Sample records for pedv field isolates

  1. Isolation and characterization of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of diarrhea in pigs started in Guangdong, South China in January 2011. Cases were characterized by watery diarrhea, dehydration and vomiting, with 80–100% morbidity and 50–90% mortality in suckling piglets. The causative agent of the diarrhea was ultimately identified as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, we isolated a PEDV strain designated CHGD-01 from piglet intestines using Vero cell cultures, and its specific cytopathic effects were confirmed in susceptible cells by direct immunofluorescence testing and electron microscopy. The complete genome of CHGD-01 was shown to be 28,035 nucleotides in length, with a similar structure to that of PEDV reference strains. Phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome revealed that CHGD-01 shared nucleotide sequence identities of 98.2–98.4% with two other Chinese isolates reported in the same year, thus constituting a new cluster. Amino acid sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the spike protein gene of CHGD-01 and the field strain KNU0802 in Korea. Its ORF3 and nucleoprotein genes, however, were divergent from all other sequenced PEDV isolate clusters and therefore formed a new group, suggesting a new variant PEDV isolate in China. Further studies will be required to determine the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of this new variant. PMID:22967434

  2. Complete genome sequence of a porcine epidemic diarrhea s gene indel strain isolated in france in december 2014.

    PubMed

    Grasland, Béatrice; Bigault, Lionel; Bernard, Cécilia; Quenault, Hélène; Toulouse, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Rose, Nicolas; Touzain, Fabrice; Blanchard, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    We report the first and only case of a porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak occurring in December 2014 in northern France, and we show using the full-length genome sequence of the French PED virus (PEDV) isolate that it was a PEDV indel strain close to German PEDV strains recently isolated. PMID:26044419

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea S Gene Indel Strain Isolated in France in December 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bigault, Lionel; Bernard, Cécilia; Quenault, Hélène; Toulouse, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Rose, Nicolas; Touzain, Fabrice; Blanchard, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    We report the first and only case of a porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreak occurring in December 2014 in northern France, and we show using the full-length genome sequence of the French PED virus (PEDV) isolate that it was a PEDV indel strain close to German PEDV strains recently isolated. PMID:26044419

  4. Isolation and characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses associated with the 2013 disease outbreak in US swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected for the first time in US swine in April 2013 and has caused significant economic loss. Obtaining a US PEDV isolate that can grow efficiently in cell culture is critical for PEDV pathogenesis study, diagnostic assays and vaccine development. It was ...

  5. Genetic variation analyses of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolated in mid-eastern China from 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pan-deng; Tan, Chen; Dong, Yanpen; Li, Yufeng; Shi, Xiaoli; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Porcine diarrhea outbreaks caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has occurred in China with significant losses of piglets since 2010. In this study, the complete S and ORF3 genes of 15 field PEDV isolates in mid-eastern China from 2011 to 2013 were detected and compared with other reference strains. Based on S gene, all of the PEDV strains could be assigned to 3 genogroups. Only 1 isolate, JS120103, belonged to genogroup 1 and showed a close relationship with previous Chinese strains DX and JS-2004-2, European strain CV777, and Korean strain DR13. The other 14 isolates belonged to genogroup 3 and showed a close relationship with other Chinese strains isolated after 2010. The S genes of those isolates were 9 nucleotides longer in length than JS120103 and the other reference strains in genogroup 1, with 15 bp insertion and 6 bp deletion. Homology analyses revealed that all of the Chinese field isolates, except JS120103, are 97.6% to 100% (95.8% to 100%) identical in nucleotide (deduced amino acid) sequence to each other. Meanwhile, based on the ORF3 gene, all of the PEDV isolates could be separated into 3 genogroups. Eleven of the 15 field isolates in this study belonged to genogroup 3 and were 95.8% to 100% identical in nucleotide sequence or 95.6% to 100% in deduced amino acid sequence to each other. Our results indicate that the variant PEDV strain spread wildly in mid-eastern China. This will be useful to take into consideration in the control and prevention of this disease. PMID:25673903

  6. Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines bearing Spike gene of PEDV combined with porcine IL-18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, a highly contagious enteric disease of swine. The Spike (S) protein is one of the main structural proteins of PEDV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Herein, we generated three distinct DNA ...

  7. [Porcine aminopeptidase N is a functional receptor for the PEDV coronavirus].

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-xian; Ma, Guang-peng; Ge, Jun-wei; Li, Yi-jing

    2009-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes lethal diarrhea in piglets that leads to great economic losses in East Asia. It was reported that aminopeptidase N (APN) was the receptor for Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and Feline coronavirus (FeCoV) which all belonged to group I coronavirus including PEDV. It was also confirmed previously that porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) could bind to PEDV, and anti-pAPN antibodies could inhibit the combination. To investigate whether pAPN was a receptor for PEDV, we transfected MDCK cells with porcine aminopeptidase (pAPN) cDNA and this enabled non-susceptible cells to support PEDV replication and serial viral propagation. Moreover, the infection was blocked by antibodies against pAPN, implying the critical role of pAPN during virus entry. In addition, immunofluorescence assays for detection of pAPN and PEDV antigens, together with neutralization assays using antibodies against pAPN, further confirmed the correlation between pAPN expression and viral replication in pAPN-transfected MDCK cells. These results indicated that pAPN is a functional receptor for PEDV. PMID:19634766

  8. Proteome analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Songlin; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Zhen; Luo, Rui; An, Kang; Liu, Lianzeng; Bi, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2015-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes an acute, highly contagious, and devastating viral enteric disease with a high mortality rate in suckling pigs. A large-scale outbreak of PED occurred in China in 2010, with PEDV emerging in the United States in 2013 and spreading rapidly, posing significant economic and public health concerns. In this study, LC-MS/MS coupled to iTRAQ labeling was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed cellular proteins in PEDV-infected Vero cells. We identified 49 differentially expressed cellular proteins, of which 8 were upregulated and 41 downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in apoptosis, signal transduction, and stress responses. Based on these differentially expressed proteins, we propose that PEDV might utilize apoptosis and extracellular signal regulated kinases pathways for maximum viral replication. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of PEDV-infected cells by quantitative proteomics, and we believe our findings provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to PEDV infection. PMID:25604190

  9. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced chlamydial persistence/stress does not require viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Schoborg, Robert V.; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae may exist at the site of infection in an alternative replicative form, called the aberrant body (AB). ABs are produced during a viable but non-infectious developmental state termed “persistence” or “chlamydial stress.” As persistent/stressed chlamydiae: (i) may contribute to chronic inflammation observed in diseases like trachoma; and (ii) are more resistant to current anti-chlamydial drugs of choice, it is critical to better understand this developmental stage. We previously demonstrated that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced Chlamydia pecorum persistence/stress in culture. One critical characteristic of persistence/stress is that the chlamydiae remain viable and can reenter the normal developmental cycle when the stressor is removed. Thus, we hypothesized that PEDV-induced persistence would be reversible if viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, we performed time course experiments in which Vero cells were C. pecorum/PEDV infected in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which inhibits viral but not chlamydial protein synthesis. CHX-exposure inhibited PEDV replication, but did not inhibit induction of C. pecorum persistence at 24 h post-PEDV infection, as indicated by AB formation and reduced production of infectious EBs. Interestingly, production of infectious EBs resumed when CHX-exposed, co-infected cells were incubated 48–72 h post-PEDV co-infection. These data demonstrate that PEDV co-infection-induced chlamydial persistence/stress is reversible and suggest that this induction (i) does not require viral replication in host cells; and (ii) does not require de novo host or viral protein synthesis. These data also suggest that viral binding and/or entry may be required for this effect. Because the PEDV host cell receptor (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) stimulates cellular signaling pathways in the absence of PEDV infection, we suspect that PEDV co-infection might alter CD13 function and induce the chlamydiae to enter the persistent state. PMID:24660163

  10. Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses Associated with the 2013 Disease Outbreak among Swine in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ganwu; Stasko, Judith; Thomas, Joseph T.; Stensland, Wendy R.; Pillatzki, Angela E.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Schwartz, Kent J.; Madson, Darin; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Stevenson, Gregory W.; Burrough, Eric R.; Harmon, Karen M.; Main, Rodger G.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected in May 2013 for the first time in U.S. swine and has since caused significant economic loss. Obtaining a U.S. PEDV isolate that can grow efficiently in cell culture is critical for investigating pathogenesis and developing diagnostic assays and for vaccine development. An additional objective was to determine which gene(s) of PEDV is most suitable for studying the genetic relatedness of the virus. Here we describe two PEDV isolates (ISU13-19338E and ISU13-22038) successfully obtained from the small intestines of piglets from sow farms in Indiana and Iowa, respectively. The two isolates have been serially propagated in cell culture for over 30 passages and were characterized for the first 10 passages. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by PEDV-specific real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), immunofluorescence assays, and electron microscopy. The infectious titers of the viruses during the first 10 passages ranged from 6 × 102 to 2 × 105 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50)/ml. In addition, the full-length genome sequences of six viruses (ISU13-19338E homogenate, P3, and P9; ISU13-22038 homogenate, P3, and P9) were determined. Genetically, the two PEDV isolates were relatively stable during the first 10 passages in cell culture. Sequences were also compared to those of 4 additional U.S. PEDV strains and 23 non-U.S. strains. All U.S. PEDV strains were genetically closely related to each other (?99.7% nucleotide identity) and were most genetically similar to Chinese strains reported in 2011 to 2012. Phylogenetic analyses using different genes of PEDV suggested that the full-length spike gene or the S1 portion is appropriate for sequencing to study the genetic relatedness of these viruses. PMID:24197882

  12. Comparative pathogenesis of US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain PC21A in conventional 9-day-old nursing piglets vs. 26-day-old weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J

    2015-07-01

    Our study demonstrated potential mechanisms by which porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection induces greater disease severity of nursing vs. weaned conventional pigs. Twenty-six-day-old weaned [PEDV-inoculated (n=11); mock (n=9)] and 9-day-old nursing pigs [PEDV-inoculated (n=9); mock (n=11)] were inoculated orally [8.9 log10 genomic equivalents (GE)/pig] with PC21A strain or mock (MEM). Pigs were monitored for clinical signs and PEDV RNA titers in feces and serum. For pathology and immunofluorescence staining for Ki67 (marker for crypt proliferation) and LGR5 (marker for crypt stem cell), 3-4 pigs were euthanized at postinoculation days (PIDs) 1, 3 and 5. Severe watery diarrhea and atrophic enteritis with moderate to high PEDV RNA titers in feces (7.5-12.2 log10 GE/ml) and low viral RNA titers in serum (5.6-8.6 log10 GE/ml) were observed in all inoculated nursing piglets at PIDs 1-5. In contrast, weaned pigs did not show evidence of PEDV infection at PID 1. Pigs exhibited high fecal shedding titers at PIDs 2-5 and mild to severe atrophic enteritis at PIDs 3-5, indicating a longer incubation for PEDV infection. While uninoculated or inoculated 27-31-day-old pigs showed large numbers of Ki67- or LGR5-positive cells in the intestinal crypts, there was a lack of LGR5-positive cells and low proliferation of crypts in jejunum of uninoculated 10-14-day-old piglets, possibly causing a slower turnover of enterocytes; however, the number of LGR5-positive cells and proliferation of intestinal crypts increased remarkably at 3-5 days after inoculation. Biologic mediators that promote crypt stem cell regeneration would be targets to improve the intestinal epithelium renewal during PEDV infection. PMID:25939885

  13. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  14. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  15. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Vicca, J.; Stakenborg, T.; Maes, D.; Butaye, P.; Peeters, J.; de Kruif, A.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 21 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates were determined using a broth microdilution technique. One isolate showed acquired resistance to lincomycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin, while five isolates were resistant to flumequine and enrofloxacin. Acquired resistance against these antimicrobials in M. hyopneumoniae field isolates was not reported previously. PMID:15504886

  16. Expression and Purification of the scFv from hybridoma cells secreting a monoclonal antibody against S PROTEIN of PEDV.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinghe; Guo, Donghua; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2013-02-01

    The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were amplified by RT-PCR from the hybridoma 6E6, which secretes the monoclonal antibody against PEDV S protein. The VL and VH amplicons were combined using SOE-PCR by a 12 amino acid flexible linker (SSGGGGSGGGGS), which produced the scFv gene (named scFv/6E6). After sequence analysis, the scFv/6E6 gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 with a GST-tag. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was successfully expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. Moreover, the recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was purified from the inclusion body form by the gel-cutting measure followed by electroelution and dialysis. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein reported here will provide some basis for further antiviral drug research based on the scFv molecule. PMID:23600505

  17. Population structure of Citrus tristeza virus from field Argentinean isolates.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Néstor G; Gago-Zachert, Selma P; Robledo, Germán; Costa, Norma; Plata, María Inés; Vera, Osmar; Grau, Oscar; Semorile, Liliana C

    2008-02-01

    We studied the genetic variability of three genomic regions (p23, p25 and p27 genes) from 11 field Citrus tristeza virus isolates from the two main citrus growing areas of Argentina, a country where the most efficient vector of the virus, Toxoptera citricida, is present for decades. The pathogenicity of the isolates was determinated by biological indexing, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis showed that most isolates contained high intra-isolate variability. Divergent sequence variants were detected in some isolates, suggesting re-infections of the field plants. Phylogenetic analysis of the predominant sequence variants of each isolate revealed similar grouping of isolates for genes p25 and p27. The analysis of p23 showed two groups contained the severe isolates. Our results showed a high intra-isolate sequence variability suggesting that re-infections could contribute to the observed variability and that the host can play an important role in the selection of the sequence variants present in these isolates. PMID:17999168

  18. Characterization of field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus from Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davor Ojkic; Janet Swinton; Marie Vallieres; Emily Martin; Jan Shapiro; Babak Sanei; Brian Binnington

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) occurred in the fall of 2004 in the Niagara Peninsula, in Southern Ontario. At about the same time two more cases occurred in Eastern Ontario and one case in South-Western Ontario. We examined, at a molecular level, 10 Ontario ILT virus field isolates from 2004 and early 2005 as well as four ILT vaccine

  19. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting. PMID:16535247

  20. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ? 0.031/? 64, ? 0.031/2, ? 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ? 0.031/? 0.031, ? 0.031/2, ? 0.031/2, 1/4, ? 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 ?g/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. PMID:21382675

  1. Isolated neuron amplitude spike decrease under static magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azanza, María J.; del Moral, A.

    1996-05-01

    Isolated Helix aspersa neurons under strong enough static magnetic fields B (0.07-0.7 T) show a decrease of the spike depolarization voltage of the form ?exp(?B2), with ? dependent on neuron parameters. A tentative model is proposed which explains such behaviour through a deactivation of Na+?K+-ATP-ase pumps due to protein superdiamagnetic rotation. Values for the cluster and protein in cluster numbers are estimated.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain from Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haofei; He, Kongwang; Guo, Rongli; Ni, Yanxiu; Du, Luping; Wen, Libin; Zhang, Xuehan; Yu, Zhengyu; Zhou, Junming; Mao, Aihua; Lv, Lixin; Hu, Yiyi; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Haodan; Wang, Xiaomin

    2013-01-01

    A field porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, JS2008, was isolated from stool samples of a piglet with acute diarrhea on a vaccinated farm in eastern China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain JS2008, which will help increase our understanding of the molecular characteristics of the epidemic PEDV in China. PMID:23599287

  3. Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kåre; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1994-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 ?m wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images PMID:16349231

  4. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant S1 domain of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jongsuk; Lee, Kyung-Won; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lee, Changhee

    2014-11-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious enteric pathogen of swine. Acute PEDV outbreaks have continually emerged in most swine-producing Asian countries and, recently, in the United States, causing significant economic losses in the pig industry. The spike (S) protein of PEDV is a type 1 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein and consists of the S1 and S2 domains, which are responsible for virus binding and fusion, respectively. Since the S1 domain is involved in a specific high-affinity interaction with the cellular receptor and induction of neutralizing antibody in the natural host, it is a primary target for the development of effective vaccines against PEDV. In this study, a codon-optimized PEDV S1 gene containing amino acid residues 25-738 was synthesized based on a multiple alignment of the S amino acid sequences of PEDV field isolates and used to establish a stable porcine cell line constitutively expressing the PEDV S1 protein. The purified recombinant S1 protein was found to mediate highly potent antibody responses in immunized rabbits. The antibodies strongly recognized the recombinant S1 protein from cell lysates and supernatants of S1-expressing cells, whereas they bound weakly to the authentic S protein of PEDV vaccine strain SM98-1. Furthermore, a serum neutralization test revealed that the rabbit antisera completely inhibit infection of the PEDV vaccine strain at a serum dilution of 1:16. We then tested the ability of vaccination with the recombinant S1 protein to protect piglets against PEDV. Late-term pregnant sows were inoculated intramuscularly with the purified S1 protein, and the outcome was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets after a virulent PEDV challenge. The results showed that vaccination with S1 protein efficiently protected neonatal piglets against PEDV. Our data suggest that the recombinant S1 protein shows potential as an effective and safe subunit vaccine for PED prevention. PMID:25008896

  5. PCR typing of field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Contamin, H; Fandeur, T; Bonnefoy, S; Skouri, F; Ntoumi, F; Mercereau-Puijalon, O

    1995-01-01

    We report on an analysis of the constraints of PCR typing of field Plasmodium falciparum isolates by using a few highly polymorphic markers, MSA-1, MSA-2, TRAP, and CS. We show that the reactions are specific for the P. falciparum species. The detection threshold (minimum number of parasites required to detect a visible band by ethidium bromide) differed from one marker to the other and, within one locus, from one primer combination to the other. Importantly, the various MSA-1 and MSA-2 reference alleles were amplified with the same efficiency. Amplification from reconstituted allele mixtures indicated that at certain allele ratios, the most abundant allele interfered with the amplification of the less abundant one. An analysis of nine isolates collected from patients with acute malaria in Dielmo, Senegal, during a transmission season when the inoculation rate was one infective bite every second night is presented and discussed. All samples contained more than one parasite type. A significant polymorphism was observed for the four markers. Novel TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphisms were found for the TRAP gene, and TRAP gene typing alone allowed a distinction between the various isolates. MSA-1 and MSA-2 gave multiple band patterns specific for each sample. PMID:7790466

  6. Genetic diversity of the attachment (H) protein gene of current field isolates of canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Bolt, G; Jensen, T D; Gottschalck, E; Arctander, P; Appel, M J; Buckland, R; Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1997-02-01

    To characterize the variability of recent field isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) from different hosts and geographical areas, we conducted nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the haemagglutinin (H), the attachment protein of this virus. Pronounced differences between field isolates were revealed in comparison to the Convac and Onderstepoort vaccine strains. The diversity of CDV appeared to exceed that determined for measles virus. Phylogenetic analysis also separated the field isolates of CDV from the vaccine strains and provided evidence for the existence of different contemporary genotypes of CDV. Isolates from a Greenlandic sledge dog and a Siberian seal formed a distinct lineage. The remaining isolates formed a group. This group contained two European isolates from mink and ferret, a single lineage comprising three European dog isolates, and another separate lineage of North American isolates from dog, javelina, raccoon and captive leopards. PMID:9018059

  7. Permanent-magnet Faraday isolator with the field intensity of 25 kOe

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, E A; Snetkov, I L; Voitovich, A V; Palashov, O V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    A Faraday isolator with a single magneto-optical element is constructed and experimentally tested. It provides the isolation ratio of 30 dB at an average laser radiation power of 650 W. These parameters are obtained by increasing the field intensity in the magnetic system of the isolator and employing a low-absorption magneto-optical element. (elements of laser devices)

  8. CPm gene diversity in field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Garay, Oscar Arturo; Martinez-Salazar, Natalhie; Torres-Ruiz, Yanneth; Acosta, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence diversity of the CPm gene from 28 field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was assessed by SSCP and sequence analyses. These isolates showed two major shared haplotypes, which differed in distribution: A1 was the major haplotype in 23 isolates from different geographic regions, whereas R1 was found in isolates from a discrete region. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered A1 within an independent group, while R1 was grouped with mild isolates T30 from Florida and T385 from Spain. Some isolates contained several minor haplotypes, which were very similar to, and associated with, the major haplotype. PMID:19882104

  9. Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov., isolated from a paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibing; Yang, Guiqin; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Shungui

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, facultative aerobic bacterium, designated as strain GSS03(T), was isolated from a paddy field soil. The cells were observed to be endospore forming, rod-shaped and motile with flagella. The organism was found to grow optimally at 35 °C at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl. The strain was classified as a novel taxon within the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus DSM 6(T) (97.61 %), Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.55 %), Bacillus asahii JCM 12112(T) (97.48 %), Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) (97.48 %) and "Bacillus frigoritolerans" DSM 8801(T) (97.38 %). The menaquinone was identified as MK-7, the major cellular fatty acid was identified as anteiso-C15:0 and the major cellular polar lipids as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and three unknown polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 40.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness with the closest relatives was below 48 %. Therefore, on the basis of all the results, strain GSS03(T) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus huizhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GSS03(T) (=KCTC 33172(T) =CCTCC AB 2013237(T)). PMID:24903955

  10. A New Record of Pseudallescheria boydii Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea.

    PubMed

    Babu, A Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadhav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2014-12-01

    Pseudallescheria boydii KNU13-2 was isolated from crop field soil and identified by analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA and morphological characteristics. In the literature, P. boydii has been mentioned as a human pathogen. This is the first record of P. boydii isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25606013

  11. Studies of resistance to anticoccidials in Eimeria field isolates and pure Eimeria strains.

    PubMed

    Stephen, B; Rommel, M; Daugschies, A; Haberkorn, A

    1997-04-01

    Ten Eimeria field isolates from North Germany were studied in battery tests for sensitivity to selected anticoccidials. A high percentage of the Eimeria field isolates (9 out of 10) showed resistance to anticoccidials, mostly multiple resistance. Partial or complete resistance to maduramicin was found in 7 field isolates, to monensin in 6, to salinomycin in 5, to nicarbazin in 8, to halofuginone in 7, to robenidine and toltrazuril in 1, and to diclazuril in 2 field isolates. Multiple resistance had developed in 7 of the 10 isolates. Cross-resistance between maduramicin, monensin, and salinomycin occurred in 5 Eimeria isolates. One isolate showed cross-resistance between diclazuril and toltrazuril. From the resistant isolates 15 pure E. acerculina and 5 pure E. brunetti strains were obtained by single oocyst infections. Seven of the E. acerculina and 4 of the E. brunetti strains showed resistance or partial resistance that was also present in the original isolate. Ten of 11 resistant strains were multiply resistant. PMID:9187026

  12. Isolating vacuum amplitudes in quantum field calculations at finite temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Blaizot; Urko Reinosa

    2006-01-01

    In calculating Feynman diagrams at finite temperature, it is sometimes convenient to isolate subdiagrams which do not depend explicitly on the temperature. We show that, in the imaginary time formalism, such a separation can be achieved easily by exploiting a simple method, due to Gaudin, to perform the sum over the Matsubara frequencies. In order to manipulate freely contributions which

  13. A New Record of Volutella ciliata Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea.

    PubMed

    Babu, Anam Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Yadav, Dil Raj; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2015-03-01

    During a survey of fungal species in South Korea, a species of Volutella ciliata was isolated and described based on the analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of its rDNA and its morphological characteristics. This is the first record of Volutella ciliata isolated from crop field soil in Korea. PMID:25892918

  14. The general solution and Faxén laws for the temperature fields in and outside an isolated ellipsoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-Y. Lu; S. Kim

    1987-01-01

    The image systems for the disturbance temperature fields in and outside an isolated ellipsoid driven by an n-th order ambient field are introduced and their connection to the ellipsoidal harmonics is derived. More general ambient fields may be handled by superposition of these basic solutions. These result have been used to derive the Faxén relation for the arbitrary n-th order

  15. ORIGIN AND EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC FIELDS DURING ISOLATED MAGNETOSPHERIC SUBSTORMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Mozer

    1971-01-01

    Balloon-measured electric-field data for 5-hour periods during each of 19 substorms near local midnight between L -- 6.6 and 8.3 have been analyzed and averaged to show that the ionospheric electric field is made up of approximately equal contributions from a large-scale field and smallscale turbulence. The large-scale field in a nonrotating frame of reference develops a westward component during

  16. Diversity of cultured isolates and field populations of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices

    E-print Network

    Amrhein, Valentin

    Diversity of cultured isolates and field populations of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus............................................................................... 3 1.2 The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM............................................................. 7 1.2.2 Species concept and genetics of AM fungi (AMF

  17. Differentiation of field isolates and vaccine strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by DNA sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Luis Chacón; Antonio J. Piantino Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Two different regions of the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) were amplified and sequenced for characterization of field isolates and tissue culture-origin (TCO) and chicken embryo-origin (CEO) vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the two regions showed differences in nucleotide and amino acid sequences between field isolates and attenuated vaccines. The PCR-RFLP results were identical

  18. Genetic diversity of the attachment (H) protein gene of current field isolates of canine distemper virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gert Bolt; Tove Dannemann Jensen; Elisabeth Gottschalck; Peter Arctander; Max J. G. Appel; Robin Buckland; Merete Blixenkrone-Møller

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the variability of recent field iso- lates of canine distemper virus (CDV) from different hosts and geographical areas, we conducted nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the haemagglutinin (H), the attachment protein of this virus. Pronounced differences between field isolates were revealed in comparison to the Convac and Onderstepoort vaccine strains. The diversity of CDV appeared to

  19. Comparison of cultural methods for primary isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus from field material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn S. Hughes; R. C. Jones

    1988-01-01

    Primary isolation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILT) from tracheal samples from 11 suspected field outbreaks was attempted using a variety of avian cell cultures, Vero cells and embryonated chicken eggs. Tracheal smears of each field sample were also examined by electron microscopy (EM) for the presence of herpesvirus particles.Chick embryo liver cells (CELi) appeared to be the most rapid and

  20. Multilocus sequence typing scheme versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing Mycobacterium abscessus isolates.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; de Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus. PMID:24899019

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: ubiquity expression of surface cruzipain molecules in TCI and TCII field isolates.

    PubMed

    Fampa, Patrícia; Santos, André L S; Ramirez, Marcel I

    2010-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi presents considerable genetic and protein profile polymorphism among different parasite populations. In a previous work, our group indicated cysteine and metalloprotease activities as good markers for separating T. cruzi I (TCI) from T. cruzi II (TCII) isolates, with higher heterogeneity among TCII isolates. Here, we have investigated the expression level of surface cruzipain in 16 field isolates belonging to the genotype TCI (n = 8) and TCII (n = 8) of T. cruzi. By means of flow cytometry analyses, using an anti-cruzipain polyclonal antibody, we observed a highly heterogeneous pattern of surface cruzipain molecules in these isolates, independently of their genotypes, cell measurements (size and granularity), original hosts, or biomes. However, fluorescence labeling tended to be stronger in TCI than in TCII population. Interestingly, isolates that expressed higher levels of surface cruzipain also yielded elevated levels of metacyclogenesis in vitro. PMID:20512588

  2. Field experiment on transpiration from isolated urban plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aya Hagishima; Ken-Ich Narita; Jun Tanimoto

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pot plant density on plant transpiration rate was examined in a series of field experiments. Three spatial densities were created using 203 nearly homogeneous pot plants; the ratios of plant separation to plant height were 0Ð25, 0Ð5, and 3 for the 'high,' 'medium,' and 'low' groups respectively. The daily transpiration rate of 55 pot plants was measured

  3. Characterization of Anaerovibrio burkinabensis sp. nov., a Lactate Fermenting Bacterium Isolated from Rice Field Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABOUBAKAR S. OUATTARA; ALFRED S. TRAORE; JEAN-LOUIS GARCIA

    A strictly anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from rice field soils by using lactate as a sole carbon and energy source. The cells were non-spore-forming, motile, curved rods. Optimal growth occurred at 35°C and pH 6.8. No NaCl requirement was observed. Vitamins were required for growth. Our isolate, strain B4BoT (T = type strain), fermented pyruvate, fumarate, malate, citrate, dihydroxyacetone,

  4. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates from an epidemic by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Beall, B; Cassiday, P K; Sanden, G N

    1995-01-01

    We examined genetic variation among 78 clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis, including 54 strains recovered during a 1986 pertussis epidemic. A total of 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, generated with each of three different enzymes (XbaI, SpeI, and DraI), were obtained from the epidemic and sporadic isolates included in the study. Indistinguishable profiles were seen among strains unrelated temporally or geographically, as well as among strains isolated sporadically from the same geographic areas. All isolates from the epidemic had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. The PFGE pattern of the epidemic strains was shared with only 1 of 25 strains isolated independently of the outbreak. This isolate was cultured from a specimen from a laboratory scientist who had been working with the epidemic strains, further implicating the usefulness of PFGE for the epidemiologic study of clinical strains of B. pertussis. Differences in PFGE profiles for single epidemic strains occurred occasionally upon repeated passage on agar medium, suggesting that subculturing of initial isolates should be minimized before pulsed-field analysis. PMID:8586677

  5. Antigenic characterization of IBDV field isolates by their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Van der Marel, P; Snyder, D; Lütticken, D

    1990-02-01

    Recently Infectious Bursal Disease Virus isolates have been described in USA displaying an antigenic drift. Many of the new isolates were very virulent for chickens. In several European countries severe outbreaks of Gumboro disease have also been reported from vaccinated and non-vaccinated flocks. Since vaccinated SPF birds were shown to be protected against challenge infection with the new isolates under laboratory conditions, a more detailed investigation of the European isolates is wanted. The similarity between the European and US field situation got us to use a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) previously applied to characterize US strains for testing European isolates. An antigen capture ELISA has been carried out directly on bursa homogenates of chickens form the field. One European (F52/70) and two US (Var. E and GLS-5) strains have been included as reference viruses. From the results presented here it can be concluded that the European isolates (Netherlands, France, UK, Germany, Jugoslavia and Spain) did not undergo the same antigenic drift as the US strains. A more extensive analysis of the isolates will be done to elucidate their role for disease outbreaks. PMID:2155771

  6. Intense Isolated Ultrashort Attosecond Pulse Generation in a Multi-Cycle Three-Colour Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang-Tai

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for generating an intense isolated ultrashort attosecond pulse is presented theoretically. By adding a 267 nm controlling pulse to a multi-cycle two-colour field, not only the spectral cutoff and the yields of the harmonic spectrum are evidently enhanced, but also the selection of the single quantum path is realised. Then a high-efficiency supercontinuum with a 504 eV bandwidth and smooth structure is obtained, which enables the production of an intense isolated 30 as pulse. In addition, the influences of the laser parameters on the supercontinuum and isolated attosecond pulse are investigated.

  7. Two-color field for the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse in water-window region.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxiang; Chen, Guanglong; Kim, Dong Eon

    2011-10-10

    For the investigation of various ultrafast electron dynamics, an isolated attosecond pulse in a broad spectral range is necessary. The generation of isolated attosecond pulses demands the manipulation of the electric field of a laser. We propose a two-color field scheme for generating an isolated attosecond pulse in the water-window region. Two-color fields are generated by mixing two equally-strong pulsed color fields. The investigation shows that an isolated attosecond pulse with a photon energy of near 500 eV and a pulse duration of 125 - 188 attoseconds can be generated using 10 - 15 fs FWHM laser fields. PMID:21997069

  8. Quantitative field testing Heterodera glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from soil under agronomic production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  9. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S; Cheong, Y M; Kan, S; Yassin, R M; Vadivelu, J; Pang, T

    1994-01-01

    Isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor from two well-defined cholera outbreaks in Malaysia were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from sporadic cases occurring during the same time period were also studied. Digestion of chromosomal DNA from these isolates of V. cholerae O1 with restriction endonucleases NotI (5'-GCGGCCGC-3') and SfiI (5'-GGCCNNNN-3'), followed by PFGE, produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 13 to 24 bands (ranging in size from 46 to 398 kbp). Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with NotI and SfiI suggested the clonal nature and close genetic identity of the isolates obtained during each of the two outbreaks (Dice coefficient, 0.93 to 1.0). Although they had very similar REA patterns, the two outbreak clones were not identical. Isolates of V. cholerae O1 from sporadic cases, on the other hand, appeared to be much more heterogeneous (five different REA patterns detected in the five isolates tested; Dice coefficient, 0.31 to 0.81) than those obtained during the two outbreaks. We conclude that PFGE of V. cholerae O1 chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for molecular typing of V. cholerae isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7883885

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 4 field isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Legisa, D; Gonzalez, F; De Stefano, G; Pereda, A; Dus Santos, M J

    2013-03-01

    Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted viral disease of ruminant species, which represents a major barrier to the international trade of animals and their products. Bluetongue virus (BTV) has a genome composed of ten linear segments of dsRNA, which code for at least ten different viral proteins. In South America, serological evidence for the presence of BTV has been found in Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile. Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries where BTV has been isolated. In Brazil, only one BTV isolate, serotype 12, has been reported, whereas in Argentina five BTV serotype 4 isolates have been obtained from cattle without clinical signs. Three of these five isolates were isolated during 1999-2001, whereas two of them were obtained as part of the present work. This study describes sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of segment (Seg)-2, Seg-3, Seg-6, Seg-7 and Seg-10 of the first Argentinian field isolates of BTV. The analysis of Seg-2 and Seg-6 resulted in a single cluster of Argentinian sequences into the serotype 4 clade. In addition, the Argentinian sequences grouped within the nucleotype A clade, along with reference strains. The analysis of Seg-3, Seg-7 and Seg-10 showed that the Argentinian isolates grouped into the western topotype, indicating that the circulating virus had an African/European origin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Argentinian sequences present a South American genetic identity, suggesting an independent lineage evolution. PMID:23152367

  11. Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbings, S. L.; Süßmann, F.; Yang, Y.-Y.; Scrinzi, A.; Durach, M.; Rusina, A.; Stockman, M. I.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-07-01

    The production of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation via nanoplasmonic field-enhanced high-harmonic generation (HHG) in gold nanostructures at MHz repetition rates is investigated theoretically in this paper. Analytical and numerical calculations are employed and compared in order to determine the plasmonic fields in gold ellipsoidal nanoparticles. The comparison indicates that numerical calculations can accurately predict the field enhancement and plasmonic decay, but may encounter difficulties when attempting to predict the oscillatory behavior of the plasmonic field. Numerical calculations for coupled symmetric and asymmetric ellipsoids for different carrier-envelope phases (CEPs) of the driving laser field are combined with time-dependent Schrödinger equation simulations to predict the resulting HHG spectra. The studies reveal that the plasmonic field oscillations, which are controlled by the CEP of the driving laser field, play a more important role than the nanostructure configuration in finding the optimal conditions for the generation of isolated attosecond XUV pulses via nanoplasmonic field enhancement.

  12. Optimum design of bridges with superelastic-friction base isolators against near-field earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbulut, Osman E.; Hurlebaus, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    The seismic response of a multi-span continuous bridge isolated with novel superelastic-friction base isolator (S-FBI) is investigated under near-field earthquakes. The isolation system consists of a flat steel-Teflon sliding bearing and a superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) device. Sliding bearings limit the maximum seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure to a certain value that is a function of friction coefficient of sliding interface. Superelastic SMA device provides restoring capability to the isolation system together with additional damping characteristics. The key design parameters of an S-FBI system are the natural period of the isolated, yielding displacement of SMA device, and the friction coefficient of the sliding bearings. The goal of this study is to obtain optimal values for each design parameter by performing sensitivity analyses of the isolated bridge. First, a three-span continuous bridge is modeled as a two-degrees-of-freedom with S-FBI system. A neuro-fuzzy model is used to capture rate-dependent nonlinear behavior of SMA device. A time-dependent method which employs wavelets to adjust accelerograms to match a target response spectrum with minimum changes on the other characteristics of ground motions is used to generate ground motions used in the simulations. Then, a set of nonlinear time history analyses of the isolated bridge is performed. The variation of the peak response quantities of the isolated bridge is shown as a function of design parameters. Also, the influence of temperature variations on the effectiveness of S-FBI system is evaluated. The results show that the optimum design of the isolated bridge with S-FBI system can be achieved by a judicious specification of design parameters.

  13. Crystal field theory analysis of rovibrational spectra of carbon monoxide monomers isolated in solid parahydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario E. Fajardo; C. Michael Lindsay; Takamasa Momose

    2009-01-01

    We report the first rotationally resolved and completely assigned rovibrational spectrum for a nonhydride molecule rotating in the solid phase: carbon monoxide (CO) monomers isolated in cryogenic solid parahydrogen (p-H2). We employ a modified crystal field theory model, in which the CO molecular spectroscopic constants are taken as adjustable parameters, to make good spectroscopic assignments for all the observed features.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Dobrava hantavirus carried by the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Estonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirill Nemirov; Olli Vapalahti; Vera Vasilenko; Irina Golovljova; Angelina Plyusnina; Jukka Niemimaa; Juha Laakkonen; Heikki Henttonen; Antti Vaheri; Alexander Plyusnin

    1999-01-01

    Dobrava hantavirus (DOB) was isolated from the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) trapped on Saaremaa Island, Estonia, and its genetic and antigenic characteristics were subsequently analysed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Estonian DOB strain, together with several wild strains carried by Apodemus agrarius, forms a well-supported lineage within the DOB clade. The topography of the trees calculated for the S,

  15. Evaluating the Resistance of Eimeria Spp. Field Isolates to Anticoccidial Drugs Using Three Different Indices

    PubMed Central

    Arabkhazaeli, F; Modrisanei, M; Nabian, S; Mansoori, B; Madani, A

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study, the presence of resistance to diclazuril, amprolium+ethopabate and salinomycin, representing some of the commonest anticoccidials in Iran's poultry industry, against three mixed Eimeria field isolates were investigated. Methods Three Eimeria field isolates, collected from typical broiler farms in Iran, were propagated once, inoculated to 480 broilers, comprising 30 chicks in each treatment. The non-medicated or medicated diets containing one of the above mentioned anticoccidials were provided ad-lib. Drug efficacy was determined using the Global index (GI), Anticoccidial Sensitivity Test (AST) and Optimum Anticoccidial Activity (OAA). Results None of the field isolates were fully sensitive to the selected anticoccidials. All isolates showed reduced sensitivity/partial resistance to salinomycin. Resistance to amprolium+ethopabate was evident and partial to complete resistance was recorded for diclazuril. Conclusion Limited efficacy of the selected anticoccidials is obvious. Considering the cost of continuous use of anticoccidials in the field, altering the prevention strategy and rotation of the anticoccidials with better efficacy, would prevent further economic losses induced by coccidiosis. PMID:23914236

  16. Evaluation of Marek's disease field isolates by the "best fit" pathotyping assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although determination of pathotype is central to the study of Marek's disease field isolates, methods are not standardized and results from different laboratories may not compare well to the original Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) assay. This study was designed to investigate the vali...

  17. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis used to investigate genetic diversity of Haemophilus influenzae type b isolates in Australia shows differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal isolates.

    PubMed

    Moor, P E; Collignon, P C; Gilbert, G L

    1999-05-01

    We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to study the epidemiology and population structure of Haemophilus influenzae type b. DNAs from 187 isolates recovered between 1985 and 1993 from Aboriginal children (n = 76), non-Aboriginal children (n = 106), and non-Aboriginal adults (n = 5) in urban and rural regions across Australia were digested with the SmaI restriction endonuclease. Patterns of 13 to 17 well-resolved fragments (size range, approximately 8 to 500 kb) defining 67 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types were found. Two types predominated. One type (n = 37) accounted for 35 (46%) of the isolates from Aboriginals and 2 (2%) of the isolates from non-Aboriginals, and the other type (n = 41) accounted for 2 (3%) of the isolates from Aboriginals and 39 (35%) of the isolates from non-Aboriginals. Clustering revealed seven groups at a genetic distance of approximately 50% similarity in a tree-like dendrogram. They included two highly divergent groups representing 50 (66%) isolates from Aboriginals and 6 (5%) isolates from non-Aboriginals and another genetically distinct group representing 7 (9%) isolates from Aboriginals and 81 (73%) isolates from non-Aboriginals. The results showed a heterogeneous clonal population structure, with the isolates of two types accounting for 42% of the sample. There was no association between RFLP type and the diagnosis of meningitis or epiglottitis, age, sex, date of collection, or geographic location, but there was a strong association between the origin of isolates from Aboriginal children and RFLP type F2a and the origin of isolates from non-Aboriginal children and RFLP type A8b. The methodology discriminated well among the isolates (D = 0.91) and will be useful for the monitoring of postvaccine isolates of H. influenzae type b. PMID:10203516

  18. The genomic RNA1 and RNA2 sequences of the tobacco rattle virus isolates found in Polish potato fields.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhimin; Pawe?kowicz, Magdalena; Michalak, Krystyna; Chrzanowska, Miros?awa; Zimnoch-Guzowska, Ewa

    2014-06-24

    Four tobacco rattle virus (TRV) isolates were identified from tobacco bait seedlings planted in soil samples from Polish potato fields. Sequence analysis of the genomic RNA1 of the isolates revealed significant similarity to the isolates Ho and AL recently found in Germany. Multiple sequence alignments of the genomic RNA2 indicated that the two isolates from northern Poland (Deb57 and Slu24) are in a cluster with the isolates PSG and PLB found in the Netherlands. The remaining two isolates, from central Poland (11r21 and Mlo7), are in a distinct group with the unique isolate SYM found in England. The RNA2 sequences of the studied isolates range from 1998 nt to 2739 nt in length, and all carry deletions of the 2b and/or 2c genes. The isolate Mlo7 has an atypical RNA2 structure, having its cp gene located in its central region. PMID:24637409

  19. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images PMID:16348538

  20. Genome comparison of two Magnaporthe oryzae field isolates reveals genome variations and potential virulence effectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is an important disease in virtually every rice growing region of the world, which leads to significant annual decreases of grain quality and yield. To prevent disease, resistance genes in rice have been cloned and introduced into susceptible cultivars. However, introduced resistance can often be broken within few years of release, often due to mutation of cognate avirulence genes in fungal field populations. Results To better understand the pattern of mutation of M. oryzae field isolates under natural selection forces, we used a next generation sequencing approach to analyze the genomes of two field isolates FJ81278 and HN19311, as well as the transcriptome of FJ81278. By comparing the de novo genome assemblies of the two isolates against the finished reference strain 70–15, we identified extensive polymorphisms including unique genes, SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) and indels, structural variations, copy number variations, and loci under strong positive selection. The 1.75 MB of isolate-specific genome content carrying 118 novel genes from FJ81278, and 0.83 MB from HN19311 were also identified. By analyzing secreted proteins carrying polymorphisms, in total 256 candidate virulence effectors were found and 6 were chosen for functional characterization. Conclusions We provide results from genome comparison analysis showing extensive genome variation, and generated a list of M. oryzae candidate virulence effectors for functional characterization. PMID:24341723

  1. The impact of a magnetic field on ferromagnetic materials isolated using ultraviolet laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Ching Ching; Yang, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Laser ablation technology is used to isolate magnetic material to generate a local magnetic field effect. The impact of an induced magnetic field is enhanced by using the external magnetic field and can be widely employed to collect magnetic particles and position biomolecular in the bio-examination field. In addition, the magnetic field is affected and induced by the thermal stress produced after energy is exerted on the materials. Therefore, this study presents the phase of induced magnetic field (PIMF) of ferromagnetic film (Ni—1-?m thick) isolated using a 355-nm pulsed ultraviolet laser. In the experiment, three patterns comprising the following shapes and various isolated angle were designed for testing: hexagon (type I, 120°), L shape (type II, 90°), and cross shape (type III, 90°). The magnetic force microscopy image showed that when the isolating angle decreased, the PIMF increased, the value of which at the periphery of the corner of the type I and II patterns was -3.96° and -4.09°, respectively. In addition, by increasing the ablation time and residual thermal stress remaining in the material to increase the impact of the material's properties when laser scanning speed was reduced from 1,000 to 500 mm/s, the PIMF value increased from -4.09° to -5.82°. The PIMF value of the type III pattern increased to -9.87° because the residual thermal stress was twice that of the type II pattern. In the future, the experimental results can be used as a helpful reference for controlling magnetic particles in biomedical chips.

  2. Quantum path controlling in the presence of a low frequency field to generate isolated attosecond pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashcasan, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this article, an efficient method is presented to generate an isolated attosecond pulse based on synthesized laser field. The 1D time-dependent Schrödinger equation is numerically solved for a helium atom exposed in a strong laser field. Two color fields containing a chirped laser pulse and its half harmonic as control pulse are modulated by a low frequency field to construct the configuration of strong laser field. The effect of low frequency field dominates the effect of the chirp parameter and extremely affects the acceleration step of high-order harmonic generation process. The low frequency field, in the optimized conditions, eliminates the long quantum path completely and only the short quantum path contributes in the higher harmonics emission mechanism. With such scheme, an extra supercontinuum with 700 eV bandwidth can be generated which supports the creation of a 64 attosecond isolated pulse. Moreover, the classical electron dynamics and the time-frequency analysis for explaining the underlying physics of atom-pulse interaction are also presented.

