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Sample records for pelibuey dorper katahdin

  1. Pasture-raised Katahdin and Katahdin crossbred lambs: growth and parasite resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin ewes were mated to Dorper, Texel, Suffolk or Katahdin rams (3 rams/breed; 8-10 ewes each) to compare growth performance and parasite resistance of the crossbred lambs. Lamb BW was measured at birth (=d0), and then every 30d to d210 (adjusted). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined at d60 ...

  2. Fatty acid composition, including CLA's isomers and cholesterol content of m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimebranosus of Katahdin, Suffolk, Katahdin x Suffolk, and Suffolk x Katahdin lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in meat products have important human health implications. Muscle tissues from Katahdin (KK), Suffolk (SS), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS), and Suffolk x Katahdin (SS) lambs were analyzed to determine the effect of breed-type on muscle fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)...

  3. Reproduction Efficiency and Health Traits in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai Sheep Breeds under Temperate European Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gavojdian, D; Budai, C; Cziszter, L T; Csizmar, N; Javor, A; Kusza, S

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age) managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014). In general, significant (p≤0.001) genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05) in Dorper (9.4%) and White Dorper (10.8%) breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%). Significant differences (p≤0.05) for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05) by the ewes' genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p≤0.05) in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05) by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions. PMID:25656193

  4. Bermudagrass intake and efficiency of utilization in Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daily intake of fresh common bermudagrass was estimated using 12 spring-born Katahdin, Suffolk, and reciprocal-cross ewe lambs (n=3 per breed group) individually fed fresh harvested forage in pens in each of three years. Two 24-h estimates of intake were measured for each week of the study from June...

  5. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates. PMID:24128686

  6. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-01-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p<0.002) effect was observed for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (aNDF), nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) intakes with higher intakes in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p<0.05). A linear reduction in N digestibility and N retention was observed with increasing mucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on fecal-N and N-balance which were higher in the Mucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants. PMID:25049876

  7. Effects of exogenous enzymes and application method on nutrient intake, digestibility and growth performance of Pelibuey lambs.

    PubMed

    López-Aguirre, Daniel; Hernández-Meléndez, Javier; Rojo, Rolando; Sánchez-Dávila, Fernando; López-Villalobos, Nicolás; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M; Martínez-González, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Armijo, José Fernando; Ruíz, Salomón

    2016-01-01

    Pelibuey sheep is the main breed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, and high demand of sheep meat has favored the finishing of lambs in feedlots with diets containing high levels of grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes (EE) and application method on nutrient intake and digestibility and performance of growing Pelibuey lambs. Treatments were based on comparison of two different methods of adding an enzyme product (sprayed on the total mixed ration or applied orally to the lambs) versus control treatment (no added enzyme). Twenty-one Pelibuey lambs, weighing 15.7 kg (SD = 1.8 kg) initial body weight, were individually housed in shaded pens and assigned randomly to one of the three enzyme treatments. At the end of study (lasting for 45 days), three lambs from each treatment were randomly selected and adapted to a pants and harness designed for fecal collection to measure nutrient digestibilities. Total body gain and average daily gain were affected (P < 0.05) by supplemental EE. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on FCE and FCR, but no effects were observed on nutrient intake. Supplemental EE did improve (P < 0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber, but no differences were observed in crude protein digestibility. The application method of EE had significant (P < 0.05) effect on the digestibility of acid detergent fiber. Supplemental EE can improve body weight gain and nutrient digestibilities without affecting nutrient intake in Pelibuey lambs, but the results of feed conversion efficiency and acid detergent fiber digestibility depend on the application method used of the EE. PMID:27610318

  8. The effect of drought stress on the leaf relative water content and tuber yield of a half-sib family of 'Katahdin'-derived potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Soltys-Kalina, Dorota; Plich, Jarosław; Strzelczyk-Żyta, Danuta; Śliwka, Jadwiga; Marczewski, Waldemar

    2016-03-01

    Drought tolerance in plants is a complex trait involving morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms. Hundreds of genes underlie the response of plants to the stress. For crops, selecting cultivars that can produce economically significant yields under drought is a priority. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is considered as drought sensitive crop, although cultivar-dependent differences in tolerance have been described. Cultivar 'Katahdin' possesses many appropriate characteristics and is widely used for breeding purposes worldwide; it also has enhanced tolerance to drought stress. In this study, we evaluated cv. 'Katahdin' and a half-sib family of 17 Katahdin-derived cultivars for leaf relative water content (RWC) and tuber yield under drought stress. The yields of cultivars 'Wauseon', 'Katahdin', 'Magura', 'Calrose', and 'Cayuga' did not significantly decline under drought stress. Among these five, Wauseon exhibited the lowest reduction in both tuber yield and relative water content under water shortage. The data showed that 'Wauseon' is the most attractive cultivar for studies of molecular and physiological processes under drought and for potato breeding due to low yield losses that correspond with high RWC values. This cultivar can serve as a reservoir of potentially useful genes to develop cultivars with enhanced tolerance to this abiotic stress. PMID:27162504

  9. Carcass merit and meat quality when Suffolk lambs, Katahdin lambs, and meat-goat kids were finished on a grass-legume pasture with and without supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant species and breed may impact response to supplementation of pasture diets. The experiment evaluated traditional U.S. sheep (Suffolk crossbed; SX, n = 36), hair sheep (Katahdin; KA, n = 36), and meat goat (Boer crossbred; GX, n = 36) carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters...

  10. Response to artificial and subsequent natural infection with Haemonchus contortus in red Maasai and Dorper ewes.

    PubMed

    Wanyangu, S W; Mugambi, J M; Bain, R K; Duncan, J L; Murray, M; Stear, M J

    1997-05-01

    Maiden Red Maasai and Dorper ewes were kept indoors and artificially infected with a single oral dose of 5000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Their faecal egg counts (FEC) and packed red cell volumes (PCV) were monitored for 9 weeks. They were then treated with an anthelmintic and turned out to graze together on a pasture contaminated with H. contortus. They grazed this pasture for 14 months and were allowed to mate and lamb. While at pasture the ewes were monitored for FEC, PCV and peripheral eosinophilia. Red Maasai ewes had significantly lower FEC, and for certain periods, significantly higher PCV and peripheral eosinophilia. During the periparturient period, FEC were about twice as high in the Dorper breed as the Red Maasai. These results confirm and extend previous reports on the superiority of the Red Maasai breed in East Africa. PMID:9195737

  11. Effect of selective anthelmintic treatments on health and production parameters in Pelibuey ewes during lactation.

    PubMed

    Arece-García, Javier; López-Leyva, Yoel; González-Garduño, Roberto; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Marie-Magdeleine, Carine

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted from December to April 2013, with the aim of evaluating a system of selective antiparasitic treatments using the FAMACHA© color chart compared with a conventional suppressive deworming system every 30 days in Pelibuey ewes during lactation. For the study, 54 ewes were used. They were randomly divided into two groups: FAMACHA and chemical treatments. The ewes in the first group received selective treatment depending on the ocular mucosa coloration (FAMACHA) and body condition score (BCS), while in the second group (chemical) all the animals remained under routine deworming every 30 days. Fecal nematode egg counts, proportion of third-stage trichostrongylid larvae, body condition, coloration of the ocular mucosa, and packed cell volume in the ewes were determined, while in lambs only body weight (BW) was recorded. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in any of the studied variables between groups; however, the use of antiparasitic drugs was reduced during the experimental period in the FAMACHA group and no deaths of lambs or ewes were recorded. The results indicate that during the lactation of ewes, a strategy of selective treatments can be implemented without showing deterioration in major health and productive parameters of these animals. PMID:26563269

  12. Relative expression analysis of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in tropical sheep breed Pelibuey infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, Z M; López-Reyes, A G; Lagunas-Martínez, A; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Olazarán-Jenkins, S; Hernández-Romano, J; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-09-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic nematode of Pelibuey sheep, a meat breed used in tropical regions. Due to anthelmintic problems, the identification of hosts resistant to H. contortus is another option of control. The aim of this study was to analyse the relative expression of IL-5 and IL-6 genes in Pelibuey sheep after H. contortus infection. Nineteen lambs infected with H. contortus and three more lambs without infection were studied. The haemonchosis was determined by the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) and by the estimation of the percentage of the packed cell volume (%pcv). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained to extract RNA at 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after infection to quantify the relative expression of IL-5, IL-6 and GAPDH by real-time PCR. Five lambs were classified as low responders (lr) to haemonchosis with averages of 1519 ± 315·3 epg and 31·49 ± 5·13%pcv, and 14 lambs were identified as high responders (hr) with averages of 530 ± 132 epg and 34·88 ± 3·75%pcv. The expression ratio of IL-5 was significantly different compared with control lambs at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection (PI), and IL-6 was significantly different after 14 days. The highest level of relative expression for IL-5 and IL-6 genes was 9·9-fold and 12-fold after 2 and 14 days for hr hosts (P < 0·05) compared with control group, respectively. In conclusion, the Pelibuey breed in grazing areas exhibited different expression of IL-5 and IL-6 obtained from PBMCs against H. contortus, suggesting the importance of these cytokines in regulating the nematode infection. PMID:26094646

  13. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalshingi, Habu A; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Gouws, Johan; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50%) were identified as M. arginini with 99% - 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% - 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA) is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species. PMID:26244581

  14. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Haemonchus contortus under artificial challenge in Red Maasai and Dorper sheep of East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the gastro-intestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep. The mapping population comprised six sire families, with 1026 lambs in total. The lambs we...

  15. Is Applied Physics Embedded in Words Like Chitto, Seminole, Quito, Keitan, Iquitos, Caqueta, Katahdin, Qatar, Katmandu, and Willimantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Kerianne; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Chitto Tustenugee's final Seminole stronghold is now preserved in Miramar, Florida. It is profoundly active; its electromagnetic field, EMF, can be detected by methods readily accessible to the historic Seminole. They may have utilized information from it to avoid hurricanes and tornadoes. It also can yield information about future earthquakes. An anomalous earthquake 90 miles north of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, was ``predicted'' by Mc Leod. The core concept here is that certain sites generate signals detectable by non-technologic societies, which seem to incorporate them into their world-views that include aspects of applied, practical physics. Keitan: A God, and Katahdin: Cathar stronghold, mountains in Maine, Iquitos: Island of the Cathars, is in Peru, reachable by sea-going vessels. Quito: Cathar, is in Ecuador. Caqueta: Church of the Cathar, is a tributary of the Amazon from Columbia. Chitto: Cathar, Qatar: Cathar. Is it even possible that Nepal's Katmandu, as Cathar doctor monk and Willimantic, doctor applied physicist at The God Spirit-signal, EMF, define similar individuals? What were the reasons why so many disparate groups, at different times, selected place-names or ``titles'' that have implicit, historic significance, involving natural phenomena?

  16. Cosmogenic exposure age evidence for rapid Laurentide deglaciation of the Katahdin area, west-central Maine, USA, 16 to 15 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. Thompson; Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2015-05-01

    Katahdin, the highest peak in Maine and part of the second highest mountain range in New England, provides an opportunity to assess the timing and style of continental ice sheet surface lowering during deglaciation. We collected 14 samples from boulders on the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine, from bedrock and boulders on the upper part of the mountain, and from boulders in the surrounding area to estimate the age at which they were exposed by deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Measurements of in situ produced 10Be, which are consistent with measurements of 26Al, indicate that the Katahdin edifice became exposed from under ice by 15.3 ± 2.1 ka (n = 6), an age indistinguishable from the adjacent Basin Ponds moraine (16.1 ± 1.2 ka, n = 5). A boulder in the lowlands several km south of the moraine dates to 14.5 ± 0.8 ka, and a boulder deposited at Pineo Ridge, about 170 km SE of Katahdin, dates to 17.5 ± 1.1 ka. These data show that samples collected over an elevation range of 1.6 km and a distance of >170 km all have exposure ages that are indistinguishable within uncertainties. Together these data suggest that the Laurentide Ice Sheet surface dropped rapidly and the ice sheet margin retreated quickly across Maine between about 16 and 15 ka, perhaps influenced by calving of the marine-based ice sheet in the St. Lawrence Lowlands to the north and the Penobscot basin to the south.

