads (n=20). Salmonella was isolated from 37 individual animals, including frogs, lizards, snakes, and toads. Snakes were the most likely to contain Salmonella, with 59% testing positive followed by 15.3% of lizards, 5% of toads, and 1.2% of frogs. Fifteen water samples (12.6%) were positive. Twenty-two different serovars were identified, and the majority of isolates were S. enterica subsp. IIIb, with subsp. I, II, and IIIa also found. The serovar isolated most frequently was S. enterica subsp. IIIb 16:z??:e,n,x,z??, from snakes and frogs in five different locations. S. enterica subsp. I serovar Typhimurium and the monophasic I 6,8:d:- were isolated from water, and subspecies I Duisburg and its variants were found in animals and water. Some samples contained more than one type of Salmonella. Analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes indicated that some strains persisted in animals and water collected from the same location. Sixty-six isolates displayed antibiotic resistance, with 27 isolates resistant to more than one antibiotic, including a subspecies IIIb isolate from snake having resistance to five different antibiotics. Twenty-three isolates were resistant to more than one class of antibiotic, and six isolates were resistant to three classes. While these subspecies of IIIa and IIIb cause fewer instances of human illness, they may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, determinants in the environment, and be sources of contamination of leafy greens associated with product recalls. PMID:23577627

Gorski, Lisa; Jay-Russell, Michele T; Liang, Anita S; Walker, Samarpita; Bengson, Yingjia; Govoni, Jessica; Mandrell, Robert E

2013-06-01

179

Metabolic and genomic diversity of rhizobia isolated from field standing native and exotic woody legumes in southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Eighty-seven rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of field standing native and exotic woody legumes in southern Ethiopia were characterized using the Biolog method and AFLP fingerprinting technique. Cluster analysis of the metabolic and genomic fingerprints revealed 18 and 25 groups, respectively, demonstrating considerable diversity in rhizobial population indigenous to Ethiopian soils. While 25 strains (29%) were linked to members of Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Sinorhizobium, the bulk of the strains formed several distinct groups in both methods and did not relate to reference species included in the study. In contrast to exotic species which formed symbiosis with strains of only one specific genomic group, indigenous host species nodulated by metabolically and genomically diverse groups. The results in this study support the view, that long-term association between the symbionts allows gradual differentiation and diversity in compatible rhizobial population resident in native soils. Lack of significant metabolic and genomic relatedness to the reference strains in our results suggested that test strains in our collection probably included 'unique' types, which belong to several yet undefined rhizobial species. PMID:15490562

Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Terefework, Zewdu; Lindström, Kristina; Frostegård, Asa

2004-09-01

180

Characterization of the cultivable bacterial populations associated with field grown Brassica napus L.: an evaluation of sampling and isolation protocols.  

PubMed

Plant-associated bacteria are intensively investigated concerning their characteristics for plant growth promotion, biocontrol mechanisms and enhanced phytoremediation efficiency. To obtain endophytes, different sampling and isolation protocols are used although their representativeness is not always clearly demonstrated. The objective of this study was to acquire representative pictures of the cultivable bacterial root, stem and leaf communities for all Brassica napus L. individuals growing on the same field. For each plant organ genotypic identifications of the endophytic communities were performed using 3 replicates. Root replicates were composed of 3 total root systems, whereas stem and leaf replicates needed to consist of 6 independent plant parts in order to be representative. Greater variations between replicates were found when considering phenotypic characteristics. Correspondence analysis revealed reliable phenotypic results for roots and even shoots, but less reliable ones for leaves. Additionally, realistic Shannon-Wiener biodiversity indices were calculated for all 3 organs and showed similar Evenness factors. Furthermore, it was striking that all replicates and thus the whole plant contained Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains although above- and below-ground plant tissues differed in most dominant bacterial genera and characteristics. PMID:25367683

Croes, S; Weyens, N; Colpaert, J; Vangronsveld, J

2014-11-01

181

Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca strain degrading crude oil from a Tunisian off-shore oil field.  

PubMed

A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, moderately halotolerant, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain BSC5 was isolated from an off-shore "Sercina" oil field, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BSC5 revealed that it was related to members of the genus Klebsiella, being most closely related to the type strain of K. oxytoca (99% sequence similarity). Strain BSC5 was capable of using aerobically the crude oil as substrate growth. The growth of strain BSC5 on crude oil was followed by measuring the OD(600 nm) and by enumeration of viable cells at different culture's time. GC-MS analysis showed that strain BSC5 was capable of degrading a wide range of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C(13) to C(30) . The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 44% and 75%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Addition of the synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, accelerated the crude oil degradation. The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 61% and 98%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Moreover, three aromatic compounds, p -hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate and gentisate, were metabolized completely by strain BSC5 after 24 h, under aerobic conditions. PMID:22144124

Chamkha, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Yosra; Mnif, Sami; Sayadi, Sami

2011-12-01

182

High Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing from a Hospital in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in Malaysia. We studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). E. faecium and E. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types (STs): ST17 (2 isolates), ST78, ST203, and ST601 for E. faecium, and ST6, ST16, ST28, ST179, and ST399 for E. faecalis. Resistance to tazobactam-piperacillin and ampicillin amongst E. faecium isolates was highly observed as compared to E. faecalis isolates. All of the isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. The presence of epidemic and nosocomial strains of selected E. faecium STs: 17, 78, and 203 and E. faecalis ST6 as well as high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics amongst E. faecium isolates is of a particular concern. PMID:23819125

Weng, Poh Leng; Ramli, Ramliza; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen; Hamat, Rukman Awang

2013-01-01

183

The complete genome sequence of the dominant Sinorhizobium meliloti field isolate SM11 extends the S. meliloti pan-genome.  

PubMed

Isolates of the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing species Sinorhizobium meliloti usually contain a chromosome and two large megaplasmids encoding functions that are absolutely required for the specific interaction of the microsymbiont with corresponding host plants leading to an effective symbiosis. The complete genome sequence, including the megaplasmids pSmeSM11c (related to pSymA) and pSmeSM11d (related to pSymB), was established for the dominant, indigenous S. meliloti strain SM11 that had been isolated during a long-term field release experiment with genetically modified S. meliloti strains. The chromosome, the largest replicon of S. meliloti SM11, is 3,908,022bp in size and codes for 3785 predicted protein coding sequences. The size of megaplasmid pSmeSM11c is 1,633,319bp and it contains 1760 predicted protein coding sequences whereas megaplasmid pSmeSM11d is 1,632,395bp in size and comprises 1548 predicted coding sequences. The gene content of the SM11 chromosome is quite similar to that of the reference strain S. meliloti Rm1021. Comparison of pSmeSM11c to pSymA of the reference strain revealed that many gene regions of these replicons are variable, supporting the assessment that pSymA is a major hot-spot for intra-specific differentiation. Plasmids pSymA and pSmeSM11c both encode unique genes. Large gene regions of pSmeSM11c are closely related to corresponding parts of Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 plasmids. Moreover, pSmeSM11c encodes further novel gene regions, e.g. additional plasmid survival genes (partition, mobilisation and conjugative transfer genes), acdS encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase involved in modulation of the phytohormone ethylene level and genes having predicted functions in degradative capabilities, stress response, amino acid metabolism and associated pathways. In contrast to Rm1021 pSymA and pSmeSM11c, megaplasmid pSymB of strain Rm1021 and pSmeSM11d are highly conserved showing extensive synteny with only few rearrangements. Most remarkably, pSmeSM11b contains a new gene cluster predicted to be involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. Compilation of the S. meliloti SM11 genome sequence contributes to an extension of the S. meliloti pan-genome. PMID:21396969

Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Wibberg, Daniel; Bekel, Thomas; Blom, Jochen; Linke, Burkhard; Neuweger, Heiko; Stiens, Michael; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Weidner, Stefan; Goesmann, Alexander; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

2011-08-20

184

Overexpression of ShCYP51B and ShatrD in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Isolates Exhibiting Practical Field Resistance to a Demethylation Inhibitor Fungicide  

PubMed Central

We investigated genetic factors that govern the reduced propiconazole sensitivity of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa field isolates collected during a 2-year field efficacy study on dollar spot disease of turf in five New England sites. These isolates displayed a >50-fold range of in vitro sensitivity to a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide, propiconazole, making them ideal for investigations of genetic mechanisms of reduced DMI sensitivity. The CYP51 gene homolog in S. homoeocarpa (ShCYP51B), encoding the enzyme target of DMIs, is likely a minor genetic factor for reduced propiconazole sensitivity, since there were no differences in constitutive relative expression (RE) values and only 2-fold-higher induced RE values for insensitive than for sensitive isolate groups. Next, we mined RNA-Seq transcriptome data for additional genetic factors and found evidence for the overexpression of a homolog of Botrytis cinerea atrD (BcatrD), ShatrD, a known efflux transporter of DMI fungicides. The ShatrD gene showed much higher constitutive and induced RE values for insensitive isolates. Several polymorphisms were found upstream of ShatrD but were not definitively linked to overexpression. The screening of constitutive RE values of ShCYP51B and ShatrD in isolates from two golf courses that exhibited practical field resistance to propiconazole uncovered evidence for significant population-specific overexpression of both genes. However, linear regression demonstrated that the RE of ShatrD displays a more significant relationship with propiconazole sensitivity than that of ShCYP51B. In summary, our results suggest that efflux is a major determinant of the reduced DMI sensitivity of S. homoeocarpa genotypes in New England, which may have implications for the emergence of practical field resistance in this important turfgrass pathogen. PMID:22798361

Hulvey, Jon; Popko, James T.; Sang, Hyunkyu; Berg, Andrew

2012-01-01

185

Isolation and Characterization of Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov., a Novel Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen from the Shengli Oil Field?†  

PubMed Central

Syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is an alternative methanogenic pathway in certain thermophilic anaerobic environments such as high-temperature oil reservoirs and thermophilic biogas reactors. In these environments, the dominant thermophilic methanogens were generally related to uncultured organisms of the genus Methanothermobacter. Here we isolated two representative strains, Tm2T and HMD, from the oil sands and oil production water in the Shengli oil field in the People's Republic of China. The type strain, Tm2T, was nonmotile and stained Gram positive. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.3 ?m in width and 2.2 to 5.9 ?m in length), but some of them possessed a coccal shape connecting with the rods at the ends. Strain Tm2T grew with H2-CO2, but acetate is required. Optimum growth of strain Tm2T occurred in the presence of 0.025 g/liter NaCl at pH 6.9 and a temperature of 65°C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.1 mol% ± 1.3 mol% (by the thermal denaturation method) or 41.1 mol% (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that Tm2T was most closely related to Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ?HT and Methanothermobacter wolfeii VKM B-1829T (both with a sequence similarity of 96.4%). Based on these phenotypic and phylogenic characteristics, a novel species was proposed and named Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov. The type strain is Tm2T (ACCC 00699T = JCM 17393T). PMID:21705537

Cheng, Lei; Dai, Lirong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

2011-01-01

186

Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Apparent emerging artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia requires development of practical tools to monitor for resistant parasites. Although in vitro anti-malarial susceptibility tests are widely used, uncertainties remain regarding interpretation of P. falciparum field isolate values. Methods Performance parameters of the W2 P. falciparum clone (considered artemisinin “sensitive”) were evaluated as a reference for the HRP-2 immediate ex vivo assay. Variability in W2 IC50s was assessed, including intra- and inter-assay variability among and between technicians in multiple experiments, over five freeze-thaw cycles, over five months of continuous culture, and before and after transport of drug-coated plates to remote field sites. Nominal drug plate concentrations of artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were verified by LC-MS analysis. Plasmodium falciparum field isolate IC50s for DHA from subjects in an artemisinin-resistant area in Cambodia were compared with W2 susceptibility. Results Plate drug concentrations and day-to-day technical assay performance among technicians were important sources of variability for W2 IC50s within and between assays. Freeze-thaw cycles, long-term continuous culture, and transport to and from remote sites had less influence. Despite variability in W2 susceptibility, the median IC50s for DHA for Cambodian field isolates were higher (p <0.0001) than the W2 clone (3.9 nM), both for subjects with expected (less than 72?hours; 6.3 nM) and prolonged (greater or equal to 72?hours; 9.6 nM) parasite clearance times during treatment with artesunate monotherapy. Conclusion The W2 reference clone improved the interpretability of field isolate susceptibility from the immediate ex vivo HRP-2 assay from areas of artemisinin resistance. Methods to increase the reproducibility of plate coating may improve overall assay interpretability and utility. PMID:22974086

2012-01-01

187

Genetic Diversity and Biological Control Activity of Novel Species of Closely Related Pseudomonads Isolated from Wheat Field Soils in South Australia  

PubMed Central

Rhizobacteria closely related to two recently described species of pseudomonads, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas thivervalensis, were isolated from two geographically distinct wheat field soils in South Australia. Isolation was undertaken by either selective plating or immunotrapping utilizing a polyclonal antibody raised against P. brassicacearum. A subset of 42 isolates were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), BIOLOG analysis, and gas chromatography-fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) analysis and separated into closely related phenetic groups. More than 75% of isolates tested by ARDRA were found to have >95% similarity to either Pseudomonas corrugata or P. brassicacearum-P. thivervalensis type strains, and all isolates had >90% similarity to either type strain. BIOLOG and GC-FAME clustering showed a >70% match to ARDRA profiles. Strains representing different ARDRA groups were tested in two soil types for biological control activity against the soilborne plant pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, the causative agent of take-all of wheat and barley. Three isolates out of 11 significantly reduced take-all-induced root lesions on wheat plants grown in a red-brown earth soil. Only one strain, K208, was consistent in reducing disease symptoms in both the acidic red-brown earth and a calcareous sandy loam. Results from this study indicate that P. brassicacearum and P. thivervalensis are present in Australian soils and that a level of genetic diversity exists within these two novel species but that this diversity does not appear to be related to geographic distribution. The result of the glasshouse pot trial suggests that some isolates of these species may have potential as biological control agents for plant disease. PMID:10742249

Ross, Ian L.; Alami, Younes; Harvey, Paul R.; Achouak, Wafa; Ryder, Maarten H.

2000-01-01

188

Repression of Flagella Is a Common Trait in Field Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin and Is Associated with Invasive Human Infections  

PubMed Central

The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:?:?, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin. PMID:24421045

Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

2014-01-01

189

Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infection by investigating the spike protein of a PEDV isolate (wtPEDV) using a reverse genetics system based on the trypsin-independent cell culture-adapted strain DR13 (caPEDV). We demonstrate that trypsin acts on the wtPEDV spike protein after receptor binding. We mapped the genetic determinant for trypsin-dependent cell entry to the N-terminal region of the fusion subunit of this class I fusion protein, revealing a conserved arginine just upstream of the putative fusion peptide as the potential cleavage site. Whereas coronaviruses are typically processed by endogenous proteases of the producer or target cell, PEDV S protein activation strictly required supplementation of a protease, enabling us to study mechanistic details of proteolytic processing. IMPORTANCE Recurring PEDV epidemics constitute a serious animal health threat and an economic burden, particularly in Asia but, as of recently, also on the North-American subcontinent. Understanding the biology of PEDV is critical for combatting the infection. Here, we provide new insight into the protease-dependent cell entry of PEDV. PMID:24807723

Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J.; Wubbolts, Richard W.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rottier, Peter J. M.

2014-01-01

190

Atomic interferometer measurements of Berry and Aharonov-Anandan phases for isolated spins S>(1)\\/(2) nonlinearly coupled to external fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper we have studied the peculiar features of the Berry and Aharonov-Anandan geometric phases for isolated spins S=>1. We have assumed that they are submitted to a dipole and quadrupole coupling to external E and B fields with the mild restriction E·B=0. This implies discrete symmetries leading to remarkable simplifications of the geometry and algebra involved. The

Marie-Anne Bouchiat; Claude Bouchiat

2011-01-01

191

Genetic Heterogeneity of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1976 through 2003, as Revealed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 46 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated in Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 1976 to 2003 were compared with those found among 30 non-STEC strains that carried eae and that belonged to the same serogroups as the STEC strains. All except two of the STEC and non-STEC strains of human

Tânia Mar; I. Va; Kinue Irino; Lucilia S. Nishimura; Maria Cecõ ´ li

2006-01-01

192

In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A. annua used was cultivated in three Amazon ecosystems (várzea, terra preta de índio and terra firme) and in the city of Paulínia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Artemisinin levels in the A. annua leaves used were 0.90-1.13% (m/m). The concentration of artemisinin in the infusions was 40-46 mg/L. Field P. falciparum isolates were resistant to chloroquine and sensitive to quinine and artemisinin. The average 50% inhibition concentration values for A. annua infusions against field isolates were 0.11-0.14 ?L/mL (these infusions exhibited artemisinin concentrations of 4.7-5.6 ng/mL) and were active in vitro against P. falciparum due to their artemisinin concentration. No synergistic effect was observed for artemisinin in the infusions. PMID:23147140

Silva, Luiz Francisco Rocha e; Magalhães, Pedro Melillo de; Costa, Mônica Regina Farias; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Vieira, Pedro Paulo Ribeiro

2012-11-01

193

Analysis of pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles using multiple enzymes for predicting potential source reservoirs for strains of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from humans.  

PubMed

We reported previously on a highly discriminatory pulsed field gel electrophoresis-based (PFGE) subtyping scheme for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) that relies on combined cluster analysis of up to six restriction enzymes. This approach allowed for the high-resolution separation of numerous poultry-derived SE and ST isolates into several distinct clusters that sorted along several geographical and host-linked boundaries. In this study, 101 SE and 151 ST strains isolated from poultry, swine, beef, mouse, and produce origins were combined with 62 human SE and ST isolates of unknown sources. PFGE profiles were generated across six restriction enzymes (XbaI, BlnI, SpeI, SfiI, PacI, and NotI) for human SE and ST isolates. The combined six-enzyme UPGMA trees of SE and ST revealed six separate origins of North American human SE isolates including one association with a "cosmopolitan" cluster of SEs from poultry originating in Scotland, Mexico, and China. In the case of ST, human isolates assorted readily along host lines rather than geographical partitions with the majority of human STs clustering in a larger group of STs of potential porcine origin. Such observations may underscore the ecological importance of poultry and pork reservoirs for SE and ST transmission to humans, respectively. In an examination of the relationship between enzyme diversity and congruence among enzymes, pairwise genetic diversity ranged from 6.5% to 9.7% for SE isolates and, more widely, from 17.5% to 27.4% for ST isolates. Phylogenetic congruence measures singled out XbaI, BlnI, and SfiI as most concordant for SE while XbaI and SfiI were most concordant among ST strains. Thus, these data provide the first proof of principal for concatenated PFGE, when coupled with sufficient enzyme numbers and combinations, as one effective means for predicting geographical and food source reservoirs for human isolates of these two highly prevalent Salmonella serovars. PMID:23429060

Son, Insook; Zheng, Jie; Keys, Christine E; Zhao, Shaohua; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W

2013-06-01

194

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant-growth-promoting bacilli isolated from wheat fields in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this work, a total of 311 putative nitrogen-fixing bacilli were isolated from seven distinct wheat production zones of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Strains belonging to several species were grouped into 40 different nifH-RFLP-PCR profiles. The genus Paenibacillus was the most prominent group in both the rhizosphere (77.8%) and soil (79%). Paenibacillus borealis was the most frequently identified species, followed by Paenibacillus graminis. The remainder of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. Indolic compound production (indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), indolepyruvic acid (IPyA) and indoleacetamide (IAM)) was detected in 33.6% and 26% of the isolates from the rhizosphere and soil, respectively. Among the 311 isolates, nine were able to solubilize phosphate and 48 were able to produce siderophores. The isolates SBR5, CSR16 and EsR7, identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequence as strains of Paenibacillus sp., were chosen for in vivo experiments in a greenhouse and proved to be very efficient in promoting a significant increase in the shoot and dry matter of wheat plants. Those strains could be useful in formulation of new inoculants, improving the cropping systems into which they can be most profitably applied. PMID:18490146

Beneduzi, Anelise; Peres, Daiane; da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Bodanese Zanettini, Maria Helena; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira

2008-05-01

195

In Vitro Metacyclogenesis of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Clinical Field Isolates, as Evaluated by Morphology, Complement Resistance, and Infectivity to Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to assess in vitro metacyclogenesis of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis clinical field isolates obtained from patient lesions (L. braziliensis IMG3 and PPS6m; L. amazonensis MAB6). Metacyclogenesis was evaluated by different criteria, namely, promastigote size (morphometric analysis and flow cytometry), surface modifications (loss of lectin or monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding, complement resistance), and infectivity to human macrophages. Growth curves were similar for all parasites evaluated. The various features analyzed were expressed in a high percentage of promastigotes at 6th and 10th days of culture and a low percentage at the 2nd day. However, in most isolates, these features, considered as markers of metacyclogenesis, seemed to develop with different time courses, since the percentages of metacyclic forms detected with each technique were usually different. Parasites from 6th or 10th day and those negatively selected with lectin or mAb similarly infected human macrophages. From all isolates analyzed, L. amazonensis PH8 and MAB6 showed the highest and the lowest levels of susceptibility, respectively, to leishmanicidal activity of IFN-?/LPS-activated macrophages. Our results showed that by using different techniques to evaluate different aspects of metacyclogenesis (morphological and biochemical modifications) different percentages of metacyclic promastigotes can be detected in each isolate culture.

da Silva, Ildefonso Alves; Morato, Camila Imai; Quixabeira, Valéria Bernadete Leite; Pereira, Ledice Inácia de Araújo; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Horta, Maria Fátima; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

2015-01-01

196

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile homogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains led to classify paratuberculosis isolates in two main types, cattle type strains, found affecting all host species, and sheep type strains, reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years have been characterized. Five-hundred and twenty isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar) and origins had been cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction-endonuclease-analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-nine isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. Results All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-Cattle type strains. IS1311-Sheep type encompassed 96% and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all three Portuguese sheep. Thirty-seven distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for the 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43%) and another three profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis, clustered all profiles found in cattle, "wild" hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. Conclusion Cattle in Spain are infected with cattle type strains, while sheep and goats are mainly infected with sheep type strains. Although 7H9 broth based culture media seem to broadly cover the growth requirements of most Map strains, the use of various solid media is recommended to reduce any recovery biases. High genetic homogeneity of isolates from cattle, and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats have been detected. PMID:17352818

Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M; Geijo, Marivi; Juste, Ramon A

2007-01-01

197

Reduced in vitro doxycycline susceptibility in plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kenya is associated with PfTetQ KYNNNN sequence polymorphism.  