  3. Arbitrarily Primed PCR Analysis of Mycoplasrna hyopneumoniae Field Isolates Demonstrates Genetic Heterogeneity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERGEY ARTIUSHINT; F. CHRIS MINION

    1996-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary agent of mycoplasmal pneumonia in swine. In this study we performed an arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) analysis, in which low-stringency amplification with a single primer was used, to investigate genetic variability in M. hyopneurnoniae strains and field isolates. We performed preliminary experiments to examine the efficacy of 40 different 10-mer oligonucleotides for priming an AP-PCR

  4. Strain differentiation of isolates of streptococci from bovine mastitis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Baseggio; Peter D. Mansell; Jeff W. Browning; Glenn F. Browning

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was examined as a tool to differentiate strains of streptococci isolated from clinical and sub-clinical cases of bovine mastitis. Analysis ofSmaI chromosomal digests ofStreptococcus agalactiae,S. dysgalactiaesubsp.dysgalactiaeandS. uberisisolates revealed intraherd and interherd strain relationships within each species. Comparison ofS. agalactiaeisolates from the same herd revealed little variability in theirSmaI restriction patterns indicating a single strain originating from

  5. Flash-based Field Programmable Gate Array Technology with Deep Trench Isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Joon Han; Nigel Chan; Sungrae Kim; Ben Leung; Volker Hecht; Brian Cronquist; Danny Shum; Armin Tilke; Laura Pescini; Martin Stiftinger; Ronald Kakoschke

    2007-01-01

    A highly scalable flash-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been achieved with Deep Trench Isolation (DTI). The DTI allows for a reduced cell size and enables Independent Pwell (IPW) operation. The IPW allows the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) Uniform Channel Program and Erase (UCPE) with less than plusmn10 V. Additionally, the IPW approach allows a greater flexibility in the array

  6. Analysis of Salmonella typhi isolates from Southeast Asia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Thong, K L; Puthucheary, S; Yassin, R M; Sudarmono, P; Padmidewi, M; Soewandojo, E; Handojo, I; Sarasombath, S; Pang, T

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that multiple genetic variants of Salmonella typhi are simultaneously present in Southeast Asia and are associated with sporadic cases of typhoid fever and occasional outbreaks. Comparative analysis of PFGE patterns also suggested that considerable genetic diversity exists among S. typhi strains and that some PFGE patterns are shared between isolates obtained from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand, implying movement of these strains within these regions of Southeast Asia, where they are endemic. PMID:7665677

  7. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated-oil field drill-cuttings with bacterial isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reuben N. Okparanma; Josiah M. Ayotamuno; Peremelade P. Arak

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of 2 bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the restoration of oil-field drill-cuttings contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied. A mixture of 4 kg of the drill-cuttings and 0.67 kg of top-soil were charged into triplicate plastic reactors labeled A1 to A3, B1 to B3, C1 to C3 and O1 to O3. These were

  8. The Magnificent Seven: Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars with strong Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    F. Haberl

    2005-10-17

    Although the true origin of the broad absorption lines in X-ray spectra of thermal isolated neutron stars is not clear yet, our current knowledge about the "magnificent seven" strongly suggests that they are highly magnetized ($10^{13} - 10^{14}$ G), slowly rotating cooling neutron stars. Further timing studies would be very useful to obtain more independent estimates of the magnetic field strength (as they currently only exist from RX J0720.4-3125).

  9. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology. PMID:25768941

  10. Comparative Analysis of Field-Isolate and Monkey-Adapted Plasmodium vivax Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ernest R.; Barnwell, John W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David

    2015-01-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology. PMID:25768941

  11. Genetic Relationship between Blood and Nonblood Isolates from Bacteremic Patients Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUNICHI MATSUDA; YOICHI HIRAKATA; FUMIAKI IORI; CHIKAKO MOCHIDA; YUMI OZAKI; MICHIKO NAKANO; KOHICHI IZUMIKAWA; TOSHIYUKI YAMAGUCHI; RYOJI YOSHIDA; YOSHITSUGU MIYAZAKI; SHIGEFUMI MAESAKI; KAZUNORI TOMONO; YASUAKI YAMADA; SHIGERU KOHNO; SHIMERU KAMIHIRA

    A total of 148 isolates from 55 bacteremic patients were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genetically different nonblood strains were isolated from 13.9% of patients with bacteremia caused by gram- positive cocci and 42.1% with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia, indicating that antibiograms of a single nonblood P. aeruginosa isolate are not always informative for treatment of bacteremia. Bacteremia arises from preexisting

  12. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  13. Modelling of isolated radio pulsars and magnetars on the fossil field hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Lilia Ferrario; Dayal Wickramasinghe

    2006-01-12

    We explore the hypothesis that the magnetic fields of neutron stars are of fossil origin. For parametrised models of the distribution of magnetic flux on the Main Sequence and of the birth spin period of the neutron stars, we calculate the expected properties of isolated radio pulsars in the Galaxy using as our starting point the initial mass function and star formation rate as a function of galacto-centric radius. We then use the 1374 MHz Parkes Multi-Beam Survey of isolated radio pulsars to constrain the parameters in our model and to deduce the required distribution of magnetic fields on the main sequence. We find agreement with observations for a model with a star formation rate that corresponds to a supernova rate of 2 per century in the Galaxy from stars with masses in the range 8 - 45 solar masses and predict 447,000 active pulsars in the Galaxy with luminosities greater than 0.19 mJy kpc^2. The progenitor OB stars have a field distribution which peaks near 46 Gauss with about 8 percent of stars having fields in excess of 1,000 Gauss. The higher field progenitors yield a population of 24 neutron stars with fields in excess of 10^14 Gauss, periods ranging from 5 to 12 seconds, and ages of up to 100,000 years, which we identify as the dominant component of the magnetars. We also predict that high field neutron stars (log B>13.5) originate preferentially from higher mass progenitors and have a mean mass of 1.6 solar masses, which is significantly above the mean mass of 1.4 solar masses calculated for the overall population of radio pulsars.

  14. Induction of avirulence by AVR-Pita1 in virulent U.S. field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AVR-Pita1 gene, from the Chinese isolate O-137 of Magnaporthe oryzae, is an effector that determines the efficacy of the Pi-ta rice blast resistance gene. In the present study, the avirulence function of AVR-Pita1 was induced by transformation of field isolates (TM2, ZN19, B2 and B8) that origin...

  15. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  16. The prediction of the turbulent flow field about an isolated airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Gibeling, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A compressible time-dependent solution of the Navier-Stokes equations including a transition-turbulence model is obtained for the isolated airfoil flow field problem. The equations are solved by a consistently split linearized block implicit scheme due to Briley and McDonald. A nonorthogonal body fitted coordinate system is used which has maximum resolution near the airfoil surface and in the region of the airfoil leading edge. The transition-turbulence model is based upon the turbulence kinetic energy equation and predicts regions of laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. Mean flow field and turbulence field results are presented for an NACA 0012 airfoil at zero and nonzero incidence angles at Reynolds number up to one million and low subsonic Mach numbers.

  17. Molecular Typing of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolates from Thailand by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Na-Ubol, Mathukorn; Tiyasuttipan, Watcharee; Chaiyaroj, Sansanee C.; Yamasaki, Shinji; Wongsaroj, Thitima; Hayashi, Hideo; Nair, G. Balakrish; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera patients in various provinces of Thailand. Two hundred and forty V. cholerae O1 strains, isolated from patients with cholera during two outbreaks, i.e. March 1999–April 2000 and December 2001–February 2002, in Thailand, were genotypically characterized by NotI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 17 PFGE banding patterns were found and grouped into four Dice-coefficient clusters (PF-I to PF-IV). The patterns of V. cholerae O1, El Tor reference strains from Australia, Peru, Romania, and the United States were different from the patterns of reference isolates from Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and Thailand, indicating a close genetic relationship or clonal origin of the isolates in the same geographical region. The Asian reference strains, regardless of their biotypes and serogroups (classical O1, El Tor O1, O139, or O151), showed a genetic resemblance, but had different patterns from the strains collected during the two outbreaks in Thailand. Of 200 Ogawa strains collected during the first outbreak in Thailand, two patterns (clones)—PF-I and PF-II—predominated, while other isolates caused sporadic cases and were grouped together as pattern PF-III. PF-II also predominated during the second outbreak, but none of the 40 isolates (39 Inaba and 1 Ogawa) of the second outbreak had the pattern PF-I; a minority showed a new pattern—PF-IV, and others caused single cases, but were not groupable. In summary, this study documented the sustained appearance of the pathogenic V. cholerae O1 clone PF-II, the disappearance of clones PF-I and PF-III, and the emergence of new pathogenic clones during the two outbreaks of cholera. Data of the study on molecular characteristics of indigenous V. cholerae clinical isolates have public-health implications, not only for epidemic tracing of existing strains but also for the recognition of strains with new genotypes that may emerge in the future. PMID:18637531

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Strains CVO and FWKO B, Two Novel Nitrate-Reducing, Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from Oil Field Brine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE GEVERTZ; ANITA J. TELANG; GERRIT VOORDOUW; GARY E. JENNEMAN

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial strains CVO and FWKO B were isolated from produced brine at the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for FWKO B, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for CVO. Neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source.

  19. Population synthesis studies of isolated neutron stars with magnetic field decay

    E-print Network

    Popov, S B; Miralles, J A; Boldin, P A; Posselt, B

    2009-01-01

    We perform population synthesis studies of different types of neutron stars (thermally emitting isolated neutron stars, normal radio pulsars, magnetars) taking into account the magnetic field decay and using results from the most recent advances in neutron star cooling theory. For the first time, we confront our results with observations using {\\it simultaneously} the Log N -- Log S distribution for nearby isolated neutron stars, the Log N -- Log L distribution for magnetars, and the distribution of radio pulsars in the $P$ -- $\\dot P$ diagram. For this purpose, we fix a baseline neutron star model (all microphysics input), and other relevant parameters to standard values (velocity distribution, mass spectrum, birth rates ...), allowing to vary the initial magnetic field strength. We find that our theoretical model is consistent with all sets of data if the initial magnetic field distribution function follows a log-normal law with $\\sim 13.25$ and $\\sigma_{\\log B_0}\\sim 0.6$. The typical scenario includes abo...

  20. Breakdown characteristics of an isolated conducting object in a uniform electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grothaus, M. G.; Trost, T. F.

    1986-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physical processes involved in the electrical breakdown of a particular spark gap arrangement. The gap consists of an isolated conducting ellipsoid located midway between two large flat electrodes. Gradual increase of the applied electric field, E, in the gap produces corona on the ellipsoid tips followed by flashover in a leader-arc sequence. The leader phase consists of the abrupt formation of ionized channels which partially bridge the gap and then decay prior to the arc. Measurements of dE/dt and of current were made, and photographs were taken with an image converter. Experimental parameters are listed.

  1. Isolation and purification of {sup 14}C-atrazine metabolites from field grown sugarcane and sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, S.G.; Larson, J.D.; Talaat, R.E. [Corning Hazleton, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Sugarcane and sorghum plants were grown in separate field plots and treated with [2,4,6-{sup 14}C]-Atrazine (according to standard agricultural practices and at levels approximating the maximum usage rate) in partial fulfillment of EPA registration requirements. Sugarcane leaves were collected just before the final (fourth) test material application and at final harvest; canes were collected only at final harvest. Atrazine and a total of 20 metabolites of atrazine, accounting for 45.1% of the total radioactive residues, were isolated and characterized from prefourth application sugarcane leaves. Sorghum forage samples were collected 30 days after treatment (30 DAT), and at silage stage; mature fodder and grain were collected at final harvest. Two additional metabolites of atrazine were isolated and characterized from 30 DAT sorghum. Flowcharts describing the extraction and fractionation procedures used for isolation and purification of selected metabolites will be presented. The mass spectra as well as proposed metabolic pathways for these metabolites will be presented in an accompanying abstract.

  2. Isolation and chromosomal localization of ZFX homologue in genome of rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew).

    PubMed

    Ji, Fu-Yun; Yu, Qi-Xing; Zheng, Cong-Yi

    2004-08-01

    When used as a probe in rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) genomic Southern blotting hybridization, the giant panda Zfx gene hybridized strongly to a fragment of about 9.5 kb. A 512 bp long DNA fragment has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction from rice field eel genomic DNA using the primers for amplifying zinc finger repeats 7 to 13 of mammalian and reptilian ZFX-related genes. Cloned in pBS, four recombinant plasmids were selected randomly from male and female specimens and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences in these clones were identical and showed 88% and 87% identity to human ZFX and ZFY respectively. But its extent of homology was greater with American alligator Zfc (90%). And the amino acid sequences of the putative protein showed 95.9%, 95.9% and 93.5% identity to human ZFX and ZFY and American alligator Zfc respectively. Thus, the cloned sequence encodes a homologue of mammalian ZFX/ZFY and was named Zfa for rice field eel zinc finger domain gene. It appears that the mammalian and reptilian ZFX-related genes evolved from fish ancestors with a considerable degree of conservation. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, the Zfa has been mapped to rice field eel chromosome 1 and at the position of 60.1 +/- 0.38 from the centromere. Chromosomal mapping of fish genes related to mammalian X-linked genes might lead to further understanding of the evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes. PMID:15481530

  3. Field normalization techniques and practices for determining sound isolation and impact insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loverde, John J.; Dong, David W.

    2003-10-01

    The International Building Code (IBC) includes minimum acceptable acoustical performance for floor/ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units. Field tests for determining the Normalized Noise Isolation Class (NNIC) and Field Impact Insulation Class (FIIC) of an assembly require the measurement of the decay rate of the receiving room and the normalization of the sound pressure levels, as set forth in ASTM standards E336 and E1007. The normalization is intended to improve comparability of test results by removing the effects of receiving room absorption. Surprisingly, the normalization procedure is substantially different between these two types of tests. The FIIC normalization is based on the laboratory Impact Insulation Class (IIC) test using a standard room absorption of 10 metric sabins. The NNIC normalization is based on a 0.5-s reverberation time, which is assumed normal in a furnished habitable dwelling space. This difference in normalization procedure for the same receiving room potentially yields different results of NNIC and FIIC as compared with their respective non-normalized values. This will be illustrated with examples of actual field tests. The effectiveness and suitability of the normalization procedures in the field setting are compared and evaluated including the use of the California Building Code modification to FIIC.

  4. Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for each) were examined for chlorhexidine digluconate effects on biofilm formation and planktonic growth using microtiter plates. In all of the examined strains in the presence of chlorhexidine digluconate, biofilm development and planktonic growth were affected at the same concentrations of the disinfectant. Results: Chlorhexidine digluconate inhibited the planktonic growth of different bacterial species at sub-MICs. But they were able to induce biofilm development of the E. coli, Salmonella spp., S. aureus and Str. agalactiae strains. Conclusions: Bacterial resistance against chlorhexidine is increasing. Sub-MIC doses of chlorhexidine digluconate can stimulate the formation of biofilm strains. PMID:24872940

  5. CAD-compatible high-speed CMOS\\/SIMOX technology using field-shield isolation for 1 M gate array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Iwamatsu; Y. Yamaguchi; Y. Inoue; T. Nishimura; N. Tsubouchi

    1993-01-01

    A specific 0.5 ?m CMOS\\/SIMOX technology was developed for a 1 M gate array\\/SOG (Sea Of Gates) using field-shield (FS) isolation to overcome a pending problem of source-to-drain breakdown voltage (BV ds) lowering. The ring oscillator fabricated on the FS isolated SOG gate array exhibited 1.7 times higher speed operation than that on a bulk-Si counterpart keeping the lower power

  6. Recent developments in the measurement of magnetic fields from isolated nerves and muscles (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikswo, J. P., Jr.

    1981-03-01

    We have developed a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer with a miniature, room-temperature toroidal pick-up coil that has sufficient sensitivity and frequency response to measure the magnetic field associated with the action potential of isolated nerves and muscles. A magnetically shielded SQUID operates in a liquid helium storage dewar so that the measurements of the weak magnetic fields can be made in a typical laboratory. The nerve or muscle fiber is immersed by Ringer's solution and is threaded through the ferrite core of the toroidal pick-up coil so that electrical current within the fiber will thread the toroid but the return current external to the fiber will not. The time-dependent 100 pT magnetic field produced by the cellular action current induces currents in the pick-up coil that are detected by the SQUID with signal-to-noise ratios of 10 to 1 in a 2 kHz bandwidth. In the case of a single large nerve axon, this technique will allow quantitative measurement of the intracellular and transmembrane currents, the effective intracellular axial resistivity, and the time dependence of the transmembrane conductance without puncturing the nerve membrane with a microelectrode. This technique is being extended to study current flow in cardiac muscle.

  7. Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.

  8. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for isolation of full-length phytoplasma chromosomes from plants.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful technique for genomic studies of unculturable plant-pathogenic phytoplasmas, which enables separation of full-length phytoplasma chromosomes from contaminating host plant nucleic acids. The PFGE method described here involves isolation of phytoplasmal DNA from high-titer phytoplasma-infected herbaceous plants using a phytoplasma enrichment procedure, embedding of phytoplasma chromosomes in agarose blocks, and separation of entire phytoplasma chromosomes from contaminating host plant nucleic acids by electrophoresis. Full-length phytoplasma chromosomes are resolved as single, discrete bands in the gel. The identity of these bands can be confirmed by Southern blot hybridization using a ribosomal DNA fragment as a probe. The method does not utilize gamma-irradiation to linearize phytoplasma chromosomes prior to electrophoresis. PMID:22987433

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  10. Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2010-11-01

    We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.

  11. Attosecond lighthouses: how to use spatiotemporally coupled light fields to generate isolated attosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, H; Quéré, F

    2012-03-16

    Under the effect of even simple optical components, the spatial properties of femtosecond laser beams can vary over the duration of the light pulse. We show how using such spatiotemporally coupled light fields in high harmonic generation experiments (e.g., in gases or dense plasmas) enables the production of attosecond lighthouses, i.e., sources emitting a collection of angularly well-separated light beams, each consisting of an isolated attosecond pulse. This general effect opens the way to a new generation of light sources, particularly suitable for attosecond pump-probe experiments, and provides a new tool for ultrafast metrology, for instance, giving direct access to fluctuations of the carrier-envelope relative phase of even the most intense ultrashort lasers. PMID:22540475

  12. Laboratory and field evaluations of the efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Behle, Robert W; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-02-01

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV). Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioassay of applications to glasshouse-grown and field-grown plants, and for residual insecticidal activity of unformulated virus and an encapsulating formulation to provide UV protection. Two inoculation rates comparing relative in vivo production of the isolates demonstrated 3AP2 inoculated larvae were significantly smaller than Sf3 inoculated larvae at death. At the lower inoculation rate, Sf3 inoculated larvae produced approximately twofold more occlusion bodies as the 3AP2 inoculated larvae. A model system of applications to cabbage plants and a bioassay to observe mortality of neonate S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) after feeding on samples of treated leaves was used to evaluate speed of kill and residual insecticidal activity. The LT(50) for the 3AP2 isolate was at least 30 h less than the LT(50) for the Sf3 isolate when applied to either glasshouse-grown or field-grown plants. The spray-dried lignin encapsulating formulation provided similar benefits to both virus isolates when exposed to simulated sunlight in the laboratory and to natural sunlight in the field. For treatment applications to field grown cabbage in June, the half-life for efficacy of unformulated virus was <7.5 h compared with a half-life of >26.7 h for encapsulated virus. These results demonstrate that improved technologies can be combined to address characteristics which otherwise can limit the commercial potential of microbial-based biological insecticides. PMID:22100417

  13. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Dogs by Use of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis ?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, B. N.; Cody, A. J.; Porter, C. J.; Stavisky, J. H.; Smith, J. L.; Williams, N. J.; Leatherbarrow, A. J. H.; Hart, C. A.; Gaskell, R. M.; Dingle, K. E.; Dawson, S.

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Risk of Campylobacter infection in humans has been associated with many sources, including dogs. This study aimed to investigate whether C. jejuni carried by dogs could potentially be a zoonotic risk for humans and if there were common sources of C. jejuni infection for both humans and dogs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA using SmaI and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were both used to analyze 33 C. jejuni isolates obtained from various dog populations, including those visiting veterinary practices and from different types of kennels. MLST data suggested that there was a large amount of genetic diversity between dog isolates and that the majority of sequence types found in isolates from these dogs were the same as those found in isolates from humans. The main exception was ST-2772, which was isolated from four samples and could not be assigned to a clonal complex. The most commonly identified clonal complex was ST-45 (11 isolates), followed by ST-21 (4 isolates), ST-508 (4 isolates), and ST-403 (3 isolates). The profiles obtained by macrorestriction PFGE were largely in concordance with the MLST results, with a similar amount of genetic diversity found. The diversity of sequence types found within dogs suggests they are exposed to various sources of C. jejuni infection. The similarity of these sequence types to C. jejuni isolates from humans suggests there may be common sources of infection for both dogs and humans. Although only a small number of household dogs may carry C. jejuni, infected dogs should still be considered a potential zoonotic risk to humans, particularly if the dogs originate from kennelled or hunt kennel dog populations, where the prevalence may be higher. PMID:19794053

  14. Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from South America Use an Atypical Red Blood Cell Invasion Pathway Associated with Invasion Ligand Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L. D.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Blair, Silvia; Gamboa, Dionicia; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple one size fits all type of vaccine. PMID:23118907

  15. Genetic analysis of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis reveals sequence and epigenetic variation among field isolates 

    E-print Network

    O'Shea, Brian James

    2009-05-15

    of Mycobacterial isolates of differing species. These polymorphic regions were also utilized in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic as well as epidemiologic tests. Furthermore, AFLP comparative analysis of intracellular and fecal MparaTb isolates...

  16. Laboratory and field evaluations for efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of the same baculovirus. Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioas...

  17. [Investigation of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis isolates by plasmid profile analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Us, Ebru; Erdem, Birsel; Tekeli, Alper; Gerçeker, Devran; Saran, Begüm; Bayramova, Mehseti; Sahin, Fikret

    2011-04-01

    In this study a total of 122 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis stock strains selected from the culture collection of Enterobacteriaceae Laboratory of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, were investigated by plasmid profile analysis with the method defined by Kado and Liu and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) according to World Health Organization protocols using SpeI and XbaI macrorestriction enzymes, for better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of S. Enteritidis. The study strains were selected from a collection of previously isolated epidemic (n= 13) and sporadic (n= 109) strains (103 stool, 16 blood and one each bile, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) obtained from 10 different cities after the year 2000. PFGE patterns were analyzed with Gene Directory software (Syngene, UK) and a similarity index was determined by using Dice coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with mathematical averaging (UPGMA). Plasmid-carrying 110 (90%) strains that harbored 1-4 plasmids with sizes ranging from 2.0 to 100 kb were separated into patterns more than 14 (p1-p14). A total of 85 (69.7%) isolates harbored the 57 kb plasmid solely or in combination with other plasmids. By PFGE, 11 distinct patterns were shown with each enzyme SpeI and XbaI. S. Enteritidis strains after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI generated 11 different PFGE patterns (A to K), whereas XbaI generated also 11 different PFGE patterns (a to k). PFGE pattern A consisted of 93 strains (76.2%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI, while PFGE pattern a consisted 53 (43.4%) and PFGE pattern b 42 strains (34.4%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme XbaI. Using two macrorestriction enzymes two PFGE cluster profiles Aa (50 strains, 40.9%) and Ab (42 strains, 34.4%) were found to be predominating among 17 different PFGE clusters. Our results confirmed the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis strains in Turkey. The use of two enzymes in PFGE analysis appeared to increase the discriminatory power of PFGE, leading to greater diversity among strains. PFGE analysis performed by SpeI and XbaI enzymes combined with plasmid profiling could be established as a useful tool for detection of genetic relationship between isolates. PMID:21644064

  18. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source of B. cenocepacia. PMID:18344334

  19. Adaptive fuzzy inference causal graph approach to fault detection and isolation of field devices in nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zhao; B. R. Upadhyaya

    2005-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy inference causal graph is presented as an integrated approach for fault detection and isolation of field devices including sensors, actuators, and controllers in nuclear power plants. In this approach, nuclear plant systems are represented as a causal graph consisting of individual process variables connected with adaptive fuzzy inference system models. The adaptive fuzzy inference system models generated

  20. Growth potential and biocide tolerance of non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterial isolates from rice fields of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tiwari; R. Prasanna; A. Yadav; Wattal D. Dhar; P. Singh

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-eight non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterial strains were isolated from different locations in the rice fields of Uttar Pradesh. These strains belonged to seven genera, namely Pseudanabaena, Limnothrix, Phormidium, Microcoleus, Plectonema, Lyngbya and Oscillatoria. A wide variation was observed in these strains with respect to dry weight, generation time and tolerance to biocides. Lyngbya palmarum and Oscillatoria acuminata showed maximum biomass (dry

  1. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis along with Antimicrobial Resistance pattern of Salmonella serotypes isolated from broiler whole carcass rinses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiogram patterns have been used to evaluate the diversity within and between individual Salmonella serotypes. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the PFGE along with antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates originating from br...

  2. Reaction of Brassica juncea (Indian Mustard) Lines to Australian Isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans under Glasshouse and Field Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agus Purwantara; Phillip A. Salisbury; Wayne A. Burton; Barbara J. Howlett

    1998-01-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) lines from diverse geographical locations around the world and from Australian breeding programs were screened for resistance to the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans, in both glasshouse and field trials. The five Australian L. maculans isolates used in glasshouse trials could be classified into two groups; those that attacked all B. juncea lines, and those that attacked

  3. Co-transmission of the non-transmissible South African Babesia bovis S24 vaccine strain during mixed infection with a field isolate.

    PubMed

    Combrink, M P; Troskie, P C; de Klerk, D G; Pienaar, R; Latif, A A; Mans, B J

    2015-03-01

    The South African Babesia bovis live blood vaccine, originating from a field isolate attenuated by 23 serial syringe passages in splenectomized calves, has lost the ability to infect the natural vector Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. In this study, infection with mixed parasites from the vaccine strain and a field isolate, resulted in transmission of both genotype populations. Comparing the field isolate and transmitted combination indicated no significant difference in their virulence, while challenge of vaccinated cattle with these isolates showed the ability of the vaccine to protect against both. Limiting dilution of the transmitted combination, followed by infection of splenectomized cattle (n=34) yielded no single infections for the vaccine strain genotype, seven clonal lines of the field isolate and one mixture of vaccine strain and field isolate. Only one of two field isolate clonal lines selected for vector transmission study was transmitted. Showing that B. bovis isolates can contain both tick transmissible and non-transmissible subpopulations. The findings of this study also indicate the probability of vaccine co-infection transmission occurring in the field, which may result in new genotype populations of B. bovis. However, the impact of this recombination with field isolates is considered negligible since a genotypically diverse population of B. bovis is already present in South Africa. PMID:25544307

  4. Field Studies Reveal Strong Postmating Isolation between Ecologically Divergent Butterfly Populations

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.; Singer, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow between populations that are adapting to distinct environments may be restricted if hybrids inherit maladaptive, intermediate phenotypes. This phenomenon, called extrinsic postzygotic isolation (EPI), is thought to play a critical role in the early stages of speciation. However, despite its intuitive appeal, we know surprisingly little about the strength and prevalence of EPI in nature, and even less about the specific phenotypes that tend to cause problems for hybrids. In this study, we searched for EPI among allopatric populations of the butterfly Euphydryas editha that have specialized on alternative host plants. These populations recall a situation thought typical of the very early stages of speciation. They lack consistent host-associated genetic differentiation at random nuclear loci and show no signs of reproductive incompatibility in the laboratory. However, they do differ consistently in diverse host-related traits. For each of these traits, we first asked whether hybrids between populations that use different hosts (different-host hybrids) were intermediate to parental populations and to hybrids between populations that use the same host (same-host hybrids). We then conducted field experiments to estimate the effects of intermediacy on fitness in nature. Our results revealed strong EPI under field conditions. Different-host hybrids exhibited an array of intermediate traits that were significantly maladaptive, including four behaviors. Intermediate foraging height slowed the growth of larvae, while intermediate oviposition preference, oviposition site height, and clutch size severely reduced the growth and survival of the offspring of adult females. We used our empirical data to construct a fitness surface on which different-host hybrids can be seen to fall in an adaptive valley between two peaks occupied by same-host hybrids. These findings demonstrate how ecological selection against hybrids can create a strong barrier to gene flow at the early stages of adaptive divergence. PMID:21048982

  5. Curtobacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Ho-Bin; Kim, Se-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2008-10-01

    A Gram-positive, non-motile, pale-yellow, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain DCY26(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in South Korea and was investigated to determine its taxonomic position. The organism grew optimally at 30-37 degrees C. The G+C content of its DNA was 65.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DCY26(T) was related most closely to species of the genus Curtobacterium, in the family Microbacteriaceae. Strain DCY26(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Curtobacterium pusillum DSM 20527(T) (96.3 %), Curtobacterium luteum DSM 20542(T) (96.2 %), Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens LMG 3645(T) (96.2 %), Curtobacterium citreum DSM 20528(T) (96.1 %), Curtobacterium albidum DSM 20512(T) (96.1 %) and Curtobacterium herbarum DSM 14013(T) (95.3 %). The predominant menaquinone of strain DCY26(T) was MK-9. Other chemotaxonomic data also supported the affiliation of strain DCY26(T) to the genus Curtobacterium. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain DCY26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Curtobacterium, for which the name Curtobacterium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY26(T) (=KCTC 13163(T) =JCM 14773(T)). PMID:18842862

  6. Stenotrophomonas panacihumi sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hoonbok; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2010-02-01

    The study isolated a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium from the soil of a ginseng field in Daejeon, South Korea and characterized it to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, revealed that strain MK06(T) belongs to the family Xanthomonadacea, and showed the highest degree of sequence similarity to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila e-p10(T) (98.6%), Xanthomonas campestris LMG 568T (98.0%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 1d3637(T) (97.3%), and Stenotrophomonas humi R-32729(T) (96.9%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain MK06(T) possesses ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory lipoquinone, which is common in the genus Stenotrophomonas, and that the predominant fatty acids were 15:0 iso (41.1%), 15:0 anteiso (12.6%), and 17:1 iso omega9c (8.6%). The results of physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain MK06(T) represents a distinct species and supported its affiliation with the genus Stenotrophomonas. Based on these data, MK06(T) (KCTC, 22893(T); JCM, 16536(T); KEMB, 9004-002(T)) should be classified as the type strain for a novel species, for which we propose the name Stenotrophomonas panacihumi sp. nov. PMID:20221726

  7. Genomic relatedness among Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae field strains of sterotypes 1 and 5 isolated from healthy and diseased pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Chatellier, S; Harel, J; Dugourd, D; Chevallier, B; Kobisch, M; Gottschalk, M

    1999-01-01

    Forty-four Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates recovered from both healthy and diseased pigs were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and apx toxin gene typing. Nine RAPD types and 14 PFGE patterns were identified. No common RAPD or PFGE patterns were found between strains of serotype 1 and those of serotype 5. The RAPD analysis indicated that the 15 serotype 1 strains isolated from diseased pigs were assigned to 4 RAPD types, with 66% of strains characterized by the same RAPD type. By contrast, the 5 strains of serotype 1 isolated from healthy carriers were dispersed in 4 RAPD types. These data suggest that the diversity of strains isolated from healthy pigs could be higher than that of strains recovered from diseased pigs. In addition, all serotype 5 strains exhibited a unique RAPD type. Unlike RAPD, PFGE analysis allowed discrimination among isolates of serotype 1 and among those of serotype 5. All but 3 isolates showed the same apx genotype as their respective serotype reference strain. These data indicate that RAPD analysis is a valuable rapid tool for routine subtyping of strains of serotype 1. For strains of serotype 5, a combination of several typing methods, such as PFGE and apx gene typing, is needed to provide useful information on the molecular epidemiology of swine pleuropneumonia. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:10480458

  8. Heterogeneity of Molecular Resistance Patterns in Antimony-Resistant Field Isolates of Leishmania Species from the Western Mediterranean Area

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Charles; Aoun, Karim; Harrat, Zoubir; Bouratbine, Aïda; Faraut, Françoise; Benikhlef, Rezika; Pomares, Christelle; Pratlong, Francine; Marty, Pierre; Piarroux, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Antimonials remain the first-line treatment for the various manifestations of leishmaniasis in most areas where the disease is endemic, and increasing cases of therapeutic failure associated with parasite resistance have been reported. In this study, we assessed the molecular status of 47 clinical isolates of Leishmania causing visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis from Algeria, Tunisia, and southern France. In total, we examined 14 genes that have been shown to exhibit significant variations in DNA amplification, mRNA levels, or protein expression with respect to resistance to antimonials. The gene status of each clinical isolate was assessed via qPCR and qRT-PCR. We then compared the molecular pattern against the phenotype determined via an in vitro sensitivity test of the clinical isolates against meglumine antimoniate, which is considered the reference technique. Our results demonstrate significant DNA amplification and/or RNA overexpression in 56% of the clinical isolates with the resistant phenotype. All clinical isolates that exhibited significant overexpression of at least 2 genes displayed a resistant phenotype. Among the 14 genes investigated, 10 genes displayed either significant amplification or overexpression in at least 1 clinical isolate; these genes are involved in several metabolic pathways. Moreover, various gene associations were observed depending on the clinical isolates, supporting the multifactorial nature of Leishmania resistance. Molecular resistance features were found in the 3 Leishmania species investigated (Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania killicki). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the involvement of molecular resistance genes in field isolates of Leishmania major and Leishmania killicki with the resistance phenotype. PMID:24913173

  9. In vitro screening of compounds against laboratory and field isolates of human hookworm reveals quantitative differences in anthelmintic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Treger, Rebecca S; Otchere, Joseph; Keil, Martin F; Quagraine, Josephine E; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T; Humphries, Debbie L; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael; Vermeire, Jon J

    2014-01-01

    A panel of 80 compounds was screened for anthelmintic activity against a laboratory strain of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and field isolates of hookworm obtained from school children in the Kintampo North District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Although the laboratory strain of A. ceylanicum was more susceptible to the compounds tested than the field isolates of hookworm, a twofold increase in compound concentration resulted in comparable egg hatch percent inhibition for select compounds. These data provide evidence that the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds may be species-dependent and that field and laboratory strains of hookworm differ in their sensitivities to the anthelmintics tested. These data also suggest that both compound concentration and hookworm species must be considered when screening to identify novel anthelmintic compounds. PMID:24297811

  10. In vitro Screening of Compounds against Laboratory and Field Isolates of Human Hookworm Reveals Quantitative Differences in Anthelmintic Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Treger, Rebecca S.; Otchere, Joseph; Keil, Martin F.; Quagraine, Josephine E.; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T.; Humphries, Debbie L.; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael; Vermeire, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of 80 compounds was screened for anthelmintic activity against a laboratory strain of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and field isolates of hookworm obtained from school children in the Kintampo North District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Although the laboratory strain of A. ceylanicum was more susceptible to the compounds tested than the field isolates of hookworm, a twofold increase in compound concentration resulted in comparable egg hatch percent inhibition for select compounds. These data provide evidence that the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds may be species-dependent and that field and laboratory strains of hookworm differ in their sensitivities to the anthelmintics tested. These data also suggest that both compound concentration and hookworm species must be considered when screening to identify novel anthelmintic compounds. PMID:24297811

  11. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli. PMID:25639850

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Strains CVO and FWKO B, Two Novel Nitrate-Reducing, Sulfide-Oxidizing Bacteria Isolated from Oil Field Brine

    PubMed Central

    Gevertz, Diane; Telang, Anita J.; Voordouw, Gerrit; Jenneman, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial strains CVO and FWKO B were isolated from produced brine at the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Both strains are obligate chemolithotrophs, with hydrogen, formate, and sulfide serving as the only known energy sources for FWKO B, whereas sulfide and elemental sulfur are the only known electron donors for CVO. Neither strain uses thiosulfate as an energy source. Both strains are microaerophiles (1% O2). In addition, CVO grows by denitrification of nitrate or nitrite whereas FWKO B reduces nitrate only to nitrite. Elemental sulfur is the sole product of sulfide oxidation by FWKO B, while CVO produces either elemental sulfur or sulfate, depending on the initial concentration of sulfide. Both strains are capable of growth under strictly autotrophic conditions, but CVO uses acetate as well as CO2 as its sole carbon source. Neither strain reduces sulfate; however, FWKO B reduces sulfur and displays chemolithoautotrophic growth in the presence of elemental sulfur, hydrogen, and CO2. Both strains grow at temperatures between 5 and 40°C. CVO is capable of growth at NaCl concentrations as high as 7%. The present 16s rRNA analysis suggests that both strains are members of the epsilon subdivision of the division Proteobacteria, with CVO most closely related to Thiomicrospira denitrifcans and FWKO B most closely related to members of the genus Arcobacter. The isolation of these two novel chemolithotrophic sulfur bacteria from oil field brine suggests the presence of a subterranean sulfur cycle driven entirely by hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and nitrate. PMID:10831429

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Genetically Distinct Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in the Eastern Region of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Cheun-Arom, Thaniwan; Temeeyasen, Gun; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Tripipat, Thitima; Sangmalee, Suphattra; Vui, Dam Thi; Chuanasa, Taksina; Tantituvanont, Angkana

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continued to cause sporadic outbreaks in Thailand since 2007. Previously, PEDV in Thailand was a new variant containing an insertion and deletion in the spike gene. Herein, full-length genome sequences are reported for two variants of PEDV isolates from pigs displaying diarrhea in Thailand. PMID:26112783

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Genetically Distinct Variants of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in the Eastern Region of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Cheun-Arom, Thaniwan; Temeeyasen, Gun; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Tripipat, Thitima; Sangmalee, Suphattra; Vui, Dam Thi; Chuanasa, Taksina; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has continued to cause sporadic outbreaks in Thailand since 2007. Previously, PEDV in Thailand was a new variant containing an insertion and deletion in the spike gene. Herein, full-length genome sequences are reported for two variants of PEDV isolates from pigs displaying diarrhea in Thailand. PMID:26112783

  15. Comparison of Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiana Tola; Graziano Idini; Daniela Manunta; Ida Casciano; angela M. Rocchigiani; Antonio Angioi; Guido Leori

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed 81 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae from four different regions of Italy between 1990 and 1995 in order to identify antigenic differences through SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and chromosomal DNA restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern differences. Antigenic variability in M. agalactiae isolates was investigated analyzing hydrophobic membrane protein fractions by immunoblotting using pooled sheep antiserum from naturally infected sheep.

  16. Development of a selective myclobutanil agar (MBA) medium for the isolation of Fusarium species from asparagus fields.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; Hamel, Chantal; Jabaji-Hare, Suha; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2002-09-01

    A new selective myclobutanil agar medium for the detection of Fusarium, species is proposed. Ten media formulations based on various selective agents (pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), Rose Bengal, malachite green, sodium hypochlorite, captan, benomyl, chlorotalonil, myclobutanil, thiram, and cupric sulfate) were compared. First, mycelium growth and colony appearance of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium sp., Fuisarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, Penicillium sp., and Trichoderma viride isolates were compared. Second, the ability of the different media to isolate and enumerate fusaria from asparagus fields was evaluated. The myclobutanil-based medium showed the highest selectivity to Fusarium spp. growth but required a slightly longer incubation time (>5 d) than peptone-pentachloronitrobenzene-based agar (PPA) (< 5 d). PPA allowed a faster fusaria growth but also permited the growth of other moulds. The other media were less selective and did not allow to isolate fusaria or to differenciate them from other growing fungi. PMID:12455616

  17. Use of the Chrome Azurol S Agar Plate Technique To Differentiate Strains and Field Isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii

    PubMed Central

    Ames-Gottfred, N. P.; Christie, B. R.; Jordan, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    Identification of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains and especially of indigenous isolates continues to be one of the major difficulties associated with competition studies. Because there is no universally accepted method, the method of choice depends on preference, experience, and equipment. Here, an agar plate technique was used to distinguish strains and field isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii to provide a basis for identifying nodule occupants in further competition studies. A rapid plate technique, based on differential growth characteristics, complements other techniques such as serological reactions, particularly when antisera cross-react with nonhomologous strains. The technique involves culturing strains and isolates on chrome azurol S agar. Although similar responses were observed among some strains, the response was highly reproducible and was considered an ideal complementary technique used in conjunction with serological procedures. Strains with similar responses could often be differentiated by varying media components, such as the source of carbon. Images PMID:16347877

  18. Reproductive Isolation Isolating Barriers

    E-print Network

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.

    ;Isolating Barriers Premating barriers. Spatial. Geographical isolation Habitat isolation. Temporal. OverlapReproductive Isolation Isolating Barriers: Premating Postmating-Prezygotic Postzygotic #12 in flowering times. Antirrhinum majus striatum Antirrhinum majus pseudomajus #12;Isolating Barriers Premating

  19. Analysis of Genomic Diversity among Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Children by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Feizabadi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mahjoub, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Presence of genomic diversity among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains have been suggested by numerous investigators. Little is known about diversity of H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian children and their association with virulence of the strains. Our purpose was to assess the degree of genomic diversity among H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian-children, on the basis of vacA genotype, cagA status of the strains, sex, age as well as the pathological status of the patients. Methods: Genomic DNA from 44 unrelated H. pylori strains isolated during 1997–2009, was examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Pathological status of the patients was performed according to the modified Sydney-system and genotype/status of vacA/cagA genes was determined by PCR. PFGE was performed using XbaI restriction-endonuclease and the field inversion-gel electrophoresis system. Findings: No significant relationship was observed between the patterns of PFGE and the cagA/vacA status/genotype. Also no relationship was observed between age, sex, and pathological status of the children and the PFGE patterns of their isolates. Similar conclusion was obtained by Total Lab software. However, more relationship was observed between the strains isolated in the close period (1997–2009, 2001–2003, 2005–2007, and 2007–2009) and more difference was observed among those obtained in the distant periods (1997 and 2009). Conclusion: H. pylori strains isolated from children in Iran are extremely diverse and this diversity is not related to their virulence characteristics. Occurrence of this extreme diversity may be related to adaptation of H. pylori strains to variable living conditions during transmission between various host individuals. PMID:26019775

  20. Isolated sub-30-attosecond pulse generation using a multicycle two-color chirped laser and a static electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gang-Tai

    2014-04-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of high-order harmonic generation in a chirped two-color laser field, which is synthesized by a 10-fs/800-nm fundamental chirped pulse and a 10-fs/1760-nm subharmonic pulse. It is shown that a supercontinuum can be produced using the multicycle two-color chirped field. However, the supercontinuum reveals a strong modulation structure, which is not good for the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse. By adding a static electric field to the multicycle two-color chirped field, not only the harmonic cutoff is extended remarkably, but also the quantum paths of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are modified significantly. As a result, both the extension of the supercontinuum and the selection of a single quantum path are achieved, producing an isolated 23-as pulse with a bandwidth of about 170.6 eV. Furthermore, the influences of the laser intensities on the supercontinuum and isolated attosecond pulse generation are investigated.