  17. Response of Dorper and red Maasai lambs to trickle Haemonchus contortus infections.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, J M; Wanyangu, S W; Bain, R K; Owango, M O; Duncan, J L; Stear, M J

    1996-11-01

    Six-month-old red Maasai lambs were more resistant than Dorper lambs to repeated infections at one to two week intervals with 1000 Haemonchus contortus infective larvae. Resistance after infection was assessed by means of faecal egg counts, packed cell volumes, eosinophil counts, total serum protein concentrations and mortality rates. The weight gains of the infected animals were only marginally lower than those of their uninfected controls, most probably because of their significantly higher feed consumption, and evidently the infected lambs were not utilising all of the extra feed for growth. This absence of anorexia in spite of the infection was probably due to the palatability of the high protein diet fed to the lambs. PMID:8938850

  18. A premature stop codon in the ADAMTS2 gene is likely to be responsible for dermatosparaxis in Dorper sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Hickford, J G H; Fang, Q

    2012-08-01

    We have used polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis to investigate variation in exon 2 of the ADAM metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motif, 2 (ADAMTS2) gene in 598 sheep, including three white Dorper lambs that had a pathology consistent with dermatosparaxis. Four sequence variants (A, B, C and D) were identified at this exon, with the lambs having the dermatosparaxis phenotype being uniquely B homozygous and their mothers being B-containing heterozygous for ADAMTS2. Analysis of the amplified exon 2 sequences revealed the B variant had a nucleotide substitution that creates a premature stop codon and would notionally abbreviate the ADAMTS2 peptide. The B variant was not found in any other breed aside from the white Dorper sheep that were studied. PMID:22497338

  19. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    PubMed

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper. PMID:26374208

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  1. Effects of summer heat stress on physiological variables, ovulation and progesterone secretion in Pelibuey ewes under natural outdoor conditions in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Gastélum, Miguel A; Álvarez, Francisco D; Correa, Abelardo; Díaz, Raúl; Meza-Herrera, César A; Mellado, Miguel; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel

    2016-03-01

    Ten non-lactating multiparous Pelibuey breed ewes were housed in a corral to evaluate the effects of summer thermal stress on physiologic variables, estrous behavior, ovulation and corpus luteum functionality under natural conditions of an arid region. In summer and autumn, daily estrous detection with a ram fitted with an apron and blood sample collections were performed during two natural estrous cycles. An environment of heat stress was detected in summer and thermoneutral in autumn. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency were greater (P < 0.01) in summer than in autumn during the morning and afternoon. Season did not affect (P > 0.05) live weight, body condition, length of estrous cycle or percentage of ewes in estrous and ovulating. Compared with autumn, serum progesterone concentrations in summer decreased (P < 0.05) between days 8 and 14 of the estrous cycle. It is concluded that under outdoor conditions of arid regions, while estrous and ovulatory activities of Pelibuey ewes were not affected by summer thermal stress, the corpus luteum functionality was decreased. PMID:26304696

  2. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Haemonchus contortus artificial challenge in Red Maasai and Dorper sheep of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Marshall, K; Mugambi, J M; Nagda, S; Sonstegard, T S; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L; Gibson, J P

    2013-06-01

    A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep. The mapping population comprised six sire families, with 1026 lambs in total. The lambs were artificially challenged with H. contortus at about 6.5 months of age, and nine phenotypes were measured: fecal egg count, packed cell volume decline, two weight traits and five worm traits. A subset of the population (342 lambs) was selectively genotyped for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of the 26 autosomes. QTL mapping was performed for models which assumed that the QTL alleles were either fixed or segregating within each breed, combined with models with only an additive QTL effect fitted or both additive and dominance QTL effects fitted. Overall, QTL significant at the 1% chromosome-wide level were identified for 22 combinations of trait and chromosome. Of particular interest are a region of chromosome 26 with putative QTL for all nine traits and a region of chromosome 2 with putative QTL for three traits. Favorable QTL alleles for disease resistance originated in both the Red Maasai and Dorper breeds, were not always fixed within breed and had significant dominance effects in some cases. We anticipate that this study, in combination with follow-up work and other relevant studies, will help elucidate the biology of disease resistance. PMID:23051556

  3. Effect of urea supplementation on performance and safety in diets of Dorper crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Ma, T; Deng, K-D; Jiang, C-G; Diao, Q-Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary urea in sheep rations having a 50:50 concentrate:roughage ratio. Sixty-four Dorper × thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs with an average body weight of 30.8 (±0.02) kg were randomly divided into four groups of 16 sheep each, and each group was fed one of the following diets: a basal diet (CON), or CON supplemented with 0.5% (0.5UTM), 1.5% (1.5UTM) or 2.5% (2.5UTM) urea. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, non-carcass offals, meat quality and peptic tissue lesions were assayed. The average daily weight gains for CON, 0.5UTM, 1.5UTM and 2.5UTM were 216, 218, 200 and 170 g, respectively, with the CON and 0.5UTM groups higher than 2.5UTM group (p < 0.05). Sheep from the 2.5UTM treatment had a significantly lower dry matter intake (1.29 kg/day) than those from the CON and 0.5UTM treatments (1.42 and 1.43 kg/day, p < 0.05), and the feed conversion ratio in the 2.5UTM group was the highest (p < 0.05). Carcass characteristics, including shrunk body weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dress percentage, and the absolute or relative weight (% body weight) of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney, were not altered by the treatments (p > 0.05). The muscular pH of 2.5UTM was higher than that of CON (5.68 vs. 5.52, p < 0.05), and shear force in 0.5UTM was lower compared with CON and 2.5UTM (p < 0.05). The anatomical structure lesions in kidneys became more serious with the increasing dietary urea concentrations, with the 2.5UTM animals showing the most severe lesions compared with CON animals. Therefore, supplementary urea as a non-protein nitrogen source for sheep should not exceed 1.5% of ration having a 50:50 concentrate:roughage ratio to ensure efficacy and safety. PMID:27611109

  4. Report of outbreaks of classical scrapie in Dorper sheep and associated prion protein gene polymorphisms in affected flocks.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Caroline Pinto; de Oliveira, Eduardo Conceição; Leal, Juliano Souza; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; de Castro, Luiza Amaral; da Silva, Sergio Ceroni; Driemeier, David

    2015-08-01

    Scrapie is an infectious neurodegenerative disease affecting sheep and goats, related with conformational alteration of an isoform of the prion protein that leads to deposition and aggregation in the host's central nervous system. Occurrence of the natural disease can be influenced by host genetic factors, such as a single nucleotide polymorphism of the prion protein gene. This study reports three scrapie-affected Dorper flocks located on three different farms in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze these three flocks using scrapie diagnostics, combining histology, immunohistochemistry, genotyping, and western blot assays. For immunohistochemistry, 192 sheep were selected and 308 sheep blood samples were taken for genotyping. A total of 22 sheep were scrapie positive by immunohistochemistry. Of these, four presented clinical signs and had scrapie immunoreactivity at the obex in western blot assays. The sheep without clinical signs were positive in lymphoid organs, such as the third eyelid and rectal mucosa. The major genotypes found on the flocks were ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR, and ARQ/VRQ for codons 136, 154, and 171. Most of the sheep were considered to be at moderate to high risk, based on risk groups for developing scrapie. Some blood samples were sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in other codons, such as 127, 142, and 143. Our data demonstrate the importance of preclinical scrapie diagnosis in Brazilian sheep, as most of the affected sheep showed no clinical signs, and emphasize the relevance of genotyping other Dorper sheep to determine the genotypic profile of the breed. PMID:25995150

  5. Effects of breed of sire on carcass composition and sensory traits of lamb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to compare the meat quality and carcass composition of a diverse sampling of sheep breeds. Finnsheep, Romanov, Dorper, White Dorper, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Suffolk, Texel, Dorset, and Composite rams were mated to mature Composite ewes. Lambs (n = 804) were reared inte...

  6. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tianle; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Chunlan

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study. PMID:27434270

  7. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tianle; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Chunlan

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study. PMID:27434270

  8. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Supplemented with Duckweed (Lemna sp. and Spirodela sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Zetina-Córdoba, P.; Ortega-Cerrilla, M. E.; Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M. T.; Herrera-Haro, J. G.; Ortega-Jiménez, E.; Reta-Mendiola, J. L.; Vilaboa-Arroniz, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of duckweed (DW) supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI), presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4) in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH). Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05); however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05) on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05). However the period was significant (p<0.01), since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application. PMID:25049670

  9. Reproductive Response of Ewes Fed with Taiwan Grass Hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) Supplemented with Duckweed (Lemna sp. and Spirodela sp.).

    PubMed

    Zetina-Córdoba, P; Ortega-Cerrilla, M E; Sánchez Torres-Esqueda, M T; Herrera-Haro, J G; Ortega-Jiménez, E; Reta-Mendiola, J L; Vilaboa-Arroniz, J

    2012-08-01

    The effect of duckweed (DW) supplementation was evaluated on dry matter intake (DMI), presence and duration of estrus, percentage of ewes repeating estrus and pregnancy rate, as well as the concentration of progesterone (P4) in multiparous crossbred ewes from Pelibuey, Dorper, and Katahdin breeds, fed with Taiwan grass hay (TWH). Eighteen ewes with 39.7±4 kg mean body weight, kept in individual pens, were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: T1: TWH, T2: TWH plus 200 g DW, T3: TWH plus 300 g DW. The ewes were synchronized with 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) and 400 UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design using the GLM procedure. DW supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake (p>0.05); however, a slight decrease of TWH intake was observed as DW supplementation increased. No differences (p>0.05) were found in the beginning of estrus, percentage of ewes presenting it, its duration, or pregnancy rate. There were no differences (p>0.05) on P4 concentration among treatments, or treatmentxperiod interaction (p>0.05). However the period was significant (p<0.01), since the P4 levels increased as time increased after the removal of the FGA device and eCG application. PMID:25049670

  10. Identification of novel loci associated with gastrointestinal parasite resistance in a Red Maasai x Dorper backcross population.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M; Gibson, John P; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089

  11. Identification of Novel Loci Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasite Resistance in a Red Maasai x Dorper Backcross Population

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M.; Gibson, John P.; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089

  12. The Effect of Weight Loss on the Muscle Proteome in the Damara, Dorper and Australian Merino Ovine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, André M.; Palhinhas, Rui G.; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Timothy; van Harten, Sofia; Milton, John; Blache, Dominique; Greeff, Johan; Oldham, Chris; Coelho, Ana Varela; Cardoso, Luís Alfaro

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) is an important constraint, limiting animal production in the Tropics and the Mediterranean. As a result, the study of physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which domestic animal breeds respond to SWL is important to those interested in animal breeding and the improvement thereof. To that end, the study of the proteome has been instrumental in gathering important information on physiological mechanisms, including those underlying SWL. In spite of that, little information is available concerning physiological mechanisms of SWL in production animals. The objective of this study was to determine differential protein expression in the muscle of three different breeds of sheep, the Australian Merino, the Dorper and the Damara, each showing different levels of tolerance to weight loss (low, medium and high, respectively). Per breed, two experimental groups were established, one labeled “Growth” and the other labeled “Restricted.” After forty-two days of dietary treatment, all animals were euthanized. Muscle samples were then taken. Total protein was extracted from the muscle, then quantified and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were conducted using 24 cm pH 3–10 immobiline dry strips and colloidal coomassie staining. Gels were analyzed using Samespots® software and spots of interest were in-gel digested with trypsin. The isolated proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF. Results indicated relevant differences between breeds; several proteins are suggested as putative biomarkers of tolerance to weight loss: Desmin, Troponin T, Phosphoglucomutase and the Histidine Triad nucleotide-binding protein 1. This information is of relevance to and of possible use in selection programs aiming towards ruminant animal production in regions prone to droughts and weight loss. PMID:26828937

  13. Effect of different combinations of soybean-maize silage on its chemical composition, nutrient intake, degradability, and performance of Pelibuey lambs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Valencia-Núñez, Keyla; Bastida-López, Jesús; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro Cvabodni; Cruz-Monterrosa, Rosy Gabriela; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2015-12-01

    Sheep raising in the state of Guerrero, México, is a primary activity that is worth about US$3,251,931 annually. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition, degradability, nutrient intake, and animal performance of Pelibuey lambs fed on different combinations of maize-soybean silages. Twenty-one combinations of maize silage (MS) and soybean silage (SS) were evaluated at day 45 post-ensiling; in each combination, MS was replaced by 5 % of SS. The 21 combinations were analysed for crude protein (CP) and chemical composition. In order to obtain a statistical criterion of potential treatments for the animal feeding test, a cluster analysis was performed based on the CP contents of all combinations at day 45 post-ensiling. From cluster analysis, four treatments were selected T1 = 100-0 % (MS/SS), T8 = 65-35 %, T12 = 45-55 %, and T16 = 25-75 %. Results indicated that cluster analysis was useful for identifying the potential treatments for animal feeding based on the crude protein content. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents did not declined significantly (P > 0.05) during the fermentation of silages but CP content decreased from day 0 to 45 post-ensiling. The treatment with the highest estimated microbial crude protein synthesis was T8 and it showed the highest metabolizable energy intake, high feed efficiency with a forage-concentrate ratio of 84:16. PMID:26265017

  14. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg.