PubMed

Doxycycline is widely used for malaria prophylaxis by international travelers. However, there is limited information on doxycycline efficacy in Kenya, and genetic polymorphisms associated with reduced efficacy are not well defined. In vitro doxycycline susceptibility profiles for 96 Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kenya were determined. Genetic polymorphisms were assessed in P. falciparum metabolite drug transporter (Pfmdt) and P. falciparum GTPase tetQ (PftetQ) genes. Copy number variation of the gene and the number of KYNNNN amino acid motif repeats within the protein encoded by PftetQ were determined. Reduced in vitro susceptibility to doxycycline was defined by 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ?35,000 nM. The odds ratio (OR) of having 2 PfTetQ KYNNNN amino acid repeats in isolates with IC50s of >35,000 nM relative to those with IC50s of <35,000 nM is 15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0 to 74.3; P value of <0.0002). Isolates with 1 copy of the Pfmdt gene had a median IC50 of 6,971 nM, whereas those with a Pfmdt copy number of >1 had a median IC50 of 9,912 nM (P = 0.0245). Isolates with 1 copy of PftetQ had a median IC50 of 6,370 nM, whereas isolates with a PftetQ copy number of >1 had a median IC50 of 3,422 nM (P < 0.0007). Isolates with 2 PfTetQ KYNNNN motif repeats had a median IC50 of 26,165 nM, whereas isolates with 3 PfTetQ KYNNNN repeats had a median IC50 of 3,352 nM (P = 0.0023). PfTetQ sequence polymorphism is associated with a reduced doxycycline susceptibility phenotype in Kenyan isolates and is a potential marker for susceptibility testing. PMID:25070109

Achieng, Angela O; Ingasia, Luiser A; Juma, Dennis W; Cheruiyot, Agnes C; Okudo, Charles A; Yeda, Redemptah A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Akala, Hoseah M; Johnson, Jacob; Andangalu, Ben; Eyase, Fredrick; Jura, Walter G Z O; Kamau, Edwin

2014-10-01

198

Virulence and polar tube protein genetic diversity of Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) field isolates from Northern and Southern Europe in honeybees (Apis mellifera iberiensis).  

PubMed

Infection of honeybees by the microsporidian Nosema ceranae is considered to be one of the factors underlying the increased colony losses and decreased honey production seen in recent years. However, these effects appear to differ in function of the climatic zone, the distinct beekeeping practices and the honeybee species employed. Here, we compared the response of Apis mellifera iberiensis worker bees to experimental infection with field isolates of N.?ceranae from an Oceanic climate zone in Northern Europe (Netherlands) and from a Mediterranean region of Southern Europe (Spain). We found a notable but non-significant trend (P?=?0.097) towards higher honeybee survival for bees infected with N.?ceranae from the Netherlands, although no differences were found between the two isolates in terms of anatomopathological lesions in infected ventricular cells or the morphology of the mature and immature stages of the parasite. In addition, the population genetic survey of the N. ceranae?PTP3 locus revealed high levels of genetic diversity within each isolate, evidence for meiotic recombination, and no signs of differentiation between the Dutch and Spanish populations. A cross-infection study is needed to further explore the differences in virulence observed between the two N.?ceranae populations in field conditions. PMID:24992540

Van der Zee, Romee; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Pisa, Lennard; Sagastume, Soledad; García-Palencia, Pilar; Maside, Xulio; Bartolomé, Carolina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

2014-08-01

199

A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

1994-01-01

200

A Proteomics Screen Implicates HSP83 and a Small Kinetoplastid Calpain-related Protein in Drug Resistance in Leishmania donovani Clinical Field Isolates by Modulating Drug-induced Programmed Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic mainstay against the protozoan parasite Leishmania is still based on the antiquated pentavalent antimonials (Sb(V)), but resistance is increasing in several parts of the world. Resistance is now partly understood in laboratory isolates, but our understanding of resistance in field isolates is lagging behind. We describe here a com- parative analysis of a genetically related pair of Sb(V)-

Baptiste Vergnes; Benjamin Gourbal; Isabelle Girard; Shyam Sundar; Jolyne Drummelsmith; Marc Ouellette

2006-01-01

201

Three-dimensional MHD simulation of FTEs produced by merging at an isolated point in a sheared magnetic field configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present predictions for the evolution of FTEs generated by localized bursts of reconnection on a planar magnetopause that separates a magnetosheath region of high densities and weak magnetic field from a magnetospheric region of low densities and strong magnetic field. The magnetic fields present a shear angle of 105 degrees. Reconnection forms a pair of FTEs each crossing the magnetopause in the field reversal region and bulging into the magnetosphere and magnetosheath. At their initial stage they can be characterized as flux tubes since the newly reconnected magnetic field lines are not twisted. Reconnection launches Alfvenic perturbations that propagate along the FTEs generating high-speed jets, which move the pair of FTEs in opposite directions. As the FTE moves, it displaces the ambient magnetic field and plasma producing bipolar magnetic field and plasma velocity signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause in the regions surrounding the FTE. The combination of the ambient plasma with the FTE flows generates a vortical velocity pattern around the reconnected field lines. During its evolution the FTE evolves to a flux rope configuration due to the twist of the magnetic field lines. The alfvenic perturbations propagate faster along the part of the FTE bulging into the magnetosphere than in the magnetosheath, and due to the differences between the plasma and magnetic field properties the perturbations have slightly different signatures in the two regions. As a consequence, the FTEs have different signatures depending on whether the satellite encounters the part bulging into the magnetosphere or into the magnetosheath.

Santos, J. C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Büchner, J.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Ferreira, J. L.

2014-03-01

202

In vitro susceptibilities of caprine Mycoplasma agalactiae field isolates to six antimicrobial agents using the E test methodology.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, spiramycin and erythromycin against 30 caprine Greek isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae were determined using E test methodology. The E test strips were placed on Eaton's agar medium without antimicrobials and phenol red. MICs were then read by determining where the growth inhibition zone intersected with the MIC scale on the strip. An MIC value of 8?µg/mL was considered as a guide to mycoplasma resistance. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones (MIC50, 0.19?g/mL; MIC90, 0.38?µg/mL; highest MIC, 0.5?µg/mL), spectinomycin (MIC50, 0.5?µg/mL; MIC90, 1?µg/mL; highest MIC, 1?µg/mL), and spiramycin (MIC50, 1?µg/mL; MIC90, 1.5?µg/mL; highest MIC, 2?µg/mL). Two strains exhibited resistance to tetracycline (MIC 32?µg/mL) but these were not found to carry any of the tet(M), tet(O), and tet(S) resistance genes. Finally all isolates expressed resistance to erythromycin (MIC50, 128?µg/mL; MIC90, >256?µg/mL). PMID:25439442

Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Giadinis, Nektarios D; Kritas, Spyridon K

2014-12-01

203

Weed hosts of Verticillium dahliae in cotton fields in Turkey and characterization of V. dahliae isolates from weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weed survey conducted in 2004 and 2005 in Aydin province of Turkey showed that Solanum nigrum, Xanthium strumarium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca oleracea, Sonchus oleraceus and Datura stramonium were the most prevalent weeds in the cotton fields exhibiting Verticillium wilt. Verticillium dahliae Kleb. was recovered from A. retroflexus and X. strumarium in those cotton fields. This is the first report

Ayhan Yildiz; M. Nedim Do?an; Özhan Boz; Seher Benlio?lu

2009-01-01

204

Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to characterize the heterogeneity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Infantis isolates obtained from whole liquid eggs.  

PubMed

Salmonella is a well-documented pathogen known to occur in a wide range of foods, especially poultry products. The most frequently reported food-sources of human infection are eggs and egg products. In this study, in order to describe Salmonella contamination of egg products, 144 liquid egg samples were collected from 3 different egg-breaking plants during the 3 sampling periods. Salmonella detection was performed on raw samples stored at 2 degrees C for 2 days (D+2) and on pasteurised samples stored at 2 degrees C at D+2 and at shelf-life date. Salmonella was detected in 130 of the 144 raw egg samples collected and in 11 of the 288 pasteurised egg samples analysed. 740 Salmonella isolates were collected and serotyped: 14 serovars were demonstrated. A great diversity, particularly during summer, was noted. The dominant serovars were S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis, mainly found in whole raw egg products. Typing of 325 isolates of S. Enteritidis, 54 isolates of S. Typhimurium and 58 isolates of S. Infantis was carried out by macrorestriction of the genomic DNA with XbaI and SpeI enzymes followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The Salmonella Enteritidis isolates could be grouped into 3 clusters. Cluster 1 was predominant at all 3 egg-breaking companies during the different sampling periods. This cluster seemed to be adapted to the egg-breaking plants. Cluster 2 was linked to plant 1 and cluster 3 to plant 3. Two main clusters of Salmonella Typhimurium were demonstrated. Cluster A was mainly found at plant 2 during autumn. Plant 3 was contaminated by all the Salmonella Typhimurium genotypes but in a more sporadic manner during the three seasons studied. Plant 1 seemed to be less contaminated by Salmonella Typhimurium than the others. Three clusters and 2 genotypes of Salmonella Infantis were shown. The main cluster, cluster alpha, consisted of 75% of the S. Infantis isolates and was mainly found during summer at plants 1 and 3. Plant 2 seemed to be less contaminated by S. Infantis. In this study, molecular typing demonstrated that, although certain clusters were common to all three companies, specific clusters, notably of S. Enteritidis were present at each plant. PMID:19128850

Rivoal, Katell; Protais, Jocelyne; Quéguiner, Stéphane; Boscher, Evelyne; Chidaine, Bérengère; Rose, Valérie; Gautier, Michel; Baron, Florence; Grosset, Noël; Ermel, Gwennola; Salvat, Gilles

2009-02-15

205

High resolution observations of the near-surface wind field over an isolated mountain and in a steep river canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of numerical wind flow models have been developed for simulating wind flow at relatively fine spatial resolutions (e.g., ∼100 m); however, there are very limited observational data available for evaluating these high resolution models. This study presents high-resolution surface wind datasets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The wind data are presented in terms of four flow regimes: upslope, afternoon, downslope, and a synoptically-driven regime. There were notable differences in the data collected from the two terrain types. For example, wind speeds collected on the isolated mountain increased with distance upslope during upslope flow, but generally decreased with distance upslope at the river canyon site during upslope flow. Wind speed did not have a simple, consistent trend with position on the slope during the downslope regime on the isolated mountain, but generally increased with distance upslope at the river canyon site. The highest measured speeds occurred during the passage of frontal systems on the isolated mountain. Mountaintop winds were often twice as high as wind speeds measured on the surrounding plain. The highest speeds measured in the river canyon occurred during late morning hours and were from easterly downcanyon flows, presumably associated with surface pressure gradients induced by formation of a regional thermal trough to the west and high pressure to the east. Under periods of weak synoptic forcing, surface winds tended to be decoupled from large-scale flows, and under periods of strong synoptic forcing, variability in surface winds was sufficiently large due to terrain-induced mechanical effects (speed-up over ridges and decreased speeds on leeward sides of terrain obstacles) that a large-scale mean flow would not be representative of surface winds at most locations on or within the terrain feature. These findings suggest that traditional operational weather model (i.e., with numerical grid resolutions of around 4 km or larger) wind predictions are not likely to be good predictors of local near-surface winds at sub-grid scales in complex terrain. The data from this effort are archived and available at: http://www.firemodels.org/index.php/windninja-introduction/windninja-publications.

Butler, B. W.; Wagenbrenner, N. S.; Forthofer, J. M.; Lamb, B. K.; Shannon, K. S.; Finn, D.; Eckman, R. M.; Clawson, K.; Bradshaw, L.; Sopko, P.; Beard, S.; Jimenez, D.; Wold, C.; Vosburgh, M.

2014-06-01

206

Analysis of the Genome of a Korean Isolate of the Pieris rapae Granulovirus Enabled by Its Separation from Total Host Genomic DNA by Pulse-Field Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Background Most traditional genome sequencing projects involving viruses include the culture and purification of the virus particles. However, purification of virions may yield insufficient material for traditional sequencing. The electrophoretic method described here provides a strategy whereby the genomic DNA of the Korean isolate of Pieris rapae granulovirus (PiraGV-K) could be recovered in sufficient amounts for sequencing by purifying it directly from total host DNA by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Methodology/Principal Findings The total genomic DNA of infected P. rapae was embedded in agarose plugs, treated with restriction nuclease and methylase, and then PFGE was used to separate PiraGV-K DNA from the DNA of P. rapae, followed by mapping of fosmid clones of the purified viral DNA. The double-stranded circular genome of PiraGV-K was found to encode 120 open reading frames (ORFs), which covered 92% of the sequence. BLAST and ORF arrangement showed the presence of 78 homologs to other genes in the database. The mean overall amino acid identity of PiraGV-K ORFs was highest with the Chinese isolate of PiraGV (?99%), followed up with Choristoneura occidentalis ORFs at 58%. PiraGV-K ORFs were grouped, according to function, into 10 genes involved in transcription, 11 involved in replication, 25 structural protein genes, and 15 auxiliary genes. Genes for Chitinase (ORF 10) and cathepsin (ORF 11), involved in the liquefaction of the host, were found in the genome. Conclusions/Significance The recovery of PiraGV-K DNA genome by pulse-field electrophoretic separation from host genomic DNA had several advantages, compared with its isolation from particles harvested as virions or inclusions from the P. rapae host. We have sequenced and analyzed the 108,658 bp PiraGV-K genome purified by the electrophoretic method. The method appears to be generally applicable to the analysis of genomes of large viruses. PMID:24391907

Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kang, Se Won; Chae, Sung-Hwa; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Noh, Mi Young; Seo, Gi Won; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Noh, Ju Young; Jeong, Ji Eun; Hwang, Hee Ju; Ko, Kisung; Han, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yong Seok

2013-01-01

207

Geometric Morphometrics of Nine Field Isolates of Aedes aegypti with Different Resistance Levels to Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Relative Fitness of One Artificially Selected for Resistance  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti, a mosquito closely associated with humans, is the principal vector of dengue virus which currently infects about 400 million people worldwide. Because there is no way to prevent infection, public health policies focus on vector control; but insecticide-resistance threatens them. However, most insecticide-resistant mosquito populations exhibit fitness costs in absence of insecticides, although these costs vary. Research on components of fitness that vary with insecticide-resistance can help to develop policies for effective integrated management and control. We investigated the relationships in wing size, wing shape, and natural resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin of nine field isolates. Also we chose one of these isolates to select in lab for resistance to the insecticide. The main life-traits parameters were assessed to investigate the possible fitness cost and its association with wing size and shape. We found that wing shape, more than wing size, was strongly correlated with resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin in field isolates, but founder effects of culture in the laboratory seem to change wing shape (and also wing size) more easily than artificial selection for resistance to that insecticide. Moreover, significant fitness costs were observed in response to insecticide-resistance as proved by the diminished fecundity and survival of females in the selected line and the reversion to susceptibility in 20 generations of the non-selected line. As a practical consequence, we think, mosquito control programs could benefit from this knowledge in implementing efficient strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance. In particular, the knowledge of reversion to susceptibility is important because it can help in planning better strategies of insecticide use to keep useful the few insecticide-molecules currently available. PMID:24801598

Jaramillo-O., Nicolás; Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Chaverra-Rodríguez, Duverney

2014-01-01

208

Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation from asymmetric molecules with an {omega}+2{omega}/3 multicycle two-color field  

SciTech Connect

The high harmonic generation from asymmetric molecules with an {omega}+2{omega}/3 multicycle bichromatic laser pulse has been investigated. It is shown that the ionization asymmetry in consecutive half optical cycles for asymmetric molecules is further enhanced since the 2{omega}/3 control laser pulse further enhances the amplitude of the ionization peak at the center of the laser pulse. The 2{omega}/3 control laser pulse also significantly enlarges the difference of the photon energies emitted from the ejected electron in the half optical cycle at the central laser pulse and its next half optical cycle. In addition, a broadband supercontinuum is produced in the plateau of the spectrum, from which an isolated 90-as pulse can be directly obtained.

Li Qianguang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Physics, Xiaogan University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Hong Weiyi; Zhang Qingbin; Wang Shaoyi; Lu Peixiang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2010-05-15

209

Previous infection of sows with a "mild" strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus confers protection against infection with a "severe" strain.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infected approximately 50% of the US swine breeding herds from July 2013 to July 2014 as estimated by the Swine Health Monitoring Project. In the absence of effective vaccines or standard control protocols, there is an urgent need for evidence of cross-protective immune countermeasures. Here, we evaluated the response of 3-day-old piglets born to sows exposed seven months earlier to a mild strain of PEDv to challenge with a virulent PEDv isolate. Piglet survival to one week of age was 100% compared to 67% in piglets born to sows not previously exposed, and morbidity was 43% compared to 100%, respectively. At necropsy at 7 days of age, the PEDv Ct value was 23.6 (range 16.6-30.6) in intestinal contents, compared to 17.2 (range 15.9-18.5) (p<0.06) in litters from sows with no previous exposure to PEDv. The findings indicated that durable lactogenic immunity was present in sows previously exposed to a mild strain of PEDv and this immunity induced cross-protection to representative virulent PEDv. Thus, a naturally attenuated form of PEDv provided significant passive immune protection for seven months against piglet challenge with virulent PEDv. PMID:25601801

Goede, Dane; Murtaugh, Michael P; Nerem, Joel; Yeske, Paul; Rossow, Kurt; Morrison, Robert

2015-03-23

210

Genetic heterogeneity of Indian field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O as revealed by partial sequencing of 1D gene.  

PubMed

The sequence of 165 nucleotides at the 3' end of the 1D gene, determined from RT PCR amplified cDNA fragments, of 25 type O strains isolated from different parts/regions of India during 1987 1995 and the vaccine strain (R2/75) currently in use in India were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. One isolate from the neighbouring country Nepal was also included in the study. The virus/ field strains showed high degree of genetic heterogeneity among themselves with % divergence in nucleotide sequence ranging from 1.2 to 19.4%. The Indian strains were much away (13.3 20.6%) from the exotic type O strains of O1BFS, O1K, and O1Campos. The type O strains analyzed were classified into three genotypes basing on level of divergence observed in nucleotide sequence. The type O vaccine virus (R2/75) was > 71% divergent (7.3-15.2%) from the field strains which revealed significant ( > 5%) genetic heterogeneity between the two. The phylogenetic analysis identified three distinct lineages, viz., (i) lineage 1 represented by the exotic strains, (ii) lineage 2 represented by 25 of the field strains which clustered into seven subgroups/sublines (2a-2g), and (iii) lineage 3 represented by a unique field isolate which shared the branching/origin with the vaccine strain. The lineage 2 which comprised of 25 of the 26 type O field strains analyzed, was placed almost at equidistance from the lineages 1 and 3 in the phylogenetic tree. The vaccine strain was closer to the viruses in lineage 2. Though there was no specific distribution pattern of sequences in different geographical regions of India, the viruses/ sequences in subgroup 2f appeared to be restricted to the southern states. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequence in the immunodominant regions 133-160 and 200-208 of the 1D gene product (VP1) showed that the two viruses in lineage 3 had unique amino acid residues at the positions 138 (D), 139 (G), 144 (I), and 158 (A) compared to rest of the strains including the exotic ones. Comparison of amino acid residues at critical positions 144, 148, 149, 151, 153, 154, and 208 revealed similarity between the type O strains analyzed. The virus strains showed variation (V/L/I) at position 144. One field strain showed replacement from Q149-->E and another from P208-->L. Thus, the study revealed that the type O FMD virus populations circulating in India and causing disease outbreaks are genetically much heterogeneous but related at the immunodominant region of VP1 polypeptide, and there are more than one genetically distinct virus populations in almost every region of the country which is possible due to unrestricted animal movement in the country. The involvement of vaccine virus in disease outbreaks was ruled out as the field strains (excluding the one in lineage 3) were phylogenetically distinct from it. PMID:9725665

Pattnaik, B; Venkataramanan, R; Tosh, C; Sanyal, A; Hemadri, D; Samuel, A R; Knowles, N J; Kitching, R P

1998-06-01

211

Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from turkey farms and different stages at slaughter using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA-short variable region sequencing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolated from turkey flocks at six rearing farms 1-2 weeks prior to slaughter (360 faecal swab samples) and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse (636 caecal, environmental, neck skin and meat samples). A total of 121 Campylobacter isolates were identified to species level using a multiplex PCR assay and were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA-short variable region (SVR) sequencing. All Campylobacter isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. PFGE analysis with KpnI restriction enzyme resulted in 11 PFGE types (I-XI) and flaA SVR typing yielded in nine flaA-SVR alleles. The Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks A, C and E were colonized by a limited number of Campylobacter clones at the farm and slaughter. The present study confirms the traceability of flock-specific strains (PFGE types I, V and IX; flaA types 21, 36 and 161) from the farm along the entire processing line to meat cuts. It seems that stress factors such as high temperature of the defeathering water (54-56 °C), drying of the carcass skin during air chilling (24 h at 2 °C), and oxygen in the air could not eliminate Campylobacter completely. Campylobacter-negative flocks became contaminated during processing by the same subtypes of Campylobacter introduced into the slaughter house by preceeding positive flocks even if they were slaughtered on subsequent days. Proper and efficient cleaning and disinfection of slaughter and processing premises are needed to avoid cross-contamination, especially in countries with a low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The majority of flaA SVR alleles displayed a distinct association with a specific PFGE type. However, a linear relationship for all strains among both typing methods could not be established. To specify genetic relatedness of strains, a combination of different genotyping methods, is needed. PMID:21824338

Perko-Mäkelä, P; Alter, T; Isohanni, P; Zimmermann, S; Lyhs, U

2011-09-01

212

Design of primers and use of RT-PCR assays for typing European bluetongue virus isolates: differentiation of field and vaccine strains.  

PubMed

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue, a disease of ruminant livestock that occurs almost worldwide between latitudes 3 degrees S and 5 degrees N. There are 24 serotypes of BTV (currently identified by serum neutralization assays). Since 1998, eight strains of six BTV serotypes (1, 2, 4, 8, 9 and 16) have invaded Europe. The most variable BTV protein is major outer-capsid component VP2, encoded by segment 2 (Seg-2) of the double-stranded RNA virus genome. VP2 represents the major target for neutralizing (and protective) antibodies that are generated in response to BTV infection, and is therefore the primary determinant of virus serotype. RT-PCR primers and assays targeting Seg-2 have been developed for rapid identification (within 24 h) of the six European BTV types. These assays are sensitive, specific and show perfect agreement with the results of conventional virus-neutralization methods. Previous studies have identified sequence variations in individual BTV genome segments that allow different isolates to be grouped on the basis of their geographical origins (topotypes). The assays described in this paper can detect any of the BTV isolates of the homologous serotype that were tested from different geographical origins (different Seg-2 topotypes). Primers were also identified that could be used to distinguish members of these different Seg-2 topotypes, as well as field and vaccine strains of most of the European BTV serotypes. The serotype-specific assays (and primers) showed no cross-amplification when they were evaluated with multiple isolates of the most closely related BTV types or with reference strains of the remaining 24 serotypes. Primers developed in this study will be updated periodically to maintain their relevance to current BTV distribution and epidemiology (http://www.iah.bbsrc.ac.uk/dsRNA_virus_proteins/ReoID/rt-pcr-primers.htm). PMID:17872535

Mertens, P P C; Maan, N S; Prasad, G; Samuel, A R; Shaw, A E; Potgieter, A C; Anthony, S J; Maan, S

2007-10-01

213

Microbial diversity in Los Azufres geothermal field (Michoacán, Mexico) and isolation of representative sulfate and sulfur reducers.  