  1. Isolated attosecond pulse generation from pre-excited medium with a chirped and chirped-free two-color field.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongchuan; Luo, Laoyong; Wang, Xiaoshan; Hu, Bitao

    2012-04-23

    We theoretically investigate the isolated attosecond pulse generation from pre-excited medium with a chirped and chirped-free two-color field. It is found that the large initial population of the excited state can lead to the high density of the free electrons in the medium and the large distortion of the driving laser field after propagation, though it benefits large enhancement of harmonic intensity in single atom response. These effects can weaken the phase-match of the macroscopic supercontinuum. On the contrary, the small initial population of 4% can generate well phase-match intense supercontinuum. We also investigate an isolated attosecond pulse generation by using a filter centered on axis to select the harmonics in the far field. Our results reveal that the radius of the spatial filter should be chosen to be small enough to reduce the duration of the isolated attosecond pulse due to the curvature effect of spatiotemporal profiles of the generated attosecond pulses in the far field. PMID:22535063

  2. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products. PMID:24412413

  3. Isolation of RNA from field-grown jute (Corchorus capsularis) plant in different developmental stages for effective downstream molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pradipta; Sadhukhan, Sanjoy; Das, Subrata; Joshi, Alpana; Sen, Soumitra K; Basu, Asitava

    2011-10-01

    Jute (Corchorus capsularis), as a natural fibre producing plant species, ranks next to cotton only. Today, biotechnological approach has been considered as most accepted means for any genetic improvement of plant species. However, genetic control of the fibre development in jute has not yet been explored sufficiently for desired genetic improvement. One of the major impediments in exploring the genetic architecture in this crop at molecular level is the availability of good quality RNA from field-grown plant tissues mostly due to the presence of high amount of mucilage and phenolics. Development of a suitable RNA isolation method is becoming essential for deciphering developmental stage-specific gene expression pattern related to fibre formation in this crop species. A combination of modified hot borate buffer followed by isopycnic centrifugation (termed as HBIC) was adopted and found to be the best isolation method yielding sufficient quantity (~350-500 ?g/gm fresh tissue) and good quality (A(260/280) ratio 1.88 to 1.91) RNA depending on the developmental stage of stem tissue from field-grown jute plant. The poly A(+) RNA purified from total RNA isolated by the present method was found amenable to efficient RT-PCR and cDNA library construction. The present development of RNA isolation was found to be appropriate for gene expression analysis related to fibre formation in this economically important jute plant in near future. PMID:21327574

  4. Desulfacinum subterraneumsp. nov., a New Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from a High-Temperature Oil Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Rozanova; T. P. Tourova; T. V. Kolganova; A. M. Lysenko; L. L. Mityushina; S. K. Yusupov; S. S. Belyaev

    2001-01-01

    A new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the high-temperature White Tiger oil field (Vietnam) is described. Cells of the bacterium are oval (0.4–0.6 by 0.6–1.8 µm), nonmotile, non-spore-forming, and gram-negative. Growth occurs at 45 to 65°C (with an optimum at 60°C) at NaCl concentrations of 0 to 50 g\\/l. In the course of sulfate reduction, the organism can utilize lactate,

  5. Rapid differentiation of vaccine strains and field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poa-Chun Chang; Yuan-Ling Lee; Jui-Hung Shien; Happy K. Shieh

    1997-01-01

    A procedure was developed for differentiation of vaccine strains and field isolates of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of DNA fragments amplified from the genome of ILTV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RFLP patterns of viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene, glycoprotein C (gC) gene, glycoprotein X (gX) gene and ICP4 gene amplified from different ILT

  6. Possible nonanthropogenic origin of two methanogenic isolates from oil?producing wells in the san miguelito field, ventura county, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Ng; Paul J. Weimer; Len J. Gawel

    1989-01-01

    Two novel strains of rod?shaped methanogens were isolated from oil?producing wells of high temperature and moderate salinity in the San Miguelito field. The strains grow at 65°C in media containing 6% NaCl, form large aggregates of cell materials in liquid culture, and produce methane from H2 and CO2 only. The geochemistry and microbiology of the oil reservoir and surrounding areas

  7. A new senescence-inducing mitochondrial linear plasmid in field-isolated Neurospora crassa strains from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Court; Anthony J. F. Griffiths; Steven R. Kraus; Peter J. Russell; Helmut Bertrand

    1991-01-01

    Several field-collected strains of Neurospora crassa from the vicinity or Aarey, Bombay, India, are prone to precocious senescence and death. Analysis of one strain, Aarely-1e, demonstrated that the genetic determinants for the predisposition to senescence are maternally inherited. The senescence-prone strains contain a 7-kb, linear, mitochondrial DNA plasmid, maranhar, which is not present in long-lived isolates from the same geographical

  8. Virus excretion and antibody dynamics in goats inoculated with a field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wu, X; Wang, Z; Bao, J; Li, L; Zhao, Y; Li, J

    2013-11-01

    A field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from an outbreak in Tibet, China, was inoculated into goats to investigate the dynamics of virus excretion and antibody production. Further, animals received PPRV vaccine strain Nigeria 75/1. Ocular, nasal and oral samples were tested for the presence of virus antigen by one-step real-time qualitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR); competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) was used for the measurement of specific antibodies against PPRV. Virus particles could be detected as early as day 3 post-inoculation (pi) and virus excretion lasted for up to day 26 pi. All four goats inoculated with the PPRV field isolate were seropositive as early as day 10 pi. In animals inoculated with the vaccine strain, antibody was detected at day 14 pi, and levels of neutralizing antibodies remained above the protection threshold level (1 : 8) for 8 months. Both virus particles and neutralizing antibodies were detected earlier in goats challenged with the field isolate than in those receiving the vaccine strain. PMID:24589103

  9. Flavobacterium kyungheensis sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Son, Heung-Min; Kook, Moochang; Park, Sang-Yong; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-staining negative, strictly aerobic, motile by gliding, non-spore-forming, pale yellow pigmented and rod-shaped bacterium designated strain THG-107(T) was isolated from soil of a ginseng field on Ganghwa Island in the Republic of Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic study. Growth of strain THG-107(T) was found to occur at 4-37 °C (optimum, 20-30 °C), at pH 5.5-10 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, absence) on R2A agar. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain THG-107(T) was shown to belong to the family Flavobacteriaceae and was related to Flavobacterium denitrificans ED5(T) (99.1 % similarity). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 34.2 mol%. These results are consistent with characteristics of members of the genus Flavobacterium. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-107(T) was menaquinone-6 (MK-6) and the major polyamine was identified as homospermidine (82.9 %). The major polar lipid detected was phosphatidylethanolamine and the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0 (26.3 %), iso-C17:0 3OH (12.6 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c; 11.6 %). Flexirubin-type pigments were found to be present. Strain THG-107(T) has ?-glucosidase activity to convert ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd into Gyp17 and F2. DNA-DNA hybridization with F. denitrificans ED5(T) was 52 %. Strain THG-107(T) could be distinguished from F. denitrificans ED5(T) and the other species of the genus Flavobacterium by its phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness and by several phenotypic properties. Therefore, strain THG-107(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium kyungheensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain THG-107(T) = KACC 16219(T) = LMG 26575(T)). PMID:24068452

  10. Isolated few-attosecond emission in a multi-cycle asymmetrically nonhomogeneous two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Yunhui; Cao, Xu; Jiang, Shicheng; Lu, Ruifeng

    2014-11-01

    By solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we present a theoretical investigation of helium-based high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in both symmetric and asymmetric spatially nonhomogeneous laser fields. It is determined that the harmonic cutoff is extended in both symmetric and asymmetric nonhomogeneous laser fields, and the spatial symmetry of the nonhomogeneous field greatly influences the movement of electronic wave packets, which subsequently affect harmonic emission. In particular, the spatially asymmetric distribution of the laser field will induce asymmetric recombination of electronic wave packets between the two sides of a helium atom, which could reduce the interference in HHG emission for every optical cycle. In combination with the two-color technique, multi-cycle laser pulses with asymmetric spatially nonhomogeneous characteristics are capable of generating a coherent extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum, which can be used to produce isolated few-attosecond pulses.

  11. 7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...destruction of indistinguishable varieties or varieties of dissimilar adaptation and establishment of the stand for the production of the...be at least 500 feet (152.07m) from varieties of dissimilar adaptation. 4 Isolation between classes of the same...

  12. 7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...destruction of indistinguishable varieties or varieties of dissimilar adaptation and establishment of the stand for the production of the...be at least 500 feet (152.07m) from varieties of dissimilar adaptation. 4 Isolation between classes of the same...

  13. 7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...destruction of indistinguishable varieties or varieties of dissimilar adaptation and establishment of the stand for the production of the...be at least 500 feet (152.07m) from varieties of dissimilar adaptation. 4 Isolation between classes of the same...

  14. 7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...destruction of indistinguishable varieties or varieties of dissimilar adaptation and establishment of the stand for the production of the...be at least 500 feet (152.07m) from varieties of dissimilar adaptation. 4 Isolation between classes of the same...

  15. 7 CFR 201.76 - Minimum Land, Isolation, Field, and Seed Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...destruction of indistinguishable varieties or varieties of dissimilar adaptation and establishment of the stand for the production of the...be at least 500 feet (152.07m) from varieties of dissimilar adaptation. 4 Isolation between classes of the same...

  16. Genome of Rhizobium sp. UR51a, Isolated from Rice Cropped in Southern Brazilian Fields

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Rocheli; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Ambrosini, Adriana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. UR51a is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from roots of rice plants, and it presents plant growth-promoting abilities. The nutrient uptake in rice plants inoculated with UR51a was satisfactory. The genome of strain UR51a is composed of 5,233,443-bp and harbors 5,079 coding sequences. PMID:25838497

  17. Sub-20 isolated ultrashort attosecond pulse generation from He atoms by two-color mid-infrared laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I.

    2014-05-01

    We propose an efficient method for the generation of ultra-broadband supercontinuum spectra and isolated ultrashort attosecond laser pulse from He atoms with two-color mid-infrared laser fields. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) is obtained by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation accurately by means of the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method. We found that the optimizing two-color mid-infrared laser pulse allows the HHG cutoff to be significantly extended, leading to the production of ultra-broadband supercontinuum. As a result, an isolated 18 attosecond pulse can be generated directly by the superposition of the supercontinuum harmonics. To facilitate the exploration of the ultrashort attosecond generation mechanisms, we perform both the semiclassical simulation and the wavelet time-frequency transform. This work was partially supported by DOE and by MOE-NSC-NTU-Taiwan.

  18. Generation of isolated sub-20-attosecond pulses from He atoms by two-color midinfrared laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Laughlin, Cecil; Chu, Shih-I.

    2014-02-01

    We propose an efficient method for the generation of ultrabroadband supercontinuum spectra and isolated ultrashort attosecond laser pulses from He atoms with two-color midinfrared laser fields. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) is obtained by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation accurately by means of the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method. We found that the optimizing two-color midinfrared laser pulse allows the HHG cutoff to be significantly extended, leading to the production of an ultrabroadband supercontinuum. As a result, an isolated 18-attosecond pulse can be generated directly by the superposition of the supercontinuum harmonics. To facilitate the exploration of the ultrashort attosecond generation mechanisms, we perform both a semiclassical simulation and a wavelet time-frequency transform.

  19. POPULATION SYNTHESIS OF YOUNG ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: THE EFFECT OF FALLBACK DISK ACCRETION AND MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Lei; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The spin evolution of isolated neutron stars (NSs) is dominated by their magnetic fields. The measured braking indices of young NSs show that the spin-down mechanism due to magnetic dipole radiation with constant magnetic fields is inadequate. Assuming that the NS magnetic field is buried by supernova fallback matter and re-emerges after accretion stops, we carry out a Monte Carlo simulation of the evolution of young NSs, and show that most of the pulsars have braking indices ranging from –1 to 3. The results are compatible with the observational data of NSs associated with supernova remnants. They also suggest that the initial spin periods of NSs might occupy a relatively wide range.

  20. Angle of incidence effects on the far-field noise of an isolated propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarin, S. L.; Donnelly, R. P.

    An experimental acoustic investigation was conducted in the German/Dutch low-speed wind tunnel DNW on a six-bladed 1:5 scale model propeller. Far-field noise data are compared with theoretical data to show the capability of the prediction scheme, to estimate free-field and installed characteristics in the far-field. The aim is to compare the far-field noise changes with angle of incidence.

  1. Angle of incidence effects on the far-field noise of an isolated propeller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Sarin; R. P. Donnelly

    1992-01-01

    An experimental acoustic investigation was conducted in the German\\/Dutch low-speed wind tunnel DNW on a six-bladed 1:5 scale model propeller. Far-field noise data are compared with theoretical data to show the capability of the prediction scheme, to estimate free-field and installed characteristics in the far-field. The aim is to compare the far-field noise changes with angle of incidence.

  2. Efficacy of commercial canarypox vaccine for protecting Hawai'i 'Amakihi from field isolates of Avipoxvirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Wiegand, Kimberly C.; Triglia, Dennis; Jarvi, Susan I.

    2010-01-01

    At least three variants of avian pox virus are present in Hawai‘i - Fowlpox from domestic poultry and a group of genetically distinct viruses that cluster within two clades (Pox Variant 1 and Pox Variant 2) that are most similar to Canarypox based on DNA sequence of the virus 4b core protein gene. We tested whether Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi can be protected from wild virus isolates with an attenuated live Canarypox vaccine that is closely related to isolates that cluster within clade 1 (Pox Variant 1) based on sequence of the attenuated Canarypox virus 4b core protein. Thirty-one (31) Hawai`i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with no prior physical evidence of pox infection were collected on Mauna Kea from xeric, high elevation habitats with low pox prevalence and randomly divided into two groups. One group of 16 was vaccinated with Poximmune C® while the other group received a sham vaccination with virus diluent. Four of 15 (27%) vaccinated birds developed potentially life-threatening disseminated lesions or lesions of unusually long duration, while one bird never developed a vaccine-associated lesion or "take". After vaccine-associated lesions healed, vaccinated birds were randomly divided into three groups of five and challenged with either a wild isolate of Fowlpox, a Hawai`i `Amakihi isolate of a Canarypox-like virus from clade 1 (Pox Variant 1) or a Hawai`i `Amakihi isolate of a Canarypox-like virus from clade 2 (Pox Variant 2). Similarly, three random groups of five unvaccinated ‘Amakihi were challenged with the same virus isolates. Vaccinated and unvaccinated ‘Amakihi challenged with Fowlpox had transient infections with no clinical signs of infection. Mortality in vaccinated ‘Amakihi that were challenged with Pox Variant 1 and Pox Variant 2 ranged from 0% (0/5) for Pox Variant 1 to 60% (3/5) for Pox Variant 2. Mortality in unvaccinated ‘Amakihi ranged from 40% (2/5) for Pox Variant 1 to 100% (5/5) for Pox Variant 2. While the vaccine provided some protection against Pox Variant 1, serious side effects and low efficacy against Pox Variant 2 make it risky to use in captive or wild honeycreepers.

  3. Growth promoting effects of corn ( Zea mays) bacterial isolates under greenhouse and field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samina Mehnaz; Tom Kowalik; Bruce Reynolds; George Lazarovits

    2010-01-01

    Fertilizer costs are a major component of corn production. The use of biofertilizers may be one way of reducing production costs. In this study we present isolation and identification of three plant growth promoting bacteria that were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (CR1), Pseudomonas putida (CR7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR3). All bacterial strains produced IAA in the presence of 100mgl?1 of

  4. Development and evaluation of a live attenuated camelpox vaccine from a local field isolate of the virus.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, M M; Ibrahim, A A; Khalafalla, A I

    2014-12-01

    A strain of camelpox virus (CMLV) isolated in the Sudan was attenuated by serial passage in Vero cell monolayers for use as a future vaccine strain. The safety and potency of passage 115 virus (designated Sudan CMLV/115) was tested. Camels inoculated with CMLV/115 showed no clinical disease or skin lesions, developed low-level antibodies and cell-mediated immune response and resisted challenge with virulent wild-type CMLV. Field testing of the candidate vaccine showed that the developed vaccine induces immune response and is safe for young and pregnant camels. PMID:25812207

  5. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence-associated genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from piglets with diarrhea in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Choi, Yoon Young; Park, Jong Ho; Jeon, Byung Woo; Lee, Hee Soo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, John Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from diarrheic piglets in 2 periods, 2000-2001 (n = 25) and 2005-2006 (n = 17). To compare the characteristics of the isolates collected during the 2 periods, all isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All 42 isolates were resistant to at least 1 of the 20 antimicrobials tested, and 39 (93%) were resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials. One isolate was resistant to 12 antimicrobials. Profiles of antimicrobial resistance revealed 20 resistance types. Several isolates were also resistant to quinolones and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Ten isolates (24%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT); only one isolate had been isolated in 2000-2001, indicating that this type of resistance has rapidly disseminated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays revealed that all the isolates carried invA. Among the 25 strains isolated in 2000-2001, all carried the sipA, sopA, sopD, sopE2, and ssaR genes, and 96% carried sopB and sifA. Among the 17 strains isolated in 2005-2006, all carried sifA, and approximately 90% carried sipA, sopA, sopB, sopD, sopE2, and ssaR. However, only 6 (14%) of the 42 isolates carried spvC. By PFGE analysis, all 42 strains were classified into 4 major clusters, basically by collection period. The genetic similarity according to PFGE suggests that the strains isolated from diarrheic piglets of this region within the same period may be closely related. PMID:21461195

  6. Insecticidal components from field pea extracts: isolation and separation of peptide mixtures related to pea albumin 1b.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Wesley G; Fields, Paul G; Elder, James L

    2004-12-15

    Chromatographic fractionation of crude extracts (C8 extracts) from the protein-enriched flour of commercial field peas (Pisum sativum L.) has been shown here to yield peptide mixtures related to the pea albumin 1b (PA1b) family of cysteine-rich plant peptides. The mixtures were obtained initially by flash chromatography with silica gel. Following elution of soyasaponins and lysolecithins, the end fractions obtained with the use of two flash chromatographic solvent systems displayed activity in a flour disk antifeedant bioassay with the rice weevil [Sitophilus oryzae (L.)]. Chemical properties of these mixtures were compared by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), IR, MS, and amino acid analyses. The major peptides of C8 extracts, with average masses of 3752, 3757, and 3805 Da, were isolated by anion exchange chromatography. Samples enriched in the peptide of mass 3752 were isolated by cation exchange chromatography. Reduction plus alkylation experiments in combination with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed that C8 extracts contained about 10 peptides and, like PA1b, each peptide possessed six cysteine residues (three disulfide bonds). Disulfide bond reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol destroyed the antifeedant activity. The native peptides of C8 extracts were found to be resolved into nine peaks with XTerra HPLC columns operating at alkaline pH. These columns were employed to assess the distribution of pea peptides in the isolated fractions, with photodiode array and electrospray detection. PMID:15675794

  7. Generation of short and intense isolated Attosecond pulses by field-controlled excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Li, Peng-Cheng; Liao, Sheng-Lun; Chu, Shih-I.

    2014-05-01

    A new mechanism for the coherent control of the generation of an isolated and ultrashort attosecond laser pulse with enhanced intensity is reported. Frequency and time delay of a weak high harmonics, added to a two color laser, are optimized to produce a 45 attosecond pulse with intensity of more than 70 times bigger than the original one. Resonance excitation and subsequent ionization are analyzed, along with electron trajectory investigation from wavelet time-frequency profile to explain the mechanism of the observed augmentation in this high-harmonic generation. This work is partially supported by DOE.

  8. Comparison of Botrytis cinerea populations isolated from two open-field cultivated host plants.

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Mojtaba; Fekete, Erzsébet; Karaffa, Levente; Flipphi, Michel; Árnyasi, Mariann; Esmaeili, Mahdi; Váczy, Kálmán Zoltán; Sándor, Erzsébet

    2013-07-19

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is reported to infect more than 220 host plants worldwide. In phylogenetical-taxonomical terms, the pathogen is considered a complex of two cryptic species, group I and group II. We sampled populations of B. cinerea on sympatric strawberry and raspberry cultivars in the North-East of Hungary for three years during flowering and the harvest period. Four hundred and ninety group II B. cinerea isolates were analyzed for the current study. Three different data sets were generated: (i) PCR-RFLP patterns of the ADP-ATP translocase and nitrate reductase genes, (ii) MSB1 minisatellite sequence data, and (iii) the fragment sizes of five microsatellite loci. The structures of the different populations were similar as indicated by Nei's gene diversity and haplotype diversity. The F statistics (Fst, Gst), and the gene flow indicated ongoing differentiation within sympatric populations. The population genetic parameters were influenced by polymorphisms within the three data sets as assessed using Bayesian algorithms. Data Mining analysis pointed towards the five microsatellite loci as the most defining markers to study differentiation in the 490 isolates. The results suggest the occurrence of host-specific, sympatric divergence of generalist phytoparasites in perennial hosts. PMID:23353014

  9. Human isolated ileum: motor responses of the circular muscle to electrical field stimulation and exogenous neuropeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Alberto Maggi; Riccardo Patacchini; Paolo Santicioli; Sandro Giuliani; Damiano Turini; Gabriele Barbanti; Antonio Giachetti; Alberto Meli

    1990-01-01

    (1) Circularly-oriented muscle strips from the human ileum responded to electrical field stimulation (1–50 Hz) with frequency-related primary relaxation at low frequency and primary contractions at high frequencies of stimulation. Both responses were abolished or markedly reduced by tetrodotoxin (1 µM). (2) Atropine (3 µ M) or omega conotoxin (0.1 µM) reduced but dit not abolish contraction to electrical field

  10. Shaped multi-cycle two-color laser field for generating an intense isolated XUV pulse toward 100 attoseconds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingbin; He, Lixin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-06-01

    The isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) generated from high-order harmonic (HH) radiation has been established as an important technique for the ultrafast optics over past decade. The applications of IAP in ultrafast processes can be greatly extended by further developing the high-intensity IAP. Here, we theoretically propose to shape a two-color field by performing peak amplitude-wavelength analysis. It is found that a 240-as IAP can be generated even without carrier envelop phase (CEP) stabilization using a 25 fs/800 nm fundamental field and a relative weak 25 fs/1330 nm control field, which enables us to markedly relax the requirements of the driving laser fields both in pulse duration and CEP control. On the other hand, if the CEPs of driving laser fields are stabilized, a 65-eV broadband continual harmonic, supporting a 81-as IAP, can be directly produced with the optimized intensity ratio of 0.866 and control wavelength of 1400 nm. Moreover, the propagation effect of two-color field on the macroscopic build-up of HH for generating a high-energy IAP is discussed. We found that the method of phase match still works for the efficient continuous harmonic generation as long as the ionization level and the pressure of gas medium are kept low enough. Since the phase-matched short IAP can be generated with our shaped two-color scheme in combination with a relaxed requirement of driving laser fields, the commercial available high-energy laser source with a loosely focused geometry is promising for scaling up the energy of IAP, showing the potential for the realization of IAP with high focused intensity toward 100 attoseconds. PMID:24921516

  11. Molecular typing of Iranian field isolates Mycoplasma synoviae and their differentiation from the live commercial vaccine strain MS-H using vlhA gene.

    PubMed

    Bayatzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Ashtari, Abass; Abtin, Ali Reza; Abdoshah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    1. The single-copy domain of the N-terminal region of the vlhA gene of Mycoplasma synoviae was sequenced, analysed and verified and used to type Iranian field isolates of M. synoviae and the MS-H live vaccine strain. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was developed to differentiate between field isolates of Iranian and MS-H vaccine strains. 2. All sequences were analysed and aligned; the percentage similarity of the DNA was calculated and dendrograms were constructed. Based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that existed in all field isolates in Iran, the PCR-RFLP method allowed the differentiation of all M. synoviae field isolates from the vaccine strain. 3. Using phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were assigned to 8 unique genotypes and, within each group, DNA had a high level of similarity. 4. DNA sequence analysis and PCR-RFLP of the amplicon based on percent similarity and evolutionary relationship appeared to be useful tools for strain differentiation whether M. synoviae clinical isolates from infected chickens were derived from the vaccine strain or wild-type strains. 5. This study confirms the potential value of strain typing for epidemiological purposes and suggests that phylogenetic studies are essential to understand the true relationships between strains. PMID:24405029

  12. Validation of the Abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR as a Rapid Screening Method for Differentiation of Brucella abortus Field Strain Isolates and the Vaccine Strains, 19 and RB51

    PubMed Central

    Ewalt, Darla R.; Bricker, Betsy J.

    2000-01-01

    The Brucella AMOS PCR assay was previously developed to identify and differentiate specific Brucella species. In this study, an abbreviated Brucella AMOS PCR test was evaluated to determine its accuracy in differentiating Brucella abortus into three categories: field strains, vaccine strain 19 (S19), and vaccine strain RB51/parent strain 2308 (S2308). Two hundred thirty-one isolates were identified and tested by the conventional biochemical tests and Brucella AMOS PCR. This included 120 isolates identified as B. abortus S19, 9 identified as B. abortus strain RB51, 57 identified as B. abortus biovar 1, 15 identified as B. abortus bv. 2, 1 identified as B. abortus bv. 2 (M antigen dominant), 7 identified as B. abortus bv. 4, and 22 identified as B. abortus S2308 and isolated from experimentally infected cattle. The Brucella AMOS PCR correctly identified each isolate as RB51/S2308, S19, or a field strain of Brucella. PMID:10921983

  13. Magnetoneurography: recording biomagnetic fields for quantitative evaluation of isolated rat sciatic nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xander Smit; B. Stefan de Kool; Erik T. Walbeehm; E. B. Michiel Dudok van Heel; Johan W. van Neck; Steven E. R. Hovius

    2003-01-01

    Magnetoneurography (MNG) is a technique to record the biomagnetic action fields of peripheral nerves. The benefits of MNG in contrast to electroneurography include the decreased signal disturbance caused by surrounding biological tissues and the use of a calibration pulse, both of which contribute to high reproducibility. MNG has proven to be a valuable tool to quantitate peripheral nerve regeneration in

  14. A Field-Suitable, Semisolid Aerobic Enrichment Medium for Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni in Small Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, J. S.; Hunter, A.; Atwill, E. R.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce an economical, easy to prepare, field-suitable enrichment medium for detection of Campylobacter jejuni in small numbers. A semisolid aerobic enrichment medium was developed. Rates of recovery from inoculated medium, sterile swabs, and mixed cultures of C. jejuni and coliform bacteria were tested. PMID:10747165

  15. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine and Human Skin, Milking Equipment, and Bovine Milk by Phage Typing, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Binary Typing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Zadoks; W. B. van Leeuwen; D. Kreft; L. K. Fox; H. W. Barkema; Y. H. Schukken; A. van Belkum

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n 225) from bovine teat skin, human skin, milking equipment, and bovine milk were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Strains were compared to assess the role of skin and milking equipment as sources of S. aureus mastitis. PFGE of SmaI-digested genomic DNA identified 24 main types and 17 subtypes among isolates from 43 herds and discriminated

  16. Characterization of Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Hong Kong by Phage Typing, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ip; D. J. Lyon; F. Chio; M. C. Enright; A. F. Cheng

    2003-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of 127 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, belonging to five major types as identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic resistance profiles, was examined further using phage typing and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP). The MRSA isolates were recovered from patients at the Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH), Hong Kong, over a 13-year period, 1988

  17. Paenibacillus barcinonensis sp. nov., a xylanase-producing bacterium isolated from a rice field in the Ebro River delta.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta M; Fritze, Dagmar; Blanco, Ana; Spröer, Cathrin; Tindall, Brian J; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Diaz, Pilar; Pastor, F I Javier

    2005-03-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, xylanase-producing bacterium isolated from a rice field was studied taxonomically. The strain grows at 10-40 degrees C and in the presence of lysozyme or 5 % (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone of the isolated strain, while the major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0). Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BP-23(T) fell within the radiation of the cluster comprising Paenibacillus species. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were found with Paenibacillus illinoisensis (97.4 %), Paenibacillus pabuli (97.1 %) and Paenibacillus amylolyticus (96.9 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain BP-23(T) with respect to these three species was very low (32.7, 31.6 and 23.0 %, respectively). On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain BP-23(T) should be placed in the genus Paenibacillus and designated a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus barcinonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BP-23(T) (=CECT 7022(T)=DSM 15478(T)). PMID:15774688

  18. Human isolated small intestine: motor responses of the longitudinal muscle to field stimulation and exogenous neuropeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Alberto Maggi; Riccardo Patacchini; Paolo Santicioli; Sandro Giuliani; Damiano Turini; Gabriele Barbanti; Patrizia Beneforti; Daniele Misuri; Alberto Meli

    1989-01-01

    (1) Longitudinal muscle strips from the human small intestine (jejunum\\/ileum) responded to electrical field stimulation (1–50 Hz) with frequency-related primary contractions which were largely atropine- (3 µM) sensitive. When the tone was raised by addition of galanin (0.3 – 1 µM), prostaglandin (PG) E2 (1–10 µM) or neurokinin A (NKA, 0.1 µM), a frequency-related relaxation was evident which was potentiated

  19. Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma radiotolerans, a gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from rice field in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Back, Chang-Gi; Jung, Hee-Young; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2015-08-20

    Spirosoma radiotolerans is a Gram-negative, short rod-shaped and gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from rice field in South Korea (GPS; 37°34'30?N, 127°00'30?E). The complete genome of S. radiotolerans consists of a chromosome (7,029,352bp). From the genome sequence database, we have identified the cluster of genes responsible for DNA recovery from ionizing radiation. The key enzymes for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) were investigated and were identified, suggesting that S. radiotolerans DG5A use (NER) pathways for efficient removal of pyrimidine dimers which are the most abundant type of UV-induced damage. Complete genome information enables further studies on the DNA repair mechanisms during the ionizing radiation. PMID:26008623

  20. Genetic diversity in the msp-1 and msp-2 alleles among Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bin Dajem, Saad M

    2015-04-01

    The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in human is associated with the pathogenesis of malaria. It is commonly determined through amplification of the polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface proteins -1 (msp-1) and -2 (msp-2) genes. This study aimed to (1) determine the prevalence of the msp-1 and msp-2 allelic familiesand (2) identify the multiplicity of infection (MOI) in P. falciparum field isolates from the Jazan region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Blood samples from patients with microscopically confirmed malaria infections (N = 48), collected in 2010, were analysed for msp-1 and msp-2 polymorphisms.K1, MAD20 and RO33 allelic types of the msp-1 gene and 3D7 and FC27 alleles of the msp-2 gene were analysed via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to band size. The MOI was then calculated. In msp-1, 16 different alleles were identified by examining size differences in the agarose gels. These alleles-representing 5, 5 & 6 alleles-belong to K1 (120bp-420bp), RO22 (180bp-420bp) and MAD 20 (150 bp-410bp), respectively. For msp-2, a larger range of amplicon sizes was detected. A total of 13 different alleles were identified: the FC27 family had 6 alleles (380- bp1280bp), while the 3D7 family had 7 alleles (110 bp-1200bp.MOI was 1.81 for MSP-1 & 2.17 for MSP-2, with overall mean MOI of 1.99). Considerable genetic diversity was evident in the P. falciparum field isolates from the Jazan region of KSA. This diversity represents an essential step in developing effective measures to prevent malaria in KSA, as well as in assessing vaccines derived from these genes. PMID:26012235

  1. Trichothecene genotypes and chemotypes in Fusarium graminearum complex strains isolated from maize fields of northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego A; Ficoseco, María E Aristimuño; Jimenez, Cristina M; Vattuone, Marta A; Catalán, Cesar A

    2012-02-01

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex) cause Gibberella ear rot in maize from northwest Argentina. The potential of these pathogens to contaminate maize grains with type B trichothecenes is a health risk for both humans and animals. We evaluated the reliability of multiplex PCR assays based on TRI3 and TRI12 genes, and single PCR assays based on TRI7 and TRI13 genes to infer trichothecene chemotypes of 112 strains of Fg complex collected from northwest Argentina, checking trichothecene production by chemical analysis. Single and multiplex PCR assays indicated that strains belonging to F. meridionale (87/112) had a NIV genotype. The remainder strains (25/112), which belonged to F. boothii, had a DON genotype (based on single PCR assays) or 15ADON genotype (based on multiplex PCR assays). No strains tested were incorrectly diagnosed with a DON/NIV genotype. Chemical analysis indicated that the F. meridionale strains were NIV producers only (44/87), major NIV producers with unexpected high DON/NIV ratios (36/87), or unexpected major DON producers with minor NIV production (7/87). Strains with atypical DON/NIV production seem to be new phenotypes under a putative NIV genotype, since PCR assays do not provide evidences of a new trichothecene genotype. DON production and absence of its acetylated forms were shown for strains of F. boothii. The inconsistencies between genetic and chemical data highlight the risk of inferring the trichothecenes potentially contaminating food and feedstuffs based only on PCR assays. This study confirms for the first time that strains of Fg complex from maize of northwest Argentina are DON and NIV producers. In addition, dominance of NIV producers in the Fg complex population isolated from maize is unprecedented in Argentina, and of significant concern to food safety and animal production. PMID:22119268

  2. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order) by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the ?-1,2-cyclic glucan from R. tropici CIAT 899 was co-extracted with the cytoplasmic compatible solutes and its chemical structure was determined. Conclusions The soil bacteria analyzed in this work accumulated mainly disaccharides in response to NaCl stress. We could not find a direct correlation between the trehalose content of the rhizobial strains and their osmotolerance, suggesting that additional osmoadaptive mechanism should be operating in the most NaCl-tolerant strain R. tropici CIAT 899. PMID:20633304

  3. Detection of a bacteriophage gene encoding a Mu-like portal protein in Haemophilus parasuis reference strains and field isolates by nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Zehr, Emilie S; Tabatabai, Louisa B

    2011-05-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay was developed to determine the presence of a gene encoding a bacteriophage Mu-like portal protein, gp29, in 15 reference strains and 31 field isolates of Haemophilus parasuis. Specific primers, based on the gene's sequence, were utilized. A majority of the virulent reference strains and field isolates tested harbored the gene. The results suggest that the nPCR technique described in the current report could serve as a tool for epidemiological studies of H. parasuis. PMID:21908286

  4. Seismic Protection of Bridge Structures Using Shape Memory Alloy-Based Isolation Systems against Near-Field Earthquakes 

    E-print Network

    Ozbulut, Osman Eser

    2012-02-14

    -dependent material response while it remains simple enough to carry out numerical simulations. Next, parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effectiveness of two SMA-based isolation systems, namely superelastic-friction base isolator (S-FBI) system...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) field isolates from outbreaks in South and Central America.

    PubMed

    Pereda, A J; Greiser-Wilke, I; Schmitt, B; Rincon, M A; Mogollon, J D; Sabogal, Z Y; Lora, A M; Sanguinetti, H; Piccone, M E

    2005-06-01

    To date, there is little information concerning the epidemiological situation of classical swine fever (CSF) in the Americas. Besides summarizing the available data, genotyping of isolates from outbreaks in domestic pigs in several countries of South and Central America was performed. For this, a 190 base fragment of the E2 envelope glycoprotein gene was used. European strains and isolates, and historical isolates from the United States (US) were included for comparison. In contrast to the situation in most parts of Europe, where group 2 isolates predominate, it was found that all the isolates from the American continent analyzed belonged to group 1 and were further resolved into three subgroups. The Cuban isolates clustered in subgroup 1.2, whereas the isolates from Honduras and Guatemala clustered in subgroup 1.3. The remaining isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico generated four poorly resolved clusters in subgroup 1.1, together with the vaccine strains, with historical European and US isolates, and with a recent Russian isolate. While the vaccine strains and the historical European isolates formed a relatively distinct cluster, one of the US isolates clustered together with the Mexican, and another one with Colombian isolates. Historically, CSF (hog cholera) was observed almost simultaneously in the US and in Europe in the first half of the 19th century, and its origin remains a matter of discussion. Our results showed that the US isolates are closely related to isolates from South America, while appearance of isolates in Cuba on one hand and in Honduras and Guatemala on the other hand, seems to have been due to unrelated events. This allows to speculate that at least in the American continent, CSF virus may have appeared independently in several regions, and spreading may have been a secondary effect. PMID:15845261

  6. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis field isolates and differentiation from homologous live vaccine strains suisaloral and SC-54.

    PubMed Central

    Weide-Botjes, M; Liebisch, B; Schwarz, S; Watts, J L

    1996-01-01

    Four independent molecular methods were used to characterize the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar choleraesuis live vaccine strains SC-54 and Suisaloral and to differentiate them from S. choleraesuis field isolates. Plasmid analysis revealed the presence of seven plasmid profiles. A virulence plasmid of 52-kbp was identified by hybridization with an spvB-spvC gene probe in each of the S. choleraesuis field isolates and in the Suisaloral vaccine strain, but not in the SC-54 vaccine strain. Ribotyping, performed with a gene probe that recognized 23S, 16S, and 5S rRNA genes, resulted in three closely related hybridization patterns. IS200 elements were not detected in the field isolates or in the two S. choleraesuis live vaccine strains. Macrorestriction analysis with the enzymes XbaI, SpeI, NotI, and SfiI differentiated the 29 S. choleraesuis strains included in this study into 10, 13, 8, and 13 different fragment patterns, respectively. While the Suisaloral vaccine strain showed a unique XbaI macrorestriction pattern, the fragment patterns of the SC-54 strain obtained with the different enzymes were shared by 2 to 18 S. choleraesuis field strains. A combination of plasmid analysis and macrorestriction analysis proved to be most suitable for the molecular typing of S. choleraesuis and the differentiation of both live vaccine strains from field isolates of this serovar. PMID:8880500

  7. Epidemiological Analysis of Salmonella enteritidis Isolates from Humans and Broiler Chickens in Thailand by Phage Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Boonmar, Sumalee; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pornrunangwong, Srirat; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Kaneko, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    To determine the phage types (PT) of Salmonella enteritidis found in Thailand and to clarify the potential for human infection by S. enteritidis in broiler chicken meat, human and poultry isolates taken from Thailand between 1990 and 1997 were phage typed and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different PT were found among the 302 isolates phage typed, with PT 4 being the most frequent in human (73.9%) and poultry (76.2%) isolates, followed by PT 1 (8.0%), 8 (3.6%), and 7a (2.2%) in human isolates and by PT 7a (4.9%), 1 (3.7%), and 12 (2.4%) in poultry isolates. Of the 53 isolates analyzed by PFGE, 45 showed an indistinguishable pattern (pattern A) by BlnI-digested PFGE and the other 8 isolates showed a very similar pattern that differed by only a few bands. These results indicate the spread of a genetically identical clone of S. enteritidis in humans and poultry in Thailand. PMID:9542918

  8. Contractile responses of prostatic and epididymal portions of isolated rabbit vas deferens to electrical field stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hironori; Matsuoka, Isao; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2008-06-01

    The prostatic and epididymal portions of rabbit vas deferens were different in the reactivity to electrical field stimulation (EFS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and noradrenaline (NA). The EFS produced biphasic contractile response; VIZ. the first rapid twitch like (phasic) and the second slow sustained (tonic) contraction. The ratio of the amplitude of the phasic contraction to that of the tonic contraction in response to the EFS was higher in the prostatic portion than that in the epididymal portion. The increase of stimulation frequency from 5 to 10 and 20 Hz more markedly augmented the tonic contractile response than the phasic contractile response. Then, the ratio of the amplitude of the phasic contraction to that of the tonic contraction decreased according to the increase of the stimulation frequency. The tension development of the phasic and the tonic contractile responses to the EFS in the prostatic portion was significantly larger than those in the epididymal portion. The administration of 1 mM ATP produced phasic contraction. The contractile response to 1 mM ATP was more remarkably appeared in the prostatic portion than in the epididymal portion. The administration of 10 microM NA produced slow sustained tonic contraction, which also more markedly appeared in the prostatic portion than in the epididymal portion. The findings may indicate that the prostatic portion of rabbit vas deferens was more strongly innervated by purinergic nerves, and had higher reactivity to EFS, ATP and NA than the epididymal portion. PMID:18924548

  9. The Cytochrome P450 Lanosterol 14?-Demethylase Gene Is a Demethylation Inhibitor Fungicide Resistance Determinant in Monilinia fructicola Field Isolates from Georgia? †

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chao-Xi; Schnabel, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Resistance in Monilinia fructicola to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides is beginning to emerge in North America, but its molecular basis is unknown. Two potential genetic determinants of DMI fungicide resistance including the 14?-demethylase gene (MfCYP51) and the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene MfABC1, were investigated in six resistant (DMI-R) and six sensitive (DMI-S) field isolates. No point mutations leading to an amino acid change were found in the MfCYP51 gene. The constitutive expression of the MfCYP51 gene in DMI-R isolates was significantly higher compared to DMI-S isolates. Gene expression was not induced in mycelium of DMI-R or DMI-S isolates treated with 0.3 ?g of propiconazole/ml. A slightly higher average MfCYP51 copy number value was detected in DMI-R isolates (1.35) compared to DMI-S isolates (1.13); however, this difference could not be verified in Southern hybridization experiments or explain the up to 11-fold-increased MfCYP51 mRNA levels in DMI-R isolates. Analysis of the upstream nucleotide sequence of the MfCYP51 gene revealed a unique 65-bp repetitive element at base pair position ?117 from the translational start site in DMI-R isolates but not in DMI-S isolates. This repetitive element contained a putative promoter and was named Mona. The link between Mona and the DMI resistance phenotype became even more apparent after studying the genetic diversity between the isolates. In contrast to DMI-S isolates, DMI-R isolates contained an MfCYP51 gene of identical nucleotide sequence associated with Mona. Still, DMI-R isolates were not genetically identical as revealed by Microsatellite-PCR analysis. Also, real-time PCR analysis of genomic DNA indicated that the relative copy number of Mona among DMI-S and DMI-R isolates varied, suggesting its potential for mobility. Interestingly, constitutive expression of the MfABC1 gene in DMI-R isolates was slightly lower than that of DMI-S isolates, but expression of the MfABC1 gene in DMI-R isolates was induced in mycelium after propiconazole treatment. Therefore, the MfABC1 gene may play a minor role in DMI fungicide resistance in M. fructicola. Our results strongly suggest that overexpression of the MfCYP51 gene is an important mechanism in conferring DMI fungicide resistance in M. fructicola field isolates from Georgia and that this overexpression is correlated with Mona located upstream of the MfCYP51 gene. PMID:18024679

  10. Comparison of Typing Results Obtained for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with the DiversiLab System and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis?

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, Fred C.; Gay, Emily A.; Frye, Stacie; Eells, Samantha J.; Healy, Mimi; McGowan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the results of typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates using the DiversiLab system (DL) to the results obtained using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). One hundred five MRSA isolates of PFGE types USA100 to USA1100 and the Brazilian clone, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Project ICARE strain collections, were typed using DL. In addition, four unique sets of MRSA isolates from purported MRSA outbreaks that had been previously typed by DL, each consisting of six isolates (where five isolates were classified as indistinguishable by DL and one was an unrelated DL type) were typed by PFGE. DL separated the 105 MRSA isolates of known USA types into 11 clusters and six unique banding patterns. DL grouped most of the USA100, USA200, and USA1100 isolates into unique clusters. Multilocus sequence type 8 isolates (i.e., USA300 and USA500) often clustered together at >95% similarity in DL dendrograms. Nevertheless, USA300 and USA500 DL patterns could be distinguished using the pattern overlay function of the DL software. Among the hospital outbreak clusters, PFGE and DL identified the same “unrelated” organism in three of four sets. However, PFGE showed more pattern diversity than did DL, suggesting that two of the sets were less likely to represent true outbreaks. In summary, DL is useful for screening MRSA isolates to rule out potential outbreaks of MRSA in hospitals, but PFGE provides better discrimination of potential outbreak strains and is more useful for confirming strain relatedness and specific USA types. PMID:19553588

  11. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Binary Typing as Tools in Veterinary Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Bovine and Human Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH ZADOKS; WILLEM VAN LEEUWEN; HERMAN BARKEMA; OTLIS SAMPIMON; HENRI VERBRUGH; YNTE HEIN SCHUKKEN; ALEX VAN BELKUM

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geograph- ical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both

  12. Chemotherapy of caecal coccidiosis: efficacy of toltrazuril, sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine and amprolium/ethopabate, given in drinking water, against field isolates of Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D

    1989-05-01

    Treatment with toltrazuril, sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine and amprolium/ethopabate prevented mortality in chickens infected with field isolates of Eimeria tenella. Amprolium/ethopabate was the most effective drug in reducing lesions caused by the parasites. Few oocysts of E tenella were produced in birds medicated with sulphaquinoxaline/pyrimethamine or amprolium/ethopabate and none in those medicated with toltrazuril. PMID:2740635

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated during 2010-2014 Epidemics in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Salami, Habib; Croville, Guillaume; Kwiatek, Olivier; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Valière, Sophie; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lo, Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection is expanding and results in regular epizootic activities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a field strain of PPRV isolated in Senegal (SnDk11I13) in 2013. PMID:25291758

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated during 2010-2014 Epidemics in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Salami, Habib; Croville, Guillaume; Kwiatek, Olivier; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Valière, Sophie; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lo, Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Albina, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection is expanding and results in regular epizootic activities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a field strain of PPRV isolated in Senegal (SnDk11I13) in 2013. PMID:25291758

  15. Temporal and spatial distribution of Cronobacter isolates in a milk powder processing plant determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Gadzov, Boris; Schoder, Dagmar; Foissy, Helmut; Malorny, Burkhard; Wagner, Martin

    2009-03-01

    A milk powder processing line was sampled for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and the opportunistic neonatal pathogen Cronobacter at six different sampling sites during an 11-month period. The highest number of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was recovered from the raw milk concentrate before pasteurization (78.2%) and from nonproduct samples of the processing line (86.5%), which included swabs from the drying tower and screw conveyers, swabs from the explosion chamber, waste water after the automated cleaning-in-place procedure, air filter cut-outs, and floor samples underneath the outlet of the packaging machine. The prepackaged and packaged final product was contaminated at a rate of 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of Cronobacter in the prefinal product and the prepackaged and packaged final product was 14.3%, 3.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 133 Cronobacter isolates yielded 40 different PFGE profiles. Long-term persistence in the processing line of some of these PFGE profiles was observed. Comparison of the PFGE profiles recovered at different sampling sites revealed the supply air as a potential source for extrinsic Cronobacter contamination. In addition, recovery of the same PFGE profiles before and after CIP events followed by heat treatment indicated the inefficiency of these hygiene measures to completely eliminate Cronobacter from all areas of the processing line. This information provides an essential basis for developing control and prevention strategies concerning this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:19245339

  16. Paenibacillus panacisoli sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from soil in a ginseng field in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ten, Leonid N; Baek, Sang-Hoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Lee, Myungjin; Oh, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2006-11-01

    A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming bacterium, designated Gsoil 1411T, was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon Province (South Korea) and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Gsoil 1411T belongs to the family Paenibacillaceae, with closest sequence similarity to the type strains of Paenibacillus xylanilyticus (95.7%), Paenibacillus illinoisensis (95.2%) and Paenibacillus pabuli (94.8%). Strain Gsoil 1411T showed less than 94% sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Paenibacillus. In addition, the presence of MK-7 as the major menaquinone, anteiso-C15:0 as a major fatty acid (44.8%) and the presence of PAEN513F and PAEN862F signature sequences suggest that it is affiliated to the genus Paenibacillus. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 53.9 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 1411T is suggested to represent a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus panacisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 1411T (=KCTC 13020T=LMG 23405T). PMID:17082410

  17. A new senescence-inducing mitochondrial linear plasmid in field-isolated Neurospora crassa strains from India.

    PubMed

    Court, D A; Griffiths, A J; Kraus, S R; Russell, P J; Bertrand, H

    1991-02-01

    Several field-collected strains of Neurospora crassa from the vicinity or Aarey, Bombay, India, are prone to precocious senescence and death. Analysis of one strain, Aarely-1e, demonstrated that the genetic determinants for the predisposition to senescence are maternally inherited. The senescence-prone strains contain a 7-kb, linear, mitochondrial DNA plasmid, maranhar, which is not present in long-lived isolates from the same geographical location. The maranhar plasmid has inverted terminal repeats with protein covalently bound at the 5' termini. Molecular hybridization experiments have demonstrated no substantial DNA sequence homology between the plasmid and the normal mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear genomes of long-lived strains of N. crassa. Integrated maranhar sequences were detected in the mtDNAs of two cultures derived from Aarey-1e, and mtDNAs with the insertion sequences accumulated during subculturing. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned fragments of the two insertion sequences demonstrates that they are flanked by long inverted repeats of mtDNA. The senescence syndrome of the maranhar strains, and the mode of integration of the plasmid, are reminiscent of those seen in the kalilo strains of N. intermedia. Nonetheless, there is no detectable nucleotide sequence homology between the maranhar and kalilo plasmids. PMID:1648454

  18. Inhibitory Activity of Ferroquine, versus Chloroquine, against Western Kenya Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates Determined by a SYBR Green I In Vitro Assay

    PubMed Central

    Eyase, Fredrick L.; Akala, Hoseah M.; Johnson, Jacob D.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Ferroquine (FQ), a chloroquine (CQ) analog, is being developed to treat persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In 146 P. falciparum field isolates from western Kenya, we measured 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50; nM) of CQ and FQ by a SYBR Green I in vitro assay. Reference clones included W2 (CQ resistant) and D6 (CQ sensitive). Mutation analysis was done for P. falciparum CQ-resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt K76T). Median IC50 values for FQ were lower than CQ for field isolates and the W2 clone (both P < 0.05). The Pfcrt mutation (76T), which was detected in > 80% of isolates, conferred higher CQ IC50 values (P < 0.05) and modestly lower FQ IC50 values (P < 0.05), versus Pfcrt wild type (K76). FQ is more potent than CQ against CQ-resistant P. falciparum field isolates and the W2 clone, and is less affected by Pfcrt 76T. These findings support the notion that FQ could be useful in treating persons with P. falciparum malaria. PMID:22144431

  19. Generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the far field by spatial filtering with an intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.; Lin, C. D. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We report theoretical calculations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of Xe with the inclusion of multielectron effects and macroscopic propagation of the fundamental and harmonic fields in an ionizing medium. By using the time-frequency analysis we show that the reshaping of the fundamental laser field is responsible for the continuum structure in the HHG spectra. We further suggest a method for obtaining an isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) by using a filter centered on axis to select the harmonics in the far field with different divergence. We also discuss the carrier-envelope-phase dependence of an IAP and the possibility to optimize the yield of the IAP. With intense few-cycle mid-infrared lasers, this offers a possible method for generating isolated attosecond pulses.