    PubMed

    Nie, H T; Wan, Y J; You, J H; Wang, Z Y; Lan, S; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2015-08-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg(0.75) of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg(0.75) of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  15. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    PubMed Central

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  16. BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  17. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, M V B; Sonstegard, T S; Hanotte, O; Mugambi, J M; Garcia, J F; Nagda, S; Gibson, J P; Iraqi, F A; McClintock, A E; Kemp, S J; Boettcher, P J; Malek, M; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L

    2012-02-01

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F(1) rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AVPCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cm) were scored and corrected by Genoprob prior to qxpak analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL. PMID:22221026

  18. Evaluation of the phenotypic performance of a Red Maasai and Dorper double backcross resource population: indoor trickle challenge with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, J M; Audho, J O; Njomo, S; Baker, R L

    2005-02-28

    Six F(1) Dorper (D) x Red Maasai (R) rams were mated to both D and R ewes to produce backcross lambs. These six double backcross resource families are being analysed to identify quantitative trait loci that may be controlling resistance to gastro-intestinal (GI) nematode parasites, mainly Haemonchus contortus. After assessing the phenotypic performance of the lambs following exposure to natural infections, the surviving lambs were drenched and moved indoors for an artificial challenge with H. contortus along with straightbred D and R lambs. A total of 1317 lambs were included in the analyses consisting of 523 3/4D, 580 3/4R, 87 D and 127 R. The D lambs were significantly and consistently heavier than R lambs and 3/4D were significantly heavier than the 3/4R lambs. The difference between the backcrosses was about half of that between the straightbreds. Resistance was assessed in terms of faecal egg counts (FEC) and total worm counts (TWC) at necropsy while packed cell volume (PCV) was used to assess resilience to weekly oral doses of 2500 infective larvae of H. contortus. No significant breed differences were observed for log transformed FEC (LFEC). A significant breed difference in PCV was recorded. The backcrosses had the higher values and while no differences were observed between the straightbreds, 3/4D had significantly higher PCV than the 3/4R. Despite the absence of breed differences in FEC the R and the 3/4R had significantly fewer worms than the D and the 3/4D. The D had significantly longer worms than the R and the 3/4D had significantly longer worms than the 3/4R. Worms recovered from D had more eggs than those recovered from R. Similarly worms from 3/4D contained more eggs than those from 3/4R. Thus, on a breed basis the breed with more worms had longer worms. In contrast, when, in a small part of the experiment two doses of larvae were used to check for any breed by dose interactions, worms from the low dose (and hence fewer worms) animals were longer

  19. Lambing rate and prolificacy in inseminated hair sheep treated with bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Carrera-Chávez, José Maria; Hernández-Cerón, Joel; Aréchiga-Flores, Carlos Fernando; López-Carlos, Marco Antonio; Lozano-Domínguez, Raúl Renato; Quezada-Casasola, Andrés; Echavarría-Cháirez, Francisco Guadalupe

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated whether the administration of 50 and 100 mg bovine somatotropin (bST) at the start of estrous synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination improves lambing rate and prolificacy in hair sheep. Four hundred eighty adult hair ewes (Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper, Katahdin, and their crosses) were synchronized with intravaginal sponge containing 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate. On the day of sponge insertion, ewes were assigned to three treatments: the bST-100 treatment (n = 156) received 100 mg bST at the start of synchronization (d 0) and at the time of insemination (d 14), the bST-50 treatment (n = 159) received 50 mg bST in the same schedule as the previous group, and the control (n = 165) did not receive any bST. Lambing rate and percentage of multiple births were analyzed using the GENMOD procedure of SAS. Prolificacy data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were analyzed with ANOVA for repeated measures. The bST application did not affect the lambing rate (P = 0.06). The proportion of ewes with multiple births (P = 0.01) and prolificacy (P = 0.04) were higher in the bST-50 (54.3% and 1.57 ± 0.1) than the bST-100 (18.2% and 1.25 ± 0.1) and control (33.3% and 1.28 ± 0.1) groups. The IGF-1 and insulin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the bST-treated groups, but the insulin concentration was higher (P = 0.001) in the bST-100 group than in the bST-50 group. The administration of 50 or 100 mg bST at the start of synchronization and at the time of artificial insemination does not increase lambing rate. However, the dose of 50 mg increased the proportion of multiple births and prolificacy. PMID:26951204

  20. Effect of Dietary Concentrate:forage Ratios and Undegraded Dietary Protein on Nitrogen Balance and Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives in Dorper×thin-tailed Han Crossbred Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tao; Deng, Kai-dong; Tu, Yan; Jiang, Cheng-gang; Zhang, Nai-feng; Li, Yan-ling; Si, Bing-wen; Lou, Can; Diao, Qi-yu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate dietary concentrate: forage ratios (C:F) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on nitrogen balance and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred castrated lambs with 62.3±1.9 kg body weight at 10 months of age were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of two levels of C:F (40:60 and 60:40) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of CP), according to a complete 4×4 Latin-square design. Each experimental period lasted for 19 d. After a 7-d adaptation period, lambs were moved into individual metabolism crates for 12 d including 7 d of adaption and 5 d of metabolism trial. During the metabolism trial, total urine was collected for 24 h and spot urine samples were also collected at different times. Urinary PD was measured using a colorimetric method and creatinine was measured using an automated analyzer. Intake of dry matter (DM) (p<0.01) and organic matter (OM) (p<0.01) increased as the level of UDP decreased. Fecal N was not affected by dietary treatment (p>0.05) while urinary N increased as the level of UDP decreased (p<0.05), but decreased as dietary C:F increased (p<0.05). Nitrogen retention increased as dietary C:F increased (p<0.05). As dietary C:F increased, urinary excretion of PD increased (p<0.05), but was not affected by dietary UDP (p>0.05) or interaction between dietary treatments (p>0.05). Daily excretion of creatinine was not affected by dietary treatments (p<0.05), with an average value of 0.334±0.005 mmol/kg BW0.75. A linear correlation was found between total PD excretion and PDC index (R2 = 0.93). Concentrations of creatinine and PDC index in spot urine were unaffected by sampling time (p>0.05) and a good correlation was found between the PDC index (average value of three times) of spot urine and daily excretion of PD (R2 = 0.88). These results suggest that for animals fed ad libitum, the PDC index in spot urine is effective to

  1. Selenium toxicosis in a flock of Katahdin hair sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B I; Donovan, G A; Rae, D O

    1999-01-01

    Selenium supplementation by injection is a common practice. Acute toxicosis from dosaging errors may occur. In this report, 23 of 56 ewes and all 24 lambs injected with selenium died. Tissue, whole blood, and serum concentrations aided in the diagnosis. Caution should be taken when supplementing selenium by injection. Images Figure 1. PMID:10086221

  2. Long-term storage of low-invertase Katahdin at different temperature set points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful storage of processing potatoes balances the risk of crop loss caused by pathogen-dependent spoilage with the need to maintain the low tuber reducing sugar contents that are required to produce light-colored fried products. Potato varieties with very low expression of the vacuolar acid inv...

  3. Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestestinal parasite infections associated to a panel of SNPs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  4. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  5. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías-Cruz, U.; López-Baca, M. A.; Vicente, R.; Mejía, A.; Álvarez, F. D.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Meza-Herrera, C. A.; Mellado, M.; Guerra-Liera, J. E.; Avendaño-Reyes, L.

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower ( P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased ( P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress.

  6. Prediction of rectal temperature using non-invasive physiologic variable measurements in hair pregnant ewes subjected to natural conditions of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Pérez, Ricardo; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Mejía-Vázquez, Ángel; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F Daniel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Mellado, Miguel; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Guerra-Liera, Juan E; Robinson, P H; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Rectal temperature (RT) is the foremost physiological variable indicating if an animal is suffering hyperthermia. However, this variable is traditionally measured by invasive methods, which may compromise animal welfare. Models to predict RT have been developed for growing pigs and lactating dairy cows, but not for pregnant heat-stressed ewes. Our aim was to develop a prediction equation for RT using non-invasive physiological variables in pregnant ewes under heat stress. A total of 192 records of respiratory frequency (RF) and hair coat temperature in various body regions (i.e., head, rump, flank, shoulder, and belly) obtained from 24 Katahdin × Pelibuey pregnant multiparous ewes were collected during the last third of gestation (i.e., d 100 to lambing) with a 15 d sampling interval. Hair coat temperatures were taken using infrared thermal imaging technology. Initially, a Pearson correlation analysis examined the relationship among variables, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop the prediction equations. All predictor variables were positively correlated (P<0.01; r=0.59-0.67) with RT. The adjusted equation which best predicted RT (P<0.01; Radj(2)=56.15%; CV=0.65%) included as predictors RF and head and belly temperatures. Comparison of predicted and observed values for RT indicates a suitable agreement (P<0.01) between them with moderate accuracy (Radj(2)=56.15%) when RT was calculated with the adjusted equation. In general, the final equation does not violate any assumption of multiple regression analysis. The RT in heat-stressed pregnant ewes can be predicted with an adequate accuracy using non-invasive physiologic variables, and the final equation was: RT=35.57+0.004 (RF)+0.067 (heat temperature)+0.028 (belly temperature). PMID:26724191

  7. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Death may occur in severely affected animals, decreasing profits even further. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites in hosts and their long-term use has led to a massive selectio...

  8. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)associated to Red Maasai x Dorper resistance to gastrointestinal parasite infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is a main health constraint that affects small ruminant production. Anthelmintic drugs are used to control parasites, however long-term use led to selection pressure, resulting in parasite resistance against all current chemical interventions available in th...

  9. Effect of feeding system and breed on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lamb muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...