PubMed

Los Azufres spa consists of a hydrothermal spring system in the Mexican Volcanic Axis. Five samples (two microbial mats, two mud pools and one cenote water), characterized by high acidity (pH between 1 and 3) and temperatures varying from 27 to 87 °C, were investigated for their microbial diversity by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene library analyses. These data are the first to describe microbial diversity from Los Azufres geothermal belt. The data obtained from both approaches suggested a low bacterial diversity in all five samples. Despite their proximity, the sampling points differed by their physico-chemical conditions (mainly temperature and matrix type) and thus exhibited different dominant bacterial populations: anoxygenic phototrophs related to the genus Rhodobacter in the biomats, colorless sulfur oxidizers Acidithiobacillus sp. in the warm mud and water samples, and Lyzobacter sp.-related populations in the hot mud sample (87 °C). Molecular data also allowed the detection of sulfate and sulfur reducers related to Thermodesulfobium and Desulfurella genera. Several strains affiliated to both genera were enriched or isolated from the mesophilic mud sample. A feature common to all samples was the dominance of bacteria involved in sulfur and iron biogeochemical cycles (Rhodobacter, Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, Desulfurella and Thermodesulfobium genera). PMID:24446065

Brito, Elcia M S; Villegas-Negrete, Norberto; Sotelo-González, Irene A; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Gassie, Claire; Hakil, Florence; Colin, Yannick; Duran, Robert; Gutiérrez-Corona, Felix; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda A; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Fahy, Anne; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Guyoneaud, Rémy

2014-03-01

214

Prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in Finnish trout farms: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing reveals extensive genetic diversity among type E isolates.  

PubMed

The distribution of Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, E, and F in Finnish trout farms was examined. A total of 333 samples were tested with a neurotoxin-specific PCR assay. C. botulinum type E was found in 68% of the farm sediment samples, in 15% of the fish intestinal samples, and in 5% of the fish skin samples. No other serotypes were found. The spore counts determined by the most-probable-number method were considerably higher for the sediments than for the fish intestines and skin; the average values were 2,020, 166, and 310 C. botulinum type E spores kg-1, respectively. The contamination rates in traditional freshwater ponds and marine net cages were high, but in concrete ponds equipped with sediment suction devices the contamination rates were significantly lower. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 42 isolates obtained in this survey and 12 North American reference strains generated 28 pulsotypes upon visual inspection, suggesting that there was extensive genetic diversity and that the discriminatory power of PFGE typing in C. botulinum type E was high. A numerical analysis of SmaI-XmaI macrorestriction profiles confirmed these findings, as it divided the 54 isolates into 15 clusters at a similarity level of 76%. For this material, this level of similarity corresponded to a three-band difference in the macrorestriction profiles, which indicated that there is no genotypic proof of a close epidemiological relationship among the clusters. PMID:9797260

Hielm, S; Björkroth, J; Hyytiä, E; Korkeala, H

1998-11-01

215

The pathogenic potential of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food in Northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is often present in meat and meat products that are sold in the area of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. The major objective of this study was to examine the virulence of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from these types of food in that geographic area. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect eight genes responsible for virulence of this pathogen, namely, prfA, inlA, inlB, hly, plcA, plcB, actA, and mpl. All examined isolates were confirmed to possess the eight virulence genes. Ten different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) macrorestriction profiles were recognized among 19 L. monocytogenes strains after restriction with two different endonucleases (ApaI and AscI). The pathogenicity of three different PFGE types of L. monocytogenes was confirmed through in vivo tests, which were performed on female white mice (Pasteur strain), and it ranged from 3.55 × 10(8) LD50 to 1.58 × 10(10) LD50. All of the three different PFGE types of L. monocytogenes were regarded as moderately virulent in relation to the reference strain L. monocytogenes Scott A. This result might be one of the reasons for the absence of reported listeriosis in northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina, despite the high degree of food contamination with this pathogen. PMID:21612523

Hodži?, Snjezana; Huki?, Mirsada; Franciosa, Giovanna; Aureli, Paolo

2011-09-01

216

Leishmania aethiopica Field Isolates Bearing an Endosymbiontic dsRNA Virus Induce Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with Leishmania parasites causes mainly cutaneous lesions at the site of the sand fly bite. Inflammatory metastatic forms have been reported with Leishmania species such as L. braziliensis, guyanensis and aethiopica. Little is known about the factors underlying such exacerbated clinical presentations. Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) is mainly found within South American Leishmania braziliensis and guyanensis. In a mouse model of L. guyanensis infection, its presence is responsible for an hyper-inflammatory response driven by the recognition of the viral dsRNA genome by the host Toll-like Receptor 3 leading to an exacerbation of the disease. In one instance, LRV was reported outside of South America, namely in the L. major ASKH strain from Turkmenistan, suggesting that LRV appeared before the divergence of Leishmania subgenera. LRV presence inside Leishmania parasites could be one of the factors implicated in disease severity, providing rationale for LRV screening in L. aethiopica. Methodology/Principal Findings A new LRV member was identified in four L. aethiopica strains (LRV-Lae). Three LRV-Lae genomes were sequenced and compared to L. guyanensis LRV1 and L. major LRV2. LRV-Lae more closely resembled LRV2. Despite their similar genomic organization, a notable difference was observed in the region where the capsid protein and viral polymerase open reading frames overlap, with a unique ?1 situation in LRV-Lae. In vitro infection of murine macrophages showed that LRV-Lae induced a TLR3-dependent inflammatory response as previously observed for LRV1. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we report the presence of an immunogenic dsRNA virus in L. aethiopica human isolates. This is the first observation of LRV in Africa, and together with the unique description of LRV2 in Turkmenistan, it confirmed that LRV was present before the divergence of the L. (Leishmania) and (Viannia) subgenera. The potential implication of LRV-Lae on disease severity due to L. aethiopica infections is discussed. PMID:24762979

Zangger, Haroun; Hailu, Asrat; Desponds, Chantal; Lye, Lon-Fye; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Dobson, Deborah E.; Ronet, Catherine; Ghalib, Hashim; Beverley, Stephen M.; Fasel, Nicolas

2014-01-01

217

Complete genome sequence of a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus variant.  

PubMed

In 2011, outbreaks of viral diarrhea were observed on most swine-breeding farms in most of the provinces of China. The disease is characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea, and a high mortality rate (82.3%) in newborn piglets. The clinical appearance was similar to that of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. PEDVs were detected in samples (feces or small intestines) from most farms. In order to investigate whether there is a PEDV variant circulating in China, we sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of the recently identified field strain, CH/FJND-3/2011. The sequence data indicate that this PEDV variant prevails in China. PMID:22354946

Chen, Jianfei; Liu, Xiaozhen; Shi, Da; Shi, Hongyan; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Li

2012-03-01

218

Genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with PCR genotyping of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from Pakistan. This study aimed to establish molecular characterization of P. falciparum field isolates in Pakistan measured with two highly polymorphic genetic markers, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1)and 2 (msp-2). Methods Between October 2005 and October 2007, 244 blood samples from patients with symptomatic blood-slide confirmed P. falciparum mono-infections attending the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, or its collection units located in Sindh and Baluchistan provinces, Pakistan were collected. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum was analysed by length polymorphism following gel electrophoresis of DNA products from nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting block 2 of msp-1 and block 3 of msp-2, including their respective allelic families KI, MAD 20, RO33, and FC27, 3D7/IC. Results A total of 238/244 (98%) patients had a positive PCR outcome in at least one genetic marker; the remaining six were excluded from analysis. A majority of patients had monoclonal infections. Only 56/231 (24%) and 51/236 (22%) carried multiple P. falciparum genotypes in msp-1 and msp-2, respectively. The estimated total number of genotypes was 25 msp-1 (12 KI; 8 MAD20; 5 RO33) and 33 msp-2 (14 FC27; 19 3D7/IC). Conclusions This is the first report on molecular characterization of P. falciparum field isolates in Pakistan with regards to multiplicity of infection. The genetic diversity and allelic distribution found in this study is similar to previous reports from India and Southeast Asian countries with low malaria endemicity. PMID:20043863

2010-01-01

219

Field evaluation of Eimeria tenella (local isolates) gametocytes vaccine and its comparative efficacy with imported live vaccine, LivaCox.  

PubMed

The present paper describes the field evaluation of local gametocyte vaccine and its comparative efficacy with commercial anticoccidial vaccine, LivaCox, used in breeder and broiler flocks in Pakistan. Humoral immune response in vaccinated and control chickens was monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results demonstrated significantly elevated antibody titres in vaccinated groups as compared to control groups conducted both in Laboratory and field experiments. Significantly (P < 0.01) higher antibody titres in local gametocyte-vaccinated group as compared to LivaCox-vaccinated chickens were recorded. Splenic cell migration inhibition assay was used to detect the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, and results were expressed in terms of per cent migration index. Lower per cent migration index in LivaCox-vaccinated chickens indicated the higher CMI response, as compared to local gametocyte-vaccinated chickens, although the difference was statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Results of the challenge studies in laboratory experiments revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) oocyst count in LivaCox-vaccinated group as compared to local gametocyte-vaccinated chickens.Maximum protection (75%) against mixed species of genus Eimeria was recorded in chickens vaccinated with gametocyte vaccines as compared to LivaCox-vaccinated group. The mean body weight gains in chickens vaccinated with local gametocyte vaccine were significantly better (P < 0.05) than in chickens vaccinated with LivaCox vaccine, both in laboratory and field experiments. Majority of the chickens (70-72%) in control group demonstrated severe lesions (3.0-4.0), while 20-26% chickens showed moderate lesions (2.0). On the other hand, local gametocyte- and LivaCox-immunized chickens developed 78% and 85% mild to moderated lesions (1.0-2.0), respectively. Results of the present study provide a probable explanation for cross-protection induced by Eimeria tenella gametocyte vaccines against other species of genus Eimeria. PMID:18769942

Anwar, M Irfan; Akhtar, Masood; Hussain, Iftikhar; Haq, A U; Muhammad, Faqir; Hafeez, M Abdul; Mahmood, M Shahid; Bashir, Saira

2008-12-01

220

Full-Length Genome Sequence of a Variant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain, CH/GDZQ/2014, Responsible for a Severe Outbreak of Diarrhea in Piglets in Guangdong, China, 2014  

PubMed Central

The full-length genome sequence of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, CH/GDZQ/2014, was determined. The isolate was a variant strain with a relatively far relationship with the PEDV strains previously identified in the same area between 2011 and 2012 and was genetically distinct from the CV777-based vaccine strain currently being used in China. PMID:25477403

Song, Deping; Chen, Yanjun; Peng, Qi; Huang, Dongyan; Zhang, Tiansheng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Fanfan; Zhou, Xinrong

2014-01-01

221

Permethrin resistance variation and susceptible reference line isolation in a field population of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

This study examines the genetic variations and mechanisms involved in the development of permethrin resistance in individual mosquitoes from a field population of Culex quinquefasciatus, HAmCq(G0) , and characterizes susceptible reference lines of mosquitoes with a similar genetic background to the field HAmCq(G0) strain. Six upregulated cytochrome P450 genes, CYP9M10, CYP9J34, CYP6P14, CYP9J40, CYP6AA7, and CYP4C52v1, previously identified as being upregulated in the larvae of resistant HAmCq(G8) mosquitoes were examined in the larvae of 3 strains (susceptible S-Lab, parental HAmCq(G0) and permethrin-selected highly resistant HAmCq(G8) ) and 8 HAmCq(G0) single-egg raft colonies, covering a range of levels of susceptibility/resistance to permethrin and exhibiting different variations in the expression of A and/or T alleles at the L-to-F kdr locus of the sodium channel. The 2 lines with the lowest tolerance to permethrin and bearing solely the susceptible A allele at the L-to-F kdr locus of the sodium channels, from colonies Cx_SERC5 and Cx_SERC8, showed lower or similar levels of all 6 of the P450 genes tested compared with the S-Lab strain, suggesting that these 2 lines could be used as the reference mosquitoes in future studies characterizing insecticide resistance in HAmCq mosquitoes. This study also provides a detailed investigation of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in individuals within a population: individuals with elevated levels of resistance to permethrin all displayed one or more potential resistance mechanisms-either elevated levels of P450 gene expression, or L-to-F mutations in the sodium channel, or both. PMID:24357606

Yang, Ting; Liu, Nannan

2014-10-01

222

SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43. Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

223

Atomic interferometer measurements of Berry and Aharonov-Anandan phases for isolated spins S>(1)/(2) nonlinearly coupled to external fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper we have studied the peculiar features of the Berry and Aharonov-Anandan geometric phases for isolated spins S?1. We have assumed that they are submitted to a dipole and quadrupole coupling to external E and B fields with the mild restriction E·B=0. This implies discrete symmetries leading to remarkable simplifications of the geometry and algebra involved. The aim of the present work is to describe realistic proposals, within the realm of atomic physics, for the verification of some of our most significant theoretical predictions. There are several challenges to be overcome. For alkali-metal atoms, most commonly used in atomic interferometers, the only practical way to generate quadrupole coupling, with a strength comparable to the dipole one, is the ac Stark effect induced by a nearly resonant light beam. One then has to face the instability of the“dressed” atom hyperfine (hf) level, a candidate for our isolated spin. One deleterious effect is the apparition of an imaginary part in the quadrupole to dipole coupling strength ratio, ?. Fortunately we have found a simple way to get rid of I(?) by an appropriate detuning. We are left with an unstable isolated spin. This implies an upper bound to the quantum cycle duration Tc. In the case of the Berry’s phase, Tc has a lower bound due to the necessity of keeping the nonadiabatic corrections below a predefined level. We have found a compromise in the case of the F=2,m=0 Rb87 ground-state hf level. This is our candidate for the measurement of the somewhat “exotic” Berry’s phase acquired by the S=2,m=0 state at the end of a quantum cycle involving a rotation of ? of the E field—in practice, the linear polarization of the dressing beam —about the B field direction. We have found a way to implement, in a Ramsey-type interferometric measurement, the procedures aimed at controlling the nonadiabatic corrections, as described in detail in our previous theoretical paper. A numerical simulation of our experimental proposal shows that a 0.1% accurate determination of Berry’s phase, free of nonadiabatic corrections, can be achieved. Measurements could also be considered for cold Cr52 chromium atoms with S=3, where values of ??1 can be obtained with an instability smaller than in the Rb87 case, due to a more favorable spectroscopic structure. The F=1,m=1 hf level of the Rb87 ground state offers the opportunity to extend the measurement of Aharonov-Anandan’s phases beyond the case S=(1)/(2). We construct, using “light shift,” the Hamiltonian H?(t) generating a closed circuit in the density-matrix space which satisfies at any time the “parallel transport” condition, thus making the quantum cycle free from the adiabaticity condition. We also consider the case of half-integer spins (e.g., Hg201, Ba135, and Ba137), with their own specific features. We show how the difference of Berry’s phases for states S=(3)/(2) and S=(1)/(2), with m=(1)/(2), can be exploited to achieve a holonomic maximum entanglement of three qubits.

Bouchiat, Marie-Anne; Bouchiat, Claude

2011-05-01

224

Atomic interferometer measurements of Berry and Aharonov-Anandan phases for isolated spins S>(1/2) nonlinearly coupled to external fields  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper we have studied the peculiar features of the Berry and Aharonov-Anandan geometric phases for isolated spins S{>=}1. We have assumed that they are submitted to a dipole and quadrupole coupling to external E and B fields with the mild restriction E{center_dot}B=0. This implies discrete symmetries leading to remarkable simplifications of the geometry and algebra involved. The aim of the present work is to describe realistic proposals, within the realm of atomic physics, for the verification of some of our most significant theoretical predictions. There are several challenges to be overcome. For alkali-metal atoms, most commonly used in atomic interferometers, the only practical way to generate quadrupole coupling, with a strength comparable to the dipole one, is the ac Stark effect induced by a nearly resonant light beam. One then has to face the instability of the 'dressed' atom hyperfine (hf) level, a candidate for our isolated spin. One deleterious effect is the apparition of an imaginary part in the quadrupole to dipole coupling strength ratio, {lambda}. Fortunately we have found a simple way to get rid of I({lambda}) by an appropriate detuning. We are left with an unstable isolated spin. This implies an upper bound to the quantum cycle duration T{sub c}. In the case of the Berry's phase, T{sub c} has a lower bound due to the necessity of keeping the nonadiabatic corrections below a predefined level. We have found a compromise in the case of the F=2,m=0 {sup 87}Rb ground-state hf level. This is our candidate for the measurement of the somewhat ''exotic'' Berry's phase acquired by the S=2,m=0 state at the end of a quantum cycle involving a rotation of {pi} of the E field--in practice, the linear polarization of the dressing beam --about the B field direction. We have found a way to implement, in a Ramsey-type interferometric measurement, the procedures aimed at controlling the nonadiabatic corrections, as described in detail in our previous theoretical paper. A numerical simulation of our experimental proposal shows that a 0.1% accurate determination of Berry's phase, free of nonadiabatic corrections, can be achieved. Measurements could also be considered for cold {sup 52}Cr chromium atoms with S=3, where values of {lambda}{approx_equal}1 can be obtained with an instability smaller than in the {sup 87}Rb case, due to a more favorable spectroscopic structure. The F=1,m=1 hf level of the {sup 87}Rb ground state offers the opportunity to extend the measurement of Aharonov-Anandan's phases beyond the case S=(1/2). We construct, using 'light shift', the Hamiltonian H{sub ||}(t) generating a closed circuit in the density-matrix space which satisfies at any time the 'parallel transport' condition, thus making the quantum cycle free from the adiabaticity condition. We also consider the case of half-integer spins (e.g., {sup 201}Hg, {sup 135}Ba, and {sup 137}Ba), with their own specific features. We show how the difference of Berry's phases for states S=(3/2) and S=(1/2), with m=(1/2), can be exploited to achieve a holonomic maximum entanglement of three qubits.

Bouchiat, Marie-Anne; Bouchiat, Claude [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, UPMC, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, FR-75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, UPMC, 24 rue Lhomond, FR-75005 Paris (France)

2011-05-15

225

Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site  

PubMed Central

Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III)-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold induced during benzoate oxidation. Conclusion G. metallireducens appears to convert aromatic compounds to benzoyl-CoA, then to acetyl-CoA via fatty acid oxidation, and then to carbon dioxide via the TCA cycle. The enzyme responsible for dearomatizing the aromatic ring may be novel, and energetic investments at this step may be offset by a change in succinate metabolism. Analysis of a field isolate suggests that the pathways inferred for G. metallireducens may be applicable to modeling in situ bioremediation. PMID:17578578

Butler, Jessica E; He, Qiang; Nevin, Kelly P; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Lovley, Derek R

2007-01-01

226

Experimental use of a gas sensor-based instrument for differentiation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from non-O157:H7 Escherichia coli field isolates.  

PubMed

The rapid and economical detection of human pathogens in animal and food production systems would enhance food safety efforts. An instrument based on gas sensors coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for the detection of and differentiation between laboratory isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 E. coli. The purpose of this study was to use field isolates of E. coli to further evaluate the sensor system. This gas sensor-based, computer-controlled detection system was used to monitor gas emissions from 12 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and 8 non-O157:H7 E. coli isolates. A standard concentration of each isolate was grown in 10 ml of nutrient broth at 37 degrees C for 16 h, and gas sampling was carried out every 5 min. Readings were continuously plotted to generate gas signatures. A back-propagation ANN algorithm was used to interpret the gas patterns. By analysis of the response of the ANN, the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were calculated. Detectable differences between the gas signatures of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates and the non-O157:H7 isolates were observed. The instruments degree of sensitivity was high for E. coli O157:H7 isolates, but a lower degree of accuracy was observed for non-O157:H7 isolates because of increased strain variation. The sensitivity of the detection system was improved by the normalization of the data generated from the gas sensors. Because of its ability to detect differences in gas patterns, this instrument has a broad range of potential food safety applications. PMID:12929835

Younts, S; Alocilja, E; Osburn, W; Marquie, S; Gray, J; Grooms, D

2003-08-01

227

An evaluation of a liquid antimicrobial (Sal CURB®) for reducing the risk of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection of naïve pigs during consumption of contaminated feed.  