  20. Genetic characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Korea from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Min; Jung, Jongsun; Kim, In-Joong; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Il; Park, Choi-Kyu; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2015-04-01

    The number of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) cases has increased over the past 20 years in Korea, with a major outbreak in 2013. A total of 27 Korean strains from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed (excluding the noncoding regions) and divided into two groups for comparison of the spike (S), ORF3, envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) genes with those of reference strains, vaccine strains, and previously identified strains based on phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of the selection patterns of PEDV isolated in Korea indicated positive selection of nine nonsynonymous sites in the S and N proteins and negative selection at 97 sites for all of the proteins. Interestingly, eight nonsynonymous mutations in S showed no significant pattern change over the 15-year period, and one of eight mutation sites was found only in IC05TK, GN05DJ, and KNU0802 in the epidemic years 2005 and 2008. These eight mutations were also present during the epidemic years in China. Furthermore, of the signs of positive selection in the S protein, the conservative substitutions were more frequent than radical substitutions in PEDVs, suggesting that the evolution of Korean strains has been slow. Serological cross-reactivity was detected between three field PEDVs and two vaccine strains, with different serum neutralization titers. In conclusion, although Korean PEDVs have been evolving slowly, their diverse antigenicity and genetics imply that multilateral efforts to prevent future PED outbreaks are required. PMID:25666198

  1. Optimizing the HRP-2 in vitro malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Apparent emerging artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia requires development of practical tools to monitor for resistant parasites. Although in vitro anti-malarial susceptibility tests are widely used, uncertainties remain regarding interpretation of P. falciparum field isolate values. Methods Performance parameters of the W2 P. falciparum clone (considered artemisinin “sensitive”) were evaluated as a reference for the HRP-2 immediate ex vivo assay. Variability in W2 IC50s was assessed, including intra- and inter-assay variability among and between technicians in multiple experiments, over five freeze-thaw cycles, over five months of continuous culture, and before and after transport of drug-coated plates to remote field sites. Nominal drug plate concentrations of artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were verified by LC-MS analysis. Plasmodium falciparum field isolate IC50s for DHA from subjects in an artemisinin-resistant area in Cambodia were compared with W2 susceptibility. Results Plate drug concentrations and day-to-day technical assay performance among technicians were important sources of variability for W2 IC50s within and between assays. Freeze-thaw cycles, long-term continuous culture, and transport to and from remote sites had less influence. Despite variability in W2 susceptibility, the median IC50s for DHA for Cambodian field isolates were higher (p <0.0001) than the W2 clone (3.9 nM), both for subjects with expected (less than 72?hours; 6.3 nM) and prolonged (greater or equal to 72?hours; 9.6 nM) parasite clearance times during treatment with artesunate monotherapy. Conclusion The W2 reference clone improved the interpretability of field isolate susceptibility from the immediate ex vivo HRP-2 assay from areas of artemisinin resistance. Methods to increase the reproducibility of plate coating may improve overall assay interpretability and utility. PMID:22974086

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov., a Novel Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen from the Shengli Oil Field?†

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Dai, Lirong; Li, Xia; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

    2011-01-01

    Syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is an alternative methanogenic pathway in certain thermophilic anaerobic environments such as high-temperature oil reservoirs and thermophilic biogas reactors. In these environments, the dominant thermophilic methanogens were generally related to uncultured organisms of the genus Methanothermobacter. Here we isolated two representative strains, Tm2T and HMD, from the oil sands and oil production water in the Shengli oil field in the People's Republic of China. The type strain, Tm2T, was nonmotile and stained Gram positive. The cells were straight to slightly curved rods (0.3 ?m in width and 2.2 to 5.9 ?m in length), but some of them possessed a coccal shape connecting with the rods at the ends. Strain Tm2T grew with H2-CO2, but acetate is required. Optimum growth of strain Tm2T occurred in the presence of 0.025 g/liter NaCl at pH 6.9 and a temperature of 65°C. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.1 mol% ± 1.3 mol% (by the thermal denaturation method) or 41.1 mol% (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that Tm2T was most closely related to Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ?HT and Methanothermobacter wolfeii VKM B-1829T (both with a sequence similarity of 96.4%). Based on these phenotypic and phylogenic characteristics, a novel species was proposed and named Methanothermobacter crinale sp. nov. The type strain is Tm2T (ACCC 00699T = JCM 17393T). PMID:21705537

  3. Repression of Flagella Is a Common Trait in Field Isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin and Is Associated with Invasive Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sasías, Sebastián; Martínez, Arací; Betancor, Laura; Estevez, Verónica; Scavone, Paola; Bielli, Alejandro; Sirok, Alfredo; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is adapted to cattle but infrequently infects humans, very often resulting in invasive infections with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A Salmonella-induced intestinal acute inflammatory response is postulated as a mechanism to prevent bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. In S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella contribute to this response by providing motility and FliC-mediated activation of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we found 4 Salmonella enterica isolates, with the antigenic formula 9,12:?:?, that, based on fliC sequence and multilocus sequence type (MLST) analyses, are aflagellate S. Dublin isolates. Interestingly, all were obtained from human bloodstream infections. Thus, we investigated the potential role of flagella in the unusual invasiveness exhibited by S. Dublin in humans by analyzing flagellation and proinflammatory properties of a collection of 10 S. Dublin human clinical isolates. We found that 4 of 7 blood isolates were aflagellate due to significantly reduced levels of fliC expression, whereas all 3 isolates from other sources were flagellated. Lack of flagella correlated with a reduced ability of triggering interleukin-8 (IL-8) and CCL20 chemokine expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and with reduced early inflammation in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated C57/BL6 mice. These results indicate that flagella contribute to the host intestinal inflammatory response to Salmonella serovar Dublin and suggest that their absence may contribute to its systemic dissemination through dampening of the gut immune response. Analysis of FliC production in a collection of cattle isolates indicated that the aflagellate phenotype is widely distributed in field isolates of S. Dublin. PMID:24421045

  4. Comparison of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis as Tools for Typing Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in a Microepidemiological Setting

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, S. J.; de Silva, G. D. I.; Justice, A.; Cowland, A.; Moore, C. E.; Winearls, C. G.; Day, N. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus is well suited to the study of global or long-term epidemiology, but its role in local epidemiology has not been defined. The present study has compared MLST with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) by using S. aureus isolates associated with carriage and disease in a busy regional renal unit. One hundred forty-four patients were prospectively recruited, of whom 103 were receiving hemodialysis and 41 were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Three nasal swab specimens were obtained 1 month apart on entering the study. A nasal swab was positive for S. aureus on at least one occasion in 50 patients (35%). Typing of the 104 carriage isolates demonstrated 21 PFGE types and 21 sequence types (STs). Thirty-one carriers had two or more positive nasal swabs; of these, the isolates in all swabs from a given carrier had identical PFGE types for 29 carriers; the isolates in all of the same 29 swabs had identical STs. The carriage strain in two patients changed both PFGE type and STs during the period of swabbing. Eight patients (6%) had an episode of S. aureus bacteremia during the 12-month study period, and two of these were nasal carriers. One of these invasive isolates had the same PFGE type and ST as the carriage isolate. There were no differences between Simpson's index of diversity for PFGE and Simpson's index of diversity for MLST for both invasive and carriage isolates, suggesting that the two methods have very similar discriminatory abilities. We conclude that PFGE and MLST performed equally in this study. PMID:12354878

  5. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from humans by antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major serovar associated with human salmonellosis. A total of 425 clinical S. Enteritidis isolates of human origin were collected between June 2009 and September 2010 from North Carolina. The isolates were further characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance coding determinants, virulence genes, and fingerprint profiles to determine whether they were similar or different to the S. Enteritidis strain responsible for the human outbreak due to consumption of contaminated eggs. Ten different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were observed with the highest frequency of resistance exhibited to ampicillin (n=10; 2.35%). The isolates were predominantly pansusceptible (n=409; 96.23%); however, seven isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR; i.e., resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) coding genes (bla(TEM) and bla(PSE)) were detected in the ampicillin-resistant isolates, whereas a single MDR isolate tested positive for class 1 integron (1 kb). The majority of the isolates (n=422; 99.3%) carried the invA, mgtC, stn, sopB, sopE1, and sefA virulence genes. However, 37 (8.7%) and 46 (10.82%) S. Enteritidis isolates tested negative for the plasmid encoded genes spvC and rck, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 118 S. Enteritidis isolates by restriction enzymes XbaI and BlnI resulted in seven clusters, each with a discriminatory index (DI) of 0.715 and 0.785, respectively. The combination of XbaI-BlnI patterns generated a dendrogram with 14 clusters and a higher DI of 0.914. The PFGE profile of 80 isolates matched 100% with the S. Enteritidis strain that has been cited for the recent outbreak in the United States due to consumption of contaminated eggs. In conclusion, we identified a genotypic similar S. Enteritidis population in our study based on antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and PFGE fingerprint profiles. PMID:22283616

  6. Thiobacillus prosperus sp. nov., represents a new group of halotolerant metal-mobilizing bacteria isolated from a marine geothermal field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Huber; Karl O. Stetter

    1989-01-01

    From the shallow geothermally heated seafloor at the beach of Porto di Levante (Vulcano, Italy) 8 strains of long, tiny rods were isolated, which represent the first marine metal-mobilizing bacteria. Cells are Gram negative. They grow in a temperature range between 23 and 41°C with an optimum around 37°C at a salt concentration of up to 6.0% NaCl. The isolates

  7. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing of Oxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from the United States: Establishing a National Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda K. McDougal; Christine D. Steward; George E. Killgore; Jasmine M. Chaitram; Sigrid K. McAllister; Fred C. Tenover

    2003-01-01

    Received 2 June 2003\\/Returned for modification 10 July 2003\\/Accepted 22 August 2003 Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) is a virulent pathogen responsible for both health care- associated and community onset disease. We used SmaI-digested genomic DNA separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize 957 S. aureus isolates and establish a database of PFGE patterns. In addition to PFGE patterns of

  8. Effects of Petals Extracts of Saffron on Rat Blood Pressure and on Responses Induced by Electrical Field Stimulation in the Rat Isolated Vas Deferens and Guinea-Pigileum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fatehi; T. Rashidabady; Z. F. Hassanabad; Edman Saffron

    The effects of petals extracts of Crocus sativus on blood pressure in anaesthetized rats and also on responses of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) were studied. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sativus petals reduced the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. For example administration of 50 mg\\/100 g of aqueous

  9. Field Induced Evolution of Regular and Random 2D Domain Structures and Shape of Isolated Domains in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Lobov; V. Ya. Shur; I. S. Baturin; E. I. Shishkin; D. K. Kuznetsov; A. G. Shur; M. A. Dolbilov; K. Gallo

    2006-01-01

    The shapes of isolated domains produced by application of the uniform external electric field in different experimental conditions were investigated experimentally in single crystalline lithium niobate LiNbO3 and lithium tantalate LiTaO3. The study of the domain kinetics by computer simulation and experimentally by polarization reversal of the model structure using two-dimensional regular electrode pattern confirms applicability of the kinetic approach

  10. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and binary typing as tools in veterinary clinical microbiology and molecular epidemiologic analysis of bovine and human Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, R; van Leeuwen, W; Barkema, H; Sampimon, O; Verbrugh, H; Schukken, Y H; van Belkum, A

    2000-05-01

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both techniques, yet based on practical and epidemiological considerations, binary typing was the preferable method. Genotypes of bovine isolates were compared to 55 previously characterized human S. aureus isolates through cluster analysis of binary types. Genetic clusters containing strains of both human and bovine origin were found, but bacterial genotypes were predominantly associated with a single host species. Binary typing proved an excellent tool for comparison of S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, derived from different host species and from different databases. For 28 bovine S. aureus isolates, detailed clinical observations in vivo were compared to strain typing results in vitro. Associations were found between distinct genotypes and severity of disease, suggesting strain-specific bacterial virulence. Circumstantial evidence furthermore supports strain-specific routes of bacterial dissemination. We conclude that PFGE and binary typing can be successfully applied for genetic analysis of S. aureus isolates from bovine mammary secretions. Binary typing in particular is a robust and simple method and promises to become a powerful tool for strain characterization, for resolution of clonal relationships of bacteria within and between host species, and for identification of sources and transmission routes of bovine S. aureus. PMID:10790124

  11. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Binary Typing as Tools in Veterinary Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Bovine and Human Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zadoks, Ruth; van Leeuwen, Willem; Barkema, Herman; Sampimon, Otlis; Verbrugh, Henri; Schukken, Ynte Hein; van Belkum, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both techniques, yet based on practical and epidemiological considerations, binary typing was the preferable method. Genotypes of bovine isolates were compared to 55 previously characterized human S. aureus isolates through cluster analysis of binary types. Genetic clusters containing strains of both human and bovine origin were found, but bacterial genotypes were predominantly associated with a single host species. Binary typing proved an excellent tool for comparison of S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, derived from different host species and from different databases. For 28 bovine S. aureus isolates, detailed clinical observations in vivo were compared to strain typing results in vitro. Associations were found between distinct genotypes and severity of disease, suggesting strain-specific bacterial virulence. Circumstantial evidence furthermore supports strain-specific routes of bacterial dissemination. We conclude that PFGE and binary typing can be successfully applied for genetic analysis of S. aureus isolates from bovine mammary secretions. Binary typing in particular is a robust and simple method and promises to become a powerful tool for strain characterization, for resolution of clonal relationships of bacteria within and between host species, and for identification of sources and transmission routes of bovine S. aureus. PMID:10790124

  12. Selection of quantum path in high-order harmonics and isolated sub-100 attosecond generation in few-cycle spatially inhomogeneous laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xin-Lei; Du, Hui; Wang, Qun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2015-02-01

    We theoretically study the selection of the quantum path in high-order harmonics (HHG) and isolated attosecond pulse generation from a one-dimensional (1D) model of a molecule in few-cycle inhomogeneous laser fields. We show that the inhomogeneity of the laser fields play an important role in the HHG process. The cutoff of the harmonics can be extended remarkably, and the harmonic spectrum becomes smooth and has fewer modulations. We investigate the time-frequency profile of the time-dependent dipole, which shows that the short quantum path is enhanced and the long quantum path disappears in spatially inhomogeneous fields. The semi-classical three-step model is also applied to illustrate the physical mechanism of HHG. The influence of driving field carrier-envelop phase (CEP) on HHG is also discussed. By superposing a series of properly selected harmonics, an isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) with duration 53 as can be obtained by a 15-fs, 1600-nm laser pulse with the parameter ? = 0.0013 (? is the parameter that determines the order of inhomogeneity of the laser field). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174108, 11104108, and 11271158).

  13. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Esayas; Belay, Alebachew; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Loitsch, Angelika; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama; Lamien, Charles Euloge

    2015-07-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia. PMID:25907637

  14. US-like strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus outbreaks in Taiwan, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Chung, Wen-Bin; Chang, Shu-Wei; Wen, Chi-Chi; Liu, Hung; Chien, Chi-Hsien; Chiou, Ming-Tang

    2014-09-01

    Since late 2013, several outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection have emerged in Taiwan. Suckling piglets under 2 weeks of age showed severe vomiting and watery yellowish diarrhea with morbidity and mortality ranging from 80 to 100% and 90 to 100%, respectively. A total of 68 samples from 25 pig farms were confirmed as positive for PEDV and negative for rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus by reverse transcription PCR, and the partial S gene of PEDV was analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis places all 18 Taiwanese PEDV isolates collected during this outbreak in the same clade as the US strains of PEDV. This novel PEDV is prevailing and currently causing severe outbreaks in Taiwan. PMID:24898162

  15. In Vitro Metacyclogenesis of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Clinical Field Isolates, as Evaluated by Morphology, Complement Resistance, and Infectivity to Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ildefonso Alves; Morato, Camila Imai; Quixabeira, Valéria Bernadete Leite; Pereira, Ledice Inácia de Araújo; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; de Oliveira, Milton Adriano Pelli; Horta, Maria Fátima; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess in vitro metacyclogenesis of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis clinical field isolates obtained from patient lesions (L. braziliensis IMG3 and PPS6m; L. amazonensis MAB6). Metacyclogenesis was evaluated by different criteria, namely, promastigote size (morphometric analysis and flow cytometry), surface modifications (loss of lectin or monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding, complement resistance), and infectivity to human macrophages. Growth curves were similar for all parasites evaluated. The various features analyzed were expressed in a high percentage of promastigotes at 6th and 10th days of culture and a low percentage at the 2nd day. However, in most isolates, these features, considered as markers of metacyclogenesis, seemed to develop with different time courses, since the percentages of metacyclic forms detected with each technique were usually different. Parasites from 6th or 10th day and those negatively selected with lectin or mAb similarly infected human macrophages. From all isolates analyzed, L. amazonensis PH8 and MAB6 showed the highest and the lowest levels of susceptibility, respectively, to leishmanicidal activity of IFN-?/LPS-activated macrophages. Our results showed that by using different techniques to evaluate different aspects of metacyclogenesis (morphological and biochemical modifications) different percentages of metacyclic promastigotes can be detected in each isolate culture. PMID:25695070

  16. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile homogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M; Geijo, Marivi; Juste, Ramon A

    2007-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains led to classify paratuberculosis isolates in two main types, cattle type strains, found affecting all host species, and sheep type strains, reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years have been characterized. Five-hundred and twenty isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar) and origins had been cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction-endonuclease-analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-nine isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. Results All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-Cattle type strains. IS1311-Sheep type encompassed 96% and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all three Portuguese sheep. Thirty-seven distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for the 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43%) and another three profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis, clustered all profiles found in cattle, "wild" hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. Conclusion Cattle in Spain are infected with cattle type strains, while sheep and goats are mainly infected with sheep type strains. Although 7H9 broth based culture media seem to broadly cover the growth requirements of most Map strains, the use of various solid media is recommended to reduce any recovery biases. High genetic homogeneity of isolates from cattle, and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats have been detected. PMID:17352818

  17. Reduced In Vitro Doxycycline Susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from Kenya Is Associated with PfTetQ KYNNNN Sequence Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Achieng, Angela O.; Ingasia, Luiser A.; Juma, Dennis W.; Cheruiyot, Agnes C.; Okudo, Charles A.; Yeda, Redemptah A.; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Akala, Hoseah M.; Johnson, Jacob; Andangalu, Ben; Eyase, Fredrick; Jura, Walter G. Z. O.

    2014-01-01

    Doxycycline is widely used for malaria prophylaxis by international travelers. However, there is limited information on doxycycline efficacy in Kenya, and genetic polymorphisms associated with reduced efficacy are not well defined. In vitro doxycycline susceptibility profiles for 96 Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kenya were determined. Genetic polymorphisms were assessed in P. falciparum metabolite drug transporter (Pfmdt) and P. falciparum GTPase tetQ (PftetQ) genes. Copy number variation of the gene and the number of KYNNNN amino acid motif repeats within the protein encoded by PftetQ were determined. Reduced in vitro susceptibility to doxycycline was defined by 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ?35,000 nM. The odds ratio (OR) of having 2 PfTetQ KYNNNN amino acid repeats in isolates with IC50s of >35,000 nM relative to those with IC50s of <35,000 nM is 15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0 to 74.3; P value of <0.0002). Isolates with 1 copy of the Pfmdt gene had a median IC50 of 6,971 nM, whereas those with a Pfmdt copy number of >1 had a median IC50 of 9,912 nM (P = 0.0245). Isolates with 1 copy of PftetQ had a median IC50 of 6,370 nM, whereas isolates with a PftetQ copy number of >1 had a median IC50 of 3,422 nM (P < 0.0007). Isolates with 2 PfTetQ KYNNNN motif repeats had a median IC50 of 26,165 nM, whereas isolates with 3 PfTetQ KYNNNN repeats had a median IC50 of 3,352 nM (P = 0.0023). PfTetQ sequence polymorphism is associated with a reduced doxycycline susceptibility phenotype in Kenyan isolates and is a potential marker for susceptibility testing. PMID:25070109

  18. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM) IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region. PMID:22694953

  19. Suitability of the molecular subtyping methods intergenic spacer region, direct genome restriction analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    PubMed

    Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Fischer, Markus; LaFon, Patti; Cooper, Kara; Jones, Jessica L

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of infectious illness associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Molecular fingerprinting of strains has become a valuable research tool for understanding this pathogen. However, there are many subtyping methods available and little information on how they compare to one another. For this study, a collection of 67 oyster and 77 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by three subtyping methods--intergenic spacer region (ISR-1), direct genome restriction analysis (DGREA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--to determine the utility of these methods for discriminatory subtyping. ISR-1 analysis, run as previously described, provided the lowest discrimination of all the methods (discriminatory index [DI]=0.8665). However, using a broader analytical range than previously reported, ISR-1 clustered isolates based on origin (oyster versus clinical) and had a DI=0.9986. DGREA provided a DI=0.9993-0.9995, but did not consistently cluster the isolates by any identifiable characteristics (origin, serotype, or virulence genotype) and ? 15% of isolates were untypeable by this method. PFGE provided a DI=0.9998 when using the combined pattern analysis of both restriction enzymes, SfiI and NotI. This analysis was more discriminatory than using either enzyme pattern alone and primarily grouped isolates by serotype, regardless of strain origin (clinical or oyster) or presence of currently accepted virulence markers. These results indicate that PFGE and ISR-1 are more reliable methods for subtyping V. parahemolyticus, rather than DGREA. Additionally, ISR-1 may provide an indication of pathogenic potential; however, more detailed studies are needed. These data highlight the diversity within V. parahaemolyticus and the need for appropriate selection of subtyping methods depending on the study objectives. PMID:24799175

  20. A single isolated sub-50 attosecond pulse generation with a two-color laser field by a frequency-chirping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Chu, Tianshu

    2011-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of using the frequency-chirping technique to shorten the duration of the generated single attosecond pulse (SAP) by a two-color laser field of 800 and 1600 nm with few-cycle pulses. By adopting various combinations of the two frequency-chirped laser fields in our numerical simulation of ionizing He atom, we demonstrate that the best possible condition to obtain the shortest SAP is using the same chirping in both the fundamental and the half-harmonic laser fields without any phase effect and any delay time. There is a maximum increment of about 40 eV in the bandwidth of the XUV super-continuum in the cutoff (the second plateau) region. A single isolated attosecond pulse of 48 as can be generated that is further reduced to 9.7 as by phase compensation.

  1. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  2. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woo-Jong Yim; Selvaraj Poonguzhali; Munusamy Madhaiyan; Pitchai Palaniappan; M. A. Siddikee; Tongmin Sa

    2009-01-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics\\u000a viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation\\u000a to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase\\u000a activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence

  3. [Ilha Grande Lazaretto: isolation, imprisonment, and surveillance in the fields of health care and politics (1884-1942)].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Myrian Sepúlveda

    2007-01-01

    The Ilha Grande pest house, located on the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, was built in 1884 to control the spread of epidemics via Brazilian ports. Separated from the continent, the buildings that housed patients could be kept under constant surveillance. Isolation regimens differed in accordance with the class on which passengers had traveled. The complex was used at different times as a military prison and eventually deactivated. In 1942, it was restored and became the Cândido Mendes Penal Colony. PMID:18450303

  4. Emergence of a mutL Mutation Causing Multilocus Sequence Typing–Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure. PMID:22322352

  5. Three-Dimensional MHD Simulation of FTEs Produced by Merging at an Isolated Point in a Sheared Magnetic Field Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, J. C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Buchner, J.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present predictions for the evolution of FTEs generated by localized bursts of reconnection on a planar magnetopause that separates a magnetosheath region of high densities and weak magnetic field from a magnetospheric region of low densities and strong magnetic field. The magnetic fields present a shear angle of 105 degrees. Reconnection forms a pair of FTEs each crossing the magnetopause in the field reversal region and bulging into the magnetosphere and magnetosheath. At their initial stage they can be characterized as flux tubes since the newly reconnected magnetic field lines are not twisted. Reconnection launches Alfvenic perturbations that propagate along the FTEs generating high-speed jets, which move the pair of FTEs in opposite directions. As the FTE moves, it displaces the ambient magnetic field and plasma producing bipolar magnetic field and plasma velocity signatures normal to the nominal magnetopause in the regions surrounding the FTE. The combination of the ambient plasma with the FTE flows generates a vortical velocity pattern around the reconnected field lines. During its evolution the FTE evolves to a flux rope configuration due to the twist of the magnetic field lines. The alfvenic perturbations propagate faster along the part of the FTE bulging into the magnetosphere than in the magnetosheath, and due to the differences between the plasma and magnetic field properties the perturbations have slightly different signatures in the two regions. As a consequence, the FTEs have different signatures depending on whether the satellite encounters the part bulging into the magnetosphere or into the magnetosheath.

  6. Previous infection of sows with a "mild" strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus confers protection against infection with a "severe" strain.

    PubMed

    Goede, Dane; Murtaugh, Michael P; Nerem, Joel; Yeske, Paul; Rossow, Kurt; Morrison, Robert

    2015-03-23

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infected approximately 50% of the US swine breeding herds from July 2013 to July 2014 as estimated by the Swine Health Monitoring Project. In the absence of effective vaccines or standard control protocols, there is an urgent need for evidence of cross-protective immune countermeasures. Here, we evaluated the response of 3-day-old piglets born to sows exposed seven months earlier to a mild strain of PEDv to challenge with a virulent PEDv isolate. Piglet survival to one week of age was 100% compared to 67% in piglets born to sows not previously exposed, and morbidity was 43% compared to 100%, respectively. At necropsy at 7 days of age, the PEDv Ct value was 23.6 (range 16.6-30.6) in intestinal contents, compared to 17.2 (range 15.9-18.5) (p<0.06) in litters from sows with no previous exposure to PEDv. The findings indicated that durable lactogenic immunity was present in sows previously exposed to a mild strain of PEDv and this immunity induced cross-protection to representative virulent PEDv. Thus, a naturally attenuated form of PEDv provided significant passive immune protection for seven months against piglet challenge with virulent PEDv. PMID:25601801

  7. Weed hosts of Verticillium dahliae in cotton fields in Turkey and characterization of V. dahliae isolates from weeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Yildiz; M. Nedim Do?an; Özhan Boz; Seher Benlio?lu

    2009-01-01

    A weed survey conducted in 2004 and 2005 in Aydin province of Turkey showed that Solanum nigrum, Xanthium strumarium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca oleracea, Sonchus oleraceus and Datura stramonium were the most prevalent weeds in the cotton fields exhibiting Verticillium wilt. Verticillium dahliae Kleb. was recovered from A. retroflexus and X. strumarium in those cotton fields. This is the first report

  8. Geometric Morphometrics of Nine Field Isolates of Aedes aegypti with Different Resistance Levels to Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Relative Fitness of One Artificially Selected for Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-O., Nicolás; Fonseca-González, Idalyd; Chaverra-Rodríguez, Duverney

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, a mosquito closely associated with humans, is the principal vector of dengue virus which currently infects about 400 million people worldwide. Because there is no way to prevent infection, public health policies focus on vector control; but insecticide-resistance threatens them. However, most insecticide-resistant mosquito populations exhibit fitness costs in absence of insecticides, although these costs vary. Research on components of fitness that vary with insecticide-resistance can help to develop policies for effective integrated management and control. We investigated the relationships in wing size, wing shape, and natural resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin of nine field isolates. Also we chose one of these isolates to select in lab for resistance to the insecticide. The main life-traits parameters were assessed to investigate the possible fitness cost and its association with wing size and shape. We found that wing shape, more than wing size, was strongly correlated with resistance levels to lambda-cyhalothrin in field isolates, but founder effects of culture in the laboratory seem to change wing shape (and also wing size) more easily than artificial selection for resistance to that insecticide. Moreover, significant fitness costs were observed in response to insecticide-resistance as proved by the diminished fecundity and survival of females in the selected line and the reversion to susceptibility in 20 generations of the non-selected line. As a practical consequence, we think, mosquito control programs could benefit from this knowledge in implementing efficient strategies to prevent the evolution of resistance. In particular, the knowledge of reversion to susceptibility is important because it can help in planning better strategies of insecticide use to keep useful the few insecticide-molecules currently available. PMID:24801598

  9. Full-Length Genome Sequence of a Variant Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain, CH/GDZQ/2014, Responsible for a Severe Outbreak of Diarrhea in Piglets in Guangdong, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Song, Deping; Chen, Yanjun; Peng, Qi; Huang, Dongyan; Zhang, Tiansheng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Fanfan; Zhou, Xinrong

    2014-01-01

    The full-length genome sequence of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, CH/GDZQ/2014, was determined. The isolate was a variant strain with a relatively far relationship with the PEDV strains previously identified in the same area between 2011 and 2012 and was genetically distinct from the CV777-based vaccine strain currently being used in China. PMID:25477403

  10. Experimental\\/theoretical investigation of the sound field of an isolated propeller, including angle of incidence effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Zandbergen; S. L. Sarin; R. P. Donnelly

    1990-01-01

    A detailed experimental acoustic investigation was carried out in the German\\/Dutch low speed wind tunnel DNW on a 6 bladed 1:5 scale model propeller. Both the propeller near field and the far field were measured with axially traversing in-flow microphones and comparisons of test data and predictions have previously been reported for zero propeller incidence. Also included were tests under

  11. Observations and simulations of the wind structure in the boundary layer around an isolated mountain during the MATERHORN field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wekker, S.; Liu, Y.; Knievel, J. C.; Pal, S.; Emmitt, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate atmospheric boundary layer structure and dynamics during an intensive observational period of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program at Dugway Proving Ground (an army test range in Utah, USA) in Fall 2012. We use high-resolution data from an airborne Doppler lidar that reveal the interaction of the synoptic flows with the evolution of slope and valley flows around an isolated mountain of a horizontal and vertical scale of about 10 km and 1 km, respectively. The measurements at high spatiotemporal resolution allow a thorough evaluation of the Four-Dimensional Weather System (4DWX), a state-of-the-art meteorological analysis, forecast, and decision-support system which is used operationally at Dugway Proving Ground. We also perform very large eddy simulations using 4DWX to investigate in more detail the turbulent structures and their impact on flow dynamics in the convective boundary layer.

  12. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  13. Experimental/theoretical investigation of the sound field of an isolated propeller, including angle of incidence effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandbergen, T.; Sarin, S. L.; Donnelly, R. P.

    1990-10-01

    A detailed experimental acoustic investigation was carried out in the German/Dutch low speed wind tunnel DNW on a 6 bladed 1:5 scale model propeller. Both the propeller near field and the far field were measured with axially traversing in-flow microphones and comparisons of test data and predictions have previously been reported for zero propeller incidence. Also included were tests under non-zero angle of attack, and sideslip angle, in order to obtain also data for a noise prediction method for propeller installation effects. In this report near field experimental data are compared with theoretical data, to show the capability of such a prediction scheme, and with the aim of indicating the behavior of the main parameters that are believed to control the noise changes with angle of incidence.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world. PMID:23876192

  15. Recording performance and thermal stability in perpendicular media with enhancement of grain isolation as well as magnetic anisotropy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. S.; Ikeda, Y.; Choe, G.; Shi, Zhupei

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic clustering, thermal stability, and recording performance on perpendicular media with multilayered magnetic anisotropy field (Hk)-gradient CoPtCr-oxide/Cap layers with various Ru-oxide layer thicknesses (tRu-oxide) on top of Ru/NiW layers are investigated. With increasing tRu-oxide from 0 to 1.3 nm, Hc and Hs are enhanced but Hn is reduced. Magnetic correlation length (Dn) extracted from a set of major and minor loops significantly decreases but intrinsic switching field distribution remains unaffected. A short-time switching field (Ho) proportional to Hk increases linearly while KuV/kT remains unchanged. Similar KuV/kT is explained by compensation of the reduced Dn with the enhanced Ku induced by a thin Ru-oxide. However, thermal decay rate degrades from 0.06 to 0.32%/decade, which correlates well with Hn. Similar values of initial minor loop slopes indicate no change in magnetic switching behavior. A 1 nm-thick Ru-oxide layer as a well-defined granular template significantly improves recording performance: narrower MCW at 10 T by 8 nm and higher SNR at 2 T by 1.4 dB are observed even at lower OW by 8 dB compared to the media without Ru-oxide. All the recording parameters as a function of Dn correlate well.

  16. In-vitro sensitivity of Pakistani Leishmania tropica field isolate against buparvaquone in comparison to standard anti-leishmanial drugs.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Qaisar; Khan, Nazma Habib; Wahid, Sobia; Awan, Mahwish Mustafa; Sutherland, Colin; Shah, Akram

    2015-07-01

    In this study, in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of buparvaquone was evaluated against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Pakistani Leishmania tropica isolate KWH23 in relation to the current standard chemotherapy for leishmaniasis (sodium stibogluconate, sodium stibogluconate, amphotericin B and miltefosine). For buparvaquone, mean % inhibition in intracellular amastigotes at four different concentrations (1.35?µM, 0.51?µM, 0.17?µM and 0.057?µM) was 78%, 44%, 20% and 14% respectively, whereas, against promastigotes it was 89%, 77%, 45% and 35% respectively. IC50 values calculated to estimate the anti-leishmanial activity of buparvaquone against intra-cellular amastigotes and promastigotes was 0.53?µM (95% C.I.?=?0.32-0.89) and 0.15?µM (95% C.I.?=?0.01-1.84) respectively. Amphotericin B was the most potent in-vitro drug tested, with an IC50 of 0.075?µM (95% C.I.?=?0.006-0.907) against promastigotes, and 0.065?µM (95% C.I.?=?0.048-0.089) against intra-cellular amastigotes. Amphotericin B was more cytotoxic against THP1 cells, with an IC50 of 0.15?µM (95% C.I.?=?0.01-0.95) and an apparent in-vitro therapeutic index of 2.0, than was buparvaquone, with an IC50 of 12.03?µM (95% C.I.?=?5.36-26.96) against THP1 cells and a therapeutic index of 80.2. The study proposes that buparvaquone may be further investigated as a candidate drug for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25911243

  17. Permethrin resistance variation and susceptible reference line isolation in a field population of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Liu, Nannan

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the genetic variations and mechanisms involved in the development of permethrin resistance in individual mosquitoes from a field population of Culex quinquefasciatus, HAmCq(G0) , and characterizes susceptible reference lines of mosquitoes with a similar genetic background to the field HAmCq(G0) strain. Six upregulated cytochrome P450 genes, CYP9M10, CYP9J34, CYP6P14, CYP9J40, CYP6AA7, and CYP4C52v1, previously identified as being upregulated in the larvae of resistant HAmCq(G8) mosquitoes were examined in the larvae of 3 strains (susceptible S-Lab, parental HAmCq(G0) and permethrin-selected highly resistant HAmCq(G8) ) and 8 HAmCq(G0) single-egg raft colonies, covering a range of levels of susceptibility/resistance to permethrin and exhibiting different variations in the expression of A and/or T alleles at the L-to-F kdr locus of the sodium channel. The 2 lines with the lowest tolerance to permethrin and bearing solely the susceptible A allele at the L-to-F kdr locus of the sodium channels, from colonies Cx_SERC5 and Cx_SERC8, showed lower or similar levels of all 6 of the P450 genes tested compared with the S-Lab strain, suggesting that these 2 lines could be used as the reference mosquitoes in future studies characterizing insecticide resistance in HAmCq mosquitoes. This study also provides a detailed investigation of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in individuals within a population: individuals with elevated levels of resistance to permethrin all displayed one or more potential resistance mechanisms-either elevated levels of P450 gene expression, or L-to-F mutations in the sodium channel, or both. PMID:24357606

  18. Vibration isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.

  19. Efficacy of toltrazuril in broilers and development of a laboratory model for sensitivity testing of Eimeria field isolates.

    PubMed

    Vertommen, M H; Peek, H W; van der Laan, A

    1990-07-01

    (1) The efficacy of toltrazuril (Baycox) against coccidiosis was established on a broiler farm in an intermittent application during five consecutive growing periods. Treated birds were fed a broiler ration without anticoccidials. The efficacy of Baycox was compared with the nicarbazin-salinomycin shuttle. It was concluded that Baycox retarded the onset of Eimeria infection for several weeks. During the fifth rearing period coccidiosis problems emerged on the farm in all birds during medication, suggesting development of resistance. (2) During a laboratory experiment the efficacy of Baycox was studied in birds after inoculation with different numbers of oocysts at 7, 10 or 15 days of age. Baycox was applied at 10 and 11 days of age. In all cases medication with Baycox protected birds from coccidiosis during a period of at least 7 days. This effect of Baycox could be due to the long-existing tissue levels of the product and its metabolites as well as its specific effect on the second generation of schizonts. (3) In another laboratory experiment coccidia obtained from field trials were tested for sensitivity to Baycox in conjunction with two strains obtained from farms were coccidiosis emerged during application. The inoculation model developed in this study was used for sensitivity testing. One of the Eimeria strains tested was resistant to the product, one strain was tolerant and the remaining two strains, including the control strain, were fully sensitive to Baycox. PMID:2219660

  20. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing for characterizing genotype variability of Yersinia ruckeri isolated from farmed fish in France.

    PubMed

    Calvez, Ségolène; Fournel, Catherine; Douet, Diane-Gaëlle; Daniel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is a pathogen that has an impact on aquaculture worldwide. The disease caused by this bacterial species, yersiniosis or redmouth disease, generates substantial economic losses due to the associated mortality and veterinary costs. For predicting outbreaks and improving control strategies, it is important to characterize the population structure of the bacteria. The phenotypic and genetic homogeneities described previously indicate a clonal population structure as observed in other fish bacteria. In this study, the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) methods were used to describe a population of isolates from outbreaks on French fish farms. For the PFGE analysis, two enzymes (NotI and AscI) were used separately and together. Results from combining the enzymes showed the great homogeneity of the outbreak population with a similarity?>?80.0% but a high variability within the cluster (cut-off value?=?80.0%) with a total of 43 pulsotypes described and an index of diversity?=?0.93. The dominant pulsotypes described with NotI (PtN4 and PtN7) have already been described in other European countries (Finland, Germany, Denmark, Spain and Italy). The MLST approach showed two dominant sequence types (ST31 and ST36), an epidemic structure of the French Y. ruckeri population and a preferentially clonal evolution for rainbow trout isolates. Our results point to multiple types of selection pressure on the Y. ruckeri population attributable to geographical origin, ecological niche specialization and movements of farmed fish. PMID:26104532

  1. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jessica E; He, Qiang; Nevin, Kelly P; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Lovley, Derek R

    2007-01-01

    Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III)-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold induced during benzoate oxidation. Conclusion G. metallireducens appears to convert aromatic compounds to benzoyl-CoA, then to acetyl-CoA via fatty acid oxidation, and then to carbon dioxide via the TCA cycle. The enzyme responsible for dearomatizing the aromatic ring may be novel, and energetic investments at this step may be offset by a change in succinate metabolism. Analysis of a field isolate suggests that the pathways inferred for G. metallireducens may be applicable to modeling in situ bioremediation. PMID:17578578

  2. Isolated Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Claudio Ferracchiati; Emanuele Garofalo

    \\u000a The isolated storage in Silverlight for Windows Phone 7 follows in some ways the architectural model used for the desktop\\u000a version. The concept of this storage is to isolate the physical memory of one application from another. Isolated storage undoubtedly\\u000a has its advantages: the application’s data is available only to us, which means that no one else can compromise security

  3. Benchmark Database on Isolated Small Peptides Containing an Aromatic Side Chain: Comparison Between Wave Function and Density Functional Theory Methods and Empirical Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, Haydee; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Pitonak, Michal; Rezac, Jan; Hobza, Pavel

    2008-03-13

    A detailed quantum chemical study on five peptides (WG, WGG, FGG, GGF and GFA) containing the residues phenylalanyl (F), glycyl (G), tryptophyl (W) and alanyl (A)—where F and W are of aromatic character—is presented. When investigating isolated small peptides, the dispersion interaction is the dominant attractive force in the peptide backbone–aromatic side chain intramolecular interaction. Consequently, an accurate theoretical study of these systems requires the use of a methodology covering properly the London dispersion forces. For this reason we have assessed the performance of the MP2, SCS-MP2, MP3, TPSS-D, PBE-D, M06-2X, BH&H, TPSS, B3LYP, tight-binding DFT-D methods and ff99 empirical force field compared to CCSD(T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit benchmark data. All the DFT techniques with a ‘-D’ symbol have been augmented by empirical dispersion energy while the M06-2X functional was parameterized to cover the London dispersion energy. For the systems here studied we have concluded that the use of the ff99 force field is not recommended mainly due to problems concerning the assignment of reliable atomic charges. Tight-binding DFT-D is efficient as a screening tool providing reliable geometries. Among the DFT functionals, the M06-2X and TPSS-D show the best performance what is explained by the fact that both procedures cover the dispersion energy. The B3LYP and TPSS functionals—not covering this energy—fail systematically. Both, electronic energies and geometries obtained by means of the wave-function theory methods compare satisfactorily with the CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark data.

  4. Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alachlor, an aniline herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on isolating bacterial consortium capable of alachlor biodegradation, assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on alachlor biodegradation and evaluating the feasibility of using bacterial consortium in soil culture. Kavar corn field soil with a long history of alachlor application in Fars province of Iran has been explored for their potential of alachlor biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds (glucose, sodium citrate, sucrose, starch and the combination of these compounds), the effect of nitrogen sources (ammonium nitrate and urea) and different pH (5.5-8.5) on alachlor removal efficiency by the bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. After a multi-step enrichment program 100 days of acclimation, a culture with the high capability of alachlor degradation was obtained (63%). Glucose and sodium citrate had the highest alachlor reduction rate (85%). Alachlor reduction rate increased more rapidly by the addition of ammonium nitrate (94%) compare to urea. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 7.5 is optimal for alachlor biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of alachlor reduction were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (74%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (17.67%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of alachlor degradation in a polluted soil. PMID:23452801

  5. Characterization of the cultivable bacterial populations associated with field grown Brassica napus?L.: an evaluation of sampling and isolation protocols.