  10. Effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic variables in hair sheep located in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; López-Baca, M A; Vicente, R; Mejía, A; Álvarez, F D; Correa-Calderón, A; Meza-Herrera, C A; Mellado, M; Guerra-Liera, J E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2016-08-01

    Twenty Dorper × Pelibuey primiparous ewes were used to evaluate effects of seasonal ambient heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) on physiological and metabolic responses under production conditions in an arid region. Ten ewes experiencing summer heat stress (i.e., temperature = 34.8 ± 4.6 °C; THI = 81.6 ± 3.2 units) and 10 under spring thermoneutral conditions (temperature = 24.2 ± 5.4 °C; THI = 68.0 ± 4.8 units) were corralled together to measure rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, and skin temperatures at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400 h on four occasions over 40 days. Blood metabolite and electrolyte concentrations were also measured at 0600 and 1800 hours. Data were analyzed with a completely randomized design using repeated measurements in time. Rectal and skin temperatures, as well as respiratory frequency, were higher (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at all measured days. Blood serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and chlorine concentrations were lower (P < 0.01) in summer than spring at 0800 and 1800 hours. In contrast, summer heat stress increased (P < 0.01) blood urea and potassium concentrations at 0800 and 1800 hours. Compared with spring thermoneutral conditions, summer heat stress affected the physiological and metabolic status of hair breed ewes in an arid region, which included blood metabolite and electrolyte adjustments to efficiently cope with summer heat stress. PMID:26715136

  11. Influence of Quaternary Benzophenantridine and Protopine Alkaloids on Growth Performance, Dietary Energy, Carcass Traits, Visceral Mass, and Rumen Health in Finishing Ewes under Conditions of Severe Temperature-humidity Index

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Angulo, A.; Aguilar-Hernández, A.; Osuna-Pérez, M.; Núñez-Benítez, V. H.; Castro-Pérez, B. I.; Silva-Hidalgo, G.; Contreras-Pérez, G.; Barreras, A.; Plascencia, A.; Zinn, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Pelibuey×Katahdin ewes (35±2.3 kg) were used to determine the effects of the consumption of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on growth performance, dietary energetics, visceral mass, and ruminal epithelial health in heat-stressed ewes fed with a high-energy corn-based diet. The basal diet (13.9% crude protein and 2.09 Mcal of net energy [NE] of maintenance/kg of dry matter) contained 49.7% starch and 15.3% neutral detergent fiber. Source of QBA+PA was Sangrovit RS (SANG) which contains 3 g of quaternary benzophenathridine and protopine alkaloids per kg of product. Treatments consisted of a daily consumption of 0 or 0.5 g SANG/ewe. Ewes were grouped by weight and assigned to 10 pens (5 pens/treatment), with two ewes per pen. The experimental period lasted 70 days. The mean temperature humidity index during the course of this experiment was 81.7±1.0 (severe heat stress). There were no treatment effects on water intake. Dry matter intake was not affected (p = 0.70) by treatments, but the group fed SANG had a numerically (11.2%) higher gain in comparison to the control group, SANG improved gain efficiency (8.3%, p = 0.04), dietary NE (5.2%, p<0.01) and the observed-to-expected NE (5.9%, p<0.01). Supplemental SANG did not affect (p≥0.12) carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder, and organ weights (g/kg empty body weight) of stomach complex, intestines, and heart/lung. Supplemental SANG decreased liver weight (10.3%, p = 0.02) and increased visceral fat (16.9%, p = 0.02). Rumen epithelium of ewes fed SANG had lower scores for cellular dropsical degeneration (2.08 vs 2.34, p = 0.02), parakeratosis (1.30 vs 1.82, p = 0.03) and neutrophil infiltration (2.08 vs 2.86, p = 0.05) than controls. It is concluded that SANG supplementation helped ameliorate the negative effects of severe heat on growth performance of feedlot ewes fed high-energy corn-based diets

  12. Heat stress, divergent nutrition level, and late pregnancy in hair sheep: effects upon cotyledon development and litter weight at birth.

    PubMed

    Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Vicente-Pérez, Arnulfo; Osorio-Marín, Yolanda; Girón-Gómez, Blenda Sinahí; Beltran-Calderon, Eira; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Macías-Cruz, Ulises

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two divergent nutritional levels during late pregnancy upon some physiological variables and the number (NC) and diameter (DC) of placental cotyledons along with litter weight at birth (LWB) on heat-stressed (42-45 °C) hair ewes was evaluated. Multiparous Katahdin x Pelibuey ewes (n = 24) at the onset of the 3/3 of pregnancy were randomly assigned to two treatments (n = 12): (1) non-nutritionally restricted (NNR) ewes, with free access to wheat straw plus 500 g/day of concentrate, and (2) nutritionally restricted (NR) ewes, receiving only wheat straw ad libitum. On days 100, 115, 130, and 145 of gestation, the body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) were registered in the afternoon (15:00) while the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. At lambing, NC, DC, and LWB were also registered. Analyses considered a completely random design (CRD)-ANOVA with repeated measures across time, considering to litter size (LS) as covariable to reduce any possible influence of LS upon the response variables along experimental diets. BW and BCS were higher in NNR ewes at days 115, 130, and 145. Despite RT similarities (P < 0.05) between treatments, RR was greater (P < 0.01) in the NNR ewes, particularly towards the end of the experimental period. The observed THI averages confirmed severe heat stress conditions on ewes all day round across the experimental period, yet, NC, DC, and LWB favored (P < 0.05) to the NNR ewes. Despite that NNR ewes faced a significant heat stress based on the observed THI values, they consumed a diet with an increased energy-protein density, suggesting that the increased RR in the NNR group was exerted as a compensatory thermoregulation mechanism. Nutritional supplementation in hair ewes besides to an increase the energy body reserves (BW and BCS) also improved both the number and size of cotyledons, while generated an increased litter weight at birth. PMID

  13. Influence of Quaternary Benzophenantridine and Protopine Alkaloids on Growth Performance, Dietary Energy, Carcass Traits, Visceral Mass, and Rumen Health in Finishing Ewes under Conditions of Severe Temperature-humidity Index.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Angulo, A; Aguilar-Hernández, A; Osuna-Pérez, M; Núñez-Benítez, V H; Castro-Pérez, B I; Silva-Hidalgo, G; Contreras-Pérez, G; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Zinn, R A

    2016-05-01

    Twenty Pelibuey×Katahdin ewes (35±2.3 kg) were used to determine the effects of the consumption of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on growth performance, dietary energetics, visceral mass, and ruminal epithelial health in heat-stressed ewes fed with a high-energy corn-based diet. The basal diet (13.9% crude protein and 2.09 Mcal of net energy [NE] of maintenance/kg of dry matter) contained 49.7% starch and 15.3% neutral detergent fiber. Source of QBA+PA was Sangrovit RS (SANG) which contains 3 g of quaternary benzophenathridine and protopine alkaloids per kg of product. Treatments consisted of a daily consumption of 0 or 0.5 g SANG/ewe. Ewes were grouped by weight and assigned to 10 pens (5 pens/treatment), with two ewes per pen. The experimental period lasted 70 days. The mean temperature humidity index during the course of this experiment was 81.7±1.0 (severe heat stress). There were no treatment effects on water intake. Dry matter intake was not affected (p = 0.70) by treatments, but the group fed SANG had a numerically (11.2%) higher gain in comparison to the control group, SANG improved gain efficiency (8.3%, p = 0.04), dietary NE (5.2%, p<0.01) and the observed-to-expected NE (5.9%, p<0.01). Supplemental SANG did not affect (p≥0.12) carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder, and organ weights (g/kg empty body weight) of stomach complex, intestines, and heart/lung. Supplemental SANG decreased liver weight (10.3%, p = 0.02) and increased visceral fat (16.9%, p = 0.02). Rumen epithelium of ewes fed SANG had lower scores for cellular dropsical degeneration (2.08 vs 2.34, p = 0.02), parakeratosis (1.30 vs 1.82, p = 0.03) and neutrophil infiltration (2.08 vs 2.86, p = 0.05) than controls. It is concluded that SANG supplementation helped ameliorate the negative effects of severe heat on growth performance of feedlot ewes fed high-energy corn-based diets

  14. Occurrence of peri-parturient rise in trichostrongylid nematode egg output in Dorper ewes in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ng'ang'a, C J; Munyua, W K; Maingi, N; Kanyari, P W N

    2004-01-01

    An investigation on the occurrence of peri-parturient rise in trichostrongylid nematode egg output in breeding ewes was carried out on a Ranch in the semi-arid area of Kajiado District in Kenya during the period May 1999-April 2000. During the study, 20 ewes randomly selected from the breeding stock and 20 un-mated female yearlings were monitored for faecal strongyle egg output every 3 weeks. A significant peri-parturient rise in faecal egg output occurred at around the time of lambing and throughout the lactation period in the mated ewes, but not in the un-mated yearlings. The occurrence of peri-parturient rise in breeding ewes towards the end of the dry season and at the onset of the short rains was enhanced by the resumption of development of hypobiotic larvae. Self-cure occurred in the un-mated yearlings in September 1999 during the dry season and in November-December 1999 during the wet season, but was less obvious in the pregnant and lactating ewes. The peri-parturient ewes contributed to higher pasture contamination at a time when highly susceptible lambs were grazing alongside. Therefore, the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in ewes in this area should aim at reducing the effects of this phenomenon through treatment of ewes about 2-3 weeks to lambing and during lactation. PMID:15533289

  15. Determination of energy and protein requirement for maintenance and growth and evaluation for the effects of gender upon nutrient requirement in Dorper × Hu Crossbred Lambs.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai Tao; Zhang, Hao; You, Ji Hao; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine energy and protein requirement of Dorper × Hu crossbred lambs and further to evaluate the effect of gender upon nutrient requirement parameters. Forty-two female lambs (18.60 ± 1.57 kg) and 42 male lambs (18.30 ± 1.28 kg) were used. In comparative slaughter trial, 30 of animals from each gender group were randomly selected and assigned to ad libitum (AL), low restriction (LR) and high restriction (HR) group, and then were slaughtered when lambs under AL treatment reached target BW of 20, 28, and 35 kg, to determine body energy and nitrogen retained. In digestibility trial, remaining 12 female (18.01 ± 1.66 kg) and 12 male lambs (18.43 ± 1.17 kg) were randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm; 400.61 ± 20.31 vs. 427.24 ± 18.70 kJ kg(-1) of shrunk BW(0.75); SBW(0.75)), partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k m; 0.64 ± 0.02 vs. 0.65 ± 0.03), partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (k g ; 0.42 ± 0.03 vs. 0.44 ± 0.02), and net protein (NP) requirement for maintenance (NPm; 1.83 ± 0.17 vs. 1.99 ± 0.28 g kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) did not differ (P > 0.05) due to gender; although not statistically different, the mean value of Net energy (NE) requirement for maintenance (NEm) for male lambs (260.62 ± 13.21 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) were 5 % greater than that (274.16 ± 11.99 kJ kg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) of female lambs. Additionally, rams have greater amounts of NP requirement for growth (NPg, 15.94 to 44.32 g d(-1)) than those of ewes (13.07 to 32.95 g d(-1)) at the similar condition of BW and ADG. In conclusion, we suggested that our results of energy and protein requirement for growth ranged between the NRC recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep, and the effect of gender upon energy requirement parameters was similar in tendency but was less evidently than those frequently recommended previously. PMID:25791878

  16. Sugar metabolism, chip color, invertase activity, and gene expression during long-term cold storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers from wild-type and vacuolar invertase silencing lines of Katahdin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storing potato tubers at low temperatures helps to minimize losses from sprouting and disease but often leads to an accumulation of reducing sugars in a process called cold-induced sweetening. When tubers with increased amounts of reducing sugars are processed at high temperatures, as by frying, the...

  17. Interaction between copper oxide wire particles and Duddingtonia flagrans in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Larsen, M; Terrill, T H

    2005-11-25

    An experiment was completed to determine if copper oxide wire particles (COWP) had any effect on the activity of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in growing lambs. COWP has been used recently as a dewormer in small ruminants because of nematode resistance to anthelmintics. D. flagrans has been used to control free-living stages of parasitic nematodes in livestock. Katahdin and Dorper lambs, 4 months of age, were administered no or 4 g COWP (n=24/dose) in early October 2003. Haemonchus contortus was the predominant gastrointestinal parasite during the trial, which was acquired naturally from pasture. Half the lambs from each COWP group were supplemented with corn/soybean meal with or without D. flagrans for 35 days. Fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined weekly between days 0 (day of COWP administration) and 35. Feces from lambs in each treatment group were pooled and three replicates per group were cultured for 14 days at room temperature. Larvae (L3) were identified and counted per gram of feces cultured. Treatment with COWP was effective in decreasing FEC, which remained low compared with FEC from lambs not treated with COWP. This led to an increase in PCV in these lambs (COWP x day, P<0.001). Number of larvae was decreased in feces from lambs treated with COWP and D. flagrans between days 14 and 35 compared to the other groups of lambs (COWP x D. flagrans x day, P<0.003). Percentage of larvae identified as H. contortus decreased in feces collected from lambs treated with COWP and D. flagrans between days 14 and 28 compared with other treatments (COWP x D. flagrans x day, P<0.05). Other trichostrongyles were present and remained less than 7% in feces collected from control lambs. There was no adverse effect of COWP on the ability of D. flagrans to trap residual larvae after COWP treatment. With fewer eggs being excreted due to the effect of copper on H. contortus, and the additional larval reducing effect exerted by

  18. Effects of different dietary intake on mRNA levels of MSTN, IGF-I, and IGF-II in the skeletal muscle of Dorper and Hu sheep hybrid F1 rams.