PubMed

BackgroundSince its initial detection in May 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has spread rapidly throughout the US swine industry. Recently, contaminated feed was confirmed as a vehicle for PEDV infection of naïve piglets. This research provides in vivo data supporting the ability of a liquid antimicrobial product to reduce this risk.ResultsSal CURB® (Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA, USA) is a FDA-approved liquid antimicrobial used to control Salmonella contamination in poultry and swine diets. To test its effect against PEDV, Sal CURB®-treated feed was spiked with a stock isolate of PEDV (Ct¿=¿25.22), which PEDV-naïve piglets were allowed to ingest via natural feeding behavior (ad libitum) for a 14-day period. For the purpose of a positive control, a separate group of piglets was allowed to ingest non-treated (Sal CURB®-free) feed also spiked with stock PEDV (Ct¿=¿25.22). A negative control group received PEDV-free feed. Clinical signs of PEDV infection (vomiting and diarrhea) and viral shedding in feces were observed in the positive control group 2¿3 days post-consumption of non-treated feed. In contrast, no evidence of infection was observed in pigs fed Sal CURB®-treated feed or in the negative controls throughout the 14-day study period. In addition, the Sal CURB® -treated feed samples had higher (p¿<¿0.0001) mean PEDV Ct values than samples from the positive control group.ConclusionsThese data provide proof of concept that feed treated with Sal CURB® can serve as a means to reduce the risk of PEDV infection through contaminated feed. Furthermore, the results from the positive control group provide additional proof of concept regarding the ability of contaminated feed to serve as a risk factor for PEDV infection of naïve piglets. PMID:25253192

Dee, Scott; Neill, Casey; Clement, Travis; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Nelson, Eric

2014-09-25

228

A new polymorphic locus, D7S411, isolated by cloning from preparative pulse-field gels is close to the mutation causing cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

The mutation causing cystic fibrosis (CF) has been localized to the DNA sequence of 700 kb bounded by the loci identified by the markers pMP6d-9 (D7S399) and pJ3.11 (D7S8). A 560-kb fragment obtained after SacII digestion of DNA from a cell line containing this region of human chromosome 7 in a mouse background was separated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis and isolated from the gel. The DNA was digested with BamHI prior to cloning into lambda EMBL3. Approximately 0.1% of the resulting clones contained human repetitive sequences, and 24 such recombinants were studied. Of these, 23 are on chromosome 7; 8 clones were duplicated, and of the 15 different recombinants, 7 are between MET and INT1L1, and a further 7 are between INT1L1 and pMP6d-9, leaving a single marker, pG2, which is between pMP6d-9 and pJ3.11. pG2 recognizes an RFLP with XbaI. A cosmid walk from pG2 has generated a further marker, H80, which recognizes an RFLP with PstI. This new locus (D7S411) divides the remaining region between the CF flanking markers, thereby making it more accessible to fine pulse-field mapping and allowing the precise localization of further clones to this region. Although it is not possible to position the CF locus unequivocally with respect to D7S411, both polymorphic markers at this locus exhibit low but significant linkage disequilibrium with CF, placing the emphasis for the search for the gene on the D7S399 to D7S411 interval of 250 kb. PMID:1968045

Ramsay, M; Wainwright, B J; Farrall, M; Estivill, X; Sutherland, H; Ho, M F; Davies, R; Halford, S; Tata, F; Wicking, C

1990-01-01

229

Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil  

PubMed Central

Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds), the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea) and different pH (5.5-8.5) on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%). Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%). Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94%) compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil. PMID:23452801

2013-01-01

230

The effect of 5-HT and electrical field stimulation on the contractility of the whole isolated urinary bladder of Suncus murinus.  

PubMed

The present study used the whole isolated urinary bladder of Suncus murinus, to investigate the effect of exogenously added serotonin (5-HT) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of methysergide, a 5-HT1/2/7 receptor antagonist or the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB269970. Further experiments investigated the involvement of potassium channel, cholinergic and purinergic systems in mediating the contractile response to EFS. Pre-treatment with methysergide reduced and increased the contractile responses to 5-HT and EFS, respectively. Pre-treatment with SB269970 increased the responses to 5-HT without modifying the EFS-induced contractions. EFS-induced contractions were not modified by pre-treatment with atropine (10?M), ?-?-methylene ATP or glibenclamide. EFS-induced contractions were attenuated by cromakalim (10µM) or atropine (0.1 µM). In conclusion, the 5-HT2 receptors are likely to play a role in mediating the contractile response to 5-HT in detrusor muscle. Furthermore, EFS-induced contractions are mediated through cholinergic and an unknown neurotransmitter which is modulated by K(ATP) channels in the detrusor muscle of Suncus murinus. PMID:24513135

Javid, Farideh A; Palea, Stefano

2014-01-15

231

The rph1 Gene Is a Common Contributor to the Evolution of Phosphine Resistance in Independent Field Isolates of Rhyzopertha Dominica  

PubMed Central

Phosphine is the only economically viable fumigant for routine control of insect pests of stored food products, but its continued use is now threatened by the world-wide emergence of high-level resistance in key pest species. Phosphine has a unique mode of action relative to well-characterised contact pesticides. Similarly, the selective pressures that lead to resistance against field sprays differ dramatically from those encountered during fumigation. The consequences of these differences have not been investigated adequately. We determine the genetic basis of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica strains collected from New South Wales and South Australia and compare this with resistance in a previously characterised strain from Queensland. The resistance levels range from 225 and 100 times the baseline response of a sensitive reference strain. Moreover, molecular and phenotypic data indicate that high-level resistance was derived independently in each of the three widely separated geographical regions. Despite the independent origins, resistance was due to two interacting genes in each instance. Furthermore, complementation analysis reveals that all three strains contain an incompletely recessive resistance allele of the autosomal rph1 resistance gene. This is particularly noteworthy as a resistance allele at rph1 was previously proposed to be a necessary first step in the evolution of high-level resistance. Despite the capacity of phosphine to disrupt a wide range of enzymes and biological processes, it is remarkable that the initial step in the selection of resistance is so similar in isolated outbreaks. PMID:22363668

Mau, Yosep S.; Collins, Patrick J.; Daglish, Gregory J.; Nayak, Manoj K.; Pavic, Hervoika; Ebert, Paul R.

2012-01-01

232

Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil.  

PubMed

Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds), the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea) and different pH (5.5-8.5) on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%). Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%). Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94%) compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil. PMID:23452801

Dehghani, Mansooreh; Nasseri, Simin; Zamanian, Zahra

2013-01-01

233

Overview of the data-acquisition system (including shielding, isolation and grounding) on the Beta II field-reversed plasma-gun experiment  

SciTech Connect

Computer-supported acquisition, analysis, and storage of mirror fusion experimental data requires the solution of several problems. The data must be gathered with a minimum amount of noise, and transients must be excluded from the computer so that it can function properly. On Beta II (which was an experiment to produce field-reversed plasma rings from a coaxial plasma gun) the diagnostic system was planned to provide the shielding and isolation necessary to solve these two problems. The Beta II system has been in operation for about two years and provides 300-channel capacity, CAMAC interfaced, to a Hewlett Packard 21MX computer. The system routinely handles signals ranging from 1 mV to 50 kV, with bandwidths from .05 Hz to 10 MHz. The data are captured by transient recorders during a shot, then transferred to the computer. The computer stores the data on disc for immediate processing and on tape for long-term storage. Processed data from any number of channels (usually 20 to 30) is plotted between shots for immediate review. The rest of the data is processed and plotted during off hours.

Bell, H.H. Jr.

1981-07-01

234

Analysis of genetic and molecular identity among field isolates of the rice blast fungus with an international differential system, rep-PCR and DNA sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pi-ta gene deployed in the Southern US rice germplasm is effective in preventing the infection by strains of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates that carry the avirulence gene AVR-Pita1. In the present study, a total of 169 isolates from rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars, with and without Pi-ta, were analyz...

235

Fitness and competitive ability of Botrytis cinerea field isolates with dual resistance to SDHI and QoI fungicides, associated with several sdhB and the cytb G143A mutations.  

PubMed

Respiration inhibitors such as the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) and the quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) are fungicide classes with increasing relevance in gray mold control. However, recent studies have shown that dual resistance to both fungicide classes is a common trait in Botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts throughout the world. Resistance of B. cinerea to SDHIs is associated with several mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, and sdhD genes, while resistance to QoIs, in most cases, is associated with the G143A mutation in the cytb gene. The objective of the current study was to investigate the fitness and the competitive ability of B. cinerea field strains possessing one of the H272Y/R/L, N230I, or P225F sdhB substitutions and the G143A mutation of cytb. Fitness parameters measured were (i) mycelial growth and conidia germination in vitro, (ii) aggressiveness and sporulation capacity in vivo, (iii) sclerotia production in vitro and sclerotia viability under different storage conditions, and (iv) sensitivity to oxidative stress imposed by diquat treatments. The competitive ability of the resistant isolates was measured in the absence and presence of the SDHI fungicides boscalid and fluopyram selection pressure. The measurements of individual fitness components showed that the H272R/G143A isolates had the lower differences compared with the sensitive isolates. In contrast, the groups of H272Y/L/G143A, N230I/G143A, and P225F/G143A isolates showed reduced fitness values compared with the sensitive isolates. Isolates possessing only the cytb G143A substitution did not show any fitness cost. The competition experiments showed that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, after four disease cycles on apple fruit, the sensitive isolates dominated in the population in all the mixtures tested. In contrast, when the competition experiment was conducted under the selection pressure of boscalid, a gradual decrease in the frequency of sensitive isolates was observed, whereas the frequency of H272L and P225F isolates was increased. When the competition experiment was conducted in the presence of fluopyram, the sensitive isolates were eliminated even after the first disease cycle and the P225F mutants dominated in the population. Such results suggest that the sdhB mutations may have adverse effects on the mutants. The observed dominance of sensitive isolates in the competition experiments conducted in the absence of fungicides suggest that the application of SDHIs in alternation schemes may delay the selection or reduce the frequency of SDHI-resistant mutants. PMID:24168041

Veloukas, T; Kalogeropoulou, P; Markoglou, A N; Karaoglanidis, G S

2014-04-01

236

Terrimicrobium sacchariphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium of the class 'Spartobacteria' in the phylum Verrucomicrobia, isolated from a rice paddy field.  

PubMed

A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium, designated NM-5T, was isolated from a rice paddy field. Cells of strain NM-5(T) were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rods (0.5-0.7 µm×0.6-1.2 µm). The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (growth range 20-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 5.5-8.0). The strain could grow fermentatively on arabinose, xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, ribose, mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose and sucrose. The main end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate and propionate. Organic acids, alcohols and amino acids were not utilized for growth. Yeast extract was not required but stimulated the growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, and Fe (III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The DNA G+C content was 46.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14:0, C18:0 and C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NM-5T belongs to the class 'Spartobacteria', subdivision 2 of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. Phylogenetically, the closest species was 'Chthoniobacter flavus' (89.6% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). A novel genus and species, Terrimicrobium sacchariphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the type species is NM-5T (=JCM 17479T=CGMCC 1.5168T). PMID:24535138

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Kuang, Xiao-zhu; Shi, Xiao-shuang; Yuan, Xian-zheng; Guo, Rong-bo

2014-05-01

237

Transmission blocking activity of Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis extracts on the sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Targeting the stages of the malaria parasites responsible for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector is a key pharmacological strategy for malaria control. Research efforts to identify compounds that are active against these stages have significantly increased in recent years. However, at present, only two drugs are available, namely primaquine and artesunate, which reportedly act on late stage gametocytes. Methods In this study, we assessed the antiplasmodial effects of 5 extracts obtained from the neem tree Azadirachta indica and Guiera senegalensis against the early vector stages of Plasmodium falciparum, using field isolates. In an ex vivo assay gametocytaemic blood was supplemented with the plant extracts and offered to Anopheles coluzzii females by membrane feeding. Transmission blocking activity was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence and density on the mosquito midguts. Results Initial screening of the 5 plant extracts at 250 ppm revealed transmission blocking activity in two neem preparations. Up to a concentration of 70 ppm the commercial extract NeemAzal® completely blocked transmission and at 60 ppm mosquitoes of 4 out of 5 replicate groups remained uninfected. Mosquitoes fed on the ethyl acetate phase of neem leaves at 250 ppm showed a reduction in oocyst prevalence of 59.0% (CI95 12.0 - 79.0; p?

2014-01-01

238

Identification and Characterization of a New Erythromycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a Novel Erythronolide-Producing Halophilic Actinomycete Isolated from Salt Field  

PubMed Central

Erythromycins (Ers) are clinically potent macrolide antibiotics in treating pathogenic bacterial infections. Microorganisms capable of producing Ers, represented by Saccharopolyspora erythraea, are mainly soil-dwelling actinomycetes. So far, Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a halophilic actinomycete isolated from Baicheng salt field, is the only known Er-producing extremophile. In this study, we have reported the draft genome sequence of Ac. erythraea YIM90600, genome mining of which has revealed a new Er biosynthetic gene cluster encoding several novel Er metabolites. This Er gene cluster shares high identity and similarity with the one of Sa. erythraea NRRL2338, except for two absent genes, eryBI and eryG. By correlating genotype and chemotype, the biosynthetic pathways of 3?-demethyl-erythromycin C, erythronolide H (EH) and erythronolide I have been proposed. The formation of EH is supposed to be sequentially biosynthesized via C-6/C-18 epoxidation and C-14 hydroxylation from 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Although an in vitro enzymatic activity assay has provided limited evidence for the involvement of the cytochrome P450 oxidase EryFAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600) in the catalysis of a two-step oxidation, resulting in an epoxy moiety, the attempt to construct an EH-producing Sa. erythraea mutant via gene complementation was not successful. Characterization of EryKAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600) in vitro has confirmed its unique role as a C-12 hydroxylase, rather than a C-14 hydroxylase of the erythronolide. Genomic characterization of the halophile Ac. erythraea YIM90600 will assist us to explore the great potential of extremophiles, and promote the understanding of EH formation, which will shed new insights into the biosynthesis of Er metabolites. PMID:25250723

Chen, Dandan; Feng, Junyin; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Qinglin; Wu, Jiequn; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Duan, Yanwen; Xu, Zhinan

2014-01-01

239

The role of nanominerals and mineral nanoparticles in the transport of toxic trace metals: Field-flow fractionation and analytical TEM analyses after nanoparticle isolation and density separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanominerals and mineral nanoparticles from a mining-contaminated river system were examined to determine their potential to co-transport toxic trace metals. A recent large-scale dam removal project on the Clark Fork River in western Montana (USA) has released reservoir and upstream sediments contaminated with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cu and Zn), which had accumulated there as a consequence of more than a century and a half of mining activity proximal to the river's headwaters near the cities of Butte and Anaconda. To isolate the high-density nanoparticle fractions from riverbed and bank sediments, a density separation with sodium polytungstate (2.8 g/cm3) was employed prior to a standard nanoparticle extraction procedure. The stable, dispersed nanoparticulate fraction was then analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy (aTEM) and flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled to both multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and high-resolution, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS). FlFFF analysis revealed a size distribution in the nano range and that the elution profiles of the trace metals matched most closely to that for Fe and Ti. aTEM confirmed these results as the majority of the Fe and Ti oxides analyzed were associated with one or more of the trace metals of interest. The main mineral phases hosting trace metals are goethite, ferrihydrite and brookite. This demonstrates that they are likely playing a significant role in dictating the transport and distribution of trace metals in this river system, which could affect the bioavailability and toxicity of these metals.

Plathe, Kelly L.; von der Kammer, Frank; Hassellöv, Martin; Moore, Johnnie N.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hofmann, Thilo; Hochella, Michael F.

2013-02-01

240

Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field. PMID:25289269

Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P.

2013-01-01

241

Molecular typing of Neisseria perflava clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to type 22 commensal isolates of Neisseria perflava collected by swabbing from neutropenic patients. High genetic diversity was found among our N. perflava clinical isolates. PMID:23278501

Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Giorgini, Dario; Baaboura, Rekaya; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Hassen, Assia Ben

2013-09-01

242

Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Isolate with the TR34/L98H Mutation in Both a Fungicide-Sprayed Field and the Lung of a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient with Invasive Aspergillosis  

PubMed Central

A French farmer developed invasive aspergillosis with azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus with the TR34/L98H mutation following a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. He had worked in fungicide-sprayed fields where a non-genetically related A. fumigatus TR34/L98H isolate was collected. If azole resistance detection increases, voriconazole as first-line therapy might be questioned in agricultural areas. PMID:24554754

Rocchi, Steffi; Daguindau, Etienne; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Deconinck, Eric; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Bretagne, Stéphane; Reboux, Gabriel

2014-01-01

243

Comparative Studies of Mutations in Animal Isolates and Experimental In Vitro and In Vivo-Selected Mutants of Salmonella spp. Suggest a Counterselection of Highly Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strains in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of mutations in the genes coding for gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parE and parC )o fSalmonella typhimurium experimental mutants selected in vitro and in vivo and of 138 nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella field isolates was investigated. The sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determin- ing region of these genes in highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants (MICs of 4 to 16

ETIENNE GIRAUD; ANNE BRISABOIS; JEAN-LOUIS MARTEL; ELISABETH CHASLUS-DANCLA

1999-01-01

244

Effects of Crocus sativus petals’ extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effects of Crocus sativus petals’ extract on blood pressure in anaesthetised rats and also on responses of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sativus petals reduced the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. For example administration of 50 mg\\/100 g of aqueous

M. Fatehi; T. Rashidabady; Zahra Fatehi-Hassanabad

2003-01-01

245

Evidence for high genetic diversity of NAD1 and COX1 mitochondrial haplotypes among triclabendazole resistant and susceptible populations and field isolates of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in Australia.  

PubMed

In recent years, the global incidence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) infections exhibiting resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) has increased, resulting in increased economic losses for livestock producers and threatening future control. The development of TCBZ resistance and the worldwide discovery of F. hepatica population diversity has emphasized the need to further understand the genetic structure of drug susceptible and resistant Fasciola populations within Australia. In this study, the genetic diversity of liver flukes was estimated by sequencing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding the NAD1 (530 bp) and COX1 (420 bp) genes of 208 liver flukes (F. hepatica) collected from three populations: field isolates obtained from abattoirs from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic); three TCBZ-resistant fluke populations from NSW and Victoria; and the well-established TCBZ-susceptible Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Overall nucleotide diversity for all flukes analysed of 0.00516 and 0.00336 was estimated for the NAD1 and COX1 genes respectively. Eighteen distinct haplotypes were established for the NAD1 gene and six haplotypes for the COX1 gene, resulting in haplotype diversity levels of 0.832 and 0.482, respectively. One field isolate showed a similar low level of haplotype diversity as seen in the Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Analysis of TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from 3 individual cattle grazing one property revealed considerable sequence parasite diversity between cattle. Analysis of parasite TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from sheep and cattle revealed haplotypes unique to each host, but no significant difference between parasite populations. Fst analysis of fluke populations revealed little differentiation between the resistant and field populations. This study has revealed a high level of diversity in field and drug resistant flukes in South-Eastern Australia. PMID:24360656

Elliott, T; Muller, A; Brockwell, Y; Murphy, N; Grillo, V; Toet, H M; Anderson, G; Sangster, N; Spithill, T W

2014-02-24

246

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

247

Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: a ten-year analysis, 1997-2006.  

PubMed

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis belonging to the California serogroup. It has a wide geographic distribution, occurring throughout much of temperate North America. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus are the principal amplification hosts, and boreal Aedes and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes are the primary vectors. A 10-year study was undertaken to identify potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the geographic distribution of JCV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from 22 mosquito species. Five of them, Ochlerotatus canadensis, Oc. cantator, Anopheles punctipennis, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Oc. abserratus were incriminated as the most likely vectors, based on yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from Oc. canadensis more consistently and from a greater range of collection sites than any other species. Frequent virus isolations were also made from Aedes cinereus, Aedes vexans, and Oc. sticticus, and new North American isolation records were established for Anopheles walkeri, Culex restuans, Culiseta morsitans, Oc. sticticus, Oc. taeniorhynchus, and Psorophora ferox. Other species from which JCV was isolated included C. melanura, Oc. aurifer, Oc. communis, Oc. excrucians, Oc. provocans, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. stimulans, Oc. triseriatus, and Oc. trivittatus. Jamestown Canyon virus was widely distributed throughout Connecticut and found to consistently circulate in a diverse array of mosquito vectors. Infected mosquitoes were collected from June through September, and peak infection rates paralleled mosquito abundance from mid-June through mid-July. Infection rates in mosquitoes were consistent from year to year, and overall virus activity was directly related to local mosquito abundance. Infected mosquitoes were equally distributed throughout the state, irrespective of land use, and infection rates were not directly associated with the abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly because of their saturation throughout the region. PMID:18386967

Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Armstrong, Philip M; Main, Andrew J

2008-04-01

248

Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates dispersed across Japan by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.  

PubMed

We identified seven distinct subtypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 isolates that were derived from sporadic cases and outbreaks from multiple prefectures in Japan in 2005. A surveillance system utilizing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PulseNet Japan, was used. Some strains showed indistinguishable PFGE patterns using another restriction enzyme (BlnI or SpeI) in each subtype of EHEC O157:H7 isolates that were routinely subtyped by the XbaI PFGE pattern. In order to examine the genotypic relatedness of these strains, we carried out a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). By using the MLVA system, we found that three of seven subtypes of EHEC O157:H7 strains that were isolated from sporadic cases dispersed across multiple prefectures within a few months showed indistinguishable PFGE patterns and identical MLVA types. Strains belonging to the other four subtypes of EHEC O157:H7 in the PFGE analysis were further classified into different clusters of EHEC O157:H7. Therefore, compared to PFGE, MLVA showed greater discriminatory power with respect to analysis of the isolates in this study. PMID:18219136

Pei, Yingxin; Terajima, Jun; Saito, Yasunori; Suzuki, Reiko; Takai, Nobuko; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Miura, Masashi; Iyoda, Sunao; Mitobe, Jiro; Wang, Binyou; Watanabe, Haruo

2008-01-01

249

Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus.  

PubMed

The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foetuses, stillborn pigs, and dead piglets, indicating that the live vaccine spread from vaccinated piglets to non-vaccinated sows, and that the virus might be implicated in the severe reproductive problems observed. In the present study, one such VDV isolate was used to experimentally infect pregnant sows in the last trimester. The chosen isolate, which had more than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection, foetal death, and preweaning pig mortality. As such, the present study showed that vaccine-derived PRRSV can cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS. PMID:11731155

Nielsen, J; Bøtner, A; Bille-Hansen, V; Oleksiewicz, M B; Storgaard, T

2002-01-01

250

A Comparison of Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production Between Canadian Fusarium graminearum Isolates with 3-Acetyl and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Chemotypes in Field-Grown Spring Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum, half of which were 3- acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotypes, were tested for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol and to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), in spring wheat cultivars. The objectives of this...

251

A user friendly method to isolate and single spore the fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Magnaporthe grisea obtained from diseased field samples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent for a wide range of plant diseases including diseases of rice, wheat, rye grass, turfgrass and pearl millet. A simple robust procedure for fungal isolation is not publicly available. In the present study, a user friendly method was developed to iso...

252

Enhanced cell fusion activity in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus adapted to suckling mice.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the major causative agent of fatal diarrhea in piglets. To study the pathogenic features of PEDV using a mouse model, PEDV with virulence in mice is required. In pursuit of this, we adapted a tissue-culture-passed PEDV MK strain to suckling mouse brains. PEDV obtained after ten passages through the brains (MK-p10) had increased virulence for mice, and its fusion activity in cultured cells exceeded that of the original strain. However, the replication kinetics of MK and MK-p10 did not differ from each other in the brain and in cultured cells. The spike (S) protein of MK-p10 had four amino acid substitutions relative to the original strain. One of these (an H-to-R substitution at residue 1,381) was first detected in PEDV isolated after eight passages, and both this virus (MK-p8) and MK-p10 showed enhanced syncytium formation relative to the original MK strain and viruses isolated after two, four, and six passages, suggesting the possibility that the H-to-R mutation was responsible for this activity. This mutation could be also involved in the increased virulence of PEDV observed for MK-p10. PMID:20827493

Shirato, Kazuya; Maejima, Madoka; Hirai, Asuka; Ami, Yasushi; Takeyama, Natsumi; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Kusanagi, Kouich; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Taguchi, Fumihiro

2010-12-01

253

Isolation, Pathogenicity and Safety of Curvularia eragrostidis Isolate QZ-2000 as a Bioherbicide Agent for Large Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pathogen isolated from lesions on blighted leaves of crabgrass in three different locations of China was identified as Curvularia eragrostidis. Isolate QZ-2000 was the most virulent of six isolates tested. Experiments on morphology, pathogenicity, effect of environmental factors, and host-range of isolate QZ-2000 were conducted in the laboratory, greenhouse and field to assess the potential of this isolate as

Yunzhi Zhu; Sheng Qiang

2004-01-01

254

Isolating Triggered Star Formation  

E-print Network

Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context. (Abridged.)