    PubMed

    Croes, Sarah; Weyens, Nele; Colpaert, Jan; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-07-01

    Plant-associated bacteria are intensively investigated concerning their characteristics for plant growth promotion, biocontrol mechanisms and enhanced phytoremediation efficiency. To obtain endophytes, different sampling and isolation protocols are used although their representativeness is not always clearly demonstrated. The objective of this study was to acquire representative pictures of the cultivable bacterial root, stem and leaf communities for all Brassica napus?L. individuals growing on the same field. For each plant organ, genotypic identifications of the endophytic communities were performed using three replicates. Root replicates were composed of three total root systems, whereas stem and leaf replicates needed to consist of six independent plant parts in order to be representative. Greater variations between replicates were found when considering phenotypic characteristics. Correspondence analysis revealed reliable phenotypic results for roots and even shoots, but less reliable ones for leaves. Additionally, realistic Shannon-Wiener biodiversity indices were calculated for all three organs and showed similar Evenness factors. Furthermore, it was striking that all replicates and thus the whole plant contained Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains although aboveground and belowground plant tissues differed in most dominant bacterial genera and characteristics. PMID:25367683

  6. The rph1 gene is a common contributor to the evolution of phosphine resistance in independent field isolates of Rhyzopertha dominica.

    PubMed

    Mau, Yosep S; Collins, Patrick J; Daglish, Gregory J; Nayak, Manoj K; Pavic, Hervoika; Ebert, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Phosphine is the only economically viable fumigant for routine control of insect pests of stored food products, but its continued use is now threatened by the world-wide emergence of high-level resistance in key pest species. Phosphine has a unique mode of action relative to well-characterised contact pesticides. Similarly, the selective pressures that lead to resistance against field sprays differ dramatically from those encountered during fumigation. The consequences of these differences have not been investigated adequately. We determine the genetic basis of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica strains collected from New South Wales and South Australia and compare this with resistance in a previously characterised strain from Queensland. The resistance levels range from 225 and 100 times the baseline response of a sensitive reference strain. Moreover, molecular and phenotypic data indicate that high-level resistance was derived independently in each of the three widely separated geographical regions. Despite the independent origins, resistance was due to two interacting genes in each instance. Furthermore, complementation analysis reveals that all three strains contain an incompletely recessive resistance allele of the autosomal rph1 resistance gene. This is particularly noteworthy as a resistance allele at rph1 was previously proposed to be a necessary first step in the evolution of high-level resistance. Despite the capacity of phosphine to disrupt a wide range of enzymes and biological processes, it is remarkable that the initial step in the selection of resistance is so similar in isolated outbreaks. PMID:22363668

  7. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for subspecies identification of mycobacteria in the Mycobacterium avium complex and for isolation of DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, J W; Condon, C; Compston, C A; Potter, K N; Lamontagne, L R; Shafiq, J; Kunimoto, D Y

    1992-01-01

    Mycobacterial strains from the Mycobacterium avium complex were compared with each other and with Mycobacterium phlei isolates by restriction endonuclease digestion of chromosomal DNA with SspI and analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Characteristic profiles were observed for known typed strains, and five groups were identified. Primary bovine isolates identified as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by classical methods were shown to fall into both the M. paratuberculosis- and M. avium-like groups. M. paratuberculosis 18 was in the latter category. Two Mycobacterium intracellulare strains of different Schaefer serotypes had different digestion profiles. In addition, this system was exploited for the preparation of DNA probes by the isolation, digestion, and subcloning of DNA fragments separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Probe JC12 hybridized only to M. avium complex strains, but not to M. phlei, showing characteristic hybridization profiles for each of the groups previously identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The approach taken in the study lends itself to the comparative analysis of members of the M. avium complex and to the isolation and characterization of DNA probes with specificity for these mycobacteria. Images PMID:1352787

  8. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  9. Fitness and competitive ability of Botrytis cinerea field isolates with dual resistance to SDHI and QoI fungicides, associated with several sdhB and the cytb G143A mutations.

    PubMed

    Veloukas, T; Kalogeropoulou, P; Markoglou, A N; Karaoglanidis, G S

    2014-04-01

    Respiration inhibitors such as the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) and the quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) are fungicide classes with increasing relevance in gray mold control. However, recent studies have shown that dual resistance to both fungicide classes is a common trait in Botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts throughout the world. Resistance of B. cinerea to SDHIs is associated with several mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, and sdhD genes, while resistance to QoIs, in most cases, is associated with the G143A mutation in the cytb gene. The objective of the current study was to investigate the fitness and the competitive ability of B. cinerea field strains possessing one of the H272Y/R/L, N230I, or P225F sdhB substitutions and the G143A mutation of cytb. Fitness parameters measured were (i) mycelial growth and conidia germination in vitro, (ii) aggressiveness and sporulation capacity in vivo, (iii) sclerotia production in vitro and sclerotia viability under different storage conditions, and (iv) sensitivity to oxidative stress imposed by diquat treatments. The competitive ability of the resistant isolates was measured in the absence and presence of the SDHI fungicides boscalid and fluopyram selection pressure. The measurements of individual fitness components showed that the H272R/G143A isolates had the lower differences compared with the sensitive isolates. In contrast, the groups of H272Y/L/G143A, N230I/G143A, and P225F/G143A isolates showed reduced fitness values compared with the sensitive isolates. Isolates possessing only the cytb G143A substitution did not show any fitness cost. The competition experiments showed that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, after four disease cycles on apple fruit, the sensitive isolates dominated in the population in all the mixtures tested. In contrast, when the competition experiment was conducted under the selection pressure of boscalid, a gradual decrease in the frequency of sensitive isolates was observed, whereas the frequency of H272L and P225F isolates was increased. When the competition experiment was conducted in the presence of fluopyram, the sensitive isolates were eliminated even after the first disease cycle and the P225F mutants dominated in the population. Such results suggest that the sdhB mutations may have adverse effects on the mutants. The observed dominance of sensitive isolates in the competition experiments conducted in the absence of fungicides suggest that the application of SDHIs in alternation schemes may delay the selection or reduce the frequency of SDHI-resistant mutants. PMID:24168041

  10. Analysis of genetic and molecular identity among field isolates of the rice blast fungus with an international differential system, rep-PCR and DNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene deployed in the Southern US rice germplasm is effective in preventing the infection by strains of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates that carry the avirulence gene AVR-Pita1. In the present study, a total of 169 isolates from rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars, with and without Pi-ta, were analyz...

  11. Isolated Malignant Melanoma Metastasis to the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field. PMID:25289269

  12. Social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

    2011-08-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation; and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  13. Effects of Crocus sativus petals’ extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fatehi; T. Rashidabady; Zahra Fatehi-Hassanabad

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of Crocus sativus petals’ extract on blood pressure in anaesthetised rats and also on responses of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sativus petals reduced the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. For example administration of 50 mg\\/100 g of aqueous

  14. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r?=?0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the MSF assay, when evaluating ex vivo Cambodian isolates. Reduced sensitivity of the MSF assay is likely due to an interference of WBCs in clinical samples. Conclusions For clinical samples not depleted of WBCs, HRP-2 ELISA is superior to the MSF assay at evaluating fresh P. falciparum field isolates with low parasitaemia (<0.2%) generally observed in Southeast Asia. PMID:23849006

  15. Methanolinea mesophila sp. nov., a hydrogenotrophic methanogen isolated from rice field soil, and proposal of the archaeal family Methanoregulaceae fam. nov. within the order Methanomicrobiales.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Sanae; Ehara, Masayuki; Tseng, I-Cheng; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Bräuer, Suzanna L; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Zinder, Stephen H; Imachi, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    A novel mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, designated strain TNR(T), was isolated from an anaerobic, propionate-degradation enrichment culture that was originally established from a rice field soil sample from Taiwan. Cells were non-motile rods, 2.0-6.5 µm long by 0.3 µm wide. Filamentous (up to about 100 µm) and coccoid (about 1 µm in diameter) cells were also observed in cultures in the late exponential phase of growth. Strain TNR(T) grew at 20-40 °C (optimally at 37 °C), at pH 6.5-7.4 (optimally at pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-25 g NaCl l(-1) (optimally at 0 g NaCl l(-1)). The strain utilized H(2)/CO(2) and formate for growth and produced methane. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56.4 mol%. Based on sequences of both the 16S rRNA gene and the methanogen-specific marker gene mcrA, strain TNR(T) was related most closely to Methanolinea tarda NOBI-1(T); levels of sequence similarities were 94.8 and 86.4 %, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicates that strain TNR(T) and M. tarda NOBI-1(T) represent different species within the same genus. This is supported by shared phenotypic properties, including substrate usage and cell morphology, and differences in growth temperature. Based on these genetic and phenotypic properties, strain TNR(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methanolinea, for which the name Methanolinea mesophila sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is TNR(T) ( = NBRC 105659(T) = DSM 23604(T)). In addition, we also suggest family status for the E1/E2 group within the order Methanomicrobiales, for which the name Methanoregulaceae fam. nov. is proposed; the type genus of family is Methanoregula. PMID:21841010

  16. Comparative Studies of Mutations in Animal Isolates and Experimental In Vitro- and In Vivo-Selected Mutants of Salmonella spp. Suggest a Counterselection of Highly Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Strains in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Etienne; Brisabois, Anne; Martel, Jean-Louis; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of mutations in the genes coding for gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parE and parC) of Salmonella typhimurium experimental mutants selected in vitro and in vivo and of 138 nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella field isolates was investigated. The sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of these genes in highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants (MICs of 4 to 16 ?g/ml) revealed the presence of gyrA mutations at codons corresponding to Gly-81 or Ser-83, some of which were associated with a mutation at Asp-87. No mutations were found in the gyrB, parC, and parE genes. An assay combining allele-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism was developed to rapidly screen mutations at codons 81, 83, and 87 of gyrA. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for the field isolates reached only 2 ?g/ml, versus 16 ?g/ml for some in vitro-selected mutants. The field isolates, like the mutants selected in vivo, had only a single gyrA mutation at codon 83 or 87. Single gyrA mutations were also found in highly resistant in vitro-selected mutants (MIC of ciprofloxacin, 8 ?g/ml), which indicates that mechanisms other than the unique modification of the intracellular targets could participate in fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. A comparison of experimental mutants selected in vitro, field strains, and mutants selected in vivo suggests that highly fluoroquinolone-resistant strains are counterselected in field conditions in the absence of selective pressure. PMID:10471553

  17. Isolated galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vettolani; R. de Souza; G. Chincarini

    1986-01-01

    Using a catalogue of galaxies complete to mz <= 14.5, the authors investigate the possibility of extracting a sample of nonclustered galaxies and identifying it with a homogeneous background of objects. They conclude, in agreement with previous findings, that such a background does not exist observationally and stress the fact that the sample of isolated galaxies listed in this paper

  18. Origin, Evolution, and Genotyping of Emergent Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Dickerman, Allan W.; Piñeyro, Pablo; Li, Long; Fang, Li; Kiehne, Ross; Opriessnig, Tanja; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronaviruses are known to infect humans and other animals and cause respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Here we report the emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the United States and determination of its origin, evolution, and genotypes based on temporal and geographical evidence. Histological lesions in small intestine sections of affected pigs and the complete genomic sequences of three emergent strains of PEDV isolated from outbreaks in Minnesota and Iowa were characterized. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the three U.S. strains revealed a close relationship with Chinese PEDV strains and their likely Chinese origin. The U.S. PEDV strains underwent evolutionary divergence, which can be classified into two sublineages. The three emergent U.S. strains are most closely related to a strain isolated in 2012 from Anhui Province in China, which might be the result of multiple recombination events between different genetic lineages or sublineages of PEDV. Molecular clock analysis of the divergent time based on the complete genomic sequences is consistent with the actual time difference, approximately 2 to 3 years, of the PED outbreaks between China (December 2010) and the United States (May 2013). The finding that the emergent U.S. PEDV strains share unique genetic features at the 5?-untranslated region with a bat coronavirus provided further support of the evolutionary origin of PEDV from bats and potential cross-species transmission. The data from this study have important implications for understanding the ongoing PEDV outbreaks in the United States and will guide future efforts to develop effective preventive and control measures against PEDV. PMID:24129257

  19. A Comparison of Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production Between Canadian Fusarium graminearum Isolates with 3-Acetyl and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Chemotypes in Field-Grown Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum, half of which were 3- acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotypes, were tested for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol and to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), in spring wheat cultivars. The objectives of this...

  20. A comparison of direct electron microscopy, virus isolation and a DNA amplification method for the detection of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus in field material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Williams; Carol E. Savage; R. C. Jones

    1994-01-01

    Seventy?two post?mortem samples of mainly tracheal tissue from commercial chickens from 25 commercial chicken flocks with suspected infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were examined for the presence of the virus using direct electron microscopy (EM), virus isolation (VI) in primary chick embryo liver cell culture and a DNA amplification method (polymerase chain reaction; PCR). ILT virus was identified in 22 outbreaks, and

  1. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Bakoua, Damien; Fesser, Anna; Nkombo, Michael; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has not been evaluated in the Republic of Congo since its implementation in 2006 and there is no published data on molecular markers of SP resistance among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from pregnant women. This first study in this country aimed to describe the prevalence of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) point mutations and haplotypes in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women with asymptomatic infection. From March 2012 to December 2013, pregnant women attending Madibou health centre (in Southern Brazzaville) for antenatal visits were enrolled in this study after obtaining their written informed consent. Blood samples were collected and P. falciparum infections were characterized using PCR. A total of 363 pregnant women were enrolled. P. falciparum infection was detected in 67 (18.4%) samples as their PCR amplification of dhfr and dhps genes yielded bands and all the PCR products were successfully digested. Out of these 67 isolates, 59 (88%), 57 (85%) and 53 (79.1%) carried 51I, 59R and 108N dhfr mutant alleles, respectively. The prevalence of dhps 436A, 437G and 540E mutations were 67.1% (45/67), 98.5% (66/67) and 55.2% (37/67), respectively. More than one-half of the isolates carried quintuple mutations, with highly resistant haplotype dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E detected in 33% (22/67) whereas 25% (17/67) were found to carry sextuple mutations. We observed significantly higher frequencies of triple dhps mutations 436A/437G/540E and quintuple mutations dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E in isolates from women who received IPTp-SP than those who did not. Overall, this study shows high prevalence rates of SP-associated resistance mutations in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women. The presence of the dhps mutant allele 540E and the high prevalence of isolates carrying quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations are here reported for the first time in the Republic of Congo. The increasing prevalence of multiple mutant alleles observed in this study is alarming and may present a challenge for the future interventions including IPTp-SP in the country. PMID:25934142

  2. Visible optical isolator using ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunderlich, J. A.; Deshazer, L. G.

    1977-01-01

    A compact Faraday effect optical isolator was constructed for visible wavelengths and tested at 5145 A. The nonreciprocal element of the isolator was polycrystalline zinc selenide placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. For 5145 A the isolator had a 2.06-dB insertion loss and a 25.5-dB isolation. Indices of refraction and Verdet constants were measured for zinc selenide in the wavelength region from 4700 to 6300 A.

  3. Computation of the time-averaged temperature fields and energy fluxes in a thermally isolated thermoacoustic stack at low acoustic Mach numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Piccolo; G. Pistone

    2007-01-01

    A simplified calculus model to investigate on the transverse heat transport near the edges of a thermally isolated thermoacoustic stack in the low acoustic Mach number regime is presented. The proposed methodology relies on the well-known results of the classical linear thermoacoustic theory which are implemented into an energy balance calculus-scheme through a finite difference technique. Details of the time-averaged

  4. Comparison of rt pcr assay and virus isolation in cell cultures for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus ( bvdv) in field samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. I Laamanen; E. P Neuvonen; E. M Yliviuhkola; P. M.-L Veijalainen

    1997-01-01

    The virus isolation-immunoperoxidase test (ipx) on cell cultures and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay were compared for the detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) directly in serum samples. Material for this study consisted of 403 sera originating from cattle in 41 bvdv-infected Finnish dairy herds and one suckler cow herd. The presence of virus was demonstrated in

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis Strain DOAB 397, Isolated from an Infected Field Corn Plant in Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Renlin; Adam, Zaky; Cott, Morgan; Rose, Karin; Reid, Lana M.; Daayf, Fouad; Brière, Stephan; Bilodeau, Guillaume J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was isolated from symptomatic corn leaves in Manitoba, Canada. We report the draft genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DOAB 397, consisting of 3.059 Mb with 73.0% G+C content, 2,922 predicted protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs, and 37 pseudogenes. PMID:26159537

  6. Atomically thin nonreciprocal optical isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Zuojia; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Optical isolators will play a critical role in next-generation photonic circuits, but their on-chip integration requires miniaturization with suitable nonreciprocal photonic materials. Here, we theoretically demonstrate the thinnest possible and polarization-selective nonreciprocal isolation for circularly polarized waves by using graphene monolayer under an external magnetic field. The underlying mechanism is that graphene electron velocity can be largely different for the incident wave propagating in opposite directions at cyclotron frequency, making graphene highly conductive and reflective in one propagation direction while transparent in the opposite propagation direction under an external magnetic field. When some practical loss is introduced, nonreciprocal isolation with graphene monolayer still possesses good performance in a broad bandwidth. Our work shows the first study on the extreme limit of thickness for optical isolation and provides theoretical guidance in future practical applications. PMID:24569672

  7. The Impact of Shallow-Trench-Isolation Mechanical Stress on the Hysteresis Effect of Partially Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator n-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie-Xin; Chen, Jing; Chai, Zhan; Lü, Kai; He, Wei-Wei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Xi

    2014-12-01

    The impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) mechanical stress on the hysteresis effect in the output characteristics is measured in partially depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). We develop ID hysteresis, which is defined as the difference between ID versus VD forward sweep and reverse sweep. The fabricated devices show positive and negative peaks in ID hysteresis. The experimental results show that ID hysteresis declined as the STI mechanical stress increases. We also elaborate on the impact of STI mechanical stress on the ID hysteresis of PD SOI n-type MOSFETs.

  8. Chiral fiber optical isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan

    2009-02-01

    We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.

  9. Effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, M; Rashidabady, T; Fatehi-Hassanabad, Zahra

    2003-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on blood pressure in anaesthetised rats and also on responses of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sativus petals reduced the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. For example administration of 50 mg/100 g of aqueous extract changed the blood pressure from 133.5+/-3.9 to 117+/-2.1 (mmHg). EFS of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum evoked contractions were decreased by aqueous and ethanol extracts of C. sativus petals. The aqueous extract (560 mg/ml) significantly reduced the contractile responses of vas deferens to epinephrine (1 microM) without any change in contraction induced by KCl (300 mM). The present results may suggest that the relaxatory action of C. sativus petals' extract on contraction induced by EFS in the rat isolated vas deferens is a postsynaptic effect. PMID:12648816

  10. Comparison of Danish isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT9a and PT11 from hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) and humans by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nauerby, B; Pedersen, K; Dietz, H H; Madsen, M

    2000-10-01

    During the years 1994 to 1998, 10 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 11 (PT11) and 6 PT9a strains were isolated from Danish hedgehogs, together with 7 strains that did not yield phage susceptibility patterns conforming with any known phage type (routine dilution no conformity [RDNC]). From 1995 to 1998, five Danish patients were reported infected with serovar Enteritidis PT11 and two with PT9a. All serovar Enteritidis PT11, PT9a, and RDNC isolates from hedgehogs and humans were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid profiling, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of plasmids. By use of S1 nuclease and HindIII, the PT11 and PT9a isolates had identical plasmid profiles and RFLP patterns, which differed from the RDNC profiles. The PFGE profiles were identical for all serovar Enteritidis PT11 and PT9a strains from hedgehogs, four of five human strains of serovar Enteritidis PT11, and two human strains of serovar Enteritidis PT9a, irrespective of restriction enzyme, whereas the last human strain deviated slightly when NotI was used but not when XbaI or SpeI was used. The results indicate that serovar Enteritidis PT9a and PT11 are closely related and that PT11 and PT9a from Danish hedgehogs and humans belong to the same clonal lineage. PMID:11015375

  11. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from humans, animals and river water in Japan by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    IDO, Noriko; IWABUCHI, Kaori; SATO’O, Yusuke; SATO, Yasuo; SUGAWARA, Masaru; YAEGASHI, Gakuji; KONNO, Masaru; AKIBA, Masato; TANAKA, Kiyoshi; OMOE, Katsuhiko; UCHIDA, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-one Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4, [5],12:i:-) isolates (14 human strains, 34 animal strains and 3 river water strains) which are assumed to be monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) in order to investigate their genetic diversities and relationships. PFGE, MLVA and combination of them identified 28, 27 and 34 profiles (Simpson’s diversity indices [DI]=0.94, 0.96 and 0.97), respectively. No correlations were detected between MLVA clustering and PFGE clustering or phage typing. These results suggested that S. 4,[5],12:i:- originated from multiple S. Typhimurium ancestors. Two cattle and one pig isolates showing identical phage types as well as PFGE and MLVA profiles to human isolates S. 4,[5],12:i:- suggested the existence of the links between human infections and animal reservoirs. PMID:25649169

  12. Investigation into the Role of Potentially Contaminated Feed as a Source of the First-Detected Outbreaks of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, J; Berhane, Y; Ojkic, D; Maxie, G; Embury-Hyatt, C; Swekla, K; Handel, K; Fairles, J; Alexandersen, S

    2014-01-01

    Summary In January 2014, approximately 9 months following the initial detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in the USA, the first case of PED was confirmed in a swine herd in south-western Ontario. A follow-up epidemiological investigation carried out on the initial and 10 subsequent Ontario PED cases pointed to feed as a common risk factor. As a result, several lots of feed and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) used as a feed supplement were tested for the presence of PEDV genome by real-time RT-PCR assay. Several of these tested positive, supporting the notion that contaminated feed may have been responsible for the introduction of PEDV into Canada. These findings led us to conduct a bioassay experiment in which three PEDV-positive SDPP samples (from a single lot) and two PEDV-positive feed samples supplemented with this SDPP were used to orally inoculate 3-week-old piglets. Although the feed-inoculated piglets did not show any significant excretion of PEDV, the SDPP-inoculated piglets shed PEDV at a relatively high level for ?9 days. Despite the fact that the tested PEDV genome positive feed did not result in obvious piglet infection in our bioassay experiment, contaminated feed cannot be ruled out as a likely source of this introduction in the field where many other variables may play a contributing role. PMID:25098383

  13. Genetic Diversity of Food-Isolated Salmonella Strains through Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Fendri, Imen; Ben Hassena, Amal; Grosset, Noel; Barkallah, Mohamed; Khannous, Lamia; Chuat, Victoria; Gautier, Michel; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2013-01-01

    All over the world, the incidence of Salmonella spp contamination on different food sources like broilers, clams and cow milk has increased rapidly in recent years. The multifaceted properties of Salomnella serovars allow the microorganism to grow and multiply in various food matrices, even under adverse conditions. Therefore, methods are needed to detect and trace this pathogen along the entire food supply network. In the present work, PFGE and ERIC-PCR were used to subtype 45 Salmonella isolates belonging to different serovars and derived from different food origins. Among these isolates, S. Enteritidis and S. Kentucky were found to be the most predominant serovars. The Discrimination Index obtained by ERIC-PCR (0.85) was slightly below the acceptable confidence value. The best discriminatory ability was observed when PFGE typing method was used alone (DI?=?0.94) or combined with ERIC-PCR (DI?=?0.93). A wide variety of profiles was observed between the different serovars using PFGE or/and ERIC-PCR. This diversity is particularly important when the sample origins are varied and even within the same sampling origin. PMID:24312546

  14. Candidate isolated neutron stars and other optically blank x-ray fields identified from the rosat all-sky and sloan digital sky surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Agueros, Marcel A.; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Margon, Bruce; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Haberl, Frank; Voges, Wolfgang; /Garching,; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-11-01

    Only seven radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) emitting thermal X rays are known, a sample that has yet to definitively address such fundamental issues as the equation of state of degenerate neutron matter. We describe a selection algorithm based on a cross-correlation of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that identifies X-ray error circles devoid of plausible optical counterparts to the SDSS g {approx} 22 magnitudes limit. We quantitatively characterize these error circles as optically blank; they may host INSs or other similarly exotic X-ray sources such as radio-quiet BL Lacs, obscured AGN, etc. Our search is an order of magnitude more selective than previous searches for optically blank RASS error circles, and excludes the 99.9% of error circles that contain more common X-ray-emitting subclasses. We find 11 candidates, nine of which are new. While our search is designed to find the best INS candidates and not to produce a complete list of INSs in the RASS, it is reassuring that our number of candidates is consistent with predictions from INS population models. Further X-ray observations will obtain pinpoint positions and determine whether these sources are entirely optically blank at g {approx} 22, supporting the presence of likely isolated neutron stars and perhaps enabling detailed follow-up studies of neutron star physics.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms in the glutamate-rich protein of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from a malaria-endemic area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Theisen, Michael; Santos, Fátima; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; de Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Banic, Dalma Maria

    2013-06-01

    The genetic diversity displayed by Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly Plasmodium species, is a significant obstacle for effective malaria vaccine development. In this study, we identified genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), which is currently being tested in clinical trials as a malaria vaccine candidate, from isolates found circulating in the Brazilian Amazon at variable transmission levels. The study was performed using samples collected in 1993 and 2008 from rural villages situated near Porto Velho, in the state of Rondônia. DNA was extracted from 126 P. falciparum-positive thick blood smears using the phenol-chloroform method and subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction protocol with specific primers against two immunodominant regions of GLURP, R0 and R2. Only one R0 fragment and four variants of the R2 fragment were detected. No differences were observed between the two time points with regard to the frequencies of the fragment variants. Mixed infections were uncommon. Our results demonstrate conservation of GLURP-R0 and limited polymorphic variation of GLURP-R2 in P. falciparum isolates from individuals living in Porto Velho. This is an important finding, as genetic polymorphisms in B and T-cell epitopes could have implications for the immunological properties of the antigen. PMID:23828006

  16. Optical Isolators With Transverse Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Yuan X.; Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    New design for isolator includes zigzag, forward-and-backward-pass beam path and use of transverse rather than longitudinal magnetic field. Design choices produce isolator with as large an aperture as desired using low-Verdet-constant glass rather than more expensive crystals. Uses commercially available permanent magnets in Faraday rotator. More compact and less expensive. Designed to transmit rectangular beam. Square cross section of beam extended to rectangular shape by increasing one dimension of glass without having to increase magnetic field. Potentially useful in laser systems involving slab lasers and amplifiers. Has applications to study of very-high-power lasers for fusion research.

  17. Characterization of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from four continents by use of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Evans, Benjamin A; Towner, Kevin J; Amyes, Sebastian G B

    2010-07-01

    This study used a diverse collection of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to compare the robustness of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, based on conserved regions of seven housekeeping genes, gltA, gdhB, recA, cpn60, rpoD, gyrB, and gpi, with that of sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes (SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes). The data obtained by analysis of MLST and SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes were compared to the data generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The topologies of the phylogenetic trees generated for the gyrB and gpi genes showed evidence of recombination and were inconsistent with those of the trees generated for the other five genes. MLST identified 24 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel, and 5 novel alleles. Clonality was demonstrated by eBURST analysis and standardized index of association values of >1 (P < 0.001). MLST data revealed that all isolates harboring the major bla(OXA-51-like) alleles OXA-66, OXA-69, and OXA-71 fell within the three major European clonal lineages. However, the MLST data were not always in concordance with the PFGE data, and some isolates containing the same bla(OXA-51-like) allele demonstrated <50% relatedness by PFGE. It was concluded that the gyrB and gpi genes are not good candidates for use in MLST analysis and that a SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) gene scheme produced results comparable to those produced by MLST for the identification of the major epidemic lineages, with the advantage of having a significantly reduced sequencing cost and time. It is proposed that studies of A. baumannii epidemiology could involve initial screening of bla(OXA-51-like) alleles to identify isolates belonging to major epidemic lineages, followed by MLST analysis to categorize isolates from common lineages, with PFGE being reserved for fine-scale typing. PMID:20421437

  18. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Shaneyfelt; P. E. Dodd; B. L. Draper; R. S. Flores

    1998-01-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide.

  19. CHANGES IN VIRULENCE TO COLORADO POTATO BEETLES OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA GHA ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SPRAYED FIELDS ONE TO FOUR YEARS POST APPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study on the impact of inundative releases of Beauveria bassiana GHA mycoinsecticides on indigenous conspecific populations revealed persistence of the GHA strain in the field four years at most since the last application. Molecular analysis of recovered GHA "clones" using AFLP markers also reve...

  20. Occurrence of pfatpase6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Artemisinin Resistance among Field Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in North-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chilongola, Jaffu; Ndaro, Arnold; Tarimo, Hipolite; Shedrack, Tamara; Barthazary, Sakurani; Kaaya, Robert; Masokoto, Alutu; Kajeguka, Debora; Kavishe, Reginald A.; Lusingu, John

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the current prevalence of four P. falciparum candidate artemisinin resistance biomarkers L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N in the pfatpase6 gene in a high transmission area in Tanzania in a retrospective cross sectional study using 154 archived samples collected from three previous malaria studies in 2010, 2011 and 2013. Mutations in pfatpase6 gene were detected in parasite DNA isolated from Dried Blood Spots by using PCR-RFLP. We observed overall allelic frequencies for L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N to be 5.8% (9/154), 16.2% (25/154), 0.0% (0/154), and 3.9% (6/154). The L263E mutation was not detected in 2010 but occurred at 3.9% and 2.6% in 2011 and 2013 respectively. The L263E mutation showed a significant change of frequency between 2010 and 2011, but not between 2011 and 2013 (P < 0.05). Frequency of E431K was highest of all without any clear trend whereas S769N increased from 2.2% in 2010 to 3.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2013. A623E mutation was not detected. The worrisome detection and the increase in the frequency of S769N and other mutations calls for urgent assessment of temporal changes of known artemisinin biomarkers in association with in vivo ACT efficacy. PMID:25685593

  1. Flow cytometry follow-up analysis of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in calves experimentally infected with field isolates of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Szacawa, Ewelina; Rosales, Ruben S; Ayling, Roger D

    2015-06-01

    Changes in peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations were investigated in calves challenged intratracheally with three different Mycoplasma bovis isolates in Groups E1, E2, and E3. The controls received a placebo. Blood samples were collected before challenge and then at days 1 to 7, 14, 21 and 28. White blood cells (WBC), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), lymphocytes (LYMs), monocytes, eosinophils and basophils (mid-size cells, MID), as well as CD2(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), WC4(+) lymphocyte subsets with CD4:CD8 ratio were also analysed. A transient increase of WBC and PMNLs in all challenged calves was observed on day 1. Increased LYM counts were observed in E1 throughout the study, whereas in E2 the LYM counts were higher only between days 14 and 28, and consistently lower in E3. The MID count had broadly comparable values for all groups. Stimulation of the CD2(+) response was observed in E2 and E3 in contrast with E1 which had a lower CD2(+) throughout. The CD4(+) response was dominant in E1 and E2, whereas in E3 a parallel CD4(+) and CD8(+) stimulation was observed. The B-cell response (WC4(+)) and an increased CD4:CD8 ratio was most apparent in E1. The main host responses to M. bovis infections are a stimulation of CD4(+) cells and an enhancement of the WC4(+) response. PMID:26051255

  2. Characterisation of a new species of Pythium isolated from a wheat field in northern France and its antagonism towards Botrytis cinerea causing the grey mould disease of the grapevine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    A new species, Pythium bifurcatum, isolated from soil samples taken from a wheat field in Lille in northern France is described here. The oomycete occurred thrice out of 50 samples. The type specimen is F-91, which is a slow-growing saprophyte living on vegetable debris and which can be recognised by its antheridial as well as oogonial characteristics, which are different from other known species of Pythium. When grown together with Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the grey mould disease of the grapevine, Pythium bifurcatum shows a pronounced antagonism and suppresses its growth. Morphological features of this new species, its antagonism to B. cinerea, the sequences of the ITS region of its nuclear ribosomal DNA, and its comparison with related species are discussed in this article. PMID:12892885

  3. The role of solvent on selective hydrogenation of conjugated and isolated C dbnd C of Citral (3,7-dimethyl 2,6-octadienal) - a self-consistent reaction field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Maya; Ikushima, Yutaka; Mizukami, Fujio

    2004-09-01

    Self-consistent reaction field study was performed to rationalize the selective formation of 3,7-dimethyloctanal by hydrogenation of citral (3,7-dimethyl 2,6-octadienal) exclusively in supercritical carbon dioxide medium. We have used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate and compare the reactivity of the atoms present in the reactant molecule for a range of solvent with variable dielectric constant. Solvent with low dielectric constant was found to be reducing the electrophilicity of the sites present and hence enhances the selectivity of an isolated and conjugated C dbnd C bond-breaking phenomenon. In contrast to that, solvents with high dielectric constant prefer to hydrogenate the conjugated C dbnd C. The geometric and electronic aspects were compared to propose a plausible explanation for the unprecedented selectivity observed in supercritical carbon dioxide medium.

  4. Ex vivo anti-malarial drugs sensitivity profile of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Burkina Faso five years after the national policy change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent reports on the decreasing susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives along the Thailand and Myanmar border are worrying. Indeed it may spread to India and then Africa, repeating the same pattern observed for chloroquine resistance. Therefore, it is essential to start monitoring P. falciparum sensitivity to artemisinin derivatives and its partner drugs in Africa. Efficacy of AL and ASAQ were tested by carrying out an in vivo drug efficacy test, with an ex vivo study against six anti-malarial drugs nested into it. Results of the latter are reported here. Methods Plasmodium falciparum ex-vivo susceptibility to chloroquine (CQ), quinine (Q), lumefantrine (Lum), monodesethylamodiaquine (MDA), piperaquine (PPQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was investigated in children (6 months – 15 years) with a parasitaemia of at least ?4,000/?l. The modified isotopic microtest technique was used. The results of cellular proliferation were analysed using ICEstimator software to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Results DHA was the most potent among the 6 drugs tested, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 nM to 0.9 nM (Geometric mean IC50?=?0.8 nM; 95% CI [0.8 - 0.9]). High IC50 values ranged between 0.8 nM to 166.1 nM were reported for lumefantrine (Geometric mean IC50?=?25.1 nM; 95% CI [22.4 - 28.2]). MDA and Q IC50s were significantly higher in CQ-resistant than in CQ-sensitive isolates (P?=?0.0001). However, the opposite occurred for Lum and DHA (P?

  5. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Manipulation of isolated brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated ?-Fe2O3 nano-sized particles and assessment of their effects on glutamate transport

    PubMed Central

    Krisanova, Natalia; Bor?sov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Ostapchenko, Ludmila; Babic, Michal; Horak, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The manipulation of brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field promises breakthroughs in nano-neurotechnology. D-Mannose-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts followed by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and addition of D-mannose. Effects of D-mannose-coated superparamagnetic maghemite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles on key characteristics of the glutamatergic neurotransmission were analysed. Using radiolabeled L-[14C]glutamate, it was shown that D-mannose-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not affect high-affinity Na+-dependent uptake, tonic release and the extracellular level of L-[14C]glutamate in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Also, the membrane potential of synaptosomes and acidification of synaptic vesicles was not changed as a result of the application of D-mannose-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. This was demonstrated with the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the pH-sensitive dye acridine orange. The study also focused on the analysis of the potential use of these nanoparticles for manipulation of nerve terminals by an external magnetic field. It was shown that more than 84.3 ± 5.0% of L-[14C]glutamate-loaded synaptosomes (1 mg of protein/mL) incubated for 5 min with D-mannose-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (250 µg/mL) moved to an area, in which the magnet (250 mT, gradient 5.5 ?/m) was applied compared to 33.5 ± 3.0% of the control and 48.6 ± 3.0% of samples that were treated with uncoated nanoparticles. Therefore, isolated brain nerve terminals can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, while the key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission are not affected. In other words, functionally active synaptosomes labeled with D-mannose-coated ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained. PMID:24991515

  7. Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Roux, V; Stein, A; Ferrier, F; Viraben, R; Raoult, D

    1994-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana was isolated from the blood of a French human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with bacillary angiomatosis. The isolate showed the typical growth characteristics of Rochalimaea species and was inert when typical biochemical testing was used. The purpose of the present work was to characterize and compare this new isolate with reference strains of R. quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and Rochalimaea henselae by using immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot (immunoblot), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the citrate synthase gene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR with TaqI enzyme, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing could differentiate the three Rochalimaea species and allowed characterization of the French isolate as R. quintana. However, identification of the Rochalimaea isolate to the species level was more easily obtained by immunofluorescence with specific murine antisera. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis allowed differentiation of the French R. quintana isolate from R. quintana Fuller and may serve as an epidemiological tool. Images PMID:7519628

  8. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of Methanomicrobia (mainly belonging to genera Methanosaeta and Methanoculleus). As both syntrophic Bacteria and methanogenic Archaea are abundant in Dagang, the studied areas of this oil field may have a significant potential to test the in situ conversion of oil into methane as a possible way to increase total hydrocarbon recovery.

  9. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0{degree}, {plus_minus}45{degrees} relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from retail foods in Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weisong; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Meng, Jianghong

    2013-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen of public health concern. A total of 902 retail food samples, including 342 ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, 366 infant foods, and 194 raw chickens were collected randomly in supermarkets and farmers' markets in 12 geographic areas in Shaanxi Province, China and screened for L. monocytogenes. All L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twenty-seven (3.0%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes, and 39 L. monocytogenes isolates were recovered from positive samples. Of these L. monocytogenes isolates, 21 isolates (53.8%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial. The isolates displayed resistance most frequently to oxacillin (18 isolates, 46.2%), followed by tetracycline (five isolates, 12.8%), erythromycin (four isolates, 10.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (three isolates, 7.7%), chloramphenicol (two isolates, 5.1%), and vancomycin (one isolate, 2.6%). All isolates were sensitive or displayed intermediate resistance to gentamicin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Four serotypes including serotype 1/2b, 4b, 4e, and 1/2a were identified in those foodborne isolates. PFGE analysis demonstrated that some isolates with the same PFGE patterns came from different food sources, and isolates from the same food source tend to cluster closely. Presence of L. monocytogenes of clinically important serotypes in retail foods and their antimicrobial resistance constitute a potential risk for the public. Appropriate measures should be taken by government, industry, and consumers to reduce the risk posed by this ubiquitous pathogen. PMID:23841657

  11. Beta adrenergic modulation of spontaneous microcontractions and electrical field-stimulated contractions in isolated strips of rat urinary bladder from normal animals and animals with partial bladder outflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J I; Rouget, C; Palea, S; Granato, C; Korstanje, C

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous microcontractions and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions in isolated rat bladder strips from normal and from 6 weeks partial bladder outflow obstruction (pBOO) animals were studied to identify the potential site of action for the ?3-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist mirabegron in detrusor overactivity in rats. For this, effects of the ?-AR agonist isoprenaline and mirabegron were tested in presence or absence of selective antagonists for ?-AR subtypes, namely CGP-20712A for ?1-AR, ICI-118,551 for ?2-AR, and L-748,337 for ?3-AR. In detrusor strips from both normal and obstructed animals, EFS-induced contractions were weakly affected by isoprenaline and even less so by mirabegron. In contrast, microcontraction activity was more potently reduced by isoprenaline (pIC50 7.3; Emax ±85 %), whereas mirabegron showed a small effect. In pBOO strips, concentration response curves for isoprenaline and mirabegron at inhibition of EFS and spontaneous microcontractions were similar to those in normal strips. Isoprenaline-induced inhibition of microcontractions and EFS was antagonized by the ?1-AR antagonist, but not by the ?2- and ?3-AR antagonists. In the context of ?3-AR-mediated bladder functions for mirabegron in other experiments, the current data question a role for effects at spontaneous microcontractions, or neurogenic detrusor stimulation in the mode of action for mirabegron in vivo, since functional bladder effects for mirabegron are reported to occur at much lower concentrations. PMID:26047780

  12. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant Burkholderia sp. from heavy metal-contaminated paddy field soil and its potential in promoting plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in metal-polluted soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-yu Jiang; Xia-fang Sheng; Meng Qian; Qing-ya Wang

    2008-01-01

    A heavy metal-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soils and identified as Burkholderia sp. J62 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The heavy metal- and antibiotic resistance, heavy metal solubilization of the isolate were investigated. The isolate was also evaluated for promoting plant growth and Pb and Cd uptakes of the plants from heavy metal-contaminated soils

  13. Integrated optical isolators

    E-print Network

    Zaman, Tauhid R

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Optical isolators are important components in lasers. Their main function is to eliminate noise caused by back-reflections into these lasers. The need for integrated isolators comes from the continuing growth ...

  14. Psychopathology of social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The most important defining factor of being human is the use of symbolic language. Language or communication problem occurs during the growth, the child will have a higher risk of social isolation and then the survival will be threatened constantly. Today, adolescents and youths are familiar with computer and smart-phone devices, and communication with others by these devices is easy than face-to-face communication. As adolescents and youths live in the comfortable and familiar cyber-world rather than actively participating real society, so they make social isolation. Extreme form of this isolation in adolescents and youths is so-called Socially Withdrawn Youth. In this study, the psychopathological factors inducing social isolation were discussed. Development stages of social isolation in relation with types of social isolation, Ego-syntonic isolation and Ego-dystonic isolation, were also considered. PMID:25061592

  15. Noise cancellation in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography with isolated reference sensors

    DOEpatents

    Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Espy, Michelle A.; Matlachov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

    2010-06-01

    An apparatus measures electromagnetic signals from a weak signal source. A plurality of primary sensors is placed in functional proximity to the weak signal source with an electromagnetic field isolation surface arranged adjacent the primary sensors and between the weak signal source and sources of ambient noise. A plurality of reference sensors is placed adjacent the electromagnetic field isolation surface and arranged between the electromagnetic isolation surface and sources of ambient noise.

  16. Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the Reproductive Organs and Differential Effects of Triclabendazole on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Fluke Isolates and on Flukes from Selected Field Cases.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ), were examined. A detailed description of the normal macroscopic arrangement and histological features of the testes, ovary, vitelline tissue, Mehlis' gland and uterus is provided to aid recognition of the drug-induced lesions, and to provide a basic model to inform similar toxicological studies on F. hepatica in the future. The production of spermatozoa and egg components represents the main energy consuming activity of the adult fluke. Thus the reproductive organs, with their high turnover of cells and secretory products, are uniquely sensitive to metabolic inhibition and sub-cellular disorganisation induced by extraneous toxic compounds. The flukes chosen for study were derived from TCBZ-sensitive (TCBZ-S) and TCBZ-resistant (TCBZ-R) isolates, the status of which had previously been proven in controlled clinical trials. For comparison, flukes collected from flocks where TCBZ resistance had been diagnosed by coprological methods, and from a dairy farm with no history of TCBZ use, were also examined. The macroscopic arrangement of the reproductive system in flukes was studied using catechol/carmine stained whole mounts, and the histology of the main organs was examined using conventional haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Validation of apoptosis in the fluke sections was carried out using an in situ hybridisation method designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks. In TCBZ-S flukes exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 24-96 h in vivo, but not in TCBZ-R flukes, those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles), were found to display progressive loss of cell content. This was due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or effete products. Further, actively dividing cell types tended to become individualised, rounded and condensed, characteristic of apoptotic cell death. In the treated TCBZ-S flukes, strong positive labelling indicating apoptosis was associated with the morphologically abnormal cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. In treated flukes from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-R fasciolosis, no significant histological changes were observed, nor was there any positive labelling for apotosis. On the other hand, sections of TCBZ treated flukes derived from a field case of fasciolosis where TCBZ resistance was not suspected displayed severe histological lesions, and heavy positive labelling for apoptosis. The triggering of apoptosis is considered to be related to failure of spindle formation at cell division, supporting the contention that TCBZ inhibits microtubule formation. In treated TCBZ-S flukes, protein synthesis and transport was apparently inhibited in the Mehlis' secretory cells, perhaps due to energy uncoupling or to microtubule defects. In the uterus, successful formation of shelled eggs represents the culmination of a complex sequence of cytokinetic, cytological and synthetic activity involving the vitelline follicles, the ovary and the Mehlis' gland. Histological evidence indicating failure of ovigenesis in TCBZ-S flukes was evident from as early as 24 h post-treatment onwards. Light labelling for apoptosis was associated with the testis of untreated Cullompton (TCBZ-S) and Sligo type 2 (TCBZ-R) flukes, which exhibit abnormal spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, respectively. This was attributed to apoptosis and to heterophagy of effete germ line cells by the sustentacular tissue. The studies summarised in this review illustrate the potential utility of histological techniques for conveniently screening representative samples of flukes in field trials designed to validate instances of drug resistance. Histology can also be used to test the efficacy of new products against known drug-resistant and drug-susceptible fluke isolates. The ac

  17. Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wenhan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

  18. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  19. Vibration isolation technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the vibration isolation technology experiment are to demonstrate the viability of the magnetic suspension technology in providing the isolation of large structures elements from the external environment and to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system. The approach proposed for this experiment is to mount a six-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing suspension system at the free end of a shuttle-attached flexible structure such as MAST. The disturbance generator, located on top of the isolation system, will be energized at selected and broadband frequencies to simulate a typical spacecraft vibration environment. Sensors located on the isolation system and the flexible structures element will be used to quantify the degree of isolation provided by this system.