    PubMed

    Xing, H J; Wang, Z Y; Zhong, B S; Ying, S J; Nie, H T; Zhou, Z R; Fan, Y X; Wang, F

    2014-01-01

    MSTN, IGF-І(insulin-like growth factor-І) and IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor-II) regulate skeletal muscle growth. This study investigated the effects of different dietary intake levels on skeletal muscles. Sheep was randomly assigned to 3 feeding groups: 1) the maintenance diet (M), 2) 1.4 x the maintenance diet (1.4M), and 3) 2.15 x the maintenance diet (2.15M). Before slaughtering the animals, blood samples were collected to measure plasma urea, growth hormone, and insulin concentrations. After slaughtering, the longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gastrocnemius, soleus, and chest muscle were removed to record various parameters, including the mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGFs, in addition to skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area. The result showed that as dietary intake improved, the mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGF-II decreased, whereas IGF-Іexpression increased. The mRNA expression levels of MSTN and IGFs were significantly different in the same skeletal muscle under different dietary intake. The skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area increased with greater dietary intake, as observed for the mRNA expression of IGF-І; however, it contrasted to that observed for the mRNA expression of MSTN and IGF-II. In conclusion, dietary intake levels have a certain influence on MSTN and IGFs mRNA expression levels, in addition to skeletal muscle fiber diameter and cross-sectional area. This study contributes valuable information for enhancing the molecular-based breeding of sheep. PMID:25078581

  19. Impact of rotational grazing on management of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control for ‘natural’ or organic lamb production is needed, especially where Haemonchus contortus is prevalent. The objective was to determine the impact of rotational grazing on GIN infection of weaned lambs. In year 1, naturally infected Katahdin lambs (120 days of ...

  20. Growth, Intake, Diet Digestibility, and Nitrogen Use in Three Hair Sheep Breeds Fed Alfalfa Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...

  1. Validation of a tuber blight (Phytophthora infestans) prediction model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage. There is limited published quantitative data on predicting tuber blight. We validated a tuber blight prediction model developed in New York with cultivars Allegany, NY 101, and Katahdin using independent...

  2. Small Ruminant Performance and Carcass Parameters when Finished on Pasture With and Without Whole Cottonseed Supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The meat goat industry is growing rapidly in the U.S., particularly on small farms. Weight gain and carcass parameters were determined for traditional lambs (Suffolk, SX), hair sheep lambs (Katahdin, KA), and Boer x Kiko meat goats (GX) finished on a mixed pasture of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerat...

  3. Acting on a Vision: Agency Conversion at KFI, Millinocket, Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam

    This report is part of a series of reports designed to document innovative daytime and supported living practices. It is based on a site visit to Katahdin Friends, Inc. (KFI) in March 1998. Since the mid-1980s, KFI, located in Millinocket, Maine, has transformed its supports for people with developmental disabilities from those that promote…

  4. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) using sericea lespedeza (SL), FAMACHA, and copper oxide wire particles (COWP) in weaned lambs in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing SL and selective use of COWP based on FAMACHA for control of GIN. Katahdin lambs (145.6 ± 2.1 d of age; 30.1 ± 0.7 kg) w...

  5. Resistance of four sheep breeds to natural and subsequent artificial Haemonchus contortus infection.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, J M; Bain, R K; Wanyangu, S W; Ihiga, M A; Duncan, J L; Murray, M; Stear, M J

    1997-05-01

    The response of Red Maasai sheep to natural and artificial Haemonchus contortus infections was compared with sheep of Blackheaded Somali, Dorper and Romney Marsh breeds. Significant breed differences in egg count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mortality rates showed that the Red Maasai sheep were more resistant to natural H. contortus infection than sheep from the other three breeds. Of the initial groups of 15 wethers of each breed, two animals from each of the Dorper and Blackheaded Somali groups and nine from the Romney Marsh group died with haemonchosis during a 12 month field study. Following artificial infection of the Red Maasai, Dorpers and Blackheaded Somalis, with 10000 H. contortus L3, the Red Maasai sheep maintained a lower egg output and a higher PCV than animals of the other two breeds. The results clearly showed that breed substitution with the Red Maasai is a control option in areas where sheep are kept for meat and H. contortus is endemic. PMID:9195736

  6. Polymorphism C242T in the Cyp19 gene in meat sheep.

    PubMed

    Mora, N H A P; Silva, S C C; Tanamati, F; Schuroff, G P; Macedo, F A F; Gasparino, E

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C242T polymorphism on the aromatase gene and the allelic and genotypic frequency of these variants in sheep belonging to four breed groups. Blood samples were collected from 187 animals of four breed groups: Dorper, Santa Inês, Texel and White Dorper, originated from herds in the region of Maringá/PR, Brazil. The genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline extraction, with subsequent amplification of the fragments via PCR with specific primer. The samples resulting from amplification were subjected to digestion process using the Dpn II restriction enzyme and to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 10.0% and stained with silver nitrate. Three distinct genotypes were observed: homozygous (CC), heterozygous (CT) and homozygous for no cut (TT). The resulting data were analyzed using the POPGENE software with 5% significance. Genotypic frequencies among the breed groups were: Texel (CC - 0.426; CT - 0.511; TT - 0.064), Dorper (CC - 0.073; CT - 0.732; TT - 0.439), White Dorper (CC - 0.021; CT - 0.255; TT - 0.723) and Santa Inês (CC - 0.115; CT - 0.462; TT - 0.423). PMID:26909637

  7. Genetic diversity of locally adapted sheep from Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PubMed

    Crispim, B A; Grisolia, A B; Seno, L O; Egito, A A; Vargas Junior, F M; Souza, M R

    2013-01-01

    Sheep of the Pantaneiro breed and seven other breeds, raised in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were genotyped using eight microsatellite loci. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, phylogenetic relationship, and patterns of gene introgression and miscegenation among the animals surveyed, to obtain information about the genetic structure of locally adapted sheep in Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 195 animals were used for genetic analysis. The Pantaneiro breed had the largest average number of alleles/locus (9.25), and higher allelic richness (6.95), while the Dorper population had the lowest values for these parameters (4.88 and 3.86, respectively). Analysis of genetic distance values and genetic structure between populations made it possible to characterize these animals with regard to distinct genetic groups. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.72 (Pantaneiro) to 0.55 (Dorper), while average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.63 (White Dorper) to 0.54 (Dorper). On the basis of the statistical parameters evaluated, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to other populations, the Pantaneiro breed represented a reservoir of genetic diversity with rare and useful alleles for genetic improvement, emphasizing the importance of preserving the breed. PMID:24301918

  8. Huizache (Acacia farnesiana) whole pods (flesh and seeds) as an alternative feed for sheep in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Winder, L R; Goñi-Cedeño, S; Olguín-Lara, P A; Díaz-Salgado, G; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the use of pods from Huizache (Acacia farnesiana), common in the arid and semiarid regions of Mexico, on the perfromance and apparent digestibility in Pelibuey Mexican hair growing ewe lambs. Twenty-four Pelibuey ewe lambs were used in the animal performance experiment, with a mean live weight of 14.91 +/- 1.48 kg, randomnly allocated to three groups which received ad libitum for 77 days (11 weeks) experimental whole rations T0 with 0%, T12 with 12% or T24 with 24% inclusión of dried and ground Huizache pods. Dry matter intakes (g/kg (0.75) daily) were 83, 95, 90 for T0, T12, and T24 respectively (P > 0.05). Mean daily live-weight gain was 90, 75, and 63 g/day for T0, T12, and T24 (P < 0.001). Nine Pelibuey ewe lambs were used to determine apparent digestibility in vivo of the experimental diets using a 3 x 3 latin square design repeated three times. There were differences in the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), nitrogen (P < 0.031), neutral detergent fibre (P < 0.002), and acid detergent fibre (P < 0.001) being lower in T24. Huizache pods may be an alternative feed when included up to 12% of dry matter in the diets for sheep growing moderately. PMID:19390982

  9. Phenol Metabolism, Phytoalexins, and Respiration in Potato Tuber Tissue Treated with Fatty Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Gladys; Allen, Robert D.; Bhatia, Satish K.; Stelzig, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Potato (solanum tuberosum L. cv Katahdin) tuber discs treated with arachidonic acid become necrotic and accumulate sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins. The arachidonic acid also causes increases in both phenylalanine ammonia lyase and lignin, but no change in total alcohol-soluble phenols. Linoleic acid does not alter any of these parameters. A high concentration of nonanoic acid promotes both necrosis and accumulation of low levels of phytoalexins, but decreased levels of phenols, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and lignin. The respiration of the control discs and those treated with linoleic acid declines by 24 hours after treatment, but the respiration of arachidonic acid-treated discs remains constant for at least 48 hours. PMID:16663915

  10. Diagnostic exercise: hemolysis and sudden death in lambs.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, F; Rioseco, M Macias; García, J P; Beingesser, J; Woods, L W; Puschner, B; Uzal, F A

    2014-05-01

    Within a 24-hour period, 7 out of 200 three- to four-week-old pastured Katahdin lambs died after showing clinical signs of hemoglobinuria, red-tinged feces, weakness, and recumbency. One of the lambs that was examined clinically before natural death also had abdominal pain, trembling, tachycardia, and severe anemia with a packed cell volume of 4%. Pathologic findings included icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, dark red urine, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, splenomegaly, and acute centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis with cholestasis. The differential diagnoses and diagnostic workup to achieve the diagnosis are briefly discussed. PMID:23978840

  11. A rigid lamb syndrome in sheep in Rhodesia.

    PubMed

    Rudert, C P; Lawrence, J A; Foggin, C; Barlow, R M

    1978-04-29

    A syndrome characterised by the birth of lambs with varying degrees of rigidity of the limbs and spine has been encountered on several occasions in Rhodesia. Outbreaks have occurred in autumn-born lambs from Dorper ewes grazing heavily fertilised Star grass cv No 2 (Cynodon aethiopicus) pastures. The condition appears to be exacerbated by the application of sulphur to the pasture and is partly prevented by the administration of selenium and vitamin E to the ewes before lambing. The aetiology is unknown. PMID:565556

  12. We Detect Blue Light Phenomena Correlating with Environmental and Weather Changes, and Historic Native Americans or Their Place Names.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, Edward M.

    2003-10-01

    Katahdin (Christ Cathar Spirit-signal stronghold) in Maine is sacred to the Penobscot Indian Nation. That mountain complex, and areas like Ellis Pond, ME and Penley Hill/Anasagunticook (adherent of Jesus Christ Spirit-signal doctor church) of the Mexico/Rumford/Mountain Valley region, also in Maine, have an association with historic Native Americans like the medicine woman Molocket/Molly Ockett. We have observed that these and other regions generate electromagnetic field (EMF) signals, which we can detect visually and in other ways. Such signals have sometimes been associated with significant and dynamic weather phenomena. Ohio's Serpent Mound and associated regions, or those now occupied by the Hopi Indian Nation, formerly an ancient Anasazi site, or areas of the current and earlier Mayan Nations, or the Nazca Plateau of Peru, may generate signals correlating with climate change, that may impact our technology, as in major power blackouts.

  13. We Detect Blue Light Phenomena Correlating with Environmental and Weather Changes, and Historic Native Americans or Their Place Names.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, Edward M.