Elizabeth J. Barton; Jacob A. Arnold; Andrew R. Zentner; James S. Bullock; Risa H. Wechsler

2007-08-21

255

The Impact of Shallow-Trench-Isolation Mechanical Stress on the Hysteresis Effect of Partially Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator n-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) mechanical stress on the hysteresis effect in the output characteristics is measured in partially depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). We develop ID hysteresis, which is defined as the difference between ID versus VD forward sweep and reverse sweep. The fabricated devices show positive and negative peaks in ID hysteresis. The experimental results show that ID hysteresis declined as the STI mechanical stress increases. We also elaborate on the impact of STI mechanical stress on the ID hysteresis of PD SOI n-type MOSFETs.

Luo, Jie-Xin; Chen, Jing; Chai, Zhan; Lü, Kai; He, Wei-Wei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Xi

2014-12-01

256

Origin, Evolution, and Genotyping of Emergent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains in the United States  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Coronaviruses are known to infect humans and other animals and cause respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Here we report the emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the United States and determination of its origin, evolution, and genotypes based on temporal and geographical evidence. Histological lesions in small intestine sections of affected pigs and the complete genomic sequences of three emergent strains of PEDV isolated from outbreaks in Minnesota and Iowa were characterized. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the three U.S. strains revealed a close relationship with Chinese PEDV strains and their likely Chinese origin. The U.S. PEDV strains underwent evolutionary divergence, which can be classified into two sublineages. The three emergent U.S. strains are most closely related to a strain isolated in 2012 from Anhui Province in China, which might be the result of multiple recombination events between different genetic lineages or sublineages of PEDV. Molecular clock analysis of the divergent time based on the complete genomic sequences is consistent with the actual time difference, approximately 2 to 3 years, of the PED outbreaks between China (December 2010) and the United States (May 2013). The finding that the emergent U.S. PEDV strains share unique genetic features at the 5?-untranslated region with a bat coronavirus provided further support of the evolutionary origin of PEDV from bats and potential cross-species transmission. The data from this study have important implications for understanding the ongoing PEDV outbreaks in the United States and will guide future efforts to develop effective preventive and control measures against PEDV. PMID:24129257

Huang, Yao-Wei; Dickerman, Allan W.; Piñeyro, Pablo; Li, Long; Fang, Li; Kiehne, Ross; Opriessnig, Tanja; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2013-01-01

257

Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 ?g/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, <0.1 ?g/l) to 33.41 ?g/l in the tested samples. Parathion was found in two tested samples at the concentration of 0.73 and 6.23 ?g/l. None of the tested samples was found contaminated with Methoxychlor, DDT and Ethion. Three soil bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas peli BG1, Burkholderia caryophylli BG4 and Brevundimonas diminuta PD6 degraded chlorpyrifos completely in 8, 10 and 10 days, respectively, when 20 mg/l chlorpyrifos was supplied as sole source of carbon. Whereas, BG1, BG4 and PD6 took 14, 16 and 16 days, respectively, for complete removal of 50 mg/l chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos degradation rates were found maximum by all three isolates at 2nd day of incubation for both tested concentrations. The results of the present study suggest the need for regular monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

2014-03-01

258

Analysis of the pan genome of Campylobacter jejuni isolates recovered from poultry by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) reveals different discriminatory capabilities.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of food-borne illness in the USA. Molecular typing methods are often used in food safety for identifying sources of infection and pathways of transmission. Moreover, the identification of genetically related isolates (i.e., clades) may facilitate the development of intervention strategies for control and prevention of food-borne diseases. We analyzed the pan genome (i.e., core and variable genes) of 63 C. jejuni isolates recovered from chickens raised in conventional, organic, and free-range poultry flocks to gain insight into the genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates recovered from different environments. We assessed the discriminatory power of three genotyping methods [i.e., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR)]. The rep-PCR fingerprint was generated by determining the presence of repetitive sequences that are interspersed throughout the genome via repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), and BOX element PCR (BOX-PCR) and combining the data to form a composite fingerprint. The genetic fingerprints were subjected to computer-assisted pattern analysis. Comparison of the three genotypic methods revealed that repREB-PCR showed greater discriminatory power than PFGE and MLST. ERIC-PCR and BOX-PCR yielded the highest number of PCR products and greatest reproducibility. Regardless of the genotyping method, C. jejuni isolates recovered from chickens reared in conventional, organic, and free-range environments all exhibit a high level of genotypic diversity. PMID:19697077

Wilson, Melissa K; Lane, Alison B; Law, Bibiana F; Miller, William G; Joens, Lynn A; Konkel, Michael E; White, Bryan A

2009-11-01

259

Characterization of two recent Japanese field isolates of canine distemper virus and examination of the avirulent strain utility as an attenuated vaccine.  

PubMed

Recently, several new strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) have been isolated in Japan. To investigate their pathogenesis in dogs, the Yanaka and Bunkyo-K strains were investigated by infecting dogs and determining clinical signs, amount of virus, and antibody responses. The Yanaka strain is avirulent and induced an antibody response. The Bunkyo-K strain induced typical CDV clinical signs in infected dogs and virulence was enhanced by brain passage. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of H genes demonstrated the Bunkyo-K strains were of a different lineage from Asia-1 group including the Yanaka strain and Asia-2 group that contain recent Japanese isolates, which were recently identified as major prevalent strains worldwide but distinct from old vaccine strains. Based on these data, we tested the ability of the Yanaka strain for vaccination. Inoculation with the Yanaka strain efficiently induced CDV neutralizing antibodies with no clinical signs, and the protection effects against challenge with either old virulent strain or Bunkyo-K strain were equal or greater when compared with vaccination by an original vaccine strain. Thus, the Yanaka strain is a potential vaccine candidate against recent prevalent CDV strains. PMID:25465179

Takenaka, Akiko; Yoneda, Misako; Seki, Takahiro; Uema, Masashi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Nishi, Toshiya; Fujita, Kentaro; Miura, Ryuichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

2014-12-01

260

Candidate isolated neutron stars and other optically blank x-ray fields identified from the rosat all-sky and sloan digital sky surveys  

SciTech Connect

Only seven radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) emitting thermal X rays are known, a sample that has yet to definitively address such fundamental issues as the equation of state of degenerate neutron matter. We describe a selection algorithm based on a cross-correlation of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that identifies X-ray error circles devoid of plausible optical counterparts to the SDSS g {approx} 22 magnitudes limit. We quantitatively characterize these error circles as optically blank; they may host INSs or other similarly exotic X-ray sources such as radio-quiet BL Lacs, obscured AGN, etc. Our search is an order of magnitude more selective than previous searches for optically blank RASS error circles, and excludes the 99.9% of error circles that contain more common X-ray-emitting subclasses. We find 11 candidates, nine of which are new. While our search is designed to find the best INS candidates and not to produce a complete list of INSs in the RASS, it is reassuring that our number of candidates is consistent with predictions from INS population models. Further X-ray observations will obtain pinpoint positions and determine whether these sources are entirely optically blank at g {approx} 22, supporting the presence of likely isolated neutron stars and perhaps enabling detailed follow-up studies of neutron star physics.

Agueros, Marcel A.; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Margon, Bruce; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Haberl, Frank; Voges, Wolfgang; /Garching,; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; /Apache Point Observ.

2005-11-01

261

Genetic Diversity of Food-Isolated Salmonella Strains through Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR)  

PubMed Central

All over the world, the incidence of Salmonella spp contamination on different food sources like broilers, clams and cow milk has increased rapidly in recent years. The multifaceted properties of Salomnella serovars allow the microorganism to grow and multiply in various food matrices, even under adverse conditions. Therefore, methods are needed to detect and trace this pathogen along the entire food supply network. In the present work, PFGE and ERIC-PCR were used to subtype 45 Salmonella isolates belonging to different serovars and derived from different food origins. Among these isolates, S. Enteritidis and S. Kentucky were found to be the most predominant serovars. The Discrimination Index obtained by ERIC-PCR (0.85) was slightly below the acceptable confidence value. The best discriminatory ability was observed when PFGE typing method was used alone (DI?=?0.94) or combined with ERIC-PCR (DI?=?0.93). A wide variety of profiles was observed between the different serovars using PFGE or/and ERIC-PCR. This diversity is particularly important when the sample origins are varied and even within the same sampling origin. PMID:24312546

Fendri, Imen; Ben Hassena, Amal; Grosset, Noel; Barkallah, Mohamed; Khannous, Lamia; Chuat, Victoria; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

2013-01-01

262

Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation  

PubMed Central

Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

2014-01-01

263

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01

264

CHANGES IN VIRULENCE TO COLORADO POTATO BEETLES OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA GHA ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SPRAYED FIELDS ONE TO FOUR YEARS POST APPLICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our study on the impact of inundative releases of Beauveria bassiana GHA mycoinsecticides on indigenous conspecific populations revealed persistence of the GHA strain in the field four years at most since the last application. Molecular analysis of recovered GHA "clones" using AFLP markers also reve...

265

Investigation into the role of potentially contaminated feed as a source of the first-detected outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in Canada.  

PubMed

In January 2014, approximately 9 months following the initial detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in the USA, the first case of PED was confirmed in a swine herd in south-western Ontario. A follow-up epidemiological investigation carried out on the initial and 10 subsequent Ontario PED cases pointed to feed as a common risk factor. As a result, several lots of feed and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) used as a feed supplement were tested for the presence of PEDV genome by real-time RT-PCR assay. Several of these tested positive, supporting the notion that contaminated feed may have been responsible for the introduction of PEDV into Canada. These findings led us to conduct a bioassay experiment in which three PEDV-positive SDPP samples (from a single lot) and two PEDV-positive feed samples supplemented with this SDPP were used to orally inoculate 3-week-old piglets. Although the feed-inoculated piglets did not show any significant excretion of PEDV, the SDPP-inoculated piglets shed PEDV at a relatively high level for ?9 days. Despite the fact that the tested PEDV genome positive feed did not result in obvious piglet infection in our bioassay experiment, contaminated feed cannot be ruled out as a likely source of this introduction in the field where many other variables may play a contributing role. PMID:25098383

Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Ojkic, D; Maxie, G; Embury-Hyatt, C; Swekla, K; Handel, K; Fairles, J; Alexandersen, S

2014-10-01

266

Investigation into the Role of Potentially Contaminated Feed as a Source of the First-Detected Outbreaks of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Canada  

PubMed Central

Summary In January 2014, approximately 9 months following the initial detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in the USA, the first case of PED was confirmed in a swine herd in south-western Ontario. A follow-up epidemiological investigation carried out on the initial and 10 subsequent Ontario PED cases pointed to feed as a common risk factor. As a result, several lots of feed and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) used as a feed supplement were tested for the presence of PEDV genome by real-time RT-PCR assay. Several of these tested positive, supporting the notion that contaminated feed may have been responsible for the introduction of PEDV into Canada. These findings led us to conduct a bioassay experiment in which three PEDV-positive SDPP samples (from a single lot) and two PEDV-positive feed samples supplemented with this SDPP were used to orally inoculate 3-week-old piglets. Although the feed-inoculated piglets did not show any significant excretion of PEDV, the SDPP-inoculated piglets shed PEDV at a relatively high level for ?9 days. Despite the fact that the tested PEDV genome positive feed did not result in obvious piglet infection in our bioassay experiment, contaminated feed cannot be ruled out as a likely source of this introduction in the field where many other variables may play a contributing role. PMID:25098383

Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Ojkic, D; Maxie, G; Embury-Hyatt, C; Swekla, K; Handel, K; Fairles, J; Alexandersen, S

2014-01-01

267

Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.  

PubMed

There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified. PMID:16253666

Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

2006-02-01

268

Characterization of Alkaliphilus hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic anaerobic bacterium, isolated from a carbonaceous chimney of the Prony hydrothermal field, New Caledonia.  

PubMed

A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, Gram-positive staining bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in the Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain designated FatMR1(T) grew at temperatures from 20 to 55 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH between 7.5 and 10.5 (optimum 8.8-9). NaCl is not required for growth (optimum 0.2-0.5 %), but is tolerated up to 3 %. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite are not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain FatMR1(T) fermented pyruvate, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypcase and used fructose as the only sugar. The main fermentation products from fructose and proteinaceous compounds (e.g. peptone and biotrypcase) were acetate, H2 and CO2. Crotonate was disproportionated to acetate and butyrate. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 37.1 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, genetic, and physiological properties, strain FatMR1(T) (=DSM 25890(T), =JCM 18390(T)) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, A. hydrothermalis sp. nov. PMID:25319677

Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Ollivier, Bernard

2015-01-01

269

Efficacy and transmissibility of Newcastle disease I-2 vaccine strain against a field isolate of virulent ND virus (JF820294.1) in village chicken.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess efficacy of heat-stable I-2 vaccine against Newcastle diseases in vaccinated and vaccinated in contact birds group following challenge against virulent Newcastle disease (ND) virus in village chicken. Also, to assess whether birds that have been exposed to vaccine virus-shedding, birds were protected against mortality and clinical signs after infection with a virulent strain of the ND virus (NDV). One hundred fifty one-day-old native chickens were divided into seven groups (4 experimental groups of 30 birds/group and 3 control groups (unvaccinated unchallenged, challenged, and just vaccinated). Birds in experimental groups were vaccinated either via drinking water or as food carrier with thermostable I-2 vaccine and then challenged with virulent isolate of NDV (JF820294.1), and eight birds were added as in-contact birds to vaccinated groups. Following challenge, seven extra birds were added to each group as in contact with vaccinated and challenged birds. Survival rate, clinical signs, necropsy finding, and mean antibody titer were evaluated in different experimental and control groups. Birds vaccinated via drinking water showed 100 % survival rate. However, birds vaccinated with food carrier vaccine showed less than 50 % survival rate. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be recommended that I-2 vaccination via drinking water can effectively prevent ND in village chicken, since I-2 strain has been able to transmit to non-vaccinated-sensitive birds more effectively than velogenic NDV. PMID:25307759

Habibi, Hassan; Nili, Hassan; Asasi, Kramat; Mosleh, Najmeh; Firouzi, Sobhan; Mohammadi, Mitra

2015-01-01

270

Occurrence of pfatpase6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Artemisinin Resistance among Field Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in North-Eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

We aimed to determine the current prevalence of four P. falciparum candidate artemisinin resistance biomarkers L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N in the pfatpase6 gene in a high transmission area in Tanzania in a retrospective cross sectional study using 154 archived samples collected from three previous malaria studies in 2010, 2011 and 2013. Mutations in pfatpase6 gene were detected in parasite DNA isolated from Dried Blood Spots by using PCR-RFLP. We observed overall allelic frequencies for L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N to be 5.8% (9/154), 16.2% (25/154), 0.0% (0/154), and 3.9% (6/154). The L263E mutation was not detected in 2010 but occurred at 3.9% and 2.6% in 2011 and 2013 respectively. The L263E mutation showed a significant change of frequency between 2010 and 2011, but not between 2011 and 2013 (P < 0.05). Frequency of E431K was highest of all without any clear trend whereas S769N increased from 2.2% in 2010 to 3.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2013. A623E mutation was not detected. The worrisome detection and the increase in the frequency of S769N and other mutations calls for urgent assessment of temporal changes of known artemisinin biomarkers in association with in vivo ACT efficacy.

Chilongola, Jaffu; Ndaro, Arnold; Tarimo, Hipolite; Shedrack, Tamara; Barthazary, Sakurani; Kaaya, Robert; Masokoto, Alutu; Kajeguka, Debora; Kavishe, Reginald A.; Lusingu, John

2015-01-01

271

Drop-on-Demand Single Cell Isolation and Total RNA Analysis  

E-print Network

Technologies that rapidly isolate viable single cells from heterogeneous solutions have significantly contributed to the field of medical genomics. Challenges remain both to enable efficient extraction, isolation and ...

Moon, Sangjun

272

The role of solvent on selective hydrogenation of conjugated and isolated C dbnd C of Citral (3,7-dimethyl 2,6-octadienal) - a self-consistent reaction field study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent reaction field study was performed to rationalize the selective formation of 3,7-dimethyloctanal by hydrogenation of citral (3,7-dimethyl 2,6-octadienal) exclusively in supercritical carbon dioxide medium. We have used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate and compare the reactivity of the atoms present in the reactant molecule for a range of solvent with variable dielectric constant. Solvent with low dielectric constant was found to be reducing the electrophilicity of the sites present and hence enhances the selectivity of an isolated and conjugated C dbnd C bond-breaking phenomenon. In contrast to that, solvents with high dielectric constant prefer to hydrogenate the conjugated C dbnd C. The geometric and electronic aspects were compared to propose a plausible explanation for the unprecedented selectivity observed in supercritical carbon dioxide medium.

Chatterjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Maya; Ikushima, Yutaka; Mizukami, Fujio

2004-09-01

273

SpeI restriction enzyme displays greater discriminatory power than XbaI enzyme does in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis study on 146 clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates.  

PubMed

Restriction enzymes SpeI and XbaI were used in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study for molecular characterization of 146 clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates. The PFGE parameters were optimized to enable comparable, reproducible, and robust results. The optimized parameters for both SpeI and XbaI restriction enzymes used in this study were 200 V and a pulse time of 5 to 65 s for a 28-h runtime. Using SpeI, 9 different clusters were identified, whereas 6 clusters were identified by XbaI digestion, which exhibited 85% similarity to SpeI. SpeI (discrimination index [D]=0.854) showed higher discriminatory power than XbaI did (D=0.464). PMID:21617308

Chua, Kek Heng; See, Kah Heng; Thong, Kwai Lin; Puthucheary, S D

2011-01-01

274

Mirincamycin, an old candidate for malaria combination treatment and prophylaxis in the 21st century: in vitro interaction profiles with potential partner drugs in continuous culture and field isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to existing drugs calls for the search for novel anti-malarial drugs and combinations for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Methods In vitro and ex vivo investigations were conducted with fresh P. falciparum field isolates and culture-adapted P. falciparum clones to evaluate the anti-malarial potential of mirincamycin, a lincosamide, alone and in combination with tafenoquine (TQ), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and chloroquine (CQ). All samples were tested in a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) drug susceptibility assay. Results Interaction analysis showed additive to synergistic interaction profiles with these potential partner drugs, with an overall geometric mean fractional inhibitory concentration at 50% inhibition (FIC50) of 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80 for mirincamycin with TQ, DHA, and CQ, respectively. Antagonism was not found in any of the tested field isolates or clones. The strongest tendency toward synergy (i.e. the lowest FIC) was seen with a combination ratio of 1:0.27 to 1:7.2 (mean 1:2.7) for the combination with tafenoquine. The optimal combination ratios for DHA and CQ were 1:444.4 to 1:36,000 (mean 1:10,755.5) and 1:2.7 to 1:216 (mean 1:64.5), respectively. No evidence of an activity correlation (i.e. potential cross-resistance) with DHA, mefloquine, quinine or chloroquine was seen whereas a significant correlation with the activity of clindamycin and azithromycin was detected. Conclusions Mirincamycin combinations may be promising candidates for further clinical investigations in the therapy and prophylaxis of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria or in combination with 4 or 8-aminoquinolines for the treatment and relapse prevention of vivax malaria. PMID:24916383

2014-01-01

275

A transferable general valence force field for oxalyl halides: fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of oxalyl chloride isolated in cryogenic rare gas matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrational potential functions of oxalyl halides (COX) 2 (X = Cl, Br, or F) and C 2O 2XY (X = Cl, Y = F) have been derived from literature values of the experimental frequencies. Internal coordinates used in the force field evaluations have demonstrated small changes in the force constant values related to the common C 2O 2 framework. In xenon and argon matrices, the oxalyl chloride IR spectra show multiplets, associated with natural abundance isotopic shifts and site effects, in agreement with calculated isotopic values. Numerous combination tones have been observed and identified; several are evidently perturbed by strong Fermi resonance.

Davidovics, G.; Monnier, M.; Schroeder, W.; Verlaque, P.; Pourcin, J.; Bodot, H.

1989-06-01

276

Isolation, propagation, identification and comparative pathogenicity of five Egyptian field strains of Eimeria tenella from broiler chickens in five different provinces in Egypt.  

PubMed

A battery trial was conducted to evaluate the comparative pathogenicity of five field strains of Eimeria tenella from Behera, Khafr El-Sheikh, Alexandria, Gharbia and Matrouh provinces in Egypt. Two-week-old broiler chickens were infected with 25×10(3) sporulated oocysts of each strain of E. tenella. The comparative pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by calculating body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, lesion scores, dropping nature scores, cecal scrapings, mortality percentage and oocysts count. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin (Hb) content, packed cell volume (PCV%) and total erythrocytic count, were also evaluated. There were different degrees of pathogenicity between the strains. PMID:21134686

Abu-Akkada, Somaia Saif; Awad, Ashraf Mahmoud

2012-02-01

277

Ex vivo anti-malarial drugs sensitivity profile of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Burkina Faso five years after the national policy change  

PubMed Central

Background The recent reports on the decreasing susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives along the Thailand and Myanmar border are worrying. Indeed it may spread to India and then Africa, repeating the same pattern observed for chloroquine resistance. Therefore, it is essential to start monitoring P. falciparum sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives and its partner drugs in Africa. Efficacy of AL and ASAQ were tested by carrying out an in vivo drug efficacy test, with an ex vivo study against six anti-malarial drugs nested into it. Results of the latter are reported here. Methods Plasmodium falciparum ex-vivo susceptibility to chloroquine (CQ), quinine (Q), lumefantrine (Lum), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDA), piperaquine (PPQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was investigated in children (6 months – 15 years) with a parasitaemia of at least ?4,000/?l. The modified isotopic microtest technique was used. The results of cellular proliferation were analysed using ICEstimator software to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Results DHA was the most potent among the 6 drugs tested, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 nM to 0.9 nM (Geometric mean IC50?=?0.8 nM; 95% CI [0.8 - 0.9]). High IC50 values ranged between 0.8 nM to 166.1 nM were reported for lumefantrine (Geometric mean IC50?=?25.1 nM; 95% CI [22.4 - 28.2]). MDA and Q IC50s were significantly higher in CQ-resistant than in CQ-sensitive isolates (P?=?0.0001). However, the opposite occurred for Lum and DHA (P?