  20. RFLP analysis of rDNA-ITS regions of native non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates and their field evaluation for the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease of banana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Thangavelu; A. Jayanthi

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the most devastating disease of banana affecting commercial cultivars grown worldwide. An attempt has been made to identify\\u000a antagonistic, non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (npFo) isolates from banana soil. A total of 200 rhizosphere soil samples were collected from different commercial cultivars, as\\u000a well as wild bananas. Forty Fusarium isolates were recovered,

  1. Diversity Among Potato virus Y Isolates Obtained from Potatoes Grown in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Piche; R. P. Singh; X. Nie; N. C. Gudmestad

    2004-01-01

    Piche, L. M., Singh, R. P., Nie, X., and Gudmestad, N. C. 2004. Diversity among Potato virus Y isolates obtained from potatoes grown in the United States. Phytopathology 94:1368-1375. Potato field isolates (Solanum tuberosum) of Potato virus Y (PVY) collected from the midwestern and western United States were charac- terized using serological, molecular, and biological assays. PVY field isolates were

  2. Isolated central vestibular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. PMID:25735822

  3. Wrentit Genetic Isolation Map

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This map of the Thousand Oaks, Calif. area visualizes the degree of genetic isolation being experienced by the wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), a small songbird. USGS and National Park Service biologists discovered that as urban development fragmented the Santa Monica Mountains scrubland into isolated

  4. Isolation of Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Gregory; Maureen E. Lacey

    1962-01-01

    To judge from reports in the literature, thermophilic Actinomycetes have proved difficult to isolate. For isolations from mouldy hay we have developed a convenient method which promises to be useful in other contexts1. The method uses the fact that dry air removes spores of the Streptomycetaceae in preference to bacteria. Instead of suspending the spores in water and plating dilutions

  5. 232 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Infection of Winter Wheat by a -Glucuronidase-Transformed Isolate

    E-print Network

    Murray, Timothy D.

    232 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Etiology Infection of Winter Wheat by a -Glucuronidase-Transformed Isolate. Phytopathology 91:232-239. Field-grown winter wheat was inoculated with a -glucuronidase- transformed isolate

  6. Isolation, culture, and differentiation potential of mouse marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Bonnet, Dominique

    2008-10-01

    This unit describes how to isolate and expand mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from mouse bone marrow. For reasons that are not clear, it has been difficult to isolate these cells (also known as mesenchymal stem cells). Furthermore, different mouse strains seem to have specific requirements for successful extraction and culture of these cells. A general and easy protocol is presented here for isolating stromal cells from different inbred and transgenic mice commonly used in the stem cell biology field. PMID:18972375

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococci Isolated from Turkey Flocks Fed Virginiamycin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. WELTON; L. A. THAL; M. B. PERRI; S. DONABEDIAN; J. MCMAHON; J. W. CHOW; M. J. ZERVOS

    1998-01-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE

  8. Cell Isolation and Expansion Using Dynabeads ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axl A. Neurauter; Mark Bonyhadi; Eli Lien; Lars Nøkleby; Erik Ruud; Stephanie Camacho; Tanja Aarvak

    This chapter describes the use of Dynabeads for cell isolation and expansion. Dynabeads are uniform\\u000a polystyrene spherical beads that have been made magnetisable and superparamagnetic, meaning they are only\\u000a magnetic in a magnetic field. Due to this property, the beads can easily be resuspended when the magnetic\\u000a field is removed. The invention of Dynabeads made, by Professor John Ugelstad, has revolutionized

  9. A New Record of Gongronella butleri Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Babu, A. Giridhar; Kim, Sang Woo; Adhikari, Mahesh; Yadav, Dil Raj; Um, Yong Hyun; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a Gongronella butleri species and describe it based on the analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and morphological characteristics. G. butleri has been reported as a high chitosan producer in the literature. This is the first record of G. butleri isolated from crop field soil in Korea.

  10. Modeling of Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Shallow Trench Isolation

    E-print Network

    Boning, Duane S.

    isolation for advanced ULSI CMOS technologies. STI is desirable because it has near zero field encroachmentModeling of Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Shallow Trench Isolation by Terence Gan Submitted in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY May 8, 2000

  11. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Shaneyfelt; P. E. Dodd; B. L. Draper; R. S. Flores

    1998-01-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. It is shown that developing a radiation-hardened CMOS technology with shallow trench isolation is more complex than using a traditional hardened field oxide as the trench insulator. We illustrate the use of device simulations in concert with measurements on test structures to provide detailed physical insight into methods

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ISOLATED FROM RETAIL FOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n = 167) recovered from retail deli meats, raw chickens and fresh produce samples were characterized by serogroup identification using PCR, genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Five L. monocytogenes serogr...

  13. Microsample preparation by dielectrophoresis: isolation of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Becker, Frederick F.

    2009-01-01

    An important enabling factor for realising integrated micro fluidic analysis instruments for medical diagnostics purposes is front-end sample preparation. Dielectrophoresis is a method that offers great potential for cell discrimination and isolation for sample processing, and here we have applied it to the problem of isolating malaria-infected cells from blood. During development of the malarial pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, increases occur in the ionic permeability of the plasma membrane of infected erythrocytes. When challenged by suspension in a low conductivity medium, infected cells lose internal ions while uninfected cells retain them. The resultant dielectric differences between infected and uninfected cells were exploited by dielectrophoretic manipulation in spatially inhomogeneous, travelling electrical fields produced by two types of microelectrode arrays. Parasitised cells of ring form or later stage from cultures and clinical specimens were isolated by steric dielectric field-flow-fractionation, focused at the centre of a spiral electrode array, and identified and counted. The dielectrophoretic methods require only a few micro litres of blood, and should be applicable to the production of small, low-cost automated devices for assessing parasite concentrations with potential applicability to drug sensitivity studies and the diagnosis of malaria. By simple adjustment of the electrical field parameters, other cell subpopulations that characterise disease, such as residual cancer cells in blood, can be similarly isolated and analysed. PMID:15100837

  14. Extremal isolated horizon/CFT correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoning; Tian Yu [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) and Hua Loo-Keng Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The near-horizon limit of the extremal (weakly) isolated horizon is obtained under the Bondi-like coordinates. For the vacuum case, explicit coordinate transformation relating the near-horizon metric under the Bondi-like coordinates and the standard Poincare-type or global near-horizon metric of the extremal Kerr black hole is found, which shows that the two geometries are the same. Combined with the known thermodynamics of the (weakly) isolated horizon, it is argued that the Kerr/conformal field theory correspondence can be generalized to the case of a large class of nonstationary extremal black holes.

  15. Low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George F. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A low-loss, high-isolation, fiber-optic isolator for use in single-mode fiber systems utilizes a Faraday rotator and two polarizers, one at each end angularly oriented from each other at the angle of rotation for isolation, and two aspheric lens connectors to couple optical fibers to the Faraday isolator to reduce forward loss to about 2.5 dB and improve isolation to greater than 70 dB.

  16. Comparative study of three different DNA fingerprint techniques for molecular typing of Shigella flexneri strains isolated in Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Surdeanu; Lucia Ciudin; Elena Pencu; Monica Straut

    2003-01-01

    In this study, 97 epidemiologically unrelated Shigella flexneri strains isolated during 1994 (69 isolates) and 1997 (28 isolates) were characterised by ribotyping, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Number of strains belonging to each of the six serotypes is selected equal to their distribution in Romania. The isolates comprise 24 ribotypes based on combination of

  17. Review on Recent Advances in the Analysis of Isolated Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Satori, Chad P.; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. PMID:23107131

  18. Review on recent advances in the analysis of isolated organelles.

    PubMed

    Satori, Chad P; Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2012-11-13

    The analysis of isolated organelles is one of the pillars of modern bioanalytical chemistry. This review describes recent developments on the isolation and characterization of isolated organelles both from living organisms and cell cultures. Salient reports on methods to release organelles focused on reproducibility and yield, membrane isolation, and integrated devices for organelle release. New developments on organelle fractionation after their isolation were on the topics of centrifugation, immunocapture, free flow electrophoresis, flow field-flow fractionation, fluorescence activated organelle sorting, laser capture microdissection, and dielectrophoresis. New concepts on characterization of isolated organelles included atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers combined with Raman spectroscopy, organelle sensors, flow cytometry, capillary electrophoresis, and microfluidic devices. PMID:23107131

  19. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  20. High voltage gas isolator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An isolator is provided which has an inlet at ground electrical potential which receives gas, and which has an outlet at a high electrical potential through which gas is discharged, the isolator being compactly and simply constructed while providing a long narrow path that minimizes the possibility of electrical breakdown through the gas. The isolator includes a first element forming a cylindrical core and a cup-shaped second element forming a sleeve portion that closely receives the core. The core has a helical groove on its outside to form a passage between the groove and the inner walls of the sleeve. The core also has a vertical hole extending to the bottom of the core and a radial groove in the bottom of the core that extends between the hole and the bottom of the helical groove.

  1. Application of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for evaluation of Russian isolates of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the "best fit" pathotyping assay for testing of field isolates of Marek's disease (MD) virus. Twenty serotype 1 MD viruses were isolated from breeder and commercial flocks in 8 regions of the Russian Federation. These isolates were pat...

  2. Epidemiological studies on fowl adenoviruses isolated from cases of infectious hydropericardium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hess; R. Raue; C. Prusas

    1999-01-01

    Serology, restriction enzyme analysis and polymerase chain reactions were used to classify a total of 12 fowl adenoviruses (FAV) isolated from clinical cases of infectious hydropericardium from field outbreaks in seven countries in Asia and America. All isolates belonged to FAV serotype 4. Two isolates were contaminated with avian adeno-associated virus and one of them also contained FAV1. Minor differences

  3. Isolated quasi-axisymmetric sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, Serge; Le Piouffle, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    We briefly review the question of the origin, during a sunspot cycle, of well isolated sunspots. This includes big sunspots like the one observed in Nov. 2006. An overall axi-symmetric morphology is not perfectly observed when the morphological details of both the umbra and of the penumbra are considered. This is especially the case of umbral dots always present inside the core of a sunspot and also of penumbral filaments with non radial parts. However, the distribution of the surrounding fields, including deep layers, the occurrence of persistent coherent running penumbral waves, the magnetic moat behavior, the bright ring phenomena, etc. seem to justify a revival of the naive former but revised (converging motions are considered) Larmor model of a sunspot (as suggested by Lorrain et al. 2006). To discuss the “emergence” of single isolated sunspots from deep layers we performed a quasi-statistical analysis limited to cycle 23. It is based on MDI data taken in the continuum, using the accompanying magnetograms to check our assertion. Surprisingly, single sunspots are definitely and preferably found to occur at low latitude and during the descending branch of the cycle. To explain our observations we speculate about the behavior of the deeply seated magnetic loop, following the original idea of H. Alfven (with whirl rings which follow the global dipolar field when approaching the surface). It could lead to a closed loop approximately orthogonal to the local radius, similar to “smoke rings” arriving at the surface of the Sun and sometimes also called a plasmoid. The ring will only very weakly feel the destabilizing Coriolis force, when emerging at very low latitudes, which seems consistent with our observations.

  4. Sexual isolation in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Majewski

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

  5. Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spross, F. R.

    1968-01-01

    Biological Isolation Garment /BIG/ is a one-piece loose fitting garment fabricated from a tightly woven, permeable, 100 percent-cotton fabric. Its headpiece, incorporates an integral oronsal respirator with 0.3-micron-particle filters, and a full width visor. All fabrication seams are sealed on the inside of the garment.

  6. Aircraft EMP isolation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finci, A.; Price, H.; Chao, P.; Mercer, S.; Naff, T.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

  7. Biological Isolation Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  8. Isolated prompt photon production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Guo, Xiaofeng [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Qiu, Jianwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-08-15

    We show that the conventionally defined partonic cross section for the production of isolated prompt photons is not an infrared safe quantity. We work out the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma} + X in detail, and we discuss implications for hadron reactions such as p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + X.

  9. Scalable statistical bug isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Liblit; Mayur Naik; Alice X. Zheng; Alexander Aiken; Michael I. Jordan

    2005-01-01

    We present a statistical debugging algorithm that isolates bugs in programs containing multiple undiagnosed bugs. Earlier statistical algorithms that focus solely on identifying predictors that correlate with program failure perform poorly when there are multiple bugs. Our new technique separates the effects of different bugs and identifies predictors that are associated with individual bugs. These predictors reveal both the circumstances

  10. Modeling oceanic isolated vortices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Cushman-Roisin

    1985-01-01

    On March 25-26, 1985, with the support of the Office of Naval Research, a 2-day workshop was held at the Florida State University, Tallahassee, to discuss and summarize the recent developments in modeling of oceanic isolated vortices such as intense eddies and solitary waves. The interest in these oceanic features stems from their ubiquity and large amplitudes. Indeed, they contribute

  11. Reproductive Isolation in Angiosperms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alexander F. Motten (Duke University; )

    1996-01-01

    This resource is a suitable exercise for use in plant reproductive biology laboratory courses. Its purpose is to illustrate mechanisms of isolation in angiosperms by the species Silene by observing the success or failure of inter-specific pollination. This lab exercise is also suitable for courses in plant biology, concepts of the biological species or botany, and evolution.

  12. Broadband Faraday isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berent, Micha?; Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  13. Diversity of Salmonella Isolates from Central Florida Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    McEgan, Rachel; Chandler, Jeffrey C.; Goodridge, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Salmonella serotypes is important for understanding the environmental diversity of the genus Salmonella. This study evaluates the diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from 165 of 202 Central Florida surface water samples and investigates whether the serotype of the environmental Salmonella isolates can be predicted by a previously published multiplex PCR assay (S. Kim, J. G. Frye, J. Hu, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, R. Gautom, and D. S. Boyle, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:3608–3615, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00701-06). Multiplex PCR was performed on 562 Salmonella isolates (as many as 36 isolates per water sample) to predict serotypes. Kauffmann-White serogrouping was used to confirm multiplex PCR pattern groupings before isolates were serotyped, analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility. In 41.2% of the Salmonella-positive water samples, all Salmonella isolates had identical multiplex PCR patterns; in the remaining 58.8%, two or more multiplex PCR patterns were identified. Within each sample, isolates with matching multiplex PCR patterns had matching serogroups. The multiplex patterns of 495 isolates (88.1%) did not match any previously reported pattern. The remaining 68 isolates matched reported patterns but did not match the serotypes for those patterns. The use of the multiplex PCR allowed the number of isolates requiring further analysis to be reduced to 223. Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serotypes were identified; the most frequent included serotypes Muenchen, Rubislaw, Anatum, Gaminara, and IV_50:z4,z23:?. A majority (141/223) of Salmonella isolates clustered into one genotypic group. Salmonella isolates in Central Florida surface waters are serotypically, genotypically, and phenotypically (in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility) diverse. While isolates could be grouped as different or potentially the same using multiplex PCR, the multiplex PCR pattern did not predict the Salmonella serotype. PMID:25172861

  14. Thiogranum longum gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field, and an emended description of the genus Thiohalomonas.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koji; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Urabe, Tetsuro; Hanada, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A novel, obligately chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterial strain, designated strain gps52(T), was isolated from a rock sample collected near the hydrothermal vents of the Suiyo Seamount in the Pacific Ocean. The cells possessed a Gram-stain-negative-type cell wall and contained menaquinone-8(H4) and menaquinone-9(H4) as respiratory quinones, and C16?:?1?7c, C16?:?0 and C18?:?1?7c as major cellular fatty acids. Neither storage compounds nor extensive internal membranes were observed in the cells. Strain gps52(T) grew using carbon dioxide fixation and oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds with oxygen as electron acceptor. Optimal growth was observed at 32 °C, pH 6.5 and with 3?% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain gps52(T) belongs to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae and is different from any other known bacteria, with sequence similarities of less than 93?%. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, the isolate is considered to represent a novel genus and species in the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae, and the name Thiogranum longum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is gps52(T) (?=?NBRC 101260(T)?=?DSM 19610(T)). An emended description of the genus Thiohalomonas is also proposed. PMID:25336721

  15. An evaluation of SCATS Master Isolated control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi Akçelik; Mark Besley; Edward Chung

    The effectiveness of SCATS Master Isolated (SMI) control for non-coordinated signalised intersections was evaluated using vehicle-by-vehicle simulation including an evaluation of the effects of detector failure, as well as field surveys. Various SCATS-like adaptive control algorithms were developed and tested through extensive simulation tests with a wide range of demand flow patterns and a large number of control parameter combinations.

  16. Vibration isolating engine mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Stanley I.; Dawes, Peter W.; Butler, Lawrence

    1993-07-01

    An improved engine suspension system is provided for attenuating vibration in a gas turbine engine. In one embodiment, the invention is directed to an aircraft engine suspension system for mounting a gas turbine engine to a supporting frame by mounts arranged in first and second parallel, spaced axial mounting planes of the engine. First and second vibration isolation mounts are aligned in the first mounting plane and couple the engine to the supporting frame. Each of the first and second mounts provides both radial and axial vibration damping to the engine as well as radial and axial stiffness. A third vibration isolation mount is aligned in the second mounting plane and couples the engine and support frame together to provide radial and tangential vibration damping to the engine as well as radial and tangential stiffness. The mounts are arranged axially and radially such that the suspension system is statically and dynamically determinate.

  17. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L. (Penn Hills, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  18. High temperature behavior of multi-region direct current current-voltage spectroscopy and relationship with shallow-trench-isolation-based high-voltage laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the process compatibility with the mainstream standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular for its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and performance, especially for smart power applications. A multi-region direct current current-voltage (MR-DCIV) technique with spectroscopic features was demonstrated to map the interface state generation in the channel, accumulation and STI drift regions. High temperature behavior of MR-DCIV spectroscopy was analyzed and a physical model was verified. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors under high temperature reverse bias (HTRB) stress is experimentally studied by MR-DCIV spectroscopy. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics was investigated. Our results show that the major contribution to HTRB degradation, in term of the on-resistance degradation, was attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.

  19. Mechanical beam isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam.

  20. Denali: a scalable isolation kernel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Whitaker; Marianne Shaw; Steven D. Gribble

    2002-01-01

    The Denali project provides system support for running sev- eral mutually distrusting Internet services on the same physical infrastructure. For example, this would enable a developer to push dynamic content into third party hosting infrastructure such as content distribution networks. To accomplish this, we propose a new kernel architecture called an isolation kernel to isolate un- trusted applications. An isolation

  1. Numerical investigation of smart base isolation system employing MR elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, M.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, D. D.; Jung, H. J.; Koo, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    This paper evaluates the dynamic performance of a newly proposed smart base isolation system employing Magneto-Rheological Elastomers (MREs). MREs belong to a class of smart materials whose elastic modulus or stiffness can be adjusted by varying the magnitude of the magnetic field. The base isolation systems are considered as one of the most effective devices for vibration reduction of civil engineering structures in the event of earthquakes. The proposed base isolation system strives to enhance the performance of the conventional base-isolation system by using controllable MREs. To validate the effectiveness of the MRE-based isolation system, an extensive simulation study has been performed using a five degree-of-freedom structure under several historical earthquake excitations. The results show that the proposed system outperformed the conventional system in reducing the responses of the structure in all the seismic excitations considered in the study.

  2. Home humidifier thermophilic actinomycete isolates.

    PubMed

    Seabury, J; Becker, B; Salvaggio, J

    1976-02-01

    Twenty-seven thermophilic actinomycete isolates obtained from humidification systems or living-bedroom areas of individuals with suspected but unproved home environment-related respiratory disease were characterized morphologically and biochemically. All isolates were demonstrated to be members of the Thermoactinomyces genus. Two previously misidentified isolates were reclassified as a Thermoacetinomyces sp. Thus, all of our thermophilic actinomycete humidifier isolates studied to date have been identified as either Thermoactinomyces vulgaris or Thermoactinomyces sp. Large numbers of unidentified thermotolerant bacteria have also been isolated from virtually all residual humidifier water samples and their possible role in production of "humidifier-associated" respiratory disease is unknown. PMID:1078519

  3. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Shim, Sangjo

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies. PMID:24662940

  4. The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2010-01-01

    The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

  5. OPTIMUM MODAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR MULTISTORY BUILDINGS ISOLATED WITH LRBS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdolrahim Jalali; Peyman Narjabadifam

    Improving the performance of available base-isolation technologies in conjunction with optimum using of dynamic properties of superstructure such as stiffness, damping and mass has gained lot of interests in the earthquake engineering field. In this study, the effect of superstructure characteristics on performance of multi-story buildings isolated with lead-plug laminated rubber bearings has been investigated. The superstructure characteristics considered at

  6. Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets.

    PubMed

    Tien, Ming-Chun; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Pintus, Paolo; Kromer, Herbert; Bowers, John E

    2011-06-01

    A ring isolator is demonstrated for the first time by directly bonding a cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Ce:YIG) onto a silicon ring resonator using oxygen plasma enhanced bonding. The silicon waveguide is 600 nm wide and 295 nm thick with 500-nm-thick Ce:YIG on the top to have reasonable nonreciprocal effect and low optical loss. With a radial magnetic field applied to the ring isolator, it exhibits 9-dB isolation at resonance in the 1550 nm wavelength regime. PMID:21716405

  7. Macrorestriction Fragment Profiles Reveal Genetic Variation of Cowdria ruminantium Isolates

    PubMed Central

    de Villiers, E. P.; Brayton, K. A.; Zweygarth, E.; Allsopp, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    Macrorestriction profile analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to distinguish between seven isolates of Cowdria ruminantium from geographically different areas. Characteristic profiles were generated for each isolate by using the restriction endonucleases KspI, SalI, and SmaI with chromosomal sizes ranging between 1,546 and 1,692 kb. Statistical analysis of the macrorestriction profiles indicated that all the isolates were distinct from each other; these data contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen and may be exploited for the identification of genotype-specific DNA probes. PMID:10790130

  8. Investigation of Hot Carrier Degradation in Shallow-Trench-Isolation-Based High-Voltage Laterally Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors by a Novel Direct Current Current-Voltage Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang

    2012-04-01

    Shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular with its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and on-resistance and its compatibility with the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. A novel direct current current-voltage (DCIV) technique demonstrated with multiple sharp peak signals is proposed to characterize interface state generation in the channel and in the STI drift regions separately. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors in various hot-carrier stress modes is investigated experimentally by proposed technique. A two-dimensional numerical device simulation is performed to obtain insight into the proposed technique and device degradation characteristics under hot-carrier stress conditions. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics is analyzed from measurement and simulation. Our results show that the maximum Isub stress becomes the worst hot-carrier degradation mode in term of the on-resistance degradation, which is attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

  10. Novel protocol for persister cells isolation.

    PubMed

    Cañas-Duarte, Silvia J; Restrepo, Silvia; Pedraza, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial persistence, where a fraction of a population presents a transient resistance to bactericidal substances, has great medical importance due to its relation with the appearance of antibiotic resistances and untreatable bacterial chronic infections. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown in spite of recent advances, in great part because of the difficulty in isolating the very small fraction of the population that is in this state at any given time. Current protocols for persister isolation have resulted in possible biases because of the induction of this state by the protocol itself. Here we present a novel protocol that allows rapid isolation of persister cells both from exponential and stationary phase. Moreover, it is capable of differentiating between type I and type II persister cells, which should allow the field to move beyond its current state of studying only one type. While this protocol prompts a revision of many of the current results, it should greatly facilitate further advances in the field. PMID:24586365

  11. Characterization of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates from Clinical Sources in Spain and Comparison with Asian and North American Pandemic Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Lozano-Leon, Antonio; DePaola, Angelo; Ishibashi, Masanori; Shimada, Kanae; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Liebana, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    In spite of the potential risk involved with contamination of seafood with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, there is a lack of information on the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in Europe. This organism was isolated in 1999 from a large outbreak (64 cases admitted to a single hospital) associated with raw oyster consumption in Galicia, Spain, one of the most important regions in shellfish production worldwide. Two V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the 1999 Galicia outbreak, three additional clinical isolates obtained in the same period from hospitals in Spain, two reference strains from clinical sources, and five Spanish environmental isolates were examined. Seventeen isolates belonging to the pandemic clone isolated in Asia and North America were included in the study for comparison. All isolates were characterized by serotyping, PCR for virulence-related genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmid analysis. Four of the five clinical isolates from hospitals in Spain belonged to serotype O4:K11; the remaining isolate was O4:K untypeable (KUT). All five isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus toxR and tlh (species-specific genes) and tdh and negative for trh and group-specific PCR (a PCR method for detection of the pandemic clone). PFGE analysis with NotI and SfiI discriminated the European isolates in two closely related PFGE types included in a homogeneous cluster, clearly differentiated from the Asian and North American isolates. The five environmental isolates belonged to serotypes O2:K28, O2:KUT, O3:K53, O4:KUT, and O8:K22 and were negative for all virulence genes. The five isolates were discriminated into five different PFGE types unrelated to any other isolate included in the study. While the virulence characteristics (tdh positive, trh negative) of the Spanish clinical isolates matched those of the O3:K6 clone from Asia and North America, they were clearly excluded from this clone by group-specific PCR, PFGE, and serotyping. The results of this study suggest that a unique and specific clone could be related to the V. parahaemolyticus infections in Europe. PMID:15472326

  12. A novel approach for the isolation of the sound and pseudo-sound contributions from near-field pressure fluctuation measurements: analysis of the hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic perturbation in a propeller-rudder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, Mario; Grizzi, Silvano; Falchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The main scope of the present work is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hydroacoustic and hydrodynamic perturbations in a rudder operating in the wake of a free running marine propeller. The study consisted of detailed near-field pressure fluctuation measurements which were acquired on the face and back surfaces of the rudder, at different deflection angles. To this aim, a novel wavelet-filtering procedure was applied to separate and analyze distinctly the acoustic and hydrodynamic components of the recorded near-field pressure signals. The filtering procedure undertakes the separation of intermittent pressure peaks induced by the passage of eddy structures, interpreted as pseudo-sound, from homogenous background fluctuations, interpreted as sound. The use of wavelet in the filtering procedure allows to overcome the limitations of the earlier attempts based on frequency (wave number) band-pass filtering, retrieving the overall frequency content of both the acoustic and the hydrodynamic components and returning them as independent signals in the time domain. Acoustic and hydrodynamic pressure distributions were decomposed harmonically and compared to the corresponding topologies of the vorticity field, derived from earlier LDV measurements performed by Felli and Falchi (Exp Fluids 51(5):1385-1402, 2011). The study highlighted that the acoustic perturbation is mainly correlated with the unsteady load variations of the rudder and to the shear layer fluctuations of the propeller streamtube. Conversely, the dynamics of the propeller tip and hub vortices underlies the hydrodynamic perturbation.

  13. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  14. Strategies for microsatellite isolation: a review.

    PubMed

    Zane, L; Bargelloni, L; Patarnello, T

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years microsatellites have become one of the most popular molecular markers used with applications in many different fields. High polymorphism and the relative ease of scoring represent the two major features that make microsatellites of large interest for many genetic studies. The major drawback of microsatellites is that they need to be isolated de novo from species that are being examined for the first time. The aim of the present paper is to review the various methods of microsatellite isolation described in the literature with the purpose of providing useful guidelines in making appropriate choices among the large number of currently available options. In addition, we propose a fast and easy protocol which is a combination of different published methods. PMID:11903900

  15. Dissemination of clonal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates causing salmonellosis in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Issack, Mohammad I; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Ramsamy, Veemala D; Svendsen, Christina A; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is one of the leading causes of salmonellosis in Mauritius, where it has also been associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. However, little is known about its molecular epidemiology in the country. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the clonality and source of Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius by studying human, food, and poultry isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration determination. Forty-nine isolates collected between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed, including 25 stool isolates from foodborne illness outbreaks and sporadic gastroenteritis cases, four blood isolates, one postmortem colon isolate, 14 food isolates, and five poultry isolates. All isolates were pansusceptible to the 16 antibiotics tested, except for two isolates that were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Overall characterization of the isolates by PFGE digested with XbaI and BlnI resulted in eight different patterns. The largest of the clusters in the composite dataset consisted of 20 isolates, including two raw chicken isolates, four poultry isolates, and nine human stool isolates from two outbreaks. A second cluster consisted of 18 isolates, of which 12 originated from human blood and stool samples from both sporadic and outbreak cases. Six food isolates were also found in this cluster, including isolates from raw and grilled chicken, marlin mousse, and cooked pork. One poultry isolate had a closely related PFGE pattern. The results indicate that one clone of Salmonella Typhimurium found in poultry has been causing outbreaks of foodborne illness in Mauritius and another clone that has caused many cases of gastrointestinal illness and bacteremia in humans could also be linked to poultry. Thus, poultry appears to be a major reservoir for Salmonella Typhimurium in Mauritius. Initiating on-farm control strategies and measures against future dissemination may substantially reduce the number of cases of salmonellosis in the country. PMID:23705985

  16. Isolation of circulating angiogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Erin E; O'Brien, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first identified by Ashara et al. in 1997 (Asahara et al. Science 275:964-967, 1997) and were thought to contribute to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Since their discovery, circulating levels of EPCs were found to serve as biomarkers as low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular events and death from cardiovascular causes (Werner et al. N Engl J Med 353:999-1007, 2005; Fadini et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:1449-1457, 2005; Hill et al. N Engl J Med 348:593-600, 2003; Schmidt-Lucke et al. Circulation 111:2981-2987, 2005). Additionally, EPC dysfunction has been associated with diabetes mellitus and other disease states. However, recently there has been a great deal of controversy in the field over the exact definition and function of an EPC. To help classify EPCs, they have been divided into two distinct groups (1) circulating angiogenic cells (also referred to as early EPCs) and (2) endothelial colony forming cells (also referred to as late outgrowth EPCs). Circulating angiogenic cells are believed to represent a cell population enriched in monocytes and exert their angiogenic effects via paracrine and signaling mechanisms whereas endothelial colony forming cells are true EPCs and may enhance angiogenesis and vasculogenesis by incorporating into the newly forming vessels. Here the isolation and identification of circulating angiogenic cells are described. PMID:22914952

  17. Emergence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolates producing KPC-2 carbapenemase in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia Chang; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-two KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from three hospitals in Hangzhou, China, from 2007 to 2011. One isolate, with OmpC porin deficiency, exhibited high-level carbapenem resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that few isolates were indistinguishable or closely related. Multilocus sequence typing indicated that sequence type 131 (ST131) was the predominant type (9 isolates, 40.9%), followed by ST648 (5 isolates), ST405 (2 isolates), ST38 (2 isolates), and 4 single STs, ST69, ST2003, ST2179, and ST744. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 9 group B2 isolates belonged to ST131, and 5 of 11 group D isolates belonged to ST648. Only one group B1 isolate and one group A isolate were identified. A representative plasmid (pE1) was partially sequenced, and a 7,788-bp DNA fragment encoding Tn3 transposase, Tn3 resolvase, ISKpn8 transposase, KPC-2, and ISKpn6-like transposase was obtained. The blaKPC-2-surrounding sequence was amplified by a series of primers. The PCR results showed that 13 isolates were consistent with the genetic environment in pE1. It is the first report of rapid emergence of KPC-2-producing E. coli ST131 in China. The blaKPC-2 gene of most isolates was located on a similar genetic structure. PMID:24323475

  18. Fundamentals of Microgravity Vibration Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. This presentation provides a tutorial discussion of microgravity vibration isolation technology with the objective of elaborating on the relative merits of passive and active isolation approaches. The concepts of control bandwidth, isolation performance, and robustness will be addressed with illustrative examples. Concluding the presentation will be a suggested roadmap for future technology development activities to enhance the acceleration environment for microgravity science experiments.

  19. [Isolated malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M; Bagan, P; Fabre-Guillevin, E; Scotté, F; Cazes, A; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F

    2010-02-01

    Mediastinal adenopathies without pulmonary disease may be benign, lymphomatous or the metastases from intra- or extrathoracic malignancy or more rarely metastases with unknown primary site. We observed 507 patients with isolated mediastinal adenopathies: benign, lymphomatous and metastatic disease represented 41.4% (210/507), 26.8% (136/507), 31.8% (161/507) of them, respectively. Management of the latter was the most challenging. Surgery was generally diagnostic, restricted to confirming the metastatic process, because of too numerous and disseminated or unresectable lymph nodes in 84% of patients (135/161). However, radical surgery consisting in lymphadenectomy proved effective in case of mediastinal lymph node malignancy without other extra- and intrathoracic disease. We observed long-term good results in such cases, which also was demonstrated by case reports in the literature. We suggest that including surgery in the multimodality treatment of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes may be advisable in selected patients. PMID:20207295

  20. Isolated Leptons at HERA Events with Isolated Leptons and

    E-print Network

    experiment HERA Asymmetric Desgin 4 Coverage Excellent Lepton ID + HFS Reconstruction #12;3 / 25 Isolated at HERA G. BrandtBackground from the SM: NC and CC in DIS Neutral Current: Enters due to fake missing background? Remove anti-CC cuts on Djet Fake electrons described within 50% #12;12 / 25 Isolated Leptons

  1. Associations between the Genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Isolates and Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Bacteremic Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahaniyat Lalani; Jerome J. Federspiel; Helen W. Boucher; Thomas H. Rude; In-Gyu Bae; Michael J. Rybak; Giang T. Tonthat; G. Ralph Corey; Martin E. Stryjewski; George Sakoulas; Vivian H. Chu; Jeff Alder; Judith N. Steenbergen; Steven A. Luperchio; Marilyn Campion; Christopher W. Woods; Vance G. Fowler

    We investigated associations between the genotypic and phenotypic features of Staphylococcus aureus blood- stream isolates and the clinical characteristics of bacteremic patients enrolled in a phase III trial of S. aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR for 33 putative virulence genes, and screening for heteroresistant glycopeptide intermediate S. aureus (hGISA). A total of 230 isolates (141

  2. Increase in Quinolone Resistance in a Haemophilus influenzae Strain Isolated from a Patient with Recurrent Respiratory Infections Treated with Ofloxacin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JORDI VILA; JOAQUIM RUIZ; FERRAN SANCHEZ; FERRAN NAVARRO; BEATRIZ MIRELIS; M. TERESA JIMENEZ DE ANTA; GUILLEM PRATS

    The increase in the level of quinolone resistance of Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates during ofloxacin therapy of a patient with recurrent respiratory infections was investigated. The first isolate (MIC of cipro- floxacin of 2 mg\\/ml) and the second isolate (MIC of 32 mg\\/ml) belonged to the same clone, as shown by pulsed- field gel electrophoresis, and the increase in the

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus Isolates Carrying Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Have Emerged in Urogenital Tract Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Higashide; Makoto Kuroda; C. T. N. Omura; M. Kumano; S. Ohkawa; S. Ichimura; T. Ohta

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a uropathogenic bacterium that causes acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections, particularly in female outpatients. We investigated the dissemination and antimicrobial suscepti- bilities of 101 S. saprophyticus isolates from the genitourinary tracts of patients in Japan. Eight of these isolates were mecA positive and showed -lactam resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that only some isolates were isogenic, indicating

  4. Development of adaptive seismic isolators for ultimate seismic protection of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Yancheng; Li, Weihua; Samali, Bijan

    2013-04-01

    Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.

  5. Terahertz isolator based on nonreciprocal magneto-metasurface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sai; Fan, Fei; Wang, Xianghui; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hui; Chang, Shengjiang

    2015-01-26

    A magneto-metasurface with nonreciprocal terahertz (THz) transmission has been proposed to form a THz isolator. Importantly, we have discussed the two necessary conditions for THz nonreciprocal transmission in the metasurface: (1) There should be magneto-optical responses for THz waves in the metasurface; (2) The transmission system of the metasurface needs to be asymmetric for forward and backward waves. These two conditions lead to the time reversal symmetry breaking of system, and the magnetoplasmon mode splitting and nonreciprocal resonance enhancement can be observed in the asymmetry magneto-metasurface. Moreover, the isolation dependences and tunability on the external magnetic field and temperature have also been investigated, which shows that the best operating state with a high isolation can be designed. The numerical simulations show a maximum isolation of 43 dB and a 10 dB operating bandwidth of 20 GHz under an external magnetic field of 0.3 T, and the insertion loss is smaller than 1.79 dB. This low-loss, high isolation, easy coupling THz isolator has broadly potentials for THz application systems. PMID:25835861

  6. Optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, G. A.; Im, J. S.; Gray, S. K.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Chemistry

    2003-12-25

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is used to explore the optical scattering from isolated metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and arrays of MNPs. The optical excitation source is an evanescent wave created through total internal reflection of a continuous wave laser beam at the sample-air interface. For optical excitation of isolated Ag and Au MNPs, experimental results show that the scattered light propagates into the far field at an angle of 19{sup o} from the substrate. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations are used to study simpler but related metallic nanowire systems under evanescent wave excitation. The FDTD results are found to be similar to the experimental results, indicating the generality of the scattering phenomenon. NSOM characterization of plasmonic arrays that consist of closely spaced Ag MNPs are subsequently reported. Confined optical signals within the array are observed along with a reduction in the far-field scattered signal. Simultaneous collection of the atomic force microscopy signal and near-field signals also shows that the spatial distribution of the near-field is strongly modified in the arrays compared to isolated MNPs. FDTD studies on arrays of nanowires also show large differences from the isolated metal nanoparticle calculations, including a decrease in the forward scattered angle (with chain length) and diminished overall forward scattering.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from pigeons and stray cats in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vilares, A; Gargaté, M J; Ferreira, I; Martins, S; Júlio, C; Waap, H; Angelo, H; Gomes, J P

    2014-10-15

    Cats and pigeons are important factors in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii as felids are the only definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts, and pigeons share the same places of cats and humans constituting a good model and indicator of the ground field contamination. We aimed to study the virulence and genotypes of T. gondii isolated from pigeons and stray cats in Lisbon, Portugal. Fresh samples of brain from 41 pigeons and 164 cats revealing antibodies to T. gondii were inoculated in mice. Three isolates (one isolated from a cat and two isolated from pigeons) were virulent in the mouse model. Sag2-based genotyping of T. gondii was achieved in 70.7% (29/41) of samples isolated from pigeons (26 samples were type II, two were type III, and one strain was type I). From the cat brain samples, 50% (82/164) yielded Sag2 positive results, where 72 belonged to genotype II and 10 were no type III (it was not possible to discriminate between type I and II). Further genotyping was obtained by multiplex PCR of 5 microsatellites (TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, B18), allowing the identification of two recombinant strains that had been previously identified as type II by Sag2 amplification (one isolated from cat brain and the other from pigeon brain). This is the first evidence of recombinant strains circulating in Portugal and the first report of T. gondii genotyping from cats in this country. This study also highlights the importance of environmental contamination in the synanthropic cycle constituting a potential source of human infection. PMID:25195193

  8. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  9. Antigenic Divergence of Bordetella pertussis Isolates in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shu-Man; Lin, Yu-Chi; Chou, Chen-Ying; Chen, Ying-Yan; Hsiao, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hour-Young; Yan, Jer-Jea; Su, Hsun-Pi; Li, Shu-Ying

    2005-01-01

    In recent studies, antigenic divergence has been observed in Bordetella pertussis circulating isolates. We collected 80 Bordetella pertussis isolates in Taiwan from 1998 to 2004 and analyzed them using a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of the ptxS1 and prn genes. The incidence of pertussis increases every 3 years, and most of the isolates prevalent since 1998 have expressed nonvaccine ptxS1A and prn2 alleles. Through PFGE analysis, all isolates could be classified into four major groups, and the incidence of these groups exhibited a correlation with the prn allele expressed by the isolates. We found that PFGE is more discriminative than gene sequencing, since it could divide the isolates expressing the prn2 allele into two groups: one group circulating from 1998 to 2001 and another group circulating from 2001 to 2004. The transition between the two groups in 2000 coincided with an outbreak of 326 cases. This research indicates that the antigenic divergence of B. pertussis circulating isolates has evolved over time in Taiwan. Such information will have implications for vaccine policy in Taiwan. PMID:16272470

  10. Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

  11. Controlling quantum critical dynamics of isolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Campo, A.; Sengupta, K.

    2015-02-01

    Controlling the non adiabatic dynamics of isolated quantum systems driven through a critical point is of interest in a variety of fields ranging from quantum simulation to finite-time thermodynamics. We briefly review the different methods for designing protocols which minimize excitation (defect) production in a closed quantum critical system driven out of equilibrium. We chart out the role of specific driving schemes for this procedure, point out their experimental relevance, and discuss their implementation in the context of ultracold atom and spin systems.

  12. Serovar identification, antimicrobial sensitivity, and virulence of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from chickens in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chukiatsiri, Kridda; Sasipreeyajan, Jiroj; Blackall, Patrick J; Yuwatanichsampan, Sommai; Chansiripornchai, Niwat

    2012-06-01

    Avibacterium paragallinarum causes infectious coryza in chickens, an acute respiratory disease that has worldwide economic significance. The objectives of this study were to determine the serovars, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity of A. paragallinarum isolated from chickens in Thailand. Eighteen field isolates of A. paragallinarum were confirmed by PCR. When examined by serotyping in a hemagglutination inhibition test, 10 isolates were serovar A, five isolates were serovar B, and three isolates were serovar C. The susceptibility of the isolates to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. There was a high level of resistance to lincomycin and erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to cloxacillin and neomycin. A study of bacterial entry into, and survival within, chicken macrophages showed variation between isolates but no clear connection to serovar. A virulence test was performed by challenging 4-wk-old layers via the nasal route with 400 dl of bacteria (10(8) colony-forming units/ml). Clinical signs were observed daily for 7 days, and the birds were subjected to a postmortem necropsy at 7 days postchallenge. All 18 field isolates caused the typical clinical signs of infectious coryza and could be re-isolated at 7 days after challenge. There was no significant difference in the clinical scores of the isolates except that two isolates (112179 and 102984, serovars A and B, respectively) gave a significantly higher score than did isolate CMU1009 (a serovar A isolate). No correlation between serovar and severity of clinical signs was found. PMID:22856194

  13. Antiproliferative Activity of Hamigerone and Radicinol Isolated from Bipolaris papendorfii

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Periyasamy; Verekar, Shilpa A.; Mishra, Prabhu Dutt; Khanna, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from fungi organisms have extensive past and present use in the treatment of many diseases and serve as compounds of interest both in their natural form and as templates for synthetic modification. Through high throughput screening (HTS) and bioassay-guided isolation, we isolated two bioactive compounds hamigerone (1) and radicinol (2). These compounds were isolated from fungus Bipolaris papendorfii, isolated from the rice fields of Dera, Himachal Pradesh, India. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, namely, NMR (1H, 13C, mass, and UV). Both compounds were found to be antiproliferative against different cancer cells. Furthermore we have also noted that both compounds showed increase in apoptosis by favorably modulating both tumor suppressor protein (p53) and antiapoptic protein (BCL-2), and in turn increase caspase-3 expression in cancer cells. This is the first report of these compounds from fungus Bipolaris papendorfii and their anticancer activity. PMID:25184147

  14. Silica waveguide integrated optical isolator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Rasmussen; Anders Bjarklev; Jorn Hedegaard Povlsen; Bo Pedersen; Frands B. Pedersen; Ole Lumholt; Karsten Rottwitt

    1993-01-01

    An integrated optical waveguide isolator based on adiabatic polarization splitters in the silica- on-silicon technology and non-reciprocal elements are proposed and investigated with an accurate Finite Difference Beam Propagation Method. Improvements of noise figure of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier by using this type of isolator are calculated and discussed.

  15. Model extraction for fault isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rattikorn Hewett

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation-based approach for fault isolation in complex dynamic systems. A machine learning technique is used to extract, from simulated data, models representing regularities in system behavior. A heuristic based on the degree of coverage of the model on the data is then applied to isolate faults. To test tolerance to incomplete models, our simulation model only

  16. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  17. Isolation Procedures for Farrowing Operations 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2002-01-31

    breeding swine is to prevent the herd from being exposed to new disease-causing organisms. During the isolation period, keep feed and water free of antibacterial agents to avoid ?covering up? signs of disease. If breed- ing swine in isolation become sick...

  18. Fungi isolated from Antarctic mosses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solveig Tosi; Begoña Casado; Renato Gerdol; Giuseppe Caretta

    2002-01-01

    Microfungi were isolated from different moss species in Victoria Land. Twenty-eight taxa belonging to 18 genera were identified. New records for continental Antarctica were: Arthrobotrys superba, Conidiobolus sp., Penicillium minioluteum, Verticillium psalliotae and V. lamellicola. The most frequently isolated fungal species were: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Geomyces pannorum var. pannorum, G. pannorum var. vinaceus, Mortierella antarctica, Cadophora malorum,

  19. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  20. Exosome isolation: a microfluidic road-map.