    2003-10-01

    Katahdin (Christ Cathar Spirit-signal stronghold) in Maine is sacred to the Penobscot Indian Nation. That mountain complex, and areas like Ellis Pond, ME and Penley Hill/Anasagunticook (adherent of Jesus Christ Spirit-signal doctor church) of the Mexico/Rumford/Mountain Valley region, also in Maine, have an association with historic Native Americans like the medicine woman Molocket/Molly Ockett. We have observed that these and other regions generate electromagnetic field (EMF) signals, which we can detect visually and in other ways. Such signals have sometimes been associated with significant and dynamic weather phenomena. Ohio's Serpent Mound and associated regions, or those now occupied by the Hopi Indian Nation, formerly an ancient Anasazi site, or areas of the current and earlier Mayan Nations, or the Nazca Plateau of Peru, may generate signals correlating with climate change, that may impact our technology, as in major power blackouts.

  14. Aromatase gene and its effects on growth, reproductive and maternal ability traits in a multibreed sheep population from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We determined the polymorphism C242T of the aromatase gene (Cyp19) and its allelic frequency, as well as the effect of the variants on productive and reproductive traits in 71 purebred Santa Inês sheep, 13 purebred Brazilian Somali sheep, nine purebred Poll Dorset sheep, and 18 crossbred 1/2 Dorper sheep. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique. The influence of the animal's genotype on its performance or on the performance of its lambs was analyzed by the least square method. Another factor assessed was the importance of the animal's genotype in analysis models for quantitative breeding value estimates, and whether there were differences among the averages of breeding values of animals with different genotypes for this gene. In the sample studied, no AA individuals were observed; the AB and BB frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. All Brazilian Somali sheep were of genotype BB. All 1/2 Dorper BB animals presented a lower age at first lambing, and the Santa Inês BB ewes presented a lower lambing interval. In these same genetic groups, AB ewes presented higher litter weight at weaning. This is evidence that BB ewes have a better reproductive performance phenotype, whereas AB ewes present a better maternal ability phenotype. However, in general, animals with genotype AB presented better average breeding values than those with genotype BB. PMID:21637510

  15. Joint modelling of repeated measurements and event time: application to performance traits and survival of lambs bred in sub-humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Nguti, Rosemary; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Rowlands, John; Renard, Didier; Janssen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We considered the analysis of a study for Dorper, Red Maasai and crossbred lambs born over a period of 6 years at the Diani Estate, Kenya. The study was designed to compare survival and performance traits of genotypes with differing susceptibilities to helminthiasis. The available data include information on time to death and repeated measurements of body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and faecal egg count (FEC) of the animals. In the paper, we consider joint modelling of the survival time and the repeated measurements. Such an approach allows to account for the possible association between the survival and repeated measurement processes. The advantages and limitations of the joint modelling are discussed and illustrated using the Diani Estate study data. PMID:16194523

  16. [High perinatal mortality associated with triple anthelmintic resistance in a German sheep flock].

    PubMed

    Voigt, K; Scheuerle, M; Hamel, D; Pfister, K

    2012-04-24

    High perinatal mortality, low milk yields and occasional ewe deaths were investigated in a Dorper sheep flock in Southern Germany. Parasitic gastroenteritis due to Trichostrongylus spp. associated with severe weight loss despite regular anthelmintic treatments of the flock was identified as the underlying cause. A faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test revealed zero reduction after treatment with ivermectin or albendazole, respectively, and a FECR of 57.9% following treatment with levamisole. These results indicate a lack of, or considerably reduced efficacy of substances from all three classical groups of anthelmintics and demonstrate that triple anthelmintic resistance is also present in Germany. The introduction of resistant worm populations with imported livestock, excessive use of anthelmintic drugs and under-dosing of goats have possibly led to the problem in the flock described. Veterinary advice on anthelmintic treatments and responsible parasite control programmes are therefore crucial in small ruminant flocks. PMID:22526724

  17. Production traits in F1 and F2 crosses with naturalized hair breed Santa Inês ewes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Alessandra Ferreira; McManus, Concepta; do Prado Paim, Tiago; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Esteves, Geisa Isilda Ferreira; Louvandini, Helder; Neto, José Braccini; Lucci, Carolina Madeira

    2014-01-01

    The once bred ewe slaughter method proposes the use of female lamb to produce a lamb and then both are slaughtered, increasing income and high quality meat production. Thus, this study evaluated the growth and reproduction performance of ewe lamb from Santa Inês (SI), a naturalized genetic resource, and their crosses (Dorper x Santa Inês (DOR), Texel x Santa Inês (TEX), Ile de France x Santa Inês (ILE)), as well as the survivability and development of their offspring. The animals were weighed monthly from birth to 12-months age. Samples of milk were collected on approximately 30 days of lactation. The physical-chemical analysis of milk was performed. SI females (2.94 kg) had significantly lower birth weight than DOR (3.80 kg) and TEX (3.87 kg). ILE females had higher weaning weight and weight at 12 months than SI females, which reflected in higher daily weight gain (ADG) (108.46 g/day) than TEX and SI. The pregnancy rates at 12 months were ILE (57.14%), TEX (25%), DOR (50%), and SI (28.57%), with TEX and SI differing of ILE and DOR (p = 0.03). Therefore, in semi-confinement and in a once-bred ewe production system using crossbreeding and allying meat production and reproduction, we recommend the use of Dorper and Ile de France breeds for crossbreeding with Santa Inês females. These results demonstrated the useful of a local genetic resource in productive system aiming a low cost meat production. PMID:24555173

  18. Three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes in small-tailed Han sheep (Ovis aries): molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Chao, Tianle; Liu, Zhaohua; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Guanqing; Wu, Changhao; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-09-01

    To explore the basic characteristics and expressing profile of the three slow skeletal muscle troponin genes TNNC1 (Troponin C type 1), TNNI1 (troponin I type 1) and TNNT1 (troponin T type 1). Three purebred Dorper sheep and another three purebred small-tailed Han sheep were selected. The sequence of the genes from the small-tailed Han sheep was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; The characteristics of the predicted amino acids sequences were analyzed using bioinformatics analysis software; Gene expression analyses were performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The full-length cDNA sequences of the genes were 707, 898, and 1001 bp, respectively, and were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KR153938, KT218688 and KT218690. The three predicted proteins were predicted to be hydrophilic, non-secretory proteins and contain several phosphorylation sites. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the predicted proteins were relatively conserved in mammals. The expression results of the three genes in eight tissues of Dorper and small-tailed Han sheep revealed that the three genes had a similar mRNA expression pattern, whereas distinct differences were observed among the eight tissues of the two sheep species. We cloned the full-length cDNA of the three genes, analyzed the amino acid sequences, and determined the expression levels of the genes. These results might play important roles in facilitating the future research of the three genes. PMID:27295221

  19. The effect of drought stress on the leaf relative water content and tuber yield of a half-sib family of ‘Katahdin’-derived potato cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Soltys-Kalina, Dorota; Plich, Jarosław; Strzelczyk-Żyta, Danuta; Śliwka, Jadwiga; Marczewski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance in plants is a complex trait involving morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms. Hundreds of genes underlie the response of plants to the stress. For crops, selecting cultivars that can produce economically significant yields under drought is a priority. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is considered as drought sensitive crop, although cultivar-dependent differences in tolerance have been described. Cultivar ‘Katahdin’ possesses many appropriate characteristics and is widely used for breeding purposes worldwide; it also has enhanced tolerance to drought stress. In this study, we evaluated cv. ‘Katahdin’ and a half-sib family of 17 Katahdin-derived cultivars for leaf relative water content (RWC) and tuber yield under drought stress. The yields of cultivars ‘Wauseon’, ‘Katahdin’, ‘Magura’, ‘Calrose’, and ‘Cayuga’ did not significantly decline under drought stress. Among these five, Wauseon exhibited the lowest reduction in both tuber yield and relative water content under water shortage. The data showed that ‘Wauseon’ is the most attractive cultivar for studies of molecular and physiological processes under drought and for potato breeding due to low yield losses that correspond with high RWC values. This cultivar can serve as a reservoir of potentially useful genes to develop cultivars with enhanced tolerance to this abiotic stress. PMID:27162504

  20. Maine's MOLLOCKET and METALLAK: Adherents of God's Secret Spirit Signal, SSS, Applied Physicists of the EMF/Manitou, Doctors, Reincarnationists, "Potlachers," Confidants of the Powerful, and, they Did Own the Land.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Jennifer; Ferreira, Nadja; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-04-01

    Northeastern ``Indians,'' reputed to ``make the weather,'' actually, from youth, observed earth phenomena, including SSS. These are subtle and barely detectable visual artifacts of the electromagnetic field, special information that led/leads to their spiritual belief in reincarnation, which came from the EMF/SSS communication, backward and forward, (up to) seven generations. It commands communal, democratic, ``potlatch'' redistribution of accumulated wealth, Mother Earth's bounty, from their land, gifted by ``The Great Spirit,'' Manitou, Peru's Ñari Huallac, ``Serpent God.'' Genetics established the non-Asian origins of 1/3 of North American Indians. Linguistics indicates a major impact westwards to us. MILLInocket is ``Adherent of God (Spirit-signal) monk Cathar.'' Katahdin, with a shared root, has Manitou. After 1820, Gov. E. Lincoln and at least one US senator went westward to MetALLAk; his biography is by a Rumford, ME Knight of Pythias. Why? MOLLOCKET frequently asserted ownership of western Maine. ``Great Council Fires,'' religious ``Law Things,'' were at Merrymeeting Bay in pre-Colonial times. ``Medicine men/priests'' often participated as their applied scientist-statesmen. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.1

  1. Foreland-forearc collisional granitoid and mafic magmatism caused by lower-plate lithospheric slab breakoff: The Acadian of Maine, and other orogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoonmaker, A.; Kidd, W.S.F.; Bradley, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    During collisional convergence, failure in extension of the lithosphere of the lower plate due to slab pull will reduce the thickness or completely remove lower-plate lithosphere and cause decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle; magmas from this source may subsequently provide enough heat for substantial partial melting of crustal rocks under or beyond the toe of the collisional accretionary system. In central Maine, United States, this type of magmatism is first apparent in the Early Devonian West Branch Volcanics and equivalent mafic volcanics, in the slightly younger voluminous mafic/silicic magmatic event of the Moxie Gabbro-Katahdin batholith and related ignimbrite volcanism, and in other Early Devonian granitic plutons. Similar lower-plate collisional sequences with mafic and related silicic magmatism probably caused by slab breakoff are seen in the Miocene-Holocene Papuan orogen, and the Hercynian-Alleghenian belt. Magmatism of this type is significant because it gives evidence in those examples of whole-lithosphere extension. We infer that normal fault systems in outer trench slopes of collisional orogens in general, and possibly those of oceanic subduction zones, may not be primarily due to flexural bending, but are also driven by whole-lithosphere extension due to slab pull. The Maine Acadian example suggests that slab failure and this type of magmatism may be promoted by pre-existing large margin-parallel faults in the lower plate. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  2. Effects of feeding corn silage inoculated with microbial additives on the ruminal fermentation, microbial protein yield, and growth performance of lambs.