2014-01-01

278

Flooded area and plant zonation in isolated wetlands in well fields in the Northern Tampa Bay Region, Florida, following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four other well-field wetlands (W-41, Q-1, Starkey D, and Starkey E) were mostly dry before reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates and remained mostly dry after the reductions. W-41 was dry 23 percent less time in the post-reduction period, but most of the increase in flooded area was confined to less than 20 percent of the total wetland area. Q-1 was dry for only 12 percent less time in the post-reduction period. The median elevation of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer increased beneath W-41 by about 5 feet and beneath Q-1 by about 2 feet after reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates. The extent and duration of the flooded area was unchanged at Starkey D when the post-reduction period was compared to the pre-reduction period. At Starkey E the extent of the flooded area decreased slightly during the post-reduction period.

Haag, Kim H.; Pfeiffer, William R.

2012-01-01

279

High-Voltage Isolation Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arcing and field-included surface erosion reduced by electrostatic shields around windings and ferromagnetic core of 80-kilovolt isolation transformer. Fabricated from high-resistivity polyurethane-based material brushed on critical surfaces, shields maintained at approximately half potential difference of windings.

Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P.

1985-01-01

280

Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility  

SciTech Connect

A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0{degree}, {plus_minus}45{degrees} relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole.

Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

1995-09-01

281

Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

2013-01-01

282

Study of the bioremediation of atrazine under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by mixed bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil in Fars province of Iran.  

PubMed

Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5-8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

Dehghani, Mansooreh; Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

2013-01-01

283

Relatedness of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean and sorghum  

E-print Network

Relatedness of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean and sorghum 143 isolates from maize fields adjacent to tallgrass prairie, nearby sorghum fields, widely dispersed% in the sorghum fields and 80% in the dispersed soybean fields. The isolates were divided into four clusters: one

Garrett, Karen A.

284

Isolated Northern Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

285

Isolated neutron stars in the galaxy: from magnetars to antimagnetars  

SciTech Connect

Using the model with decaying magnetic fields it is possible to describe with one smooth (log-Gaussian) initial magnetic field distribution three types of isolated neutron stars: radiopulsar, magnetars, and cooling close-by compact objects. The same model is used here to make predictions for old accreting isolated neutron stars. It is shown that using the updated field distribution we predict a significant fraction of isolated neutron stars at the stage of accretion despite long subsonic propeller stage.

Boldin, P. A., E-mail: boldin.pavel@gmail.com [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Popov, S. B., E-mail: polar@sai.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-07-15

286

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

SciTech Connect

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26

287

Magnetically coupled signal isolator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

288

Relatedness of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean, and sorghum  

E-print Network

Relatedness of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean, and sorghum 143 isolates from maize fields adjacent to tallgrass prairie, nearby sorghum fields,25 widely similarity was 58% among isolates in the tallgrass prairie, 71% in the maize fields, 75% in the sorghum

Garrett, Karen A.

289

Psychopathology of social isolation.  

PubMed

The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

Baek, Sang-Bin

2014-06-01

290

Vibration isolation technology experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end

C. R. Keckler

1984-01-01

291

Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography  

E-print Network

We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

Wang, Wenhan

2012-01-01

292

Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Recovered from Selected Ready-To-Eat Foods and Listeriosis Patients in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and serotyping were performed for 544 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes, including 502 isolates recovered from contaminated samples from 31,705 retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food products and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. The isolates were from Maryland (294 isolates) and California (250 isolates) and were collected in 2000 and 2001. The isolates were placed into 16

Stefanie Evans Gilbreth; Jeff E. Call; F. Morgan Wallace; Virginia N. Scott; Yuhuan Chen; John B. Luchansky

2005-01-01

293

NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

294

Tritrichomonas foetus: characterization of isolates and partial purification of a secreted cytotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Putative virulence factors including extracellular proteases, hemagglutinin, hemolysins, and soluble cytotoxins may play significant roles in the pathogenesis of trichomoniasis. The cytotoxicity, hemagglutinating, and hemolytic activity of Tritrichomonas foetus isolate ATCC #30003 and several field isolates were compared. All isolates were hemolytic toward mouse and bovine erythrocytes but not other tested species. The isolates varied significantly in hemagglutinating ability and

Mary J. Kennett; Reuel R. Hook

2002-01-01

295

Mutation and premating isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

2002-01-01

296

Making snapshot isolation serializable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snapshot Isolation (SI) is a multiversion concurrency control algorithm, first described in Berenson et al. [1995]. SI is attractive because it provides an isolation level that avoids many of the common concurrency anomalies, and has been implemented by Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server (with certain minor variations). SI does not guarantee serializability in all cases, but the TPC-C benchmark application

Alan Fekete; Dimitrios Liarokapis; Elizabeth J. O'Neil; Patrick E. O'Neil; Dennis Shasha

2005-01-01

297

Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated "h...

2010-09-20

298

Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Turkey Flocks Fed Virginiamycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE

L. A. WELTON; L. A. THAL; M. B. PERRI; S. DONABEDIAN; J. MCMAHON; J. W. CHOW; M. J. ZERVOS

1998-01-01

299

Fault detection and isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for a current satellite-based navigation system (such as the Global Positioning System, GPS) to meet integrity requirements, there must be a way of detecting erroneous measurements, without help from outside the system. This process is called Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI). Fault detection requires at least one redundant measurement, and can be done with a parity space algorithm. The best way around the fault isolation problem is not necessarily isolating the bad measurement, but finding a new combination of measurements which excludes it.

Bernath, Greg

1994-01-01

300

MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

2005-08-01

301

Isolation of Chlamydomonas Flagella  

PubMed Central

A simple, scalable, and fast procedure for the isolation of Chlamydomonas flagella is described. Chlamydomonas can be synchronously deflagellated by treatment with chemicals, pH shock, or mechanical shear. The Basic Protocol describes the procedure for flagellar isolation using dibucaine to induce flagellar abscission; we also describe the pH shock method as an Alternate Protocol when flagellar regeneration is desirable. Sub-fractionation of the isolated flagella into axonemes and the membrane + matrix fraction is described in a Support Protocol. PMID:23728744

Craige, Branch; Brown, Jason M.; Witman, George B.

2014-01-01

302

Comparative studies on the pathogenicity and tissue distribution of three virulence variants of classical swine fever virus, two field isolates and one vaccine strain, with special regard to immunohistochemical investigations  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to compare the tissue distribution and pathogenicity of three virulence variants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and to investigate the applicability of various conventional diagnostic procedures. Methods 64 pigs were divided into three groups and infected with the highly virulent isolate ISS/60, the moderately virulent isolate Wingene'93 and the live attenuated vaccine strain Riems, respectively. Clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes were compared in relation to time elapsed post infection. Virus spread in various organs was followed by virus isolation, by immunohistochemistry, applying monoclonal antibodies in a two-step method and by in situ hybridisation using a digoxigenin-labelled riboprobe. Results The tissue distribution data are discussed in details, analyzing the results of the various diagnostic approaches. The comparative studies revealed remarkable differences in the onset of clinical signs as well as in the development of the macro- and microscopical changes, and in the tissue distribution of CSFV in the three experimental groups. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that in the case of highly and moderately virulent virus variants the virulence does not affect the pattern of the viral spread, however, it influences the outcome, the duration and the intensity of the disease. Immunohistochemistry has the advantage to allow the rapid detection and localisation of the virus, especially in cases of early infection, when clinical signs are still absent. Compared to virus isolation, the advantage of this method is that no cell culture facilities are required. Thus, immunohistochemistry provides simple and sensitive tools for the prompt detection of newly emerging variants of CSFV, including the viruses of very mild virulence. PMID:18775072

Belák, Katinka; Koenen, Frank; Vanderhallen, Hans; Mittelholzer, Christian; Feliziani, Francesco; De Mia, Gian Mario; Belák, Sándor

2008-01-01

303

Isolated Vascular Vertigo  

PubMed Central

Strokes in the distribution of the posterior circulation may present with vertigo, imbalance, and nystagmus. Although the vertigo due to a posterior circulation stroke is usually associated with other neurologic symptoms or signs, small infarcts involving the cerebellum or brainstem can develop vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11% of the patients with an isolated cerebellar infarction present with isolated vertigo, nystagmus, and postural unsteadiness mimicking acute peripheral vestibular disorders. The head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with cerebellar strokes (particularly within the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery) from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending infarction in the territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Appropriate bedside evaluation is superior to MRIs for detecting central vascular vertigo syndromes. This article reviews the keys to diagnosis of acute isolated vertigo syndrome due to posterior circulation strokes involving the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25328871

2014-01-01

304

Base isolation: Fresh insight  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

Shustov, V.

1993-07-15

305

Understand Quarantine and Isolation  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Shelter in Place Home School Work Vehicle Understand Quarantine and Isolation Questions & Answers Fact Sheet ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

306

Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates associated with septicemia in swine  

PubMed Central

Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently isolated from pigs and may also cause enteric disease in humans. In this study, 33 isolates of S. Typhimurium associated with septicemia in swine (CS) were compared to 33 isolates recovered from healthy animals at slaughter (WCS). The isolates were characterized using phenotyping and genotyping methods. For each isolate, the phage type, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA profiles were determined. In addition, the protein profiles of each isolate grown in different conditions were studied by Coomassie Blue-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot. Various phage types were identified. The phage type PT 104 represented 36.4% of all isolates from septicemic pigs. Resistance to as many as 12 antimicrobial agents, including some natural resistances, was found in isolates from CS and WCS. Many genetic profiles were identified among the PT 104 phage types. Although it was not possible to associate one particular protein with septicemic isolates, several highly immunogenic proteins, present in all virulent isolates and in most isolates from clinically healthy animals, were identified. These results indicated that strains associated with septicemia belong to various genetic lineages that can also be recovered from asymptomatic animals at the time of slaughter. PMID:20357952

Bergeron, Nadia; Corriveau, Jonathan; Letellier, Ann; Daigle, France; Quessy, Sylvain

2010-01-01

307

Extremal isolated horizon/CFT correspondence  

SciTech Connect

The near-horizon limit of the extremal (weakly) isolated horizon is obtained under the Bondi-like coordinates. For the vacuum case, explicit coordinate transformation relating the near-horizon metric under the Bondi-like coordinates and the standard Poincare-type or global near-horizon metric of the extremal Kerr black hole is found, which shows that the two geometries are the same. Combined with the known thermodynamics of the (weakly) isolated horizon, it is argued that the Kerr/conformal field theory correspondence can be generalized to the case of a large class of nonstationary extremal black holes.

Wu Xiaoning; Tian Yu [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Hua Loo-Keng Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-07-15

308

Comparative study of three different DNA fingerprint techniques for molecular typing of Shigella flexneri strains isolated in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 97 epidemiologically unrelated Shigella flexneri strains isolated during 1994 (69 isolates) and 1997 (28 isolates) were characterised by ribotyping, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Number of strains belonging to each of the six serotypes is selected equal to their distribution in Romania. The isolates comprise 24 ribotypes based on combination of

Maria Surdeanu; Lucia Ciudin; Elena Pencu; Monica Straut

2003-01-01

309

Thiogranum longum gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field, and an emended description of the genus Thiohalomonas.  

PubMed

A novel, obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterial strain, designated strain gps52(T), was isolated from a rock sample collected near the hydrothermal vents of the Suiyo Seamount in the Pacific Ocean. The cells possessed a Gram-stain-negative-type cell wall and contained menaquinone-8(H4) and menaquinone-9(H4) as respiratory quinones, and C16?:?1?7c, C16?:?0 and C18?:?1?7c as major cellular fatty acids. Neither storage compounds nor extensive internal membranes were observed in the cells. Strain gps52(T) grew using carbon dioxide fixation and oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds with oxygen as electron acceptor. Optimal growth was observed at 32 °C, pH 6.5 and with 3?% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain gps52(T) belongs to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae and is different from any other known bacteria, with sequence similarities of less than 93?%. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, the isolate is considered to represent a novel genus and species in the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and the name Thiogranum longum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is gps52(T) (?=?NBRC 101260(T)?=?DSM 19610(T)). An emended description of the genus Thiohalomonas is also proposed. PMID:25336721

Mori, Koji; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Urabe, Tetsuro; Hanada, Satoshi

2015-01-01

310

Effects of macroscopic propagation on spectra of broadband supercontinuum harmonics and isolated-attosecond-pulse generation: Coherent control of the electron quantum trajectories in two-color laser fields  

E-print Network

Recently it was shown that broadband supercontinuum harmonics can be produced from the long-trajectory electrons in the single-atom response by the coherent control of the electron trajectories through optimized two-color laser fields...

Chu, Shih-I; Li, Peng-Cheng

2012-07-13

311

Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks.  

PubMed

Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to characterize the genotypic diversity of a total of 114 Gallibacterium anatis isolates originating from a reference collection representing 15 biovars from four countries and isolates obtained from tracheal and cloacal swab samples of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent in the flock. The layer parent flock isolates were grouped into two subclusters, each with similarity above 90%. One subcluster contained only tracheal isolates, while the other primarily included cloacal isolates. In conclusion, we show that AFLP analysis enables fingerprinting of G. anatis, which seems to have a clonal population structure within natural populations. There was further evidence of clonal lineages, which may have adapted to different sites within the same animal. PMID:12791918

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, Henrik; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Bisgaard, Magne

2003-06-01

312

Genetic Diversity of Gallibacterium anatis Isolates from Different Chicken Flocks  

PubMed Central

Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) were used to characterize the genotypic diversity of a total of 114 Gallibacterium anatis isolates originating from a reference collection representing 15 biovars from four countries and isolates obtained from tracheal and cloacal swab samples of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent in the flock. The layer parent flock isolates were grouped into two subclusters, each with similarity above 90%. One subcluster contained only tracheal isolates, while the other primarily included cloacal isolates. In conclusion, we show that AFLP analysis enables fingerprinting of G. anatis, which seems to have a clonal population structure within natural populations. There was further evidence of clonal lineages, which may have adapted to different sites within the same animal. PMID:12791918

Bojesen, Anders Miki; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, Henrik; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Bisgaard, Magne

2003-01-01

313

Review on Recent Advances in the Analysis of Isolated Organelles  

PubMed Central

The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. PMID:23107131

Satori, Chad P.; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

2012-01-01

314

Multitrack system for superfusing isolated cardiac myocytes.  

PubMed

A new system for studying mechanical activity of freshly isolated cardiac myocytes from up to four experimental groups simultaneously is described. Suspensions of cardiac myocytes isolated from adult rat hearts were drawn into microhematocrit capillary tubes, which were then mounted in parallel fashion between two four-channel tubing manifolds placed on the movable stage of an inverted microscope. Within a few minutes, cells settled and attached to the bottom of the tubes and then could be superfused with various test solutions. The system allowed for electrical field stimulation, rapid changes in bathing solutions, control of temperature, and simulation of ischemia and reperfusion with measurements of the effects of such interventions on both populations of cells (low power survey) and individual myocytes (high power). Myocyte responses to these various interventions are described. The primary advantage of this system is the ability to conduct experiments on cardiac myocytes isolated concurrently from multiple experimental groups at the same time and under identical conditions. PMID:12531725

Heller, Lois Jane; Mohrman, David E; Smith, Juline A; Wallace, Kendall B

2003-05-01

315

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

316

Genetic Characterization of Shigella flexneri Isolates in Guizhou Province, China  

PubMed Central

Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China. PMID:25617838

Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D.; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

2015-01-01

317

Development of a real-time tunable stiffness and damping vibration isolator based on magnetorheological elastomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tunable stiffness and damping vibration isolator based on magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) is developed. In this isolator, four MRE elements are used as the tunable springs, whose stiffness can be controlled by varying the magnetic field. A voice coil motor, which is controlled by the relative velocity feedback of the payload, is used as the tunable damper of the isolator.

G. J. Liao; X-L Gong; S. H. Xuan; C. J. Kang; L. H. Zong

2012-01-01

318

A DNA probe for the detection and identification of Bacillus sporothermodurans using the 16S-23S rDNA spacer region and phylogenetic analysis of some field isolates of Bacillus which form highly heat resistant spores.  

PubMed

The spacer regions between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (spacer regions 1) of Bacillus sporothermodurans were PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Six unique spacer sequences in four size classes were recovered from two strains, rrnA (about 190 bp), rrnB (about 303 bp), rrnC (355 bp) and rrnD (554 bp). rrnD contained two tRNA genes which were deciphered as tRNA(ala) and tRNA(ile) separated from each other by 13 nucleotides. The primary structures of the tRNA molecules clearly resembled those found in Bacillus subtilis; the tRNA(ala) genes were identical and the tRNA(ile) genes were 95% similar. The mixed rrnA and rrnB spacers when PCR-amplified from chromosomal DNA were effective as a hybridization probe for identification of B. sporothermodurans strains. However, high background signals with DNA from some other bacilli were encountered. A more discriminating probe was prepared from the cloned rrnB spacer region. Of eight aerobic, endospore-forming bacteria isolated from silage following heat enrichment, one was identified as B. sporothermodurans using the probe and its identity was confirmed from partial 16S rDNA analysis (phylotyping). This indicated that contamination in milk and dairies by B. sporothermodurans could originate from cattle feeds such as silage. Of the other seven silage strains, only two were identified conclusively by phylotyping and three represented probable new species. The latter three strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using almost complete 16S rDNA sequences. Branch lengths, bootstrap percentage values, and 16S rDNA similarity to other Bacillus species suggested that these isolates are likely to constitute new species within the genus Bacillus. PMID:9779606

de Silva, S; Petterson, B; Aquino de Muro, M; Priest, F G

1998-08-01

319

Generic weak isolated horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak isolated horizon boundary conditions have been relaxed supposedly to their weakest form so that both zeroth and first laws of black hole mechanics hold. This makes the formulation more amenable for applications in both analytic and numerical relativities. It also unifies the phase spaces of non-extremal and extremal black holes.

Chatterjee, Ayan; Ghosh, Amit

2006-12-01

320

Chemical Kinetics: Isolation Method  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers an interactive tutorial that guides the student through the Method of Isolation used for the determination of chemical reaction rate laws and rate constants. This tutorial is coupled to others to further guide the student to a better understanding of chemical kinetics.

Blauch, David N.

321

Isolation of Mycoplasma meleagridis from chickens.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) is a major cause of disease and economic loss in turkeys. Formerly it was thought that this species was very host specific and only restricted to turkey. In this study, we report on the recovery of MM from breeding flocks of chickens located near a turkey breeding unit. Ten MM field strains were isolated (by culture on Frey broth medium) from tracheal swabs of chickens displaying clinical signs of mycoplasmosis-essentially respiratory symptoms and poor performance. Assignment of the isolated field strains to MM was confirmed by a growth inhibition assay using MM-specific polyclonal antiserum and by PCR amplification targeting the 16S rRNA sequence as well as the Mm14 sequence, a MM-species-specific DNA fragment previously identified and characterized in our laboratory. The nucleotide sequence of Mm14 proved to be highly conserved among the 10 MM field strains, indicating a common source of infection. However, on the basis of slight differences in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell proteins and western blot profiles, two groups of the isolated MM field strains could be distinguished. Evidence of MM infection of chickens was further provided by serology, since 13.77% (35/254) of sera proved positive to MM by either rapid serum agglutination or recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, sera of all chickens from which MM was isolated were positive for antibodies to MM. Collectively, the data unambiguously show that MM could infect chickens; thus, MM warrants further exploration to determine its pathogenicity in this unusual host. PMID:21500629

Béjaoui Khiari, A; Landoulsi, A; Aissa, H; Mlik, B; Amouna, F; Ejlassi, A; Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi, B

2011-03-01

322

Active Inertial Vibration Isolators And Dampers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development of active inertial vibration isolators and dampers in which actuators electromagnet coils moving linearly within permanent magnetic fields in housings, somewhat as though massive, low-frequency voice coils in loudspeakers. Discusses principle of operation, electrical and mechanical considerations in design of actuators, characteristics of accelerometers, and frequency responses of control systems. Describes design and performance of one- and three-degree-of-freedom vibration-suppressing system based on concept.

Laughlin, Darren; Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

1994-01-01

323

Dynamics of the isolated galaxy CIG 0314  

E-print Network

In the context of the AMIGA project, we used Fabry-Perot observations in order to study the dynamics of the ionised gas in the isolated galaxy CIG 0314. From the Halpha observations, we could obtain the velocity field and rotation curve of the galaxy. A detail analysis of the velocity field is done in order to understand the kinematics of the gas to gather clues on the mechanisms which favour or inhibit star formation, in particular along the bar. The visible and dark matter content can be reached, as well as an estimation of the mass of the galaxy.

Verley, S; Repetto, P; Gabbasov, R; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Bergond, G; Fuentes-Carrera, I; Durbala, A

2009-01-01

324

Genetic Analysis of Multiple Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Isolates Obtained Serially from Two Long-Term-Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Fifty-eight vancomycin-resistant enterococcal isolates were obtained from two patients over 9 weeks. Numerous pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprinting types were isolated from each patient. By PCR, all isolates were vanA+. However, many isolates from patient B were found to lack vanA by hybridization. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining multiple isolates, especially from patients who are at high risk of infection. PMID:9650975

Schoonmaker, Dianna J.; Bopp, Lawrence H.; Baltch, Aldona L.; Smith, Raymond P.; Rafferty, Mary Ellen; George, Mary

1998-01-01

325

A novel approach for the isolation of the sound and pseudo-sound contributions from near-field pressure fluctuation measurements: analysis of the hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic perturbation in a propeller-rudder system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main scope of the present work is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic perturbations in a rudder operating in the wake of a free running marine propeller. The study consisted of detailed near-field pressure fluctuation measurements which were acquired on the face and back surfaces of the rudder, at different deflection angles. To this aim, a novel wavelet-filtering procedure was applied to separate and analyze distinctly the acoustic and hydrodynamic components of the recorded near-field pressure signals. The filtering procedure undertakes the separation of intermittent pressure peaks induced by the passage of eddy structures, interpreted as pseudo-sound, from homogenous background fluctuations, interpreted as sound. The use of wavelet in the filtering procedure allows to overcome the limitations of the earlier attempts based on frequency (wave number) band-pass filtering, retrieving the overall frequency content of both the acoustic and the hydrodynamic components and returning them as independent signals in the time domain. Acoustic and hydrodynamic pressure distributions were decomposed harmonically and compared to the corresponding topologies of the vorticity field, derived from earlier LDV measurements performed by Felli and Falchi (Exp Fluids 51(5):1385-1402, 2011). The study highlighted that the acoustic perturbation is mainly correlated with the unsteady load variations of the rudder and to the shear layer fluctuations of the propeller streamtube. Conversely, the dynamics of the propeller tip and hub vortices underlies the hydrodynamic perturbation.