    PubMed

    Liga, A; Vliegenthart, A D B; Oosthuyzen, W; Dear, J W; Kersaudy-Kerhoas, M

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes, first isolated 30 years ago, are nanoscale vesicles shed by most types of cells. The nucleic acid rich content of these nanoparticles, floating in virtually all bodily fluids, has great potential for non-invasive molecular diagnostics and may represent a novel therapeutic delivery system. However, current isolation techniques such as ultracentrifugation are not convenient and do not result in high purity isolation. This represents an interesting challenge for microfluidic technologies, from a cost-effective perspective as well as for enhanced purity capabilities, and point-of-care acquisition and diagnosis. In this frontier review, we present the current challenges, comment the first microfluidic advances in this new field and propose a roadmap for future developments. This review enables biologists and clinicians familiar with exosome enrichment to assess the performance of novel microfluidic devices and, equally, enables microfluidic engineers to educate themselves about this new class of promising biomarker-rich particles and the challenges arising from their clinical use. PMID:25940789

  1. Streptococcus pyogenes Pharyngeal Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Spain: Mechanisms of Resistance and Clonal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Albertí, Sebastián; Cortés, Guadalupe; García-Rey, Cesar; Rubio, Carmen; Baquero, Fernando; García-Rodríguez, José Ángel; Bouza, Emilio; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    A survey of emm gene sequences and an analysis of the pulsed-field electrophoretic profiles of 30 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates with reduced susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin detected the prevalence of isolates with emm type 6 and considerable genetic diversity among isolates. The mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in these isolates was based on point mutations in topoisomerase IV subunit C encoded by parC, mainly replacement of serine-79 by alanine. PMID:15616324

  2. VARIABILITY IN VIRULENCE OF HETEROBASIDION ANNOSUM ISOLATES FROM PONDROSA AND JEFFREY PINE IN AREAS OF HIGH AND LOW PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virulence of Heterobasidion annosum isolates from different geographic locations throughout California was evaluated by inoculation of ponderosa pine trees in the field and seedlings in the greenhouse. Tests were designed to compare isolates obtained from areas of chronic photoch...

  3. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sulentic

    2010-01-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated

  4. Isolates of Citrus tristeza virus that overcome Poncirus trifoliata resistance comprise a novel strain.

    PubMed

    Harper, S J; Dawson, T E; Pearson, M N

    2010-04-01

    The economically important rootstock species Poncirus trifoliata is resistant to most isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), but not to members of the CTV resistance-breaking (RB) strain presently found in New Zealand. In this study, five known and suspected RB isolates were separated from field mixtures, and their genomes were sequenced in full. It was found that the RB isolates are members of a single phylogenetically distinct clade with an average of 90.3% genomic nucleotide sequence identity to the closest extant isolate, T36. These isolates also show evidence of multiple recombination events throughout their evolutionary history, with T36, T30 and VT-like isolates, and with each other. Finally, the genomic sequences of these isolates show that several genes contain unique polymorphisms that may or may not be involved in overcoming resistance. These data will aid in the understanding of host-virus interactions, and the mechanism of resistance in P. trifoliata. PMID:20352212

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Salmonella Isolates from Processed Bison Carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiongzhen; Skyberg, Jerod A.; Fakhr, Mohamed K.; Sherwood, Julie S.; Nolan, Lisa K.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar isolates recovered from bison were found to possess a range of virulence genes and resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin simultaneously. A 1-kb class 1 integron containing the aadA1 gene was identified in all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis found that all isolates were closely related, indicating the possibility of cross-contamination during processing. PMID:16598016

  6. Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated

    E-print Network

    Durand-Lose, Jérôme

    Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation Signal machines : localization of isolated'Orléans, Orléans, FRANCE 6 mars 2011 Journées Calculabilités Paris 1 / 39 #12;Signal machines : localization of isolated accumulation 1 Signal machines and isolated accumulations 2 Necessary conditions

  7. Dynamical decoupling and dynamical isolation in temporally modulated coupled pendulums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Grazia; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically study the dynamics of a pair of coupled pendulums subject to a periodic temporal modulation of their oscillation frequency. Inspired from analogous developments in quantum mechanics, we anticipate dynamical localization and dynamical isolation effects, as well as the occurrence of non-trivial coupling phases. Perspectives in the direction of studying synthetic gauge fields in a classical mechanics context are outlined.

  8. Complete genome sequence of a novel pararetrovirus isolated from soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the complete genome sequence of Soybean Putnam pararetrovirus (SPPRV), a new pararetrovirus isolated from a soybean field in Putnam County, Ohio, USA. Comparison of SPPRV with other plant-infecting pararetroviruses places it in the genus Caulimovirus of the family Caulimoviridae....

  9. Isolated horizons in higher dimensional Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomás Liko; Ivan Booth

    2007-01-01

    The isolated horizon framework was introduced in order to provide a local description of black holes that are in equilibrium with their (possibly dynamic) environment. Over the past several years, the framework has been extended to include matter fields (dilaton, Yang Mills etc) in D = 4 dimensions and cosmological constant in D >= 3 dimensions. In this paper, we

  10. Phylogeny, genome evolution, and antigenic variability among endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus type A isolates from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mittal; C. Tosh; D. Hemadri; A. Sanyal; S. K. Bandyopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Summary. The capsid-coding (P1) and 3A regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A field isolates including two vaccine strains collected during 1977–2000 were analyzed. In the phylogenies, the isolates were distributed into two previously identified genotypes VI and VII, with multiple sub-genotypes that are temporally clustered. Comparison of the antigenic relationships of field isolates with the two vaccine strains

  11. Genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from animals, food poisoning outbreaks and sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Johansson; Anna Aspan; Elisabeth Bagge; Viveca Båverud; Björn E Engström; Karl-Erik Johansson

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens, a serious pathogen, causes enteric diseases in domestic animals and food poisoning in humans. The epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from the same source has previously been investigated chiefly by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study the genetic diversity of C. perfringens isolated from various animals, from food poisoning outbreaks and from sludge was investigated.

  12. Effect of edge junction isolation on the performance of laser doped selective emitter solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett Hallam; Stuart Wenham; Haeseok Lee; Eunjoo Lee; Hyunwoo Lee; Jisun Kim; Jeoungeun Shin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of laser and chemical edge junction isolation on electrical performance of industrially manufactured laser doped selective emitter solar cells with light induced plated n-type contacts is investigated in this work. Directly after the formation of the aluminium back surface field, photoluminescence images indicates that laser edge junction isolation causes substantial damage around the perimeter of the cell, extending

  13. Isolation of soil Streptomyces as source antibiotics active against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozgur Ceylan; Gulten Okmen; Aysel Ugur

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study was the in vitro antimicrobial activities of Streptomycetes, bacteria commonly found in soil and known antibiotic-producers. Streptomycete isolates obtained from different fields in Muðla, Turkey were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on seven microorganisms including multiple antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Fifteen Streptomycete isolates which exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least two of

  14. Pharmacological Study of Oyster Mushroom ( Pleurotus Ostreatus ) Extract on Isolated Guinea Pig Trachea Smooth Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Schachter; E. Zuskin; S. Goswami; V. Castranova; U. Arumugam; M. Whitmer; P. Siegel; A. Chiarelli; J. Fainberg

    2005-01-01

    Mushroom farm workers suffer from respiratory symptoms during the farming of mushrooms. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) extract (OME) on isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. Isolated guinea pig tracheal tissue from 27 nonsensitized guinea pigs were studied. The OME was obtained from indoor mushroom growing fields and

  15. Molecular Typing and Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Eastern Canadian Dairy Herds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Sabour; J. J. Gill; D. Lepp; J. C. Pacan; R. Ahmed; R. Dingwell; K. Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Macrorestriction analysis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to type and estimate genetic relationships among 288 Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from 58 Eastern Canadian dairy herds. In addition, a subset of the collection was phage typed and evaluated for sensitivity to 10 antimicrobial compounds. Of 288 isolates recovered, 29 distinct PFGE types were identified.

  16. COMPARISON OF HERPESVIRUS ISOLATES FROM FALCONS, PIGEONS AND PSITTACINES BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Aini; L. M. Shih; A. E. Castro; V. C. Zee

    1993-01-01

    Field isolates of herpesviruses recovered from falcon, pigeon, and psittacine birds were compared by restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis using four separate enzymes. Pigeon and falcon herpesviruses had strikingly similar DNA cleavage patterns, while DNA cleavage pattern of virus isolates from a double-yellow headed Amazon and an African grey parrot had different genomic patterns to both the pigeon and falcon herpesviruses.

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy cows with mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velusamy Srinivasan; Barbara E. Gillespie; Mark J. Lewis; Lien T. Nguyen; Susan I. Headrick; Ynte H. Schukken; Stephen P. Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, susceptibility to 26 antimicrobial agents used in veterinary and human medicine, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cows with mastitis were evaluated. Among 135 E. coli isolates, PFGE analysis revealed 85 different genetic patterns. All E. coli were resistant to two or more antimicrobials in different combinations. Most E.

  18. Study of base isolation systems

    E-print Network

    Manarbek, Saruar

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to outline the relevant issues concerning the conceptual design of base isolated structures. A 90 feet high, 6 stories tall, moment steel frame structure with tension cross ...

  19. GONOCOCCAL SURVEILLANCE ISOLATE PROJECT (GSIP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) is a collaborative project to monitor antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The database is a sentinel surveillance system of 26 clinics for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and 5 regional la...

  20. Optical isolators: Nonlinear dynamic reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Kerr optical nonlinearities are known to be well suited for achieving optical isolation, but the fact that the degree of non-reciprocity is signal-level dependent brings new opportunities as well as limitations.

  1. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)] [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  2. Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Smith

    Using Maple or Mathmatica, learner should be able to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities.

  3. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  4. Microcalorimetry of isolated mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Nedergaard; Barbara Cannon; Olov Lindberg

    1977-01-01

    USING microcalorimetry1,2, we have measured the heat evolved by isolated cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT). This tissue generates heat in newborn and cold-adapted mammals and in hibernators during arousal from hibernation and during cold stress3-5. The method can be applied generally in work with, for example, mitochondria and isolated cells and has, especially in studies of thermogenesis, the advantage

  5. A magnetic non-reciprocal isolator for broadband terahertz operation

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Peccianti, Marco; Ozturk, Yavuz; Morandotti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    A Faraday isolator is an electromagnetic non-reciprocal device, a key element in photonics. It is required to shield electromagnetic sources against the effect of back-reflected light, as well as to limit the detrimental effect of back-propagating spontaneous emissions. A common isolator variant, the circulator, is widely used to obtain a complete separation between forward- and backward-propagating waves, thus enabling the realization of a desired transfer function in reflection only. Here we demonstrate a non-reciprocal terahertz Faraday isolator, operating on a bandwidth exceeding one decade of frequency, a necessary requirement to achieve isolation with the (few-cycle) pulses generated by broadband sources. The exploited medium allows a broadband rotation, up to 194°/T, obtained using a SrFe12O19 terahertz-transparent permanent magnet. This in turn enables the design of a stand-alone complete terahertz isolator without resorting to an external magnetic field bias, as opposed to all the optical isolators realized so far. PMID:23463001

  6. Molecular typing of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype A1 isolates from cattle in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Katsuda, K.; Kohmoto, M.; Kawashima, K.; Tsunemitsu, H.; Tsuboi, T.; Eguchi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) methods were applied for molecular typing of 130 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica serotype A1 isolates obtained from 13 prefectures in Japan. These isolates were divided into 15 ApaI PFGE profiles that formed six distinct clusters (clusters A-F). Fifty-three (40.7%) isolates were classified in cluster B, and 20.0, 13.8, 12.3, 6.9 and 6.1% of isolates were in clusters E, A, F, D and C, respectively. The isolates of cluster B were differentiated into seven subtypes (B1-B7) and subtype B5 contained 63% (34/53) of isolates. RAPD revealed four banding patterns (types I-IV), and among 130 isolates 60.7% (79/130) of isolates were RAPD type I. All of the RAPD type I isolates were grouped into clusters A-C by PFGE. There was no relationship between molecular typing and geographic origin of these isolates. These results indicate that isolates of M. haemolytica A1 strain with various molecular profiles have already spread in Japan and may have caused sporadic infections. PMID:14596536

  7. Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) on greenhouse and field peppers in Ontario – host range, cultivar response and disease management strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Cerkauskas; G. Ferguson; M. Banik

    2011-01-01

    Leveillula taurica was observed on field pepper at various sites in south-western Ontario in 2005–2007. The field isolates collected from these sites were similar to a greenhouse isolate based on morphological observations. Host range of greenhouse and field isolates was similar, with minor sporulation on potato, carrot and several weeds. The greenhouse pepper cultivar ‘Samanta’ was the most susceptible to

  8. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  9. Genetic relatedness and virulence factors of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teat skin and milk.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Hoet, A; Seo, K S; Fogt, K; Moon, B S

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of teat skin colonization in Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) by evaluating genetic relatedness of Staph. aureus isolates from milk and teat skin of dairy cows using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and characterizing the isolates based on the carriage of virulence genes. Cows in 4 known Staph. aureus-positive herds were sampled and Staph. aureus was detected in 43 quarters of 20 cows, with 10 quarters positive in both milk and skin (20 isolates), 18 positive only in milk, and 15 only on teat skin. Quarters with teat skin colonized with Staph. aureus were 4.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with Staph. aureus IMI than quarters not colonized on teat skin. Three main clusters were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using a cutoff of 80% similarity. All 3 clusters included both milk and skin isolates. The majority of isolates (72%) belonged to one predominant cluster (B), with 60% of isolates in the cluster originating from milk and 40% from teat skin. Genotypic variability was observed within 10 pairs (formed by isolates originating from milk and teat skin of the same quarter), where isolates in 5 out of the 10 pairs belonged to the same cluster. Forty-two virulence factors were screened using PCR. Some virulence factors were carried more frequently by teat skin isolates than by milk isolates or isolates from quarters with high somatic cell counts. Isolates in the predominant cluster B carried virulence factors clfA and clfB significantly more often than isolates in the minor clusters, which may have assisted them in becoming predominant in the herds. The present findings suggest that teat skin colonization with Staph. aureus can be an important factor involved in Staph. aureus IMI. PMID:25242420

  10. Catalogues of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argudo-Fernández, M.; Verley, S.; Bergond, G.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Ramos Carmona, E.; Sabater, J.; Fernández Lorenzo, M.; Espada, D.; Sulentic, J.; Ruiz, J. E.; Leon, S.

    2015-06-01

    Context. The construction of catalogues of galaxies and the a posteriori study of galaxy properties in relation to their environment have been hampered by scarce redshift information. The new 3-dimensional (3D) surveys permit small, faint, physically bound satellites to be distinguished from a background-projected galaxy population, giving a more comprehensive 3D picture of the surroundings. Aims: We aim to provide representative samples of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets for testing galaxy evolution and secular processes in low density regions of the local Universe, as well as to characterise their local and large-scale environments. Methods: We used spectroscopic data from the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) to automatically and homogeneously compile catalogues of 3702 isolated galaxies, 1240 isolated pairs, and 315 isolated triplets in the local Universe (z ? 0.080). To quantify the effects of their local and large-scale environments, we computed the projected density and the tidal strength for the brightest galaxy in each sample. Results: We find evidence of isolated pairs and isolated triplets that are physically bound at projected separations up to d ? 450 kpc with radial velocity difference ?? ? 160 km s-1, where the effect of the companion typically accounts for more than 98% of the total tidal strength affecting the central galaxy. For galaxies in the catalogues, we provide their positions, redshifts, and degrees of relation with their physical and large-scale environments. The catalogues are publicly available to the scientific community. Conclusions: For isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets, there is no difference in their degree of interaction with the large-scale structure (up to 5 Mpc), which may suggest that they have a common origin in their formation and evolution. We find that most of them belong to the outer parts of filaments, walls, and clusters, and generally differ from the void population of galaxies. Full Tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A110

  11. Diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from korean ginseng leaves.

    PubMed

    Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

  12. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Korean Ginseng Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG and FCG samples, respectively. The results suggest that ginseng endophytes have different community structures in different environments, and this understanding may prove useful in ginseng cultivation. PMID:25071383

  13. Pattern of enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei and sej positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zschöck; Bärbel Kloppert; W. Wolter; H. P. Hamann; Ch. Lämmler

    2005-01-01

    PCR detection of the genes encoding the newly described staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) SEG, SEH, SEI and SEJ was carried out for 104 randomly selected Staphylococcus aureus field strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. Sixty-one (58.7%) isolates were positive for one or more of these novel enterotoxin genes. Thirty-six field strains were classified as carrier of seg, 22 of sei

  14. Seismic Performance Analysis of A Smart Base-isolation System Considering Dynamics of MR Elastomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Jo Jung; Seung-Hyun Eem; Dong-Doo Jang; Jeong-Hoi Koo

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates a smart base-isolation system using magnetorheological (MR) elastomers, which are a new class of smart materials whose elastic modulus or stiffness can be adjusted depending on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The primary goals of this study are to develop a smart base-isolation model that represents the field-dependent dynamic behaviors of MR elastomers, to design

  15. A Microionizer for Portable Mass Spectrometers Using Double-Gated Isolated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang-Yu Chen; Luis Fernando Velasquez-Garcia; Xiazhi Wang; K. Teo; Akintunde Ibitayo Akinwande

    2011-01-01

    We report a gas ionizer based on arrays of microfab- ricated double-gated isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VA-CNFs) for application in low-power portable mass spectrom- eters. Field-emitted electrons from VA-CNFs are accelerated to high energy and subsequently collide with neutral gas molecules, leading to ionization\\/fragmentation of the molecules. Double-gated field-emitter arrays with isolated VA-CNF tips were fabricated using a photoresist

  16. Carbon nanotube-based field ionization vacuum

    E-print Network

    Jang, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a novel micropump architecture that uses arrays of isolated vertical carbon nanotubes (CNT) to field ionize gas particles. The ionized gas molecules are accelerated to and implanted into a ...

  17. Dielectrophoretic isolation and detection of cfc-DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus from blood.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Avery; Marciniak, Jennifer Y; McCanna, James; Krishnan, Rajaram; Rassenti, Laura; Kipps, Thomas J; Heller, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Dielectrophoretic (DEP) microarray devices allow important cellular nanoparticulate biomarkers and virus to be rapidly isolated, concentrated, and detected directly from clinical and biological samples. A variety of submicron nanoparticulate entities including cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, mitochondria, and virus can be isolated into DEP high-field areas on microelectrodes, while blood cells and other micron-size entities become isolated into DEP low-field areas between the microelectrodes. The nanoparticulate entities are held in the DEP high-field areas while cells are washed away along with proteins and other small molecules that are not affected by the DEP electric fields. DEP carried out on 20 ?L of whole blood obtained from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients showed a considerable amount of SYBR Green stained DNA fluorescent material concentrated in the DEP high-field regions. Whole blood obtained from healthy individuals showed little or no fluorescent DNA materials in the DEP high-field regions. Fluorescent T7 bacteriophage virus could be isolated directly from blood samples, and fluorescently stained mitochondria could be isolated from biological buffer samples. Using newer DEP microarray devices, high-molecular-weight DNA could be isolated from serum and detected at levels as low as 8-16 ng/mL. PMID:23436471

  18. Genetic Characterization of Rabies Field Isolates from Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARLOS A. DEMATTOS; CECILIA C. DEMATTOS; JEAN S. SMITH; EDITH T. MILLER; SARA PAPO; ANTONIO UTRERA; ANDBENNIE I. OSBURN

    Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodiesagainsttheviralnucleoproteinandbypatternsofnucleotidesubstitutioninthenucleoproteingene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs.

  19. Genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; de Mattos, C C; Smith, J S; Miller, E T; Papo, S; Utrera, A; Osburn, B I

    1996-06-01

    Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. Unique substitutions permitted identification of two separate outbreaks of dog rabies in the Maracaibo Depression and Los Llanos region and in the Andean region of Venezuela. Samples from the vampire bat and two head of cattle were characterized as antigenic variant 3 and showed a nucleotide sequence homology of 96 to 98% to each other and to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies throughout Latin America. Ten of the remaining 12 samples were characterized as antigenic variant 5. Genetic studies indicated that 11 of these samples formed a highly homologous and distinctive group but were closely related to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies. The 12th sample of variant 5 (from a cat) showed only 78 to 80% genetic homology to samples of rabies associated with vampire bats. The application of antigenic and genetic typing to rabies surveillance in Latin America is essential to improve control programs. Recognition of the source of outbreaks of dog rabies and identification of wildlife species maintaining sylvatic cycles of rabies transmission permit better utilization of public health resources. PMID:8735118

  20. Mechanism of DMI resistance in field isolates of Cercospora beticola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola, is an endemic disease of sugarbeets in the North Dakota and Minnesota growing regions. Control measures against the fungus include resistant sugarbeet varieties and crop rotation, but the disease is managed effectively only when combined with tim...

  1. Transmission Potential of Antimony-Resistant Leishmania Field Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Oury, Bruno; Eddaikra, Naouel; Aït-Oudhia, Khatima; Pratlong, Francine; Gazanion, Elodie; Maia, Carla; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We studied the development of antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum in natural vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus to ascertain the risk of parasite transmission by sand flies. All three resistant strains produced fully mature late-stage infections in sand flies; moreover, the resistant phenotype was maintained after the passage through the vector. These results highlight the risk of circulation of resistant Leishmania strains and question the use of human drugs for treatment of dogs as Leishmania reservoirs. PMID:25049256

  2. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  3. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  4. 305 Stimulus Isolator WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS 1

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    , 67 1/2V or equivalent #12;305 Stimulus Isolator WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS 3 Operation Connect305 Stimulus Isolator WORLD PRECISION INSTRUMENTS 1 Description The Model 305 Stimulus Isolator Dual Stimulus Isolator. The outputs of two units can be combined to produce bipolar and other complex

  5. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. PMID:25102429

  6. Space Suit (Mobil Biological Isolation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Houston five-year-old known as David is getting a "space suit," a vitally important gift that will give him mobility he has never known. David suffers from a rare malady called severe combined immune deficiency, which means that be was born without natural body defenses against disease; germs that would have little or no effect on most people could cause his death. As a result, he has spent his entire life in germ-free isolation rooms, one at Houston's Texas Children's hospital, another at his home. The "space suit" David is getting will allow him to spend four hours ata a time in a mobile sterile environment outside his isolation rooms. Built by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it is a specially-designed by product of Space Suit technology known as the mobile biological isolation system.

  7. Resonant isolator for maser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.; Quinn, R. B. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An isolator is described for use in a low noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements extending along the length of a microwave channel parallel to the slow wave structure, with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements. The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness of the thin elements and decreasing their length and width.

  8. Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Eiji J.; Lan, Pengfei; Mücke, Oliver D.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    High-energy isolated attosecond pulses required for the most intriguing nonlinear attosecond experiments as well as for attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe spectroscopy are still lacking at present. Here we propose and demonstrate a robust generation method of intense isolated attosecond pulses, which enable us to perform a nonlinear attosecond optics experiment. By combining a two-colour field synthesis and an energy-scaling method of high-order harmonic generation, the maximum pulse energy of the isolated attosecond pulse reaches as high as 1.3??J. The generated pulse with a duration of 500?as, as characterized by a nonlinear autocorrelation measurement, is the shortest and highest-energy pulse ever with the ability to induce nonlinear phenomena. The peak power of our tabletop light source reaches 2.6?GW, which even surpasses that of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser. PMID:24158092

  9. Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiji J.; Lan, Pengfei; Mücke, Oliver D.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2013-10-01

    High-energy isolated attosecond pulses required for the most intriguing nonlinear attosecond experiments as well as for attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe spectroscopy are still lacking at present. Here we propose and demonstrate a robust generation method of intense isolated attosecond pulses, which enable us to perform a nonlinear attosecond optics experiment. By combining a two-colour field synthesis and an energy-scaling method of high-order harmonic generation, the maximum pulse energy of the isolated attosecond pulse reaches as high as 1.3??J. The generated pulse with a duration of 500?as, as characterized by a nonlinear autocorrelation measurement, is the shortest and highest-energy pulse ever with the ability to induce nonlinear phenomena. The peak power of our tabletop light source reaches 2.6?GW, which even surpasses that of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser.

  10. Floral odour and reproductive isolation in two species of Silene.

    PubMed

    Waelti, M O; Muhlemann, J K; Widmer, A; Schiestl, F P

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms preventing interspecific pollination are important in closely related plant species, in particular when post-zygotic barriers are weak or absent. We investigated the role of floral odour in reproductive isolation between the two closely related species Silene latifolia and S. dioica. First, we tested whether floral odour composition and emission differed between the species. We found significant odour differences, but contrary to expectations, both species showed a rhythmic emission of the same compounds between day and night. Second, in a field experiment, odour of the two species was made more similar by applying phenylacetaldehyde to flowers. This manipulation led to higher pollen-analogue transfer between species, revealing that floral odour differences are important for maintaining reproductive isolation. We conclude that differences in single key compounds can reduce pollen transfer across species boundaries by pollinators and demonstrate that odour differences are an important component of premating floral isolation between closely related plant species. PMID:18031491

  11. Attosecond nonlinear optics using gigawatt-scale isolated attosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiji J; Lan, Pengfei; Mücke, Oliver D; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    High-energy isolated attosecond pulses required for the most intriguing nonlinear attosecond experiments as well as for attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe spectroscopy are still lacking at present. Here we propose and demonstrate a robust generation method of intense isolated attosecond pulses, which enable us to perform a nonlinear attosecond optics experiment. By combining a two-colour field synthesis and an energy-scaling method of high-order harmonic generation, the maximum pulse energy of the isolated attosecond pulse reaches as high as 1.3??J. The generated pulse with a duration of 500?as, as characterized by a nonlinear autocorrelation measurement, is the shortest and highest-energy pulse ever with the ability to induce nonlinear phenomena. The peak power of our tabletop light source reaches 2.6?GW, which even surpasses that of an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser. PMID:24158092

  12. Testing of isolation barrier sealing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-12-15

    Isolation barrier doors are to be installed in the 105KE and 105KW basins as part of the 1994 unreviewed safety question (USQ) resolution plan to isolate the fuel storage basin from the fuel discharge chute. Included in this installation is the placement of new sealing surfaces for the barriers by affixing stainless steel plates to existing carbon steel angle bars with a specially formulated epoxy adhesive/sealant material. The sealant is a two-part component consisting of an epoxy resin (the condensation product of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin) and a curing agent (a proprietary cycloaliphatic polyamine). The sealant is solvent free (complying with air pollution regulations) and capable of withstanding the surrounding radiation fields over an estimated 15-year service life. The epoxy sealant experiences negligible water damage partly because of its hydrophobic (water-repelling) nature. With bond tensile strengths measured at greater than 862 kPa (125 lbf/in{sup 2}), the epoxy sealant is judged acceptable for its intended application. The four-hour pot life of the epoxy sealant provides sufficient time to apply the epoxy, examine the epoxy bead for continuity, and position the stainless steel sealing plates.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from poultry and humans in Styria, Austria: epidemiology and ciprofloxacin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Hein, I.; Schneck, C.; Knögler, M.; Feierl, G.; Plesss, P.; Köfer, J.; Achmann, R.; Wagner, M.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty-six broiler flocks were sampled to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp. at slaughter in 1998. Thirty flocks (45%) tested positive and C. jejuni was identified in all isolates. Combined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis/amplified fragment length polymorphism (PFGE/AFLP) subtyping of 177 isolates from 24 positive flocks revealed 62 subtypes; 16 flocks harboured more than one subtype. When subtyping 101 clinical C. jejuni isolates collected in the same time period and area, 60 PFGE/AFLP types were identified. Comparison of subtypes from poultry and human isolates revealed three shared PFGE/AFLP types, which were present in 11 human isolates. Fifty per cent of all poultry isolates and 39% of all human isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The present study confirms the increase in ciprofloxacin resistance in both human and poultry C. jejuni isolates in Austria, as observed in several countries worldwide. A small number of human isolates shared PFGE/AFLP types with poultry isolates, however, further studies should also focus on the identification of other sources of C. jejuni infection in humans. PMID:12825721

  14. Molecular Characterization of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Karen; Hughes, Valerie M.; de Juan, Lucía; Inglis, Neil F.; Wright, Frank; Sharp, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Five pigmented isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS900-RFLP), and IS1311 polymorphism analysis using PCR. All of the pigmented isolates exhibited one of three distinct PFGE profiles with SnaBI, designated 9, 10, and 11, and with SpeI, designated 7, 8, and 9, which generated three multiplex profiles designated [9-7], [10-8], and [11-9]. All of the pigmented isolates had the same IS900-RFLP BstEII and PvuII profiles. The IS900-RFLP BstEII profile was new, but the IS900-RFLP PvuII profile corresponded to PvuII type 6 of a sheep strain described by Cousins and colleagues (D. V. Cousins, S. N. Williams, A. Hope, and G. J. Eamens, Aust. Vet. J. 78:184-190, 2000). IS1311-PCR analysis typed all of the pigmented isolates as sheep (S) strains. The genetic relationship between pigmented and nonpigmented isolates was investigated by using multiplex PFGE data from the analysis of both the 5 pigmented isolates and 88 nonpigmented isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from a variety of host species and geographic locations. It was possible to classify the isolates into two distinct types designated type I, comprising the pigmented isolates, and type II, comprising the nonpigmented isolates, which exhibit a very broad host range. PMID:11980962

  15. A very high isolation GaAs SPDT switch IC sealed in an ultra-compact plastic package

    SciTech Connect

    Uda, Hisanori; Hirai, Toshikazu; Tominaga, Hisaaki [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A high-isolation switch IC with 31 dB isolation and 0.88 dB insertion loss at 1.65 GHz, sealed in a 6-pin ultra-compact plastic package having approximately 1/4 the conventional area, was developed for the first time. An electromagnetic-field simulation analysis of the isolation characteristics between the lead pins of the ultra-compact package was used for this IC together with a new design method which takes into account deterioration of the isolation characteristics due to the plastic molding. Electromagnetic-field simulation was also used in the layout design to minimize chip size.

  16. Content-Based Isolation: Rethinking Isolation Policy in Modern Client Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Moshchuk; Helen J. Wang; Yunxin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Modern client platforms, such as iOS, Android, Windows Phone 7, and Windows 8, have progressed from a per-user isolation policy, where users are isolated, but a user's applications run in the same isolation container, to an application isolation policy, where different applications are isolated from one another. However, this is not enough because mutually distrusting content can interfere with one

  17. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    K?sao?lu, Abdullah; Özo?ul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimo?lu, Berhan; Ayd?nl?, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies. PMID:25917590

  18. Snapshots of Isolated Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buote, David

    2009-10-01

    The properties of dark matter halos on galactic scales remain a largely untapped resource for cosmological studies. X-ray observations offer potentially the most promising means to study dark matter in isolated elliptical galaxies, but there is presently a lack of known suitable candidates for study. Therefore, we propose a snapshot survey of 9 systems to identify isolated elliptical galaxies with X-ray properties similar to the best examples currently known. Deep follow-up exposures with XMM and Chandra of promising targets will then be sought for detailed analysis of their dark matter distributions.

  19. Soot agglomeration in isolated, free droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Dryer, F. L.; Green, G. J.; Sangiovanni, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Under the conditions of an isolated, free droplet experiment, hollow, carbonaceous structures, called soot spheres, were observed to form during the atmospheric pressure, low Reynolds number combustion of 1-methylnaphthalene. These structures which are agglomerates composed of smaller spheroidal units result from both thermophoretic effects induced by the envelope flame surrounding each drop and aerodynamic effects caused by changes in the relative gas/drop velocities. A chemically reacting flow model was used to analyze the process of sootshell formation during microgravity droplet combustion. The time-dependent temperature and gas property field surrounding the droplet was determined, and the soot cloud location for microgravity combustion of n-heptane droplets was predicted. Experiments showed that the sooting propensity of n-alkane fuel droplets can be varied through diluent substitution, oxygen-index variations, and ambient pressure reductions.

  20. Characterisation of potato virus Y isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Atefe; Massumi, Hossein; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Hosseini Pour, Akbar; Varsani, Arvind

    2011-02-01

    A survey of Potato virus Y (PVY) was conducted in cultivated fields in six Iranian provinces between January 2005 to July 2007. Two hundred samples from potato and tomato were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for potyviruses. Almost one fourth of the samples were found to be infected by PVY. Analysis of these PVY-positive samples using three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) facilitating the simultaneous detection of three main strains namely the ordinary (PVY(O)), strain (PVY(N)) and C (PVY(C)) strains. However, the fourth strain (PVY(NTN)) and some others recombinant isolates were also identified by molecular methods. Host range and symptoms analysis using sap inoculation of four different strains of PVY onto a range of plants revealed that the four strains showed biological properties that seemed to be consistent with their molecular grouping. Fourteen isolates of PVY were chosen based on the host and geographical location, primer specificity and serology for further biological and molecular characterisation. The coat protein (CP) and P1 genes and 3'-non-translated region (3'NTR) from 14 representative isolates were sequenced and analysed with the sequences available in GenBank. Composite analysis of the P1, CP and 3'-UTR sequences with all full genome sequences of PVY revealed that there are three potential strains of PVY in Iran, PVY(O), PVY(N)-W and PVY(NTN). Isolate KER.SA(N) was the most divergent of all the 14 isolates reacted with PVY(N) specific MAbs but grouped with PVY(O) strains in maximum likelihood phylogentic analysis. The PVY(NTN) isolates from Iran more closely related to the European than North American PVY(NTN) isolates. PMID:21082231

  1. Genotypic Characterization of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli Isolates from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis and/or Septicemia and from Environmental Mussel Samples

    PubMed Central

    Counihan-Edgar, Katrina L.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathleen A.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Jang, Spencer; Goertz, Caroline E. C.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type 128 Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli isolates from sea otters and mussels. Six SmaI PFGE groups were detected, with one predominant group representing 57% of the isolates collected over a wide geographic region. Several sea otter and mussel isolates were highly related, suggesting that an environmental infection source is possible. PMID:23052307

  2. Structured residual technique for malfunction isolation in interacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, C.R.; Miller, D.W.; Hajek, B.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Researchers in the field of fault detection and isolation have presented schemes for diagnosing faults in systems in the presence of unknown input disturbances. These techniques, known collectively as input disturbance decoupling, can be used to isolate a particular system from other systems in a complex process plant. The ability to isolate the operation of a system from systems with which it interacts is desirable when diagnosing faults in complex plants. The diagnosis problem can then be broken down into a set of relatively simple diagnostic tasks and the results evaluated using a knowledge-based approach. One such approach, known as hierarchical classification, has been used for malfunction diagnosis in both nuclear power and chemical plants. Systems that strongly interact are common in nuclear power plants. For example, in the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure control system (PCS) model of Fig. 1, steam flow from the main steam lines collects in the steam header. The header acts as a source of steam to several plant systems besides the high-pressure turbine. Thus, a change in any one of these auxiliary systems will affect the operation of the PCS. These unmeasured influences complicate the problem of isolating the PCS from the remainder of the plant. The authors have used structured residuals as a disturbance decoupling technique to isolate interacting systems in a BWR model. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of the method and show an example of its application.

  3. Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

  4. Molecular diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Irish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Leonard, Nola; Jordan, Kieran

    2011-05-01

    Many foods originate on the farm where cross-contamination with pathogens can occur, with implications for human health. This study characterized a bank of 51 Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from 12 farms located in Ireland by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to establish the molecular diversity of the isolate collection, and examine transmission patterns of L. monocytogenes across the farm environment, and also determined resistances against five different antibiotics (ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin G, and tetracycline). Analysis using a combination of AscI and ApaI digestion showed the 51 isolates comprised a total of 40 individual PFGE types, compared to individual restriction enzyme analysis, which was less discriminatory (36 types with ApaI analysis and 38 types with AscI analysis). Four of the PFGE types were common to multiple farms, and five farms had isolates with indistinguishable PFGE types in multiple locations on the farm. Indistinguishable PFGE types were common to multiple farms in different geographical locations up to ~200?km apart, and were found in a variety of different sample types, indicating multiple niches for the organism in the dairy farm environment. The presence of L. monocytogenes in samples related to animals other than cattle indicated that there are multiple possible vectors of contamination. The farm environment harbors a diverse collection of L. monocytogenes isolates that must be considered as possible agents of food contamination. PMID:21247298

  5. Simultaneous particle and field observations of field-aligned currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W. Berko; Robert A. Hoffman; Rande K. Burton; Robert E. Holzer

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of low-energy precipitating electrons and magnetic fluctuations from the low-altitude polar-orbiting satellite Ogo 4 have been compared. Analysis of the two sets of experimental data for isolated events led to the classification of high-latitude field-aligned currents as purely temporal or purely spatial variations. Magnetic field disturbances calculated by using these simple current models and the measured particle fluxes

  6. Prospective isolation of human MSC.

    PubMed

    Harichandan, Abhishek; Bühring, Hans-Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Conventionally, mesenchymal/stromal stem cells (MSC) are functionally isolated from primary tissue based on their capacity to adhere to the plastic surface. This isolation procedure is hampered by the unpredictable influence of secreted molecules or interactions with co-cultured hematopoietic and other unrelated cells as well as by the arbitrarily selected removal time of non-adherent cells prior to expansion of MSC. Early removal of non-adherent cells may result in the elimination of a late adhering MSC subsets and late removal increases the influence of undesired cells on the growth and differentiation of MSC. Finally, in conventional protocols MSC are co-expanded together with macrophages, endothelial cells and other adherent cells. To circumvent these limitations, several strategies have been developed to facilitate the prospective isolation of MSC based on the selective expression or absence of surface markers. Here we summarize the most frequently used markers and introduce new targets for antibody-based isolation procedures of primary bone marrow-derived MSC. PMID:21396590

  7. Isolated Singularities and Series Expansions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to experiment with Taylor and Laurent series commands in a computer algebra system and to explore the behavior of differentiable functions near isolated singularities. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  8. Characterization of citrus HSVd isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Palacio-Bielsa; J. Romero-Durbán; N. Duran-Vila

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Seven citrus isolates of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) were subjected to retrotranscription and DNA amplification (RT-PCR), cloning and sequencing. Single stranded polymorphism (SSCP) analysis demonstrated the existence of variability among and within cachexia inducing sources of HSVd. The electrophoretic profiles of SSCP appeared to be able to discriminate between non-cachexia and cachexia sources of HSVd. Sequence analysis demonstrated that

  9. New Calicivirus isolated from walrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilia Ganova-Raeva; Alvin W. Smith; Howard Fields; Yury Khudyakov

    2004-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a new member of Caliciviridae was determined. Cell culture inoculated with fecal matter from walrus was used to recover fragments of a new virus by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). The isolate was identified as a member of the Vesivirus genus of Caliciviridae and designated the name Walrus Calicivirus (WCV). Sets of PCR primers

  10. NASDA's activities on vibration isolation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Development Agency's (NASDA) activities in providing various vibration isolation technologies for the Space Station Mission are covered in viewgraph form. Technologies covered include an active vibration isolation system for extra sensitive missions in the low frequency range, a passive damping system consisting of a damping rack for the reduction of resonance amplification, and an isolator for vibration isolation from low frequencies. Information is given in viewgraph form on the active vibration isolation concept, voice coil type electromagnetic suspension, a profile of an active vibration isolation system, a three degree of freedom ground experiment, and acceleration feedback.

  11. Endophytic Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates from sugarcane obtained through different culture strategies.

    PubMed

    Rouws, Luc Felicianus Marie; Leite, Jakson; de Matos, Gustavo Feitosa; Zilli, Jerri Edson; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Reis, Verônica Massena; Baldani, José Ivo

    2014-08-01

    Brazilian sugarcane has been shown to obtain part of its nitrogen via biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Recent reports, based on the culture independent sequencing of bacterial nifH complementary DNA (cDNA) from sugarcane tissues, have suggested that members of the Bradyrhizobium genus could play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF. Here we report on the isolation of Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates and a few other species from roots of sugarcane cultivar RB867515 by two cultivation strategies: direct isolation on culture media and capture of Bradyrhizobium spp. using the promiscuous legume Vigna unguiculata as trap-plant. Both strategies permitted the isolation of genetically diverse Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, as concluded from enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA, nifH and nodC sequence analyses. Several isolates presented nifH phylotypes highly similar to nifH cDNA phylotypes detected in field-grown sugarcane by a culture-independent approach. Four isolates obtained by direct plate cultivation were unable to nodulate V.?unguiculata and, based on PCR analysis, lacked a nodC gene homologue. Acetylene reduction assay showed in vitro nitrogenase activity for some Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, suggesting that these bacteria do not require a nodule environment for BNF. Therefore, this study brings further evidence that Bradyrhizobium spp. may play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF under field conditions. PMID:24992534

  12. Surveillance of Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Puerto Rican Medical Center Hospitals: Dissemination of KPC and IMP18  -Lactamases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Wolter; Noha Khalaf; Iraida E. Robledo; Guillermo J. Vazquez; Maria I. Sante; Edna E. Aquino; Richard V. Goering; Nancy D. Hanson

    2009-01-01

    During a 6-month period, 37\\/513 (7.2%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates belonging to 13 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups from Puerto Rican hospitals were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Seven of 37 isolates from four PFGE groups carried blaIMP-18, and 25\\/37 isolates from seven PFGE groups carried blaKPC. The results indicated the clonal spread of blaKPC-positive P. aeruginosa isolates into several Puerto Rican hospitals and

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Photon number variance in isolated cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Philippe; Jacques Arnaud

    2001-01-01

    We consider a strictly isolated single-mode optical cavity resonating at angular frequency, omega, containing atoms whose one-electron level energies are supposed to be &plank;omega, 2&plank;omega...B&plank;omega, and m photons. If the atoms are initially in their highest energy state and m = 0, we find that at equilibrium: variance(m)\\/mean(m) = (B + 1)\\/6, indicating that the internal field statistics is sub-Poissonian

  14. CRAWFORD FIELD VISTA FIELD

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Center 6537 6533 404 819 314 653 90 214 Student Center Anteater Rec. Center 836 523 720 600 712 715 721 H 627 626 3300 7 533 4700 21 23 ANTEATER RECREATION CENTER SPORTS FIELDS 415 517 515 402 899 897 837 40 ROAD) PALO VERDE HOUSING E.PELTASONDR. ANTEATER DR. VISTA DEL CAMPO NORTE HOUSING HEALTH S CIENCESRD

  15. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers. PMID:23992511

  16. Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Malihe; Sadeghi, Javad; Pourshafie, Mohammad R

    2014-05-01

    To assess the molecular characterization of disseminated vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the intensive care units, 546 enterococci isolates were collected from different clinical samples in a prospective observational study. The results showed that a total number of 33 isolates (6 %) were resistant to vancomycin. Most of the VRE isolates 11 (34 %) were isolated from intensive care units (ICUs). 18 (55 %) VRE isolates were obtained from urinary tract infections. The results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed five common types (CT) and 13 single types (ST) among the VRE isolates. The analysis showed two and one major CTs and ST among the ICUs isolates, respectively. Tn1546 transposon was analyzed using ClaI-digested long PCR (L-PCR) RFLP followed by sequencing. The results showed the presence of two different lineages of transposon among the two clonal groups. Lineage 1 with the arrangement of Tn1546 prototype in the first clonal group and the second lineage with 13 kb harboring two insertion sequences, IS1216 V and IS1542. DNA hybridization showed that vanA gene in all VRE isolates, with an exception of one isolate, was present in the same location on the genome. Overall, the results suggest that a few VRE clonal types were disseminated in ICUs in hospitals in Iran which were able to transfer their vanA with high conjugation frequency. PMID:24399362

  17. Human isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden during half a century (1958-2010).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valladares, G; Tham, W; Parihar, V Singh; Helmersson, S; Andersson, B; Ivarsson, S; Johansson, C; Ringberg, H; Tjernberg, I; Henriques-Normark, B; Danielsson-Tham, M-L

    2014-11-01

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958-2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested. PMID:24480252

  18. Identity, virulence genes, and clonal relatedness of Aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M; Remacha, M-A; Rodríguez-Calleja, J-M; Santos, J A; Otero, A; García-López, M-L

    2010-09-01

    Among 800 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea submitted by Primary Care Centers for routine analysis to the Hospital of León (NW Spain) Microbiology and Parasitology Service, 32 (4%) were tested positive for Aeromonas spp. Mixed infections with other enteric pathogens occurred in 12 patients. A. caviae was isolated from 23 clinical specimens. There were also patients infected with A. media, A. hydrophila, A. bestiarum, and A. veronii biovar veronii. All but three isolates carried one or more of the virulence genes. The incidence of the alt, hlyA, aerA, ast, and laf genes was 71.9, 28.1, 25.0, 18.8, and 9.4%, respectively. The alt(+)/ast(+) combination was detected in four isolates and the aerA(+)/hlyA(+) combination was detected in the two A. hydrophila isolates. None of the strains harbored the TTSS, stx1, or stx2 genes and nine bore plasmids. Thirty clinical isolates and a collection of 12 A. caviae and A. media strains obtained from León municipal drinking water over the study period were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE patterns revealed genetic relatedness and persistence over time among water isolates and some clinical isolates. Interestingly, one A. caviae (aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)) human isolate and two A. caviae (aerA(-)/hlyA(-)/alt(+)/ast(-)/laf(+)) drinking water isolates had indistinguishable PFGE patterns, suggesting waterborne infection. PMID:20549532

  19. Polyclonal Population Structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Spain Carrying mef and mef plus erm(B)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. G. de la Pedrosa; Marõ ´ a-Isabel Morosini; Mark van der Linden; Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa; Juan Carlos Galan; Fernando Baquero; R. R. Reinert; Rafael Canton

    2008-01-01

    The population structure (serotypes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types, and multilocus sequencing types) of 45 mef-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (carrying mef alone (n 17) or with the erm(B) gene n 28)) were studied. They were selected from among all erythromycin-resistant isolates (n 244) obtained from a collection of 712 isolates recovered from different Spanish geographic locations in the prevaccination period

  20. In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Gerchman; Inna Lysnyansky; Shimon Perk; Sharon Levisohn

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility to enrofloxacin and difloxacin in recent (2005–2006) isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae from meat-type turkey flocks with archived (1997–2003) isolates and reference strains. Comparison of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by microtest,

  1. Dielectrophoresis for biomarker isolation from biological samples

    E-print Network

    Sonnenberg, Avery Renault

    of this DEP technology by showing the rapid isolation andDEP technology by now showing: (1) the rapid isolation andisolation of DNA from the sample. Our group has now developed an electrokinetic DEP technology

  2. Surface plasmon enhanced magneto-optic isolator

    E-print Network

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    Here we present an integrated isolator design based on nonreciprocal coupling into a magnetooptic surface-plasmon waveguide that achieves an isolation >30 dB with an insertion <3 dB in a device length <100 mum.