    PubMed

    Basso, F C; Adesogan, A T; Lara, E C; Rabelo, C H S; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Siqueira, G R; Reis, R A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of feeding corn silage inoculated without or with either Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) alone or a combination of LB and Lactobacillus plantarum (LBLP) on the apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance of lambs. Thirty Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred intact males lambs weighing 20.4±3.8 kg were blocked by weight into 10 groups. Lambs in each group were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 dietary treatments: untreated (Control), LB, and LBLP silage. Lambs were fed experimental diets for 61 d. The apparent digestibility was indirectly estimated from indigestible NDF measured on d 57 to 59. Spot urine samples were collected from all animals on d 59 to estimate microbial protein synthesis. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation on d 61 when they weighed 32.4±5.2 kg. Six additional ruminally cannulated Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred wethers weighing 40.5±1.8 kg were used to examine dietary effects on ruminal fermentation. Average daily gain was increased when lambs were fed LBLP silage (P<0.05) but not LB silage. The LBLP silage had the highest (P<0.05) lactic acid concentration and both inoculated silages had greater acetic acid concentrations than the Control silage (P<0.05). Inoculation of corn silage increased intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, total carbohydrate (CHO), and GE by the lambs but decreased digestibility of DM, OM, CP, total and nonstructural carbohydrates, and concentration of GE and ME. (P<0.05). Nevertheless, lambs fed inoculated silages had greater microbial N supply than those on the Control treatment (P<0.05). The acetate to propionate ratio was lower in ruminal fluid of wethers in LBLP treatment than LB and Control treatment (P<0.05) and ruminal pH tended to be greater in LB lambs than in LBLP and Control wethers (P<0.10). Finally, the inoculation with both bacteria combined enhanced the silage fermentation. The intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and GE

  3. The marine algae Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae) as feed for sheep in tropical and subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Marín, Alejandro; Casas-Valdez, Margarita; Carrillo, Silvia; Hernández, Hugo; Monroy, Alberto; Sanginés, Leonor; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate Sargassum meal as feed for sheep through the measures of in vivo digestibility, dry matter degradability, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids in rumen. The Sargassum algae used in this experiment were collected at the end of spring, when they are more abundant, bigger, and have completed their reproductive cycle. Four tons (wet weigth) were collected manually from the intertidal zone of La Paz bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These algae were sun-dried and ground in a hammer mill to obtain the Sargassum meal. Four fistulated Pelibuey sheep, were fed daily with diets containing the marine algae (MA) at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 %), using a 4 x 4 Latin-square design experiment. Feed intake was not affected (p>0.05). Water consumption and urine excretion increased with MA (p<0.05; r2=0.54 and r2=0.74, respectively). In all treatments dry matter digestibility was of 74%-79%, and crude protein digestibility was of 85%-88%. Acid detergent fiber (59%-65%) and neutral detergent fiber (55%-66%) digestibility were greater in all treatments with MA. Ruminal pH was greater in all groups fed with MA (p<0.05). Ammonium concentration was not influenced (p>0.05) by MA. Ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased in all MA groups (p<0.05). The marine algae Sargassum spp. can be used as a feed supplement for sheep, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where these marine algae are available. PMID:20073352

  4. Preliminary vitrinite reflectance study of the post-Acadian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formation, northern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Malinconico, M.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Vitrinite reflectance was measured on plant fossils from the Devonian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formations in northern Maine in order to assess the degree and possible history of thermal maturation of these post-Acadian intermontane basin deposits, generally considered to be unmetamorphosed. The Middle Devonian Mapleton Formation, west of Presque Isle, lies within the prehnite-pumpellyite terrane of northeastern Aroostook County in which the degree of metamorphism increases from west to east. Vitrinite reflectance from the quarry'' plant fossil locality has a reflectance of 1.4%, which is slightly higher than the death line'' of oil and indicates a maximum paleotemperature of ca. 120--150 C. If not due to burial alone, this very low grade metamorphism may be due to (1) intrusion of nearby teschenite dikes or (2) the Maritime Disturbance of the Pennsylvanian. Based on conodont alteration indices and vitrinite and graptolite reflectance, the degree of thermal maturation of pre-Acadian Ordovician to Lower Devonian formations decreases rapidly several kilometers west of the prehnite-analcime isograd; the lowest rank rocks, in a northeast-trending ban from Square Lake to Mud Lake have paleotemperatures in the range of 60--90 C, the birth line'' of oil. In the post- orogenic Lower Devonian Trout Valley Formation immediately north of Mt. Katahdin, two samples about seven kilometers apart have anthracite grade reflectances of 3.0% and 8.2% respectively. Both localities are near andesite sills. Importantly, the smooth nongranular non-coked texture of these samples suggests that all or part of the Trout Valley Formation had been heated by an unidentified thermal event to temperatures above the coking range of coal before being subjected to later very local contact metamorphism by dikes and sills.

  5. Use of FAMACHA system to evaluate gastrointestinal nematode resistance/resilience in offspring of stud rams.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E

    2008-05-01

    High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for animals with greater resistance to these parasites. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAMACHA system in identification of parasite resilient/resistant offspring, and thus identification of stud rams with greater resilience/resistance. Katahdin ewes bred in separate groups to two sires to lamb in spring (2004, 2005: Ram A and Ram B; 2006, 2007: Ram C and Ram D) at the USDA, Agricultural Research Station in Booneville, Arkansas produced 20-40 offspring/sire each year. Ewes and lambs grazed mixed grass (predominantly bermudagrass and ryegrass) pastures and were supplemented with corn/soybean meal between 30 days pre- and 60 days post-lambing (ewes) and starting 45 days of age until weaning (lambs; 95.0+/-0.6 days of age). Blood samples and feces were collected from the lambs to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) and FAMACHA scores were determined at 90, 120, and 150 days of age. Lambs were dewormed if anemic (PCV<19% or FAMACHA score >2) and data removed within 30 days after deworming. Data were analyzed for the 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 groups using general linear models with year, sex of lamb, and sire nested within year as variables. Sire differences were detected (P<0.05 or less) for PCV and FAMACHA at all time points, but not FEC. There tended (P<0.10) to be sire differences for FEC at 90 and 120 days of age, but not at 150 days of age. Lambs sired by Ram D were dewormed less by 150 days of age than those sired by Ram C. The FAMACHA system can be used to identify superior sires for parasite resilience/resistance, thus increasing flock resilience, and perhaps resistance. PMID:18314274

  6. Effects of processing corn on the carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Letícia Silva; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Carvalho, Roberta Ferreira; Pesce, Domingos Marcelo Cenachi; Da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Gallo, Sarita Bonagurio; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effect of the corn grain processing (whole grain, dry beans ground, and wet grain) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in lambs. Twenty-two Dorper vs. Santa Inês uncastrated lambs (27 ± 4 kg BW; ±3 months old) were distributed in a randomized complete block (initial BW). The diets were composed of 20 % protein-mineral pellet, 5 % hay, and 75 % corn in the form of whole grain, ground grain, or wet grain. The harvest weight of animals fed whole corn (50.2 kg) and ground (49.03 kg) were equal and higher than the moisture corn fed lambs (44.89 kg); therefore, the same differences were expected to be seen in the cold vs hot carcass comparison. However, there was no difference between treatments comparing hot or cold carcass performance, averaging 47 and 46 %, respectively. Also unaffected by the treatments were subcutaneous fat thickness values, loin muscle area, pH, temperature, drip loss, water loss by cooking, color, and tenderness. It can be concluded that the shape and size of corn grain in diets of high concentrate resulted in no measurable influence on carcass traits, but whole grain is more easily managed by the producer. PMID:25851927

  7. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, T.; Tu, Y.; Zhang, N. F.; Deng, K. D.; Diao, Q. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using 15N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs. PMID:26323398

  8. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus. PMID:26676244

  9. The effect of forage type on lamb carcass traits, meat quality and sensory traits.

    PubMed

    De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined. PMID:27155319

  10. Detection of Selection Signatures on the X Chromosome in Three Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Caiye; Fan, Hongying; Yuan, Zehu; Hu, Shijin; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Fuping; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Artificial selection has played a critical role in animal breeding. Detection of artificial selection footprints in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypic traits and better guide animal breeding. To more fully understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, a genome-wide scan was conducted using an OvineSNP50 BeadChip and integrated haplotype score and fixation index analyses to detect selection signatures on the X chromosome in three sheep breeds. We identified 49, 34, and 55 candidate selection regions with lengths of 27.49, 16.47, and 25.42 Mb in German Mutton, Dorper, and Sunit sheep, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that some of the genes in these regions with selection signatures, such as BMP15, were relevant to reproduction. We also identified some selection regions harboring genes that had human orthologs, including BKT, CENPI, GUCY2F, MSN, PCDH11X, PLP1, VSIG4, PAK3, WAS, PCDH19, PDHA1, and SRPX2. The VSIG4 and PCDH11X genes are associated with the immune system and disease, PDHA1 is associated with biosynthetic related pathways, and PCDH19 is expressed in the nervous system and skin. These genes may be useful as candidate genes for molecular breeding. PMID:26343642

  11. Predictive potential of microsatellite markers on heterosis of fecundity in crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Di, R; Chu, M X; Li, Y L; Zhang, L; Fang, L; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Chen, H Q; Li, X W

    2012-03-01

    Small Tail Han (STH) sheep is a famous Chinese local breed and has perfect prolificacy performance, but it is inferior to imported mutton sheep breeds on meat production. In this study, six imported male sheep populations (White Suffolk, Black Suffolk, Texel, Dorper, South African Mutton Merino and East Friesian) were crossbred with STH female sheep respectively. The heterosis values of litter size, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of crossbred sheep were analyzed for seeking the optimal cross. Meanwhile 28 microsatellite markers were used to measure the genetic distance between imported populations and STH population. Regression between the genetic distance and heterosis was analyzed for evaluating potential of microsatellite on predicting heterosis. Results showed a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.892, P < 0.05) between heterosis of litter size and genetic distance D (A) of six crosses. This implied that these microsatellite markers had moderate potential to forecast heterosis of litter size in sheep. Results of this study also indicated that South African Mutton Merino and East Friesian sheep would be the optimal sire breeds for the litter size and might bring the greatest economic benefit in six imported populations; Suffolk sheep could be prior consideration as sire breeds when breeding objective focused on ADG. Finally these results provided valuable information for Chinese sheep industry. PMID:21674186

  12. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of sheep MYL3 and MYL4 genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Jianmin; Wang, Guizhi; Ji, Zhibin; Hou, Lei; Liu, Zhaohua; Chao, Tianle

    2016-02-15

    Using longissimus dorsi muscles of Dorper sheep as the experimental materials, the complete cDNAs of ovine MYL3 (Myosin light chain 3) and MYL4 (Myosin light chain 4) genes were cloned using RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE. We obtained 925-bp and 869-bp full-length cDNAs and submitted their sequences to GenBank as accession numbers of KJ710703 and KJ768855, respectively. The cDNAs contained 600-bp and 582-bp open reading frames (ORFs) and encoded proteins comprising 199 and 193 amino acid residues, respectively. Neither protein was predicted to have a signal peptide, but both were predicted to have several N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation, and phosphorylation sites. The secondary structures of MYL3 and MYL4 were predicted to be 40.70% and 48.70% α- helical, respectively. Sequence alignment showed that the MYL3 and MYL4 proteins of Ovis aries both shared more than 91% amino acid sequence similarity with those of Mus musculus, Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, and Sus scrofa. The levels of MYL3 and MYL4 mRNA in various sheep tissues were determined using qRT-PCR. The results showed that both mRNAs were highly expressed in the heart. This study has established a foundation for further investigation of the ovine MYL3 and MYL4 genes. PMID:26656596

  13. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  14. Stable isotope ratio analysis: A potential analytical tool for the authentication of South African lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Sara Wilhelmina; Muller, Magdalena; van der Rijst, Marieta; Hoffman, Louwrens Christiaan

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) of South African Dorper lambs from farms with different vegetation types were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), to evaluate it as a tool for the authentication of origin and feeding regime. Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of lambs from seven different farms was assessed. The δ(13)C values were affected by the origin of the meat, mainly reflecting the diet. The Rûens and Free State farms had the lowest (p ⩽ 0.05) δ(15)N values, followed by the Northern Cape farms, with Hantam Karoo/Calvinia having the highest δ(15)N values. Discriminant analysis showed δ(13)C and δ(15)N differences as promising results for the use of IRMS as a reliable analytical tool for lamb meat authentication. The results suggest that diet, linked to origin, is an important factor to consider regarding region of origin classification for South African lamb. PMID:26304440