Felli, Mario; Grizzi, Silvano; Falchi, Massimo

2014-01-01

326

A highly adjustable magnetorheological elastomer base isolator for applications of real-time adaptive control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by its controllable and field-dependent stiffness/damping properties, there has been increasing research and development of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) for mitigation of unwanted structural or machinery vibrations using MRE isolators or absorbers. Recently, a breakthrough pilot research on the development of a highly innovative prototype adaptive MRE base isolator, with the ability for real-time adaptive control of base isolated structures against various types of earthquakes including near- or far-fault earthquakes, has been reported by the authors. As a further effort to improve the proposed MRE adaptive base isolator and to address some of the shortcomings and challenges, this paper presents systematic investigations on the development of a new highly adjustable MRE base isolator, including experimental testing and characterization of the new isolator. A soft MR elastomer has been designed, fabricated and incorporated in the laminated structure of the new MRE base isolator, which aims to obtain a highly adjustable shear modulus under a medium level of magnetic field. Comprehensive static and dynamic testing was conducted on this new adaptive MRE base isolator to examine its characteristics and evaluate its performance. The experimental results show that this new MRE base isolator can remarkably change the lateral stiffness of the isolator up to 1630% under a medium level of magnetic field. Such highly adjustable MRE base isolator makes the design and implementation of truly real-time adaptive (e.g. semi-active or smart passive) seismic isolation systems become feasible.

Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun; Tian, Tongfei; Li, Weihua

2013-09-01

327

Isolation of Carbon Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanostructures such a single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), double wall carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) and fullerene peapods (e.g. C70 at SWCNT) usually occur in the form of bundles. Here, we present application of a novel simple and versatile method for deposition of small isolated nanoribbons of carbon nanotubes on annealed gold surface. The nanoribbons were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and exhibit characteristic features of individual carbon nanostructures. The resonance condition allowed the observation of a distinct spectrum of one inner tube in the nanoribbon from DWCNT. The signal of inner tubes of isolated DWCNT nanoribbons was found to be up to 50 times stronger than the sum of signals of the corresponding tubes in buckypaper sample. This dramatic enhancement is assigned to SERS (surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering) effect.

Kalbac, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pelouchova, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Zukalova, Marketa [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dunsch, Lothar [Leibniz Institute of Solid State and Materials Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, D - 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2005-09-27

328

Cycle isolation monitoring  

SciTech Connect

There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

2009-07-15

329

Pump isolation valve  

DOEpatents

The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1983-08-02

330

ISOLATED POLYCYSTIC LIVER DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is an autosomal dominant disease with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Apart from liver cysts, it exhibits few extra-hepatic manifestations and the majority of patients with this condition are asymptomatic or subclinical. However, a small fraction of these patients develop acute liver-cyst-related complications and/or massive cystic liver enlargement, causing morbidity and mortality. Currently, the management for symptomatic PCLD is centered on palliating symptoms and treating complications. PMID:20219621

Qian, Qi

2010-01-01

331

DNA Isolation from Onion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students find studying DNA difficult because it is so small that the concepts are quite abstract. This lab enables students to work with DNA concretely by easily isolating chromosomal DNA using the same basic tools and methods that scientists use. The lab is a good introduction to using pipets and to using the metric system. If the chemistry of the solutions is taught it is also a great practical application.

Kate Dollard (Cambridge Rindge and Latin REV)

1994-07-30

332

Mechanical beam isolator  

SciTech Connect

Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam.

Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

1996-10-01

333

Isolated areolar apocrine chromhidrosis.  

PubMed

A case of isolated areolar apocrine chromhidrosis in an 11-year-old female is presented. This is the youngest case cited in Medline. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of apocrine chromhidrosis among primary care providers and to discuss treatment. Capsaicin cream 0.025% is a proven treatment that may reduce the potential psychological impact and embarrassment that patients experience. PMID:15629957

Griffith, Joan R

2005-02-01

334

Isolation and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Methods for isolation, identification and culture of pulmonary endothelial cells are now routine. In the past, methods of isolation have used proteolytic enzymes to detach cells; thereafter, traditional methods for cell passaging have used trypsin/EDTA mixtures. Cells isolated and passaged using proteolytic enzymes have been useful in establishing the field and in verifying certain endothelial properties. However, there is a growing awareness of the role of endothelial cells in processing vasoactive substances, in responding to hormones and other agonists and in cell-cell interactions with other cell types of the vascular wall, with blood cells and with cellular products. Consequently, a new requirement has arisen for cells in vitro that maintain the differentiated properties of their counterparts in vivo. The deleterious effects of trypsin and other proteolytic enzymes commonly used in cell culture on surface structures of endothelial cells such as enzymes, receptors and junctional proteins, as well as on extracellular layers such as the glycocalyx or "endothelial fuzz," have led to the development of methods that avoid use of proteolytic enzymes at both the isolation step and during subsequent subculture. This chapter describes traditional methods for isolating pulmonary endothelial cells but emphasizes newer approaches using mechanical harvest and scale-up using microcarriers. The new methods allow maintenance of long-term, large-scale cultures of cells that retain the full complement of surface properties and that maintain the cobblestone monolayer morphology and differentiated functional properties. Methods for identification of isolated cells are therefore also considered as methods for validation of cultures during their in vitro lifespan. PMID:6090112

Ryan, U S

1984-06-01

335

Denali: a scalable isolation kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Denali project provides system support for running sev- eral mutually distrusting Internet services on the same physical infrastructure. For example, this would enable a developer to push dynamic content into third party hosting infrastructure such as content distribution networks. To accomplish this, we propose a new kernel architecture called an isolation kernel to isolate un- trusted applications. An isolation

Andrew Whitaker; Marianne Shaw; Steven D. Gribble

2002-01-01

336

Genetic diversity and vegetative compatibility among Trichoderma harzianum isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma harzianum is the collective name of a set of asexual fungal strains which exhibit heterogeneity in genome structure, DNA sequence and\\u000a behavior. Contour-clamped homogeneous field (CHEF) electrophoresis of the chromosomes of ten isolates of T. harzianum revealed six clearly distinct electrophoretic karyotypes. Of the ten isolates analyzed, four (GH12, G109, Y and YF) could\\u000a be classified in a single

I. Gómez; I. Chet; A. Herrera-Estrella

1997-01-01

337

Mycobacteria isolated from exotic animals.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria were isolated from 263 of 474 specimens submitted from captive exotic (nondomesticated) animals over a 5-year period. Mycobacterium avium was isolated from 128 animals originating in 13 states and the District of Columbia; serotype 1 accounted for 65 of the isolations. Mycobacterium bovi was isolated from 74 animals in 7 zoos, 7 game parks, and 4 primate colonies in 1, states: Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 29 animals originating 9 stats; and Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonei, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium spp. The widespread occurrence of tuberculosis in exotic animals maintained in captivity emphasizes the public health importance of these infections. PMID:406254

Thoen, C O; Richards, W D; Jarnagin, J L

1977-05-01

338

High performance rotational vibration isolator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors.

Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

2013-10-01

339

The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

2010-01-01

340

Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation  

SciTech Connect

The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

1991-01-01

341

Weak Isolated Horizons  

SciTech Connect

Weak Isolated Horizon (WIH) is the most general definition of a black hole horizon so far i.e. WIH is defined through the weakest possible set of boundary conditions imposed on a generic null surface. We will also show that the laws of black hole mechanics can be derived for these horizons. In addition, the definition enables us to put the extremal and non-extremal black holes on the same phase-space so that one can make sense of extremal limit.

Chatterjee, Ayan [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2007-10-03

342

The photometric properties of isolated early-type galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies are important because they probe the lowest density regimes inhabited by galaxies. We define a sample of 36 nearby isolated early-type galaxies for further study. Our isolation criteria require them to have no comparable-mass neighbours within 2 B-band magnitudes, 0.67 Mpc in the plane of the sky and 700 km s-1 in recession velocity. New wide-field optical imaging of 10 isolated galaxies with the Anglo-Australian Telescope confirms their early-type morphology and relative isolation. We also present imaging of four galaxy groups as a control sample. The isolated galaxies are shown to be more gravitationally isolated than the group galaxies. We find that the isolated early-type galaxies have a mean effective colour of (B-R)e= 1.54 +/- 0.14, similar to their high-density counterparts. They reveal a similar colour-magnitude relation slope and small intrinsic scatter to cluster ellipticals. They also follow the Kormendy relation of surface brightness versus size for luminous cluster galaxies. Such properties suggest that the isolated galaxies formed at a similar epoch to cluster galaxies, such that the bulk of their stars are very old. However, our galaxy modelling reveals evidence for dust lanes, plumes, shells, boxy and disc isophotes in four out of nine galaxies. Thus at least some isolated galaxies have experienced a recent merger/accretion event, which may have induced a small burst of star formation. We derive luminosity functions for the isolated galaxies and find a faint slope of -1.2, which is similar to the `universal' slope found in a wide variety of environments. We examine the number density distribution of galaxies in the field of the isolated galaxies. Only the very faintest dwarf galaxies (MR>~-15.5) appear to be associated with the isolated galaxies, whereas any intermediate-luminosity galaxies appear to lie in the background. Finally, we discuss possible formation scenarios for isolated early-type galaxies. Early epoch formation and a merger/accretion of galaxies are possible explanations. The collapse of a large, virialized group is an unlikely explanation, but that of a poor group remains viable.

Reda, Fatma M.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Beasley, Michael A.; O'Sullivan, Ewan J.; Goudfrooij, Paul

2004-11-01

343

Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

2014-01-01

344

Phylogenetic analysis of bovine Theileria spp. isolated in south India.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to determine the phylogenetic position of the Theileria organisms in blood of cattle of southern India using molecular tools. Theileria annulata (Namakkal isolate, Tamil Nadu) and three Theileria field isolates (free of T. annulata) from Wayanad, Kerala (Wayanad 1, 2, 3) were used. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene products were cloned, sequenced and the phylogenetic tree constructed. SSU rRNA gene of Wayanad 1 isolate (JQ706077) revealed maximum identity with Theileria velifera or Theileria cervi. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on SSU rRNA genes revealed that Wayanad 1 isolate belonged to a new type which share common ancestor with all the other theilerial species while Wayanad 2 and 3 isolates (JX294459, JX294460) were close to types A and C respectively. Based on MPSP gene sequences, Wayanad 2 and 3 (JQ706078, JX648208) isolates belonged to Type 1 and 3 (Chitose) respectively. When, the previously reported MPSP type 7 is also considered from the same study area, Theileria orientalis types 1, 3 and 7 are observed in south India. SSU rRNA sequence of South Indian T. annulata (JX294461) showed a maximum identity with Asian isolates while the Tams1 merozoite surface antigen (MSA) gene (JX648210) showed maximum identity with north Indian isolate. PMID:23959494

Aparna, M; Vimalkumar, M B; Varghese, S; Senthilvel, K; Ajithkumar, K G; Raji, K; Syamala, K; Priya, M N; Deepa, C K; Jyothimol, G; Juliet, S; Chandrasekhar, L; Ravindran, R

2013-06-01

345

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated growth hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2012 What is isolated growth hormone deficiency? Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a ... body against infection (agammaglobulinemia). How common is isolated growth hormone deficiency? The incidence of isolated growth hormone ...

346

The First Macrolide-Resistant Bordetella pertussis Strains Isolated From Iranian Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Whooping cough was considered as one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Resistant isolates of Bordetella pertussis to macrolides in some countries have been recently reported. Objectives: Recent reports on macrolide-resistant B. pertussis isolates and lack of evidence for such resistance in clinical isolates of the Iranian patients led the authors of the current study to study antibiotic susceptibility of the collected isolates in the country. Susceptibility of the B. pertussis isolates to three antibiotics was studied. Relatedness of the strains recovered in this research was also examined. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin antibiotics against the recovered isolates of 779 nasopharyngeal swabs were examined using MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) method. Relationship of the strains was characterized by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Among the specimens, 11 cases (1.4%) were culture-positive. Among these isolates, only two isolates had high MIC values for erythromycin and clarithromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the isolates revealed 6 PFGE profiles (A-F) among which three and two isolates had the same patterns in profiles A and B, respectively. Conclusions: Azithromycin can be a good drug of choice to treat patients infected by B. pertussis in Iran. Clonal relationship of the isolates showed that the same B. pertussis strains were isolated from different patients in Iran. PMID:25371806

Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Nakhost Lotfi, Masoumeh; Nikbin, Vajiheh Sadat; Shooraj, Fahimeh; Azizian, Reza; Parzadeh, Masoumeh; Allahyar Torkaman, Mohammad Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen

2014-01-01

347

Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.  

PubMed

Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified. PMID:9050047

Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

1996-12-01

348

Isolation mounts scatterometry with RCWA and PML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the sensitivity of scatterometry for the isolation mounts on the substrate by applying PML in RCWA. We analyze the reflectance from the silicon and resist single mount and the silicon double mounts on the silicon substrate. First, we investigate the mode convergences and the beam width dependences of reflectance. Second, we show the propagation properties of the electromagnetic fields propagating for the isolation mounts on the silicon substrate. Finally, we examine the wavelength properties of reflectance calculated by changing the beam width, the mount width and the mount height for single mount and the silicon mount positions for the double silicon mounts. Then, we understand that the scatterometry observation is possible in several decade microns beam width.

Shirasaki, Hirokimi

2014-04-01

349

Mosser Damper: Steam turbine isolation damper  

SciTech Connect

Ecolaire Corp. has designed, fabricated and installed a new type of isolation damper which provides alternatives to customary new power plant design and upgrades. Through the combined efforts of two experienced product groups, Ecolaire Corp. has successfully proved that a steam turbine can be isolated from the main condenser without taking the condenser out of service or requiring auxiliary condensing equipment. Ecolaire Heat Transfer, an international supplier of steam surface condensers, and Mosser Damper, supplier of flue gas dampers for wet flue gas desulfurization applications and other harsh environments have combined their technologies and field experiences to develop a guillotine damper which allows personnel to access the interior of the steam turbine while the main condenser continues to operate. The cooperation between product groups was critical in achieving a design for the application which addresses the varying equipment arrangements and operating conditions.

Fehnel, G.N.; Finelli, P.M. [Ecolaire Corp., Easton, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

350

Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

351

Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near a weakly isolated horizon  

SciTech Connect

Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near a weakly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near a horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of a black hole horizon.

Wu Xiaoning [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2734, Beijing, 100080 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KITPC-CAS), P.O. Box 2732, Beijing, 100080 (China); Huang Chaoguang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing, 100049 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KITPC-CAS), P.O. Box 2732, Beijing, 100080 (China); Sun Jiarui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing, 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China)

2008-06-15

352

Containment testing of isolation rooms.  

PubMed

Results from the tracer containment testing of four 'state-of-the-art' airborne infection isolation rooms, in a new hospital, are presented. A testing technician exited an isolation room several minutes after a small quantity of tracer gas was injected over the patient bed in that room. Easily measurable tracer gas concentrations were then found in the anterooms outside the patient rooms and corridor outside the isolation room suites. Containment factors for the isolation rooms and dilution factors in the anterooms and corridor were calculated, based on the measured tracer concentrations. These results indicate the desirability of evidence-based design standards and guidelines for assessing performance of airborne infection isolation rooms. The study also demonstrates that the tracer testing procedure yields comparable results for equivalent isolation room suites, suggesting good reproducibility of the testing method. PMID:15236852

Rydock, J P; Eian, P K

2004-07-01

353

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure is described, similar to a glove box, for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, C.J.; Dahlby, J.W.; Gallimore, B.F.; Comer, B.E.; Stone, W.A.; Carlson, D.O.

1993-04-27

354

Material isolation enclosure  

DOEpatents

An enclosure similar to a glovebox for isolating materials from the atmosphere, yet allowing a technician to manipulate the materials and also apparatus which is located inside the enclosure. A portion of a wall of the enclosure is comprised of at least one flexible curtain. An opening defined by a frame is provided for the technician to insert his hands and forearms into the enclosure. The frame is movable in one plane, so that the technician has access to substantially all of the working interior of the enclosure. As the frame is moved by the technician, while he accomplishes work inside the enclosure, the curtain moves such that the only opening through the enclosure wall is the frame. In a preferred embodiment, where a negative pressure is maintained inside the enclosure, the frame is comprised of airfoils so that turbulence is reduced, thereby enhancing material retention within the box.

Martell, Calvin J. (Los Alamos, NM); Dahlby, Joel W. (Los Alamos, NM); Gallimore, Bradford F. (Los Alamos, NM); Comer, Bob E. (Versailles, MO); Stone, Water A. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlson, David O. (Tesugue, NM)

1993-01-01

355

Acute unilateral isolated ptosis.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5?days the patient started oral prednisolone 30?mg reducing over 12?weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6?months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. PMID:25564592

Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

2015-01-01

356

The isolated perfused lung.  

PubMed Central

The unique nonrespiratory functions of the lungs have become more apparent in recent years. The isolated perfused lung model offers many advantages over other methods for the study of pulmonary metabolism, xenobiotic disposition and the influence of interactions among agents of different physical forms. Detailed descriptions of the experimental preparation are elements in evaluating and comparing data from various sources but these are frequently neglected. A discussion and critique of the following elements are provided in this review in order to elucidate the typical problems one might encounter in evaluating data: perfusate type, perfusion method, construction materials, ventilation method, temperature control, surgical procedure, microbiological contamination and evaluation criteria of the preparation. Examples are given where the IPL method has been applied and suggestions are made for future research efforts. PMID:6383800

Niemeier, R W

1984-01-01

357

Emergence of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Isolates Producing KPC-2 Carbapenemase in China  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from three hospitals in Hangzhou, China, from 2007 to 2011. One isolate, with OmpC porin deficiency, exhibited high-level carbapenem resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that few isolates were indistinguishable or closely related. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that sequence type 131 (ST131) was the predominant type (9 isolates, 40.9%), followed by ST648 (5 isolates), ST405 (2 isolates), ST38 (2 isolates), and 4 single STs, ST69, ST2003, ST2179, and ST744. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 9 group B2 isolates belonged to ST131, and 5 of 11 group D isolates belonged to ST648. Only one group B1 isolate and one group A isolate were identified. A representative plasmid (pE1) was partially sequenced, and a 7,788-bp DNA fragment encoding Tn3 transposase, Tn3 resolvase, ISKpn8 transposase, KPC-2, and ISKpn6-like transposase was obtained. The blaKPC-2-surrounding sequence was amplified by a series of primers. The PCR results showed that 13 isolates were consistent with the genetic environment in pE1. It is the first report of rapid emergence of KPC-2-producing E. coli ST131 in China. The blaKPC-2 gene of most isolates was located on a similar genetic structure. PMID:24323475

Cai, Jia Chang; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhou, Hong Wei

2014-01-01

358

Emergence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in China.  

PubMed

Twenty-two KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from three hospitals in Hangzhou, China, from 2007 to 2011. One isolate, with OmpC porin deficiency, exhibited high-level carbapenem resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that few isolates were indistinguishable or closely related. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that sequence type 131 (ST131) was the predominant type (9 isolates, 40.9%), followed by ST648 (5 isolates), ST405 (2 isolates), ST38 (2 isolates), and 4 single STs, ST69, ST2003, ST2179, and ST744. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 9 group B2 isolates belonged to ST131, and 5 of 11 group D isolates belonged to ST648. Only one group B1 isolate and one group A isolate were identified. A representative plasmid (pE1) was partially sequenced, and a 7,788-bp DNA fragment encoding Tn3 transposase, Tn3 resolvase, ISKpn8 transposase, KPC-2, and ISKpn6-like transposase was obtained. The blaKPC-2-surrounding sequence was amplified by a series of primers. The PCR results showed that 13 isolates were consistent with the genetic environment in pE1. It is the first report of rapid emergence of KPC-2-producing E. coli ST131 in China. The blaKPC-2 gene of most isolates was located on a similar genetic structure. PMID:24323475

Cai, Jia Chang; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

2014-01-01

359

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus Isolates Carrying Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Have Emerged in Urogenital Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a uropathogenic bacterium that causes acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections, particularly in female outpatients. We investigated the dissemination and antimicrobial suscepti- bilities of 101 S. saprophyticus isolates from the genitourinary tracts of patients in Japan. Eight of these isolates were mecA positive and showed -lactam resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that only some isolates were isogenic, indicating

Masato Higashide; Makoto Kuroda; C. T. N. Omura; M. Kumano; S. Ohkawa; S. Ichimura; T. Ohta

2008-01-01

360

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application.  

PubMed

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-09-01

361

Marine yeast isolation and industrial application  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

2014-01-01

362

Vertical Isolation for Photodiodes in CMOS Imagers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a proposed improvement in complementary metal oxide/semi conduct - or (CMOS) image detectors, two additional implants in each pixel would effect vertical isolation between the metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the photodiode of the pixel. This improvement is expected to enable separate optimization of the designs of the photodiode and the MOSFETs so as to optimize their performances independently of each other. The purpose to be served by enabling this separate optimization is to eliminate or vastly reduce diffusion cross-talk, thereby increasing sensitivity, effective spatial resolution, and color fidelity while reducing noise.

Pain, Bedabrata

2008-01-01

363

Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from pigeons and stray cats in Lisbon, Portugal.  