  3. Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

    1983-07-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

  4. GLUTARALDEHYDE FIXATION OF ISOLATED EUCARYOTIC NUCLEI

    E-print Network

    Olins, Ada L.

    National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 ABSTRACT Isolated chicken erythrocyte nuclei have been proximity within the isolated erythrocyte nucleus . MATERIALS AND METHODS Reagents Glutaraldehyde substituted for tris(hydroxymethyl)- aminomethane buffers . Preparation of Nuclei Chicken erythrocyte nuclei

  5. Plasma loss and associated diffusion coefficients to an isolated internal octupole ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cavallo

    1976-01-01

    Measurement of particle transport is made in the magnetohydrodynamically stable region near a completely isolated internal ring in a levitated octupole by telemetering the collected plasma signal. With a toroidal field of 10% of the poloidal field and with the parameters of a specified gun-injected plasma a derived diffusion coefficient of D = 60 sq cm per sec results. With

  6. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Sulentic

    2009-01-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This\\u000ais partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies\\u000aisolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be\\u000astatistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were\\u000amarginally successful--too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If\\u000areally isolated

  7. Isolation of mitochondria from CNS

    PubMed Central

    Kristian, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    This unit contains a protocol describing the isolation of brain mitochondria by using discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. The Percoll density gradient centrifugation separates synaptosomes, myelin, and free non-synaptic mitochondria released from cells during tissue homogenization into individual fractions. Mitochondria entrapped in synaptosomes (synaptic mitochondria) can be liberated using nitrogen cavitation and then further purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation. These methods yield mitochondria that exhibit good respiratory coupling and high respiratory rates. PMID:20578034

  8. Isolation of Allium pollen protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Fellner; Pavel Havrfinek

    1992-01-01

    Studies on protoplasts isolation were carried out with mature pollen grains of 29 samples of species of Allium aflatunense, A. cepa, A. fistulosum, A. karataviense, A. longicuspis, A. nutans, A. odorum, A. sativum and A. schoenoprasum. Surface sterilized pollen grains drifted from crushed anthers were incubated in an enzyme solution containing 1% (w\\/v) cellulase Onozuka R-10, 1% (w\\/v) Macerozyme R-10,

  9. Isolated genital annular lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Badri, T; Kenani, N; Benmously, R; Debbiche, A; Mokhtar, I; Fenniche, S

    2011-01-01

    Annular lichen planus is a rarely reported variant of lichen planus (LP). Although genital lesions are frequent in patients with LP, isolated genital LP is rarely reported. We present a case of a 29-year- -old circumcised man with an asymptomatic annular lesion of the penis. Histopathological features were consistent with LP. Topical clobetasol was prescribed, with clinical improvement. It is important to consider annular LP among the possible diagnoses of individual annular genital lesions. PMID:21879203

  10. Current management of isolated sphenoiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Güven Güvenç; As?m Kaytaz; Gül Özbilen Acar; Mehmet Ada

    2009-01-01

    Isolated sphenoiditis (IS) is a relatively rare clinical entity which might present with serious complications. The clinical\\u000a records of ten patients with IS were reviewed. The presenting symptoms, the findings, and the treatments given were noted.\\u000a Eight patients were female and two were male, and their age varied between 9 and 65 years (mean 31 years). The main presenting\\u000a symptom was headache

  11. Differential phenotypic diversity among epidemic-spanning Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from humans or animals.

    PubMed

    Yim, Lucía; Betancor, Laura; Martinez, Arací; Giossa, Gerardo; Bryant, Clare; Maskell, Duncan; Chabalgoity, Jose A

    2010-10-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellae are major causes of food-borne disease worldwide. In Uruguay, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was the most commonly isolated serovar throughout the last decade, with a marked epidemic period between 1995 and 2004. In a previous study, we conducted comparative genomics of 29 epidemic-spanning S. Enteritidis field isolates, and here we evaluated the pathogenic potential of the same set of isolates using several phenotypic assays. The sample included 15 isolates from human gastroenteritis, 5 from invasive disease, and 9 from nonhuman sources. Contrary to the genetic homogeneity previously observed, we found great phenotypic variability among these isolates. One-third of them were defective in at least one assay, namely, 10 isolates were defective in motility, 8 in invasion of Caco-2 cells, and 10 in survival in egg albumen. Twelve isolates were tested for invasiveness in 3-day-old chickens, and five of these were significantly less invasive than the reference strain. The two oldest preepidemic isolates were reduced in fitness in all assays, providing a plausible explanation for the previous negligible incidence of S. Enteritidis in Uruguay and supporting the view that the introduction or emergence of a more virulent strain was responsible for the marked rise of this serovar. Further, we found differences in fitness among the isolates which depended on the source of isolation. A total of 1 out of 14 isolates from human gastroenteritis, but 6 out of 13 isolates from other sources, was impaired in at least two assays, suggesting enhanced fitness among strains able to cause intestinal disease in humans. PMID:20802078

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana from food, environmental and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Mezal, Ezat H; Stefanova, Rossina; Khan, Ashraf A

    2013-06-01

    A total of 50 Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana isolates, isolated from food, environmental and clinical samples, were analyzed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes, plasmids and plasmid replicon types. To assess the genetic diversity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting and plasmid profiles were performed. All of the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and sulfisoxazole, and four isolates showed intermediate resistance to gentamicin or kanamycin. Eleven isolates, including representatives from each of the source types, were resistant to ampicillin. Four isolates from either clinical or environmental sources were resistant to tetracycline, while an additional 20 isolates showed intermediate resistance to this drug. Fourteen isolates, primarily from food sources, showed intermediate resistance to streptomycin. The S. Javiana isolates were screened by PCR for 17 virulence genes (spvB, spiA, pagC, msgA, invA, sipB, prgH, spaN, orgA, tolC, iroN, sitC, IpfC, sifA, sopB, cdtB, and pefA). All isolates were positive for nine to fourteen of these genes, but none were positive for pefA, spvB and lpfC, which are typically present on the Salmonella virulence plasmid. Seven of the virulence genes including cdtB were found in all 50 isolates, suggesting that S. Javiana from food and environmental sources had virulence similar to clinical isolates. Four clinical isolates and two food isolates carried one or more plasmids of approximately 30, 38, and 58 kb, with the 58 kb plasmids belonging to incompatibility group IncFIIA. Two clinical isolates carried IncI1 type mega plasmid (80 kb), and one clinical isolate carried plasmids of 4.5 and 7 kb. The PFGE profiles resulted 34 patterns in five clusters at a 90% similarity threshold. Our results indicate that S. Javiana isolates have a diverse clonal population among the clinical, food and environmental samples and this serotype possesses several virulent genes and plasmids that can contribute to the development of salmonellosis in human. This study provides data that support the potential transmission of S. Javiana virulence factors from food and environmental sources to cause infections in humans. PMID:23628778

  13. Passive earthquake-resistance through base isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Shu Wu; R. W. Seidensticker

    1990-01-01

    Base isolation is an effective approach in mitigating the seismic forces transmitted to the superstructure. It is able to provide reliable protection for the superstructure, its contents and occupants. With base isolation, dynamic characteristics of the superstructure and its contents become more predictable and controllable. In recent years, different base isolation systems have been installed in various new and existing

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Isolation, identification, and technological

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Isolation, identification, and technological characterization of wild leuconostocs are currently missing. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize wild strains of lactococci characteristics. Dominant lactic acid cocci were isolated on M17 and MRS-vancomycin plates from Algerian cow

  15. Low-technology techniques for seismic isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huantian Xiao; J. W. Butterworth; Tam Larkin

    2004-01-01

    This project sought to improve the seismic performance of low-rise buildings by the introduction of a simple, low cost seismic isolation system at the time of construction, or re-construction. The main advantage of the friction sliding isolation layer is that the seismic base shear force transmitted from the ground to the isolated structure can be controlled at the level of

  16. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE INTERSPECIES ISOLATION OF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    analysis of the whole system of the reproductive isolation of two related species may reveal a lot aboutEXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF REPRODUCTIVE INTERSPECIES ISOLATION OF APIS MELLIFERA L. AND APIS CERANA, is regarded as the basic unit in evolution (DOBSHANSKY, 1951, MAYR, 1953). Reproductive isolation

  18. Fiber-embedded in-line isolator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Shiraishi; Takuya Yanagi; Yoshizo Aizawa; Shojiro Kawakami

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-embedded optical isolator with a low forward loss has been developed. The isolator consists of thermally diffused expanded core fibers, laminated polarizers, and a Faraday rotation garnet. Backward and forward losses at 1.3 ?m wavelength are 44.0 and 0.9 dB, respectively. The isolator has a minute size, and its alignment is simple

  19. The HIPASS Catalogue: III - Optical Counterparts & Isolated Dark Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Marianne T. Doyle; M. J. Drinkwater; D. J. Rohde; K. A. Pimbblet; M. Read; M. J. Meyer; M. A. Zwaan; E. Ryan-Weber; J. Stevens; B. S. Koribalski; R. L. Webster; L. Staveley-Smith; D. G. Barnes; M. Howlett; V. A. Kilborn; M. Waugh; M. J. Pierce; R. Bhathal; W. J. G. de Blok; M. J. Disney; R. D. Ekers; K. C. Freeman; D. A. Garcia; B. K. Gibson; J. Harnett; P. A. Henning; H. Jerjen; M. J. Kesteven; P. M. Knezek; S. Mader; M. Marquarding; R. F. Minchin; J. O'Brien; T. Oosterloo; R. M. Price; M. E. Putman; S. D. Ryder; E. M. Sadler; I. M. Stewart; F. Stootman; A. E. Wright

    2005-05-30

    We present the largest catalogue to date of optical counterparts for HI radio-selected galaxies, Hopcat. Of the 4315 HI radio-detected sources from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (Hipass) catalogue, we find optical counterparts for 3618 (84%) galaxies. Of these, 1798 (42%) have confirmed optical velocities and 848 (20%) are single matches without confirmed velocities. Some galaxy matches are members of galaxy groups. From these multiple galaxy matches, 714 (16%) have confirmed optical velocities and a further 258 (6%) galaxies are without confirmed velocities. For 481 (11%), multiple galaxies are present but no single optical counterpart can be chosen and 216 (5%) have no obvious optical galaxy present. Most of these 'blank fields' are in crowded fields along the Galactic plane or have high extinctions. Isolated 'Dark galaxy' candidates are investigated using an extinction cut of ABj < 1 mag and the blank fields category. Of the 3692 galaxies with an ABj extinction < 1 mag, only 13 are also blank fields. Of these, 12 are eliminated either with follow-up Parkes observations or are in crowded fields. The remaining one has a low surface brightness optical counterpart. Hence, no isolated optically dark galaxies have been found within the limits of the Hipass survey.

  20. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR is a useful tool for typing Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Luiz Mello Sampaio; Cristina Viana-Niero; Denise de Freitas; Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima; Sylvia Cardoso Leão

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) infections are increasingly being reported worldwide. Information about genetic relatedness of isolates obtained during outbreaks can provide opportunities for prompt intervention. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is expensive, time consuming, and labor intensive. Other than that, Mycobacterium abscessus isolates can suffer DNA degradation during electrophoresis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are cheaper, faster, and easier

  1. Genome Sequence of Torovirus Identified from a Pig with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jessica; Wassman, Brent; Elston, Josh; Schwartz, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Porcine torovirus (PToV) strain PToV-NPL/2013 was identified from a pig that tested positive for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The spike protein-encoding gene from PToV-NPL/2013 had 92% identity with PToV-SH1, suggesting that PToV circulating in the United States is slightly different from the isolates circulating in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PToV in the United States. PMID:25523767

  2. Frequency response characteristics and response spectra of base-isolated and un-isolated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Namba, H. [Shimizu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-06

    The transmissibility of seismic loads through a linear base-isolation system is analyzed using an impedance method. The results show that the system acts like a {open_quotes}low-pass{close_quotes} filter. It attenuates high-frequency loads but passes through low-frequency ones. The filtering effect depends on the vibration frequencies and damping of the isolated structure and the isolation system. This paper demonstrates the benefits and design principles of base isolation by comparing the transmissibilities and response spectra of isolated and un-isolated structures. Parameters of typical isolated buildings and ground motions of the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used for the demonstration.

  3. Preparation of white sunflower protein isolates

    E-print Network

    Wen, Hwei-Mei

    1982-01-01

    the extraction time at 24'0 from 60 min to less than 10 min. Higher yields of pro- tein isolates were achieved when extracted at 49'C rather than at 24'C. The yield of isolate was reduced by about 10X when the extrac- tion time was reduced from 90 min to 10... facilitated production of protein isolate with acceptable color. Residual free chlorogenic acid contents of isolates ranged 0. 46-0. 96X, which needs to be reduced by washing the acid curd. Residual borate in the isolate ranged 500-1000 ppm, necessitating...

  4. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Humans, Chickens, Raw Milk, and Environmental Water in Quebec, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Molecular strain typing is essential for deciphering the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections. We applied two different methods, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of the flaA short variable repeat (SVR), to 289 isolates (163 human, 56 chicken, 34 raw milk, and 36 environmental water isolates) collected in the province of Québec, Canada, over 3 years; in addition, the analysis included the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing results for a subset of 131 isolates studied previously. MLST defined 96 sequence types (STs) and 20 clonal complexes (CCs), including 49 STs (73 isolates, 25%) and 39 alleles not previously documented in an international database. The frequency of new STs was significantly higher among water isolates than among isolates from other sources (18/36 [50%] and 55/253 [22%], respectively; P < 0.001). Nine of the 10 most prevalent CCs included isolates from humans and at least one other source; five CCs comprised exclusively or mostly human and chicken isolates. However, water and milk were the predominant nonhuman sources among the remaining CCs, suggesting that sporadic C. jejuni infections in humans may frequently arise from sources other than chickens. All three typing systems were discriminatory (discriminatory index > 0.9). Among 131 isolates analyzed by PFGE, each of the 20 types represented by two or more isolates corresponded to a single CC. In contrast, among the 14 most prevalent types detected by analysis of the flaA SVR (5 to 27 isolates each), 8 (57%) included isolates that represented multiple different CCs. The basis for these discordant results was uncertain. Antimicrobial resistance was randomly distributed among the CCs and appeared to be more closely related to the source of an isolate than its genotype. Although MLST is labor-intensive and expensive, it remains the single best method for the genotyping of C. jejuni isolates and deciphering the epidemiologic relationships among isolates. PMID:18701662

  5. Serotypes, Virulence Factors, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Vaginal and Fecal Isolates of Escherichia coli from Giant Pandas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Shijie; Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli typically colonizes the intestinal tract and vagina of giant pandas, it has caused enteric and systemic disease in giant pandas and greatly impacts the health and survival of this endangered species. In order to understand the distribution and characteristics of E. coli from giant pandas, 67 fecal and 30 vaginal E. coli isolates from 21 giant pandas were characterized for O serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. In addition, these isolates were tested for the presence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) by multiplex PCR detection of specific virulence genes. The most prevalent serogroups for all E. coli isolates were O88, O18, O167, O4, and O158. ExPEC isolates were detected mostly in vaginal samples, and DEC isolates were detected only in fecal samples. Phylogenetic group B1 predominated in fecal isolates, while groups B2 and D were frequently detected in vaginal isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was most frequently observed, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. All except five isolates were typeable by using XbaI and were categorized into 74 PFGE patterns. Our findings indicate that panda E. coli isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates were present in giant pandas. In addition, these E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study may provide helpful information for developing strategies in the future to control E. coli infections of giant pandas. PMID:23793635

  6. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutations in quinolone-resistant Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from diseased salmonids in Norway.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Q A; Nilsen, Hanne; Bottolfsen, Kirsten; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Sørum, Henning

    2012-04-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of the recognized diseases 'bacterial coldwater disease' and 'rainbow trout fry syndrome' and is found in many farmed freshwater and marine fish species. In Norway, the bacterium has mainly been isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). In the present study, 26 isolates from Norwegian farmed salmonids were examined. All isolates were tested for susceptibility towards various antibacterial drugs by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentration values for oxolinic acid and flumequine were established for selected isolates. All isolates from rainbow trout displayed reduced susceptibility towards quinolones, while brown trout and Atlantic salmon isolates were susceptible. The quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were sequenced. Sequence analysis of the QRDR of gyrA in quinolone resistant isolates revealed a threonine:arginine amino acid substitution at position 82 in all 16 isolates from Norwegian rainbow trout and a single reference strain isolated from rainbow trout in Sweden. No evidence for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance was found in any of the isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phylogenetic analysis of parC and gyrB sequences indicate a clonal relationship between rainbow trout isolates. PMID:22283604

  7. Serotypes, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of vaginal and fecal isolates of Escherichia coli from giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yan, Qigui; Xia, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yanming; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Shijie; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Although Escherichia coli typically colonizes the intestinal tract and vagina of giant pandas, it has caused enteric and systemic disease in giant pandas and greatly impacts the health and survival of this endangered species. In order to understand the distribution and characteristics of E. coli from giant pandas, 67 fecal and 30 vaginal E. coli isolates from 21 giant pandas were characterized for O serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. In addition, these isolates were tested for the presence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) by multiplex PCR detection of specific virulence genes. The most prevalent serogroups for all E. coli isolates were O88, O18, O167, O4, and O158. ExPEC isolates were detected mostly in vaginal samples, and DEC isolates were detected only in fecal samples. Phylogenetic group B1 predominated in fecal isolates, while groups B2 and D were frequently detected in vaginal isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was most frequently observed, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. All except five isolates were typeable by using XbaI and were categorized into 74 PFGE patterns. Our findings indicate that panda E. coli isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates were present in giant pandas. In addition, these E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study may provide helpful information for developing strategies in the future to control E. coli infections of giant pandas. PMID:23793635

  8. Field Notes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Field Records Collection has many materials types including: field notebooks, sketches, annotated maps, unpublished manuscripts, plane-table sheets, annotated aerial photographs, sample analysis, stratigraphic columns, lithologic logs, and geologic cross sections. Materials in the Field Records ...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    PubMed

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were < or = 2.0 microg/ml. No decreased susceptibility to tiamulin was found among the Polish isolates and MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland. PMID:22844703

  10. A mathematical theory of isolated systems in relativistic plasma physics

    E-print Network

    Simone Calogero

    2006-06-09

    The existence and the properties of isolated solutions to the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system with initial data on the backward hyperboloid $t=-\\sqrt{1+|x|^2}$ are investigated. Isolated solutions of Vlasov-Maxwell can be defined by the condition that the particle density is compactly supported on the initial hyperboloid and by imposing the absence of incoming radiation on the electromagnetic field. Various consequences of the mass-energy conservation laws are derived by assuming the existence of smooth isolated solutions which match the inital data. In particular, it is shown that the mass-energy of isolated solutions on the backward hyperboloids and on the surfaces of constant proper time are preserved and equal, while the mass-energy on the forward hyperboloids is non-increasing and uniformly bounded by the mass-energy on the initial hyperboloid. Moreover the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions in the future of the initial surface is established for the one dimensional version of the system.

  11. Phylogenetics of an antibiotic producing Streptomyces strain isolated from soil

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Praveen, Vandana; Khan, Feroz; Tripathi, Chandra Kant Mani

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of species classification and identification of the organism are based on morphological, physiological, biochemical, developmental and nutritional characteristics. Accurate assignment of taxonomic status to the new biologically active microbial isolates through existing bioinformatics methods is now very essential and also helpful in chemical characterization of the active molecule produced by microorganisms. The bacterial strain M4 (ckm7) was isolated from the pre-treated soil sample collected from the agricultural field of Eastern Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India and was found to be producing antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics. Taxonomic identification of the isolate belongs to the genus Streptomyces which was done with the help of sequence analysis and later confirmed by biological activity. Sequence comparison study of ckm7 showed 98% identical similarity with 16S rRNA gene sequences of Streptomyces spinichromogenes, Streptomyces triostinicus and Streptomyces capoamus. On the basis of both biological activity and phylogenetic analysis of ckm7, it was concluded that the isolated strain is a new variant of S. triostinicus. PMID:20198168

  12. Pathogenicity and mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from onion and garlic in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stankovic; J. Levic; T. Petrovic; A. Logrieco; A. Moretti

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum can occur on a wide range of economically important vegetable plants but its role in disease is not always well established.\\u000a In 2000 and 2001, from forty-one field samples of wilting onion and garlic plants in Serbia, F. proliferatum as the predominant fungal species was isolated from root and bulbs. Seventy isolates were firstly characterized for their\\u000a sexual

  13. Fresh Isolates from Children with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Bind to Multiple Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREAS HEDDINI; FREDRIK PETTERSSON; OSCAR KAI; JUMA SHAFI; JACK OBIERO; QIJUN CHEN; ANTONIO BARRAGAN; MATS WAHLGREN; KEVIN MARSH

    2001-01-01

    The sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (pRBC) away from the peripheral circu- lation is a property of all field isolates. Here we have examined the pRBC of 111 fresh clinical isolates from children with malaria for a number of adhesive features in order to study their possible coexpression and association with severity of disease. A large number of adhesion assays

  14. Characterization of Listeria strains isolated from soft and semi-soft cheeses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Loncarevic; E Bannerman; J Bille; M.-L Danielsson-Tham; W Tham

    1998-01-01

    Two hundred strains ofListeria monoctyogenespreviously isolated from 19 soft and semi-soft cheeses by enrichment were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Strains of serogroup 1\\/2 predominated, with 33.5% of all strains belonging to serovar 1\\/2a, 58.5% to serovar 1\\/2b and 5% to serovar 1\\/2c. By using a PFGE method, 16 different clonal types were obtained. All 10 isolates

  15. Intraspecific diversity of Oenococcus oeni isolated during red wine-making in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Sato; Fujitoshi Yanagida; Takashi Shinohara; Masahito Suzuki; Ken-ichiro Suzuki; Koki Yokotsuka

    2001-01-01

    Using molecular and chemotaxonomic techniques, we studied the intraspecific diversity of Oenococcus oeni, a lactic acid bacterium isolated during red wine-making in Japan. The results confirmed high values of DNA–DNA relatedness and strong similarity among 16S rDNA sequences of the isolates with the O. oeni-type strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) by NotI identified four patterns among the strains. Three different

  16. Effects of intrapancreatic neuronal activation on cholecystokinin-induced exocrine secretion of isolated perfused rat pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung Seo Park; In Sun Park; Yun Lyul Lee; Hyeok Yil Kwon; H. J. Park

    1999-01-01

    The role of intrapancreatic neurons in the action of cholecystokinin (CCK) on pancreatic exocrine secretion of the totally\\u000a isolated, perfused rat pancreas was investigated. Intrapancreatic neurons were activated by applying electrical field stimulation\\u000a (EFS) to the isolated pancreas for 45 min. When applying EFS, spontaneous pancreatic secretions of fluid and amylase increased\\u000a until the second 15-min period of EFS and

  17. High-throughput genome sequencing of two Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates during a large foodborne outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew W Gilmour; Morag Graham; Gary Van Domselaar; Shaun Tyler; Heather Kent; Keri M Trout-Yakel; Oscar Larios; Vanessa Allen; Barbara Lee; Celine Nadon

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large, multi-province outbreak of listeriosis associated with ready-to-eat meat products contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1\\/2a occurred in Canada in 2008. Subtyping of outbreak-associated isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed two similar but distinct AscI PFGE patterns. High-throughput pyrosequencing of two L. monocytogenes isolates was used to rapidly provide the genome sequence of the primary outbreak strain

  18. Large-Restriction-Fragment Polymorphism Analysis of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium terrae Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Daisy Vanitha; R. Venkatasubramani; K. Dharmalingam; C. N. Paramasivan

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium terrae were reported to be frequently present in the environment of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG trial area in south India. Six isolates of M. chelonae and four isolates of M. terrae obtained from different sources in this area were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine large-restriction-fragment (LRF) polymorphism using the chromosomal DNA digested with

  19. Isolation of an endophytic diazotroph, Klebsiella oxytoca, from sweet potato stems in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuki Adachi; Makoto Nakatani; Hideyuki Mochida

    2002-01-01

    The population density of endophytic bacteria in the stem of field-grown sweet potato cultivars (Beniotome [BO], Koganesengan [KS], and Shiroyutaka [SYD in Miyakonojo, Miyazaki, Japan, ranged from 10 to 10 cells g fresh weight sample using a semi-solid nitrogen-free medium. Eleven strains were isolated from the stems and two isolates, BO-1 and BO-5, showed a positive reaction in the acetylene

  20. Axenic culture of reptilian Blastocystis isolates in monophasic medium and speciation by karyotypic typing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Singh; L. C. Ho; A. L. L. Yap; G. C. Ng; S. W. Tan; K. T. Moe; E. H. Yap

    1996-01-01

    The growth of axenic reptilian isolates of Blastocystis in Iscove’s modified Dulbecco’s medium (IMDM) was studied and the morphology of the parasite was examined by phase-contrast\\u000a microscopy. The chromosomal patterns of these reptilian isolates of Blastocystis were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with those of B. hominis and B. lapemi, a sea snake Blastocystis. IMDM with 10%

  1. Influence of isolator characteristics on the response of base-isolated structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasant A. Matsagar; R. S. Jangid

    2004-01-01

    The influence of isolator characteristics on the seismic response of multi-story base-isolated structure is investigated. The isolated building is modeled as a shear type structure with lateral degree-of-freedom at each floor. The isolators are modeled by using two different mathematical models depicted by bi-linear hysteretic and equivalent linear elastic–viscous behaviors. The coupled differential equations of motion for the isolated system

  2. Ribosomal Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajamäki, Marja; Kataja, Janne; Seppälä, Helena; Elliot, John; Leinonen, Maija; Huovinen, Pentti; Jalava, Jari

    2002-01-01

    Eleven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated in Finland during 1996 to 2000, had an unusual macrolide resistance phenotype. They were resistant to macrolides and streptogramin B but susceptible, intermediate, or low-level resistant to lincosamides. No acquired macrolide resistance genes were detected from the strains. The isolates were found to have mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA or ribosomal protein L4. Seven isolates had an A2059C mutation in two to four out of the four alleles encoding the 23S rRNA, two isolates had an A2059G mutation in two alleles, one isolate had a C2611G mutation in all four alleles, and one isolate had a 69GTG71-to-69TPS71 substitution in ribosomal protein L4. PMID:11850244

  3. Field Distribution of END Phenomenon-Negative Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    NISHINE, Kaoru; AOKI, Hiroshi; SAKODA, Yoshihiro; FUKUSHO, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Field isolates of BVDV which do not show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon (END–) are rarely reported. In this study, 45 BVDV field isolates from cattle in Hokkaido prefecture in Japan were analyzed by the reverse plaque formation method, the END method and observation of cytopathic effects. END– virus was detected in 34 of 45 isolates (75.6%), although 35 of 45 field isolates contained END phenomenon positive virus as the predominant virus population. We propose that END– viruses are widely distributed in the field and that it is possible that the mixture of biologically distinct BVDV correlates with the appearance of disease in infected animals. PMID:25649948

  4. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in north west Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25–29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. Conclusions The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future. PMID:24144165

  5. Isolation of an Adoxophyes orana granulovirus (AdorGV) occlusion body morphology mutant: biological activity, genome sequence and relationship to other isolates of AdorGV.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Madoka; Harrison, Robert L; Uchida, Haruaki; Ukuda, Rie; Hikihara, Shohei; Ishii, Kazuo; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2015-04-01

    A granulovirus (GV) producing occlusion bodies (OBs) with an unusual appearance was isolated from Adoxophyes spp. larvae in the field. Ultrastructural observations revealed that its OBs were significantly larger and cuboidal in shape, rather than the standard ovo-cylindrical shape typical of GVs. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the OB matrix protein from this virus suggested that this new isolate was a variant of Adoxophyes orana granulovirus (AdorGV). Bioassays of this GV (termed AdorGV-M) and an English isolate of AdorGV (termed AdorGV-E) indicated that the two isolates were equally pathogenic against larvae of Adoxophyes honmai. However, AdorGV-M retained more infectivity towards larvae after irradiation with UV light than did AdorGV-E. Sequencing and analysis of the AdorGV-M genome revealed little sequence divergence between this isolate and AdorGV-E. Comparison of selected genes among the two AdorGV isolates and other Japanese AdorGV isolates revealed differences that may account for the unusual OB morphology of AdorGV-M. PMID:25524166

  6. Isoflavonoids isolated from Cuban propolis.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; De Simone, Francesco; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-11-16

    Chemical investigation of a red-type Cuban propolis sample has led to the isolation of 11 isoflavonoids (2 isoflavones, 3 isoflavans, and 6 pterocarpans), together with gallic acid, isoliquiritigenin, and (-)-liquiritigenin. Structural determination, including the absolute stereochemistry, was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis, particularly CD and 2D NMR techniques. The fragmentation behavior of pterocarpans was studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion-trap analyzer, and a generalized fragmentation pathway, useful in the identification and structural characterization of pterocarpans, is proposed. Isoflavonoids are reported for the first time from propolis samples. PMID:16277396

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular analysis of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Abbassi-Ghozzi, I; Jaouani, A; Aissa, R B; Martinez-Urtaza, J; Boudabous, A; Gtari, M

    2011-08-01

    During the period from 2006 to 2007, a total of 32 clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from diarrheagenic stool samples and further examined for their susceptibility to various antibiotics. Sixteen of the human isolates were from the capital Tunis, 11 were from Sousse, four were from Nabeul and one was from Mahdia, Tunisia. The isolates were serotyped and identified at the National Centre of Enteropathogenic Bacteria, Pasteur Institute, Tunis (Centre National de Salmonella, Shigella et Vibrio - Institut pasteur de Tunis); nine distinct serovars were identified: Enteritidis (n=20), Typhimurium (n=4), Zanzibar (n=2), Manhattan (n=1), Bovismorbificans (n=1), Amsterdam (n=1), Saint Paul (n=1), Kentucky (n=1) and Muenster (n=1). Our results showed that 25 Salmonella isolates (78.1 %) were resistant to antibiotics with 20 isolates (62.5 %) displayed resistance to ampicillin. Isolates sharing invA gene, as shown by PCR amplification, were further characterized by the techniques of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI and plasmid analysis to determine possible genetic relationships among Salmonella enterica clinical isolates and to assess genetic diversity. Plasmid profiling identified seven plasmid profiles (with 1-5 plasmids) among the isolates; four isolates (Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Muenster, Salmonella Bovismorbificans and Salmonella Zanzibar) did not carry any plasmid. The isolates were differentiated into 10 distinct XbaI-pulsotypes. Our findings show genetic diversity among the different serovars and cluster analysis of compiled serotyping, PFGE, plasmid profiling and antibiotic resistance data provided additional discrimination. PMID:20685046

  8. Genetically similar VHSV isolates are differentially virulent in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mi Young; Lee, Unn Hwa; Moon, Chang Hoon; Bang, Jong Deuk; Jee, Bo Young; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Do, Jeong Wan; Park, Jeong Woo

    2012-11-01

    Two viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolates, VHSV-KR-CJA and VHSV-KR-YGH, were isolated from viral hemorrhagic septicemia disease outbreaks in flounder farms in South Korea. The VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with high mortality (80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was isolated from a flounder farm with low mortality (15%), suggesting that these isolates differ in virulence. The virulence of these isolates was evaluated in juvenile flounder via intraperitoneal injection. Consistent with their virulence in the field, mortality data revealed that the VHSV-KR-CJA isolate was highly pathogenic (cumulative mortality of 80%), while the VHSV-KR-YGH isolate was less pathogenic in flounder (cumulative mortality of 20%). To characterize the genotypes of these viruses, the full open reading frames (ORFs) encoding nucleoprotein N, phosphoprotein P, matrix protein M, glycoprotein G, nonstructural viral protein NV, and polymerase L of these viruses were sequenced and analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that both isolates are genetically very similar (identical amino acid sequences for P, M, NV, and L and >99.7 and 99.8% amino acid sequence identity for N and G, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both of these viruses belong to the Genotype IVa group, suggesting that they originated from a common ancestral virus. The low pathogenicity VHSV strain may potentially evolve to become a more pathogenic strain through only a few nucleotide substitutions. Further functional analyses of mutations in VHSV genes are necessary to identify factors that determine VHSV pathogenicity in flounder. PMID:23135137

  9. Isolation and Characterization of New Leptospira Genotypes from Patients in Mayotte (Indian Ocean)

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Pascale; Collet, Louis; Clément, Sabine; Huerre, Michel; Ave, Patrick; Giry, Claude; Pettinelli, François; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis has been implicated as a severe and fatal form of disease in Mayotte, a French-administrated territory located in the Comoros archipelago (southwestern Indian Ocean). To date, Leptospira isolates have never been isolated in this endemic region. Methods and Findings Leptospires were isolated from blood samples from 22 patients with febrile illness during a 17-month period after a PCR-based screening test was positive. Strains were typed using hyper-immune antisera raised against the major Leptospira serogroups: 20 of 22 clinical isolates were assigned to serogroup Mini; the other two strains belonged to serogroups Grippotyphosa and Pyrogenes, respectively. These isolates were further characterized using partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and ligB gene, Multi Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA), and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 22 isolates, 14 were L. borgpetersenii strains, 7 L. kirschneri strains, and 1, belonging to serogoup Pyrogenes, was L. interrogans. Results of the genotyping methods were consistent. MLVA defined five genotypes, whereas PFGE allowed the recognition of additional subgroups within the genotypes. PFGE fingerprint patterns of clinical strains did not match any of the patterns in the reference strains belonging to the same serogroup, suggesting that the strains were novel serovars. Conclusions Preliminary PCR screening of blood specimen allowed a high isolation frequency of leptospires among patients with febrile illness. Typing of leptospiral isolates showed that causative agents of leptospirosis in Mayotte have unique molecular features. PMID:20582311

  10. A novel magnetorheological elastomer isolator with negative changing stiffness for vibration reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Sun, S. S.; Du, H.; Li, W. H.; Alici, G.; Deng, H. X.

    2014-10-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomers (MREs) have attracted notable credits in the development of smart isolators and absorbers due to their controllable stiffness and damping properties. For the purpose of mitigating unwanted structural and/or machinery vibrations, the traditional MRE-based isolators have been generally proven effective because the MR effect can increase the stiffness when the magnetic field is strengthened. This study presents a novel MRE isolator that experienced reduced stiffness when the applied current was increased. This innovative work was accomplished by applying a hybrid magnet (electromagnet and permanent magnets) onto a multilayered MRE structure. To characterise this negative changing stiffness concept, a multilayered MRE isolator with a hybrid magnet was first designed, fabricated and then tested to measure its properties. An obvious reduction of the effective stiffness and natural frequency of the proposed MRE isolator occurred when the current was continuously adjusted. This device could also work as a conventional MRE isolator as its effective stiffness and natural frequency also increased when a negative current was applied. Further testing was carried out on a one-degree-of-freedom system to assess how effectively this device could isolate vibration. In this experiment, two cases were considered; in each case, the vibration of the primary system was obviously attenuated under ON-OFF control logic, thus demonstrating the feasibility of this novel design as an alternative adaptive vibration isolator.

  11. Control of high harmonic generation using isolated attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michelle; Hernández-García, Carlos; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Control of high harmonic generation (HHG) by using additional colors of light has been established as an efficient means of creating isolated pulses of light with increasingly short durations. We present a study of HHG in which isolated attosecond-duration VUV pulses are used to control the population of excited states in a single-atom system. A target He atom is prepared in its ground state, and a moderately intense 1.6 ?m driving laser field is used to permit transitions to continuum states only from excited states of the atomic system. By varying the delay of the isolated attosecond pulse with respect to the driving field, this technique affords control over the moment of electron ionization, and in particular establishes a mechanism for selecting for and experimentally verifying the existence of multiply rescattering trajectories both in the temporal and frequency domains. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (Award No. DGE 1144083), the EU Marie Curie Fellowship (Award No. 328334), and the NSF (Award No. PHY-1125844).

  12. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.

  13. Field Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn W. Harrison; John A. List

    2004-01-01

    Experimental economists are leaving the reservation. They are recruiting subjects in the field rather than in the classroom, using field goods rather than induced valuations, and using field context rather than abstract terminology in instructions. We argue that there is something methodologically fundamental behind this trend. Field experiments differ from laboratory experiments in many ways. Although it is tempting to

  14. Stretched strings in noncommutative field theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Liu; Jeremy Michelson

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by recent discussions of IR-UV mixing in noncommutative field theories, we perform a detailed analysis of the nonplanar amplitudes of the bosonic open string in the presence of an external B field at the one-loop level. We carefully isolate, at the string theory level, the contribution which is responsible for the IR-UV behavior in the field theory limit. We

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Brucella abortus isolates from cattle, elk, and bison in the United States, 1998 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James; Stuber, Tod; Quance, Christine; Edwards, William H; Tiller, Rebekah V; Linfield, Tom; Rhyan, Jack; Berte, Angela; Harris, Beth

    2012-05-01

    A variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) protocol targeting 10 loci in the Brucella abortus genome was used to assess genetic diversity among 366 field isolates recovered from cattle, bison, and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Texas during 1998 to 2011. Minimum spanning tree (MST) and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analyses of VNTR data identified 237 different VNTR types, among which 14 prominent clusters of isolates could be identified. Cattle isolates from Texas segregated into three clusters: one comprised of field isolates from 1998 to 2005, one comprised of vaccination-associated infections, and one associated with an outbreak in Starr County in January 2011. An isolate obtained from a feral sow trapped on property adjacent to the Starr County herd in May 2011 clustered with the cattle isolates, suggesting a role for feral swine as B. abortus reservoirs in Starr County. Isolates from a 2005 cattle outbreak in Wyoming displayed VNTR-10 profiles matching those of strains recovered from Wyoming and Idaho elk. Additionally, isolates associated with cattle outbreaks in Idaho in 2002, Montana in 2008 and 2011, and Wyoming in 2010 primarily clustered with isolates recovered from GYA elk. This study indicates that elk play a predominant role in the transmission of B. abortus to cattle located in the GYA. PMID:22427502

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle, Elk, and Bison in the United States, 1998 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, Tod; Quance, Christine; Edwards, William H.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Linfield, Tom; Rhyan, Jack; Berte, Angela; Harris, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) protocol targeting 10 loci in the Brucella abortus genome was used to assess genetic diversity among 366 field isolates recovered from cattle, bison, and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Texas during 1998 to 2011. Minimum spanning tree (MST) and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analyses of VNTR data identified 237 different VNTR types, among which 14 prominent clusters of isolates could be identified. Cattle isolates from Texas segregated into three clusters: one comprised of field isolates from 1998 to 2005, one comprised of vaccination-associated infections, and one associated with an outbreak in Starr County in January 2011. An isolate obtained from a feral sow trapped on property adjacent to the Starr County herd in May 2011 clustered with the cattle isolates, suggesting a role for feral swine as B. abortus reservoirs in Starr County. Isolates from a 2005 cattle outbreak in Wyoming displayed VNTR-10 profiles matching those of strains recovered from Wyoming and Idaho elk. Additionally, isolates associated with cattle outbreaks in Idaho in 2002, Montana in 2008 and 2011, and Wyoming in 2010 primarily clustered with isolates recovered from GYA elk. This study indicates that elk play a predominant role in the transmission of B. abortus to cattle located in the GYA. PMID:22427502

  17. Serving First in Isolation Increases Vegetable Intake among Elementary Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Redden, Joseph P.; Mann, Traci; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Reicks, Marla; Elsbernd, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Many people want to eat healthier, but they often fail in these attempts. We report two field studies in an elementary school cafeteria that each demonstrate children eat more of a vegetable (carrots, broccoli) when we provide it first in isolation versus alongside other more preferred foods. We propose this healthy first approach succeeds by triggering one’s inherent motivation to eat a single food placed in front of them, and works even though they have prior knowledge of the full menu available and no real time constraints. Consistent with this theory, and counter to simple contrast effects, an additional lab study found that presenting a food first in isolation had the unique ability to increase intake whether the food was healthy (carrots) or less healthy (M&M’s). Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this simple intervention in promoting healthier eating, which should interest consumers, food marketers, health professionals, and policy makers. PMID:25830337

  18. Isolated sleep paralysis, vivid dreams and geomagnetic influences: II.

    PubMed

    Conesa, J

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a test of the hypothesis that significant changes in the ambient geomagnetic field are associated with altered normal nighttime dream patterns. Specifically, it was predicted that there would be a greater incidence of isolated sleep, paralysis or vivid dreams with abrupt rises and falls of geomagnetic activity. The author's (JC) and a second subject's (KC) daily reports of dream-recall were analyzed in the context of daily fluctuations of geomagnetic activity (K indices). Two analyses of variance indicated (i) significantly higher geomagnetic activity three days before a recorded isolated sleep paralysis event and (ii) significantly lower geomagnetic activity three days before an unusually vivid dream took place. Conversely, geomagnetic activity did not fluctuate significantly for randomly selected days. Testing a large sample over time is required for confirmation and extension of this work. PMID:9347546

  19. Serving first in isolation increases vegetable intake among elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Reicks, Marla; Elsbernd, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Many people want to eat healthier, but they often fail in these attempts. We report two field studies in an elementary school cafeteria that each demonstrate children eat more of a vegetable (carrots, broccoli) when we provide it first in isolation versus alongside other more preferred foods. We propose this healthy first approach succeeds by triggering one's inherent motivation to eat a single food placed in front of them, and works even though they have prior knowledge of the full menu available and no real time constraints. Consistent with this theory, and counter to simple contrast effects, an additional lab study found that presenting a food first in isolation had the unique ability to increase intake whether the food was healthy (carrots) or less healthy (M&M's). Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of this simple intervention in promoting healthier eating, which should interest consumers, food marketers, health professionals, and policy makers. PMID:25830337

  20. Low-Temperature Isolation of Disease-Suppressive Bacteria and Characterization of a Distinctive Group of Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, P. Maria; Wright, Sandra A. I.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors during isolation on the composition of potential biocontrol isolates is largely unknown. Bacterial isolates that efficiently suppressed wheat seedling blight caused by Fusarium culmorum were found by isolating psychrotrophic, root-associated bacteria and by screening them in a bioassay that mimicked field conditions. The impact of individual isolation factors on the disease-suppressive index (DSI) of almost 600 isolates was analyzed. The bacteria originated from 135 samples from 62 sites in Sweden and Switzerland. The isolation factors that increased the probability of finding isolates with high DSIs were sampling from arable land, Swiss origin of samples, and origination of isolates from plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae. The colony morphology of the isolates was characterized and compared to DSIs, which led to identification of a uniform morphological group containing 57 highly disease-suppressive isolates. Isolates in this group were identified as Pseudomonas sp.; they were fluorescent on King's medium B and had characteristic crystalline structures in their colonies. These isolates were morphologically similar to seven strains that had previously been selected for suppression of barley net blotch caused by Drechslera teres. Members of this morphological group grow at 1.5°C and produce an antifungal polyketide (2,3-deepoxy-2,3-didehydrorhizoxin [DDR]). They have similar two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles, phenotypic characteristics, and in vitro inhibition spectra of pathogens. In summary, in this paper we describe some isolation factors that are important for obtaining disease-suppressive bacteria in our system, and we describe a novel group of biocontrol pseudomonads. PMID:14602601