PubMed

Cats and pigeons are important factors in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii as felids are the only definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts, and pigeons share the same places of cats and humans constituting a good model and indicator of the ground field contamination. We aimed to study the virulence and genotypes of T. gondii isolated from pigeons and stray cats in Lisbon, Portugal. Fresh samples of brain from 41 pigeons and 164 cats revealing antibodies to T. gondii were inoculated in mice. Three isolates (one isolated from a cat and two isolated from pigeons) were virulent in the mouse model. Sag2-based genotyping of T. gondii was achieved in 70.7% (29/41) of samples isolated from pigeons (26 samples were type II, two were type III, and one strain was type I). From the cat brain samples, 50% (82/164) yielded Sag2 positive results, where 72 belonged to genotype II and 10 were no type III (it was not possible to discriminate between type I and II). Further genotyping was obtained by multiplex PCR of 5 microsatellites (TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, B18), allowing the identification of two recombinant strains that had been previously identified as type II by Sag2 amplification (one isolated from cat brain and the other from pigeon brain). This is the first evidence of recombinant strains circulating in Portugal and the first report of T. gondii genotyping from cats in this country. This study also highlights the importance of environmental contamination in the synanthropic cycle constituting a potential source of human infection. PMID:25195193

Vilares, A; Gargaté, M J; Ferreira, I; Martins, S; Júlio, C; Waap, H; Angelo, H; Gomes, J P

2014-10-15

364

Genotypic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from humans in India.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen associated with severe diseases in humans and animals. The genotypic analysis of 17 L. monocytogenes isolates recovered from humans in India during 2006-2009 using multiplex serotyping PCR allowing serovar predictions, conventional serology and by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is presented. The isolates were recovered from patients exhibiting various clinical conditions. A multiplex-PCR based serotyping assay revealed 88·24% (15/17) of the strains belonging to the serovar group 4b, 4d, 4e and 11·76% (2/17) to the serovar group 1/2b, 3b. Conventional serology indicated that 13 (76·47%) L. monocytogenes isolates to be of serotype 4b, 2 (11·76%) serotype 4d, and 2 (11·76%) serotype 1/2b. Ten ApaI and nine AscI pulsotypes were recognized among the 17 human isolates. PFGE analysis allowed discrimination among isolates of the same serotype and among isolates from the same sampling areas or those isolated from different areas. Thus, PFGE together with multiplex-PCR serotyping allows rapid discrimination of L. monocytogenes strains. In addition, the predominance of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b is of concern, as this serotype has been most frequently associated with human listeriosis outbreaks. PMID:21929876

Kalekar, S; Rodrigues, J; D'Costa, D; Doijad, S; Ashok Kumar, J; Malik, S V S; Kalorey, D R; Rawool, D B; Hain, T; Chakraborty, T; Barbuddhe, S B

2011-07-01

365

Antiproliferative Activity of Hamigerone and Radicinol Isolated from Bipolaris papendorfii  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites from fungi organisms have extensive past and present use in the treatment of many diseases and serve as compounds of interest both in their natural form and as templates for synthetic modification. Through high throughput screening (HTS) and bioassay-guided isolation, we isolated two bioactive compounds hamigerone (1) and radicinol (2). These compounds were isolated from fungus Bipolaris papendorfii, isolated from the rice fields of Dera, Himachal Pradesh, India. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, namely, NMR (1H, 13C, mass, and UV). Both compounds were found to be antiproliferative against different cancer cells. Furthermore we have also noted that both compounds showed increase in apoptosis by favorably modulating both tumor suppressor protein (p53) and antiapoptic protein (BCL-2), and in turn increase caspase-3 expression in cancer cells. This is the first report of these compounds from fungus Bipolaris papendorfii and their anticancer activity. PMID:25184147

Giridharan, Periyasamy; Verekar, Shilpa A.; Mishra, Prabhu Dutt; Khanna, Amit

2014-01-01

366

Salmonella enterica isolated from wildlife at two Ohio rehabilitation centers.  

PubMed

Between May and September 2004, fecal samples from various wildlife species admitted to two rehabilitation centers in Ohio were cultured for Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Eight of 71 (11%) samples, including specimens from three opossums (Didelphis virginiana), two gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), a woodchuck (Marmota monax), a Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), and a screech owl (Otus asio) tested positive for Salmonella serovars Braenderup, Senftenberg, Oranienburg, and Kentucky. The Salmonella Oranienburg isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics; however, the Salmonella Kentucky isolate was resistant to multiple beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin), cefoxitin, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not isolated from any sample. Transmission of Salmonella from wildlife may occur between animals at rehabilitation centers. PMID:17939349

Jijón, Steffani; Wetzel, Amy; LeJeune, Jeffrey

2007-09-01

367

Distribution of Clostridium perfringens isolates from piglets in South Korea.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens causes various digestive system disease symptoms in pigs. In the present study, 11 C. perfringens isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets and 18 from healthy piglets. All of the C. perfringens isolates were shown to be type A using a multiplex PCR assay. The ?2 toxin gene was detected in 27/29 C. perfringens isolates, i.e., 81% (9/11) of diarrheic piglets and 100% (18/18) of healthy piglets, and all of the genes had the same sequence. In conclusion, the ?2 toxin gene of C. perfringens was distributed widely in Korean piglets regardless of the incidence of diarrhea, and there was no clear relationship with enteric disease. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA digested using SmaI demonstrated the non-clonal spread of C. perfringens isolates from piglets. PMID:24430655

Lee, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; Shin, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kim, Ha-Young; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

2014-05-01

368

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

369

ISOLATION OF LYTIC SALMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research was based on the hypothesis that Salmonella bacteriophages (phages) occur naturally in manure and can be isolated for future characterization and potential use as typing reagents, indicators and biocontrol agents. The purpose of this research was to test a protocol for isolation of ly...

370

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01

371

Reactor core isolation cooling system  

DOEpatents

A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

Cooke, F.E.

1992-12-08

372

High performance rotational vibration isolator.  

PubMed

We present a new rotational vibration isolator with an extremely low resonant frequency of 0.055 ± 0.002 Hz. The isolator consists of two concentric spheres separated by a layer of water and joined by very soft silicone springs. The isolator reduces rotation noise at all frequencies above its resonance which is very important for airborne mineral detection. We show that more than 40 dB of isolation is achieved in a helicopter survey for rotations at frequencies between 2 Hz and 20 Hz. Issues affecting performance such as translation to rotation coupling and temperature are discussed. The isolator contains almost no metal, making it particularly suitable for electromagnetic sensors. PMID:24182167

Sunderland, Andrew; Blair, David G; Ju, Li; Golden, Howard; Torres, Francis; Chen, Xu; Lockwood, Ray; Wolfgram, Peter

2013-10-01

373

New Ventilated Isolation Cage  

PubMed Central

A multifunction lid has been developed for a commercially available transparent animal cage which permits feeding, watering, viewing, long-term holding, and local transport of laboratory rodents on experiment while isolating the surrounding environment. The cage is airtight except for its inlet and exhaust high-efficiency particulate air filters, and it is completely steam-sterilizable. Opening of the cage's feed and water ports causes an inrush of high velocity air which prevents back-migration of aerosols and permits feeding and watering while eliminating need for chemical vapor decontamination. Ventilation system design permits the holding in adjacent cages of animals infected with different organisms without danger of cross-contamination; leaves the animal room odor-free; reduces required bedding changes to twice a month or less, and provides investigators with capability to control precisely individual cage ventilation rates. Forty-eight cages can be conveniently placed on a standard NIH “shoebox” cage rack (60 inches wide × 28 inches deep × 74 inches high) fitted with a simple manifold exhaust system. The entire system is mobile, requiring only an electrical power outlet. Principal application of the caging system is in the area of preventing exposure of animal caretakers to pathogenic substances associated with the animal host, and in reducing handling of animals and their exposure to extraneous contamination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:5659368

Cook, Reginald O.

1968-01-01

374

Vibration isolation mounting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.

Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

375

Dynamic characterisation of vibration isolators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vibration isolator is designed to reduce the vibration and structure borne noise transmitted from a vibratory source, such as machinery and equipment, to the supporting structure. The vibration and structure borne noise transmitted depends upon the dynamic properties of the foundation, the source mounting point and the vibration isolator. Therefore knowledge of the frequency dependent dynamic properties of vibration isolators is a necessary part of the acoustic prediction and control/reduction process. Vibration isolators may be characterised by measuring their four-pole parameters. A measurement procedure is proposed that employs the floating mass method, measures the direct forces and corrects for the errors introduced by the direct force measurement. Compared to the basic method, it extends the frequency limits of measurement in both directions. The development of a novel vibration isolator test facility that implements the proposed measurement procedure is described, and its satisfactory operation is experimentally demonstrated. The vibration isolator test facility is capable of characterising vibration isolators commonly used in industrial and maritime applications, under service conditions. A method is proposed for measuring the four-pole parameters of a uni-directional asymmetrical vibration isolator under static load. The method is called the two masses method, and is suitable for determining the four- pole parameters of active vibration isolators with feedback control. The method is also applicable to uni- directional symmetrical, bi-directional symmetrical and bi-directional asymmetrical vibration isolators. It may be regarded as a universal method for characterising vibration isolators. Experimental data is presented and the method is validated. Modelling of vibration isolators is complicated by the highly non-linear nature of their rubber elements. The notion of an effective rubber cylinder is proposed to account for the barrelling of rubber elements under static load. Consequently, a general static compression model is proposed that applies to vibration isolators having unfilled and filled rubber elements of regular prismatic shapes. The model predicts the dependence of the four-pole parameters on the compression ratio of the rubber element. The predictions derived from the effective rubber cylinder and general static compression model agree excellently with experimental work of this study and other researchers.

Dickens, John Dennis

376

Reduced Coronal Emission Above Large Isolated Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed specific regions of reduced soft X-ray and microwave emission in five large isolated sunspots. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz observations reveal a local depression of microwave brightness in the peripheral area of the sunspots. The depression regions appear light (weak absorption) in the He 10830 Å line in areas with extended (open) field lines, as indicated by potential field source surface model (PFSS) extrapolations up to 1.5 R?. The observed depressions of 3 - 8 % in ordinary mode at 17 GHz are interpreted as resulting from free-free emission when the plasma density is lower by 5 - 10 %. Our model estimates show that the decrease in density in both the coronal and the lower layers above the depression region accounts for the depression. These depression regions lend themselves well to marking the location of outward plasma motions.

Ryabov, B. I.; Gary, D. E.; Peterova, N. G.; Shibasaki, K.; Topchilo, N. A.

2015-01-01

377

Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan.  

PubMed

A field isolate of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Tohoku district, northeast Japan, was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein indicated that the isolate belonged to genotype I and was closely related to isolates from the Far East corresponded to the migration route for this bird species. The isolate had the typical avirulent cleavage site of the fusion protein (112)GKQGR*L(117). In addition, pathogenicity tests indicated the isolate to have avirulent characteristics. However, the isolate has been shown to cause fusion cytopathic effects and form plaques on chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) in the absence of trypsin. The present results suggest that the CEF-adapted NDV, which is avirulent, is circulating among waterfowl populations. PMID:18176032

Sakai, Kouji; Sakabe, Genki; Tani, Orie; Watanabe, Yuko; Jahangir, Alam; Nakamura, Masayuki; Takehara, Kazuaki

2007-12-01

378

Whitepox virus isolated from hamsters inoculated with monkeypox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the eradication of smallpox in Equatorial Africa several `new' pox viruses have been isolated in our laboratory from materials collected by WHO field workers-monkeypox virus from an affected individual and the `whitepox' viruses from apparently healthy monkeys and rodents. Monkeypox virus is not widespread but occasionally infects man and has caused death: 33 such cases have occurred in Africa,

S. S. Marennikova; E. M. Shelukhina

1978-01-01

379

Characterization and phylogenic analysis of Mexican Newcastle disease virus isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated in Mexico for the first time in 1946 and the last report of a field outbreak caused by a highly virulent strain dates from year 2000, when 13.6 million birds were slaughtered and 93 farms quarantined. Mean Death Time test resulted in velogenic classificati...

380

CRAWFORD FIELD VISTA FIELD  

E-print Network

Center 6537 6533 404 819 314 653 90 214 Student Center Anteater Rec. Center 836 523 720 600 712 715 721 H 627 626 3300 7 533 4700 21 23 ANTEATER RECREATION CENTER SPORTS FIELDS 415 517 515 402 899 897 837 40 ROAD) PALO VERDE HOUSING E.PELTASONDR. ANTEATER DR. VISTA DEL CAMPO NORTE HOUSING HEALTH S CIENCESRD

Loudon, Catherine

381

IDENTIFICATION OF PYTHIUM SPECIES ON WEST TEXAS PEANUTS AND SENSITIVITY OF ISOLATES TO MEFENOXAM AND AZOXYSTROBIN IN PETRI DISH ASSAYS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey was conducted in 107 peanut fields to determine the incidence of Rhizoctonia or Pythium pod rot. Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. were isolated from rotted pods in 35 and 39% of the fields, respectively. Isolates of Pythium were collected and some were identified to species. The three...

382

Genetic Characterization of Rabies Field Isolates from Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodiesagainsttheviralnucleoproteinandbypatternsofnucleotidesubstitutioninthenucleoproteingene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs.

CARLOS A. DEMATTOS; CECILIA C. DEMATTOS; JEAN S. SMITH; EDITH T. MILLER; SARA PAPO; ANTONIO UTRERA; ANDBENNIE I. OSBURN

383

Transmission potential of antimony-resistant leishmania field isolates.  

PubMed

We studied the development of antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum in natural vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus to ascertain the risk of parasite transmission by sand flies. All three resistant strains produced fully mature late-stage infections in sand flies; moreover, the resistant phenotype was maintained after the passage through the vector. These results highlight the risk of circulation of resistant Leishmania strains and question the use of human drugs for treatment of dogs as Leishmania reservoirs. PMID:25049256

Seblova, Veronika; Oury, Bruno; Eddaikra, Naouel; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Pratlong, Francine; Gazanion, Elodie; Maia, Carla; Volf, Petr; Sereno, Denis

2014-10-01

384

Islet isolation for clinical transplantation.  

PubMed

Islet transplantation is emerging as a viable treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Following the initial report in 2000 from Edmonton of insulin independence in seven out of seven consecutive recipients, there has been a huge expansion in clinical islet transplantation. The challenge we now face is the apparent decline in graft function over time. Isolating high-quality human islets which survive and function for a longer period will no doubt contribute to further improvement in long-term clinical outcome. This chapter reviews the selection of appropriate donors for islet isolation and transplantation, describes each step during islet isolation, and discusses the scope for further improvements. PMID:20217520

Kin, Tatsuya

2010-01-01

385

RNA isolation from mammalian samples.  

PubMed

RNA can be extracted from cultured cells, peripheral blood, bone marrow, plasma, serum, body fluids, and fresh or frozen tissues. RNA can also be extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Methods for RNA extraction can be divided into three groups: phenol/chloroform extraction, silica spin-column absorption, and isopycnic gradient centrifugation. Two different RNA isolation procedures are described in this unit. The first basic protocol describes a one-step isolation involving monophasic lysis with guanidine isothiocyanate and phenol followed by chloroform extraction. The second basic protocol describes a silica-column separation method for RNA isolation. PMID:23821441

Liu, Ximeng; Harada, Shuko

2013-07-01

386

Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

387

Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated.

Anders Johansson; Anna Aspan; Elisabeth Bagge; Viveca Båverud; Björn E Engström; Karl-Erik Johansson

2006-01-01

388

FITNESS AND AGGRESSIVENESS OF MEFENOXAM-RESISTANT AND -SENSITIVE ISOLATES OF PHYTOPHTHORA ERYTHROSEPTICA INFECTING POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink rot of potato is a major field and post-harvest problem in southeastern Idaho, particularly since mefenoxam-resistant isolates were detected in 1998. Fitness and aggressiveness of mefenoxam-resistant and –sensitive isolates of P. erythroseptica collected in 2001 to 2002 were determined. Zoosp...

389

Drop-on-Demand Single Cell Isolation and Total RNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies that rapidly isolate viable single cells from heterogeneous solutions have significantly contributed to the field of medical genomics. Challenges remain both to enable efficient extraction, isolation and patterning of single cells from heterogeneous solutions as well as to keep them alive during the process due to a limited degree of control over single cell manipulation. Here, we present a

Sangjun Moon; Yun-Gon Kim; Lingsheng Dong; Michael Lombardi; Edward Haeggstrom; Roderick V. Jensen; Li-Li Hsiao; Utkan Demirci

2011-01-01

390

Phenotypically Based Taxonomy of Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas Isolated from Spoiled Meat, Water, and Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenetic taxonomy of 305 strains of Pseudomonas and related organisms was numerically studied by using 215 features, including 156 assimilation tests. A total of 200 field strains were isolated from spoiling meat, and 50 strains were isolated from freshwater or soil. In addition, 55 reference strains (including 23 type strains and 4 clinical strains) were obtained. The strains clustered

GORAN MOLIN; ANDERS TERNSTROM

1986-01-01

391

Pathogenic variation among isolates of Pyricularia oryzae affecting rice, wheat, and grasses in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae occurs on wheat under natural field conditions in Brazil. Isolates of P. oryzae collected from rice, wheat and grass weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Rhynchelytrum roseum, Pennisetum setosum and Eleusine indica were tested for virulence to 30 rice, five wheat and one barley cultivars. All isolates from rice, wheat and grass weeds were pathogenic to the

A. S. Prabhu; M. C. Filippi; N. Castro

1992-01-01

392

Flight representative positive isolation disconnect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

1977-01-01

393

Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations  

E-print Network

L-2263 1-02 Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations Bruce Lawhorn Associate Professor and Extension Swine Veterinarian The Texas A&M University System A lmost every swine breeding herd will at some time receive breeding stock replace- ments...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2002-01-31

394

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... levels of sodium in fluids inside the body (hyponatremia). Most infants with isolated hyperchlorhidrosis experience one or ... still remains. These individuals may still experience dangerous hyponatremia when they sweat excessively, for example in warm ...

395

Study of base isolation systems  

E-print Network

The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

Manarbek, Saruar

2013-01-01

396

Satellites of Isolated Elliptical Galaxies  

E-print Network

Using well-defined selection criteria applied to the LEDA galaxy catalogue we have derived a sample of elliptical galaxies that can be classified as isolated. From this we have investigated the neighbourhood of these galaxies to determine the frequency and radial distribution of faint galaxies around them and hence derive an estimate of their surrounding satellite population. The results are compared and contrasted to the satellite population around isolated spiral galaxies.

Rodney M. Smith; Vicent J. Martinez

2003-09-30

397

Market study: Biological isolation garment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

1975-01-01

398

Molecular analysis of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from cockles and patients in Thailand.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus can cause septicemia, wound infection and gastroenteritis. The most severe infections are related to consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. Virulence genes, biomarkers, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationships among V vulnificus isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand have not hitherto been investigated. ViuB encoding vulnibactin siderophore was detected in 33% and 50% of clinical and environmental (cockle) V. vulnificus isolates, respectively, and capsular polysaccharide allele 1 in 67% and 75% of clinical and environmental isolates, respectively. Analysis of the 16 S rDNA gene revealed that type B was the most frequent in both clinical and environmental isolates (67%) whereas the non type-able (30%) was detected only in environmental isolates. The virulence-correlated gene (vcg) with both type C and E together was the most frequently found among the clinical (67%) and environmental (72%) isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differentiated V vulnificus into 2 clusters; most cockle samples (83%) and all clinical isolates grouped into cluster II, indicating a possible clonal relationship between V. vulnificus isolated from patients and cockles. Only 20% of environmental isolates were resistant to ampicillin. These studies suggest that V vulnificus isolated from cockles has virulence genes similar to those in clinical isolates and thus may have the potential of causing disease. PMID:24964659

Mala, Wanida; Chomvarin, Chariya; Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah M; Faksri, Kiatichai; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch

2014-01-01

399

Dielectrophoretic isolation and detection of cfc-DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus from blood.  

PubMed

Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microarray devices allow important cellular nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus to be rapidly isolated, concentrated, and detected directly from clinical and biological samples. A variety of submicron nanoparticulate entities including cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, mitochondria, and virus can be isolated into DEP high-field areas on microelectrodes, while blood cells and other micron-size entities become isolated into DEP low-field areas between the microelectrodes. The nanoparticulate entities are held in the DEP high-field areas while cells are washed away along with proteins and other small molecules that are not affected by the DEP electric fields. DEP carried out on 20 ?L of whole blood obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showed a considerable amount of SYBR Green stained DNA fluorescent material concentrated in the DEP high-field regions. Whole blood obtained from healthy individuals showed little or no fluorescent DNA materials in the DEP high-field regions. Fluorescent T7 bacteriophage virus could be isolated directly from blood samples, and fluorescently stained mitochondria could be isolated from biological buffer samples. Using newer DEP microarray devices, high-molecular-weight DNA could be isolated from serum and detected at levels as low as 8-16 ng/mL. PMID:23436471

Sonnenberg, Avery; Marciniak, Jennifer Y; McCanna, James; Krishnan, Rajaram; Rassenti, Laura; Kipps, Thomas J; Heller, Michael J

2013-04-01

400

Field Notes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Field Records Collection has many materials types including: field notebooks, sketches, annotated maps, unpublished manuscripts, plane-table sheets, annotated aerial photographs, sample analysis, stratigraphic columns, lithologic logs, and geologic cross sections. Materials in the Field Records ...

401

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1995-01-01

402

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

403

Diazotrophic Burkholderia species isolated from the Amazon region exhibit phenotypical, functional and genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Forty-eight Burkholderia isolates from different land use systems in the Amazon region were compared to type strains of Burkholderia species for phenotypic and functional characteristics that can be used to promote plant growth. Most of these isolates (n=46) were obtained by using siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum - 44) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris - 2) as the trap plant species; two isolates were obtained from nodules collected in the field from Indigofera suffruticosa and Pithecellobium sp. The evaluated characteristics were the following: colony characterisation on "79" medium, assimilation of different carbon sources, enzymatic activities, solubilisation of phosphates, nitrogenase activity and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. phaseoli. Whole cell protein profiles, 16S rRNA, gyrB, and recA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing were used to identify the isolates. The isolates showed different cultural and biochemical characteristics depending on the legume species from which they were obtained. Except for one isolate from I. suffruticosa, all isolates were able to solubilise calcium phosphate and present nitrogenase activity under free-living conditions. Only one isolate from common beans, showed antifungal activity. The forty four isolates from siratro nodules were identified as B. fungorum; isolates UFLA02-27 and UFLA02-28, obtained from common bean plants, were identified as B. contaminans; isolate INPA89A, isolated from Indigofera suffruticosa, was a close relative of B. caribensis but could not be assigned to an established species; isolate INPA42B, isolated from Pithecellobium sp., was identified as B. lata. This is the first report of nitrogenase activity in B. fungorum, B. lata and B. contaminans. PMID:22609342

da Silva, Krisle; Cassetari, Alice de Souza; Lima, Adriana Silva; De Brandt, Evie; Pinnock, Eleanor; Vandamme, Peter; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza

2012-06-01

404

Advanced fields in classical electrodynamics and Mach's principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the world point of a point charge, e(a), the advanced field of all other charges of the universe (a perfectly isolated system) equals the retarded field of e(a) and the retarded field of all other charges equals the advanced field of e(a).

P. F. Browne

1969-01-01