  15. Animal performance and carcass characteristics from confined lambs fed on concentrate feed and additives.

    PubMed

    Prado, Tayrone F; França, Aldi F S; Meirinhos, Maria Lúcia G; Peron, Hugo J M C; Ferreira, Reginaldo N; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Corrêa, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    The number of sheep flocks in Brazil is increasing. It is known that lambs must be slaughtered when young for producing quality meat. The current study evaluated the inclusion of protected methionine, protected lysine, lysophospholipid and amylolytic enzymes in a diet to lambs and their effects on weight gain and quantitative carcass traits at slaughtering. Eighty non-castrated male crossbred Dorper x Santa Inês lambs, 20.57 ± 4.33 kg live weight, were used. The feedlot lasted 64 days and 60 animals were slaughtered. There were no differences for live weight, daily feed intake, feed conversion and average daily weight gain at the first 28 days of feedlot. From the 28th day lysophospholipid treatment presented the highest live weight. Lysophospholipid and amylolytic enzyme presented the best performance in average daily gain, followed by protected methionine, control and protected lysine. Lysophospholipid treatment presented higher daily feed intake rates than protected lysine and protected methionine. Feed conversion was lower for amylolytic enzyme and higher for control. No changing in carcass traits was reported due to additives. Better performance may be achieved with feedlot lambs fed on diets with the addition of amylolytic enzyme and lysophospholipid at the finishing phase. PMID:26536854

  16. Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rwambo, P M; Brodie, S J; DeMartini, J C

    2001-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) infection in sheep with chronic respiratory disease on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. All seven Merino crossbred sheep with chronic dyspnoea and emaciation examined for gross and microscopic lesions had lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and one also had pulmonary abscesses. Two of the sheep with LIP also had lesions of ovine pulmonary carcinoma (OPC, jaagsiekte). Using in situ hybridization, OvLV DNA localized to a high proportion of pulmonary macrophages in lungs with lesions of LIP. Lung tissue samples from six of these sheep were positive for a syncytium-inducing virus in cultures of lamb testis cells. Thin-section electron microscopy of infected cells showed virions with morphogenesis typical of lentiviruses. In a western blotting assay, monoclonal antibodies to the OvLV capsid (CA, p27) and matrix (MA, p15) proteins of a North American OvLV isolate reacted with similar-sized bands of the virus, and serum from six of the sheep were reactive with CA from the Kenyan viral isolate. Using an OvLV agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test, all seven sheep were positive for serum antiviral antibody, as were 29% of 63 clinically normal sheep from Laikipia District. However, when sera from the healthy sheep were tested in a western blot assay, only 52% had IgG reactive to the OvLV CA, indicating a high rate of false negative reactions with the AGID test. Serum samples from 87 Red Maasai or Dorper crossbred sheep from two farms in other parts of Kenya were OvLV seronegative by both the AGID test and the western blot assay. These results document the first identification of OvLV as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in sheep in Kenya and show a high rate of infection in sheep flocks, with a high prevalence of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:11770202

  17. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  18. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  19. Effects of supplementation of rumen-protected choline on growth performance, meat quality and gene expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of lambs.

    PubMed

    Li, Huawei; Wang, Hongrong; Yu, Lihuai; Wang, Mengzhi; Liu, Shimin; Sun, Lisha; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on growth performance, blood lipids, meat quality and expression of genes involved in fatty-acid metabolism in young lambs. A total of 24 Dorper × Hu lambs (about 20 kg body weight) were kept in individual pens and fed diets with 0%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% RPC for 60 d. Supplementation of 0.25% RPC increased average daily gain of lambs, whereas treatments had no significant effect on feed intake. The pH values of meat were increased at 0.25% RPC and both, dripping loss and shear force of meat, were significantly decreased in RPC-supplemented lambs. No significant changes were observed for dressing percentage and intramuscular fat. RPC supplementations had no significant effect on the concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterols in serum, but the concentration of high-density lipoprotein was decreased at 0.50% RPC and that of low-density lipoprotein was increased at 0.75% RPC. In m. longissimus dorsi, the expressions of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes were increased at 0.25% RPC. Supplementation of 0.75% RPC increased the expressions of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and FASN genes, decreased the expression of ACC gene and had no effect on CD36 gene. The results of this study showed that supplementation of 0.25% RPC could promote growth performance of lambs and improve meat quality. This may be mediated by effects on blood lipid profiles and the metabolism of fatty acids in skeleton muscles. However, the beneficial effects of 0.25% RPC supplementation need to be validated with a larger number of animals. Higher doses, particularly 0.75% RPC, showed adverse effects on live weight gain and ACC expression. PMID:26305383

  20. Evaluation of multiple low doses of copper oxide wire particles compared with levamisole for control of Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E

    2006-06-30

    High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for alternative approaches to parasite control. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP; 2g) have proven effective in decreasing GIN infection in lambs. However, the risk of copper toxicity has limited the usefulness of this approach. Recently, smaller doses (0.5 and 1g) have proven effective in GIN control, reducing the risk of toxicity. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness and risk of toxicity using multiple small doses of COWP for GIN control in lambs between weaning and market weight. Dorper crossbred ram lambs were orally administered levamisole (Levasol, 8.0mg/kg; n=8), 0.5g (n=9), or 1g COWP (n=9) at weaning (Day 0; 118+/-2 days of age; late May 2005) and again at 6-week intervals for a total of four treatments. A pooled fecal culture determined that Haemonchus contortus was the predominant gastrointestinal parasite at weaning. Lambs grazed bermudagrass pastures and were supplemented with up to 500g corn/soybean meal and free choice trace mineralized salt. Fecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), and plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were determined every 14 days and lambs weighed every 28 days. GIN infection reached a peak at Day 42 (high FEC, low PCV). COWP effectively reduced FEC on Days 0 and 42 compared with the previous week, but did not reduce FEC on Days 84 and 126 (treatment by time interaction, P<0.005). Plasma AST activity and weight gains were similar among treatment groups throughout the study period. Concentrations of copper in the liver on Day 155 were greater in COWP-treated lambs (P<0.001), but all concentrations were normal. Multiple doses of COWP were as effective as levamisole for control of H. contortus without risk of copper toxicity. PMID:16574324

  1. Large-scale Explosive Silicic Volcanic Eruptions in Maine, USA: Where, When, and Why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, S. J.; Van Lankvelt, A.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Two magmatic belts in Maine host essentially undeformed, well-preserved Silurian to Devonian volcanic sequences that include thick ash flow tuffs and rhyolitic lava flows. The Coastal Maine volcanic belt consists of at least five bimodal volcanic complexes (419 to 424 +/- 2 Ma) hosting volcanic sequences 1-4 km thick, spanning approximately 160 km of the Maine coastline. Entire cross-sections of the volcanic-plutonic complexes are visible, providing excellent sites to study the volcano/pluton interface. The Central Maine belt also extends approximately 160 km, northeast to southwest, across central Maine, and also hosts several bimodal plutonic/volcanic complexes. Rocks in the Central Maine belt range from 400 to 410 Ma (Hubacher and Lux, 1987; Bradley et al., 1996). The largest complex in the Central Maine belt is the ~407 Ma (Rankin and Tucker, 1995) Katahdin granite and Moxie mafic intrusive complex and the coeval Traveler Rhyolite, a monotonous two-member, 3200-meter-thick pyroclastic succession. In Rankin and Hon (1987), Hon argued that the original volume of the Traveler rhyolite was at least 5000 km3, making it one of the largest silicic caldera eruptions in the rock record. Both the Coastal Maine volcanic belt and the Central Maine belt are on the Gander terrane, a peri-Gondwanan crustal block that accreted to Laurentia during the Salinic orogeny. Accretion of the block was complete by ~421 Ma (Pollock et al., 2012), but by then the Avalon terrane was accreting to Gander. Either back-arc extension associated with subduction of oceanic lithosphere on the leading edge of the Avalonian plate, or delamination of that plate beneath Gander resulted in back-arc extension, decompression melting of the mantle, and partial melting of thick crust. The Central Maine belt, farther inboard of the downgoing Avalonian slab, developed similar bimodal, extension-related magmatism by approximately 410 Ma. Large silicic caldera eruptions developed in these belts as a result of

  2. Mapping whole genome shotgun sequence and variant calling in mammalian species without their reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Ted; Heaton, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Genomics research in mammals has produced reference genome sequences that are essential for identifying variation associated with disease.  High quality reference genome sequences are now available for humans, model species, and economically important agricultural animals.  Comparisons between these species have provided unique insights into mammalian gene function.  However, the number of species with reference genomes is small compared to those needed for studying molecular evolutionary relationships in the tree of life.  For example, among the even-toed ungulates there are approximately 300 species whose phylogenetic relationships have been calculated in the 10k trees project.  Only six of these have reference genomes:  cattle, swine, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and bison.  Although reference sequences will eventually be developed for additional hoof stock, the resources in terms of time, money, infrastructure and expertise required to develop a quality reference genome may be unattainable for most species for at least another decade.  In this work we mapped 35 Gb of next generation sequence data of a Katahdin sheep to its own species' reference genome ( Ovis aries Oar3.1) and to that of a species that diverged 15 to 30 million years ago ( Bos taurus UMD3.1).  In total, 56% of reads covered 76% of UMD3.1 to an average depth of 6.8 reads per site, 83 million variants were identified, of which 78 million were homozygous and likely represent interspecies nucleotide differences. Excluding repeat regions and sex chromosomes, nearly 3.7 million heterozygous sites were identified in this animal vs. bovine UMD3.1, representing polymorphisms occurring in sheep.  Of these, 41% could be readily mapped to orthologous positions in ovine Oar3.1 with 80% corroborated as heterozygous.  These variant sites, identified via interspecies mapping could be used for comparative genomics, disease association studies, and ultimately to understand mammalian gene

  3. Changes in concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed sericea lespedeza leaf meal pellets with or without dietary sodium molybdate.

    PubMed

    Acharya, M; Burke, J M; Coffey, K P; Kegley, E B; Miller, J E; Smyth, E; Welborn, M G; Terrill, T H; Mosjidis, J A; Rosenkrans, C

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged feeding of sericea lespedeza (SL) previously led to reduced serum concentrations of Mo, a cofactor in an enzyme complex that may be involved in weight gain. The current objective was to determine the effect of Mo supplementation on changes in serum, fecal, urine, and liver concentrations of trace minerals in lambs fed SL leaf meal pellets. Thirty ram lambs weaned in May (84 ± 1.5 d of age and 27 ± 1.1 kg; D 0) were blocked by BW, breed type (full or three-fourths Katahdin), and EBV of parasite resistance and randomly assigned to be fed 900 g/d of an alfalfa-based supplement (CON; = 10) or a SL-based supplement ( = 20) for 103 d. Supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to meet trace mineral requirements. Within the SL group, individual lambs were administered either 5 mL water or 5 mL of water with 163.3 mg of sodium molybdate (SLMO). Serum was collected on d 28, 56, and 104; a liver sample was collected by biopsy on d 104 to determine concentrations of trace minerals. Data were analyzed using a mixed model and orthogonal contrasts. Serum concentrations of Mo increased in response to the drench and were greatest in SLMO lambs and then CON lambs and lowest in SL lambs ( < 0.001). Concentrations of Mo in the liver ( < 0.001) were similar between CON and SLMO lambs and were lower in SL lambs than other groups. Serum ( < 0.001) and liver ( = 0.013) concentrations of zinc (Zn) were reduced in both SL and SLMO lambs compared with CON lambs. Serum concentrations of cobalt (Co) increased in CON lambs compared with SL and SLMO lambs between d 0 and 56 but were similar on d 104 (diet × day, < 0.005) as with concentrations in the liver. Serum and liver concentrations of copper (Cu) were greatest ( < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively) in CON lambs followed by SL lambs and then SLMO lambs. Serum concentrations of selenium (Se) tended ( = 0.10) to be reduced in SL lambs compared with CON and SLMO lambs, but concentrations in the liver were

  4. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  5. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  6. The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

    PubMed Central

    Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173) castrated sheep from Dormer (DM), South African Mutton Merino (SAMM), Dorper (DP) and Blackhead Persian (BP) sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months), Group 2 (9 to 12 months) and Group 3 (13 to 16 months). Blood samples were collected during exsanguinations using disposable vacutainer tubes for CK analysis. Representative samples of the Muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL) were collected from 84 castrated sheep, of different breeds (28 per breed) 24 h after slaughter. The following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH (pH24), color (L*, a* and b*), thawing and cooking losses and Warner Braztler Shear Force (WBSF). The activity of plasma CK was significantly higher (p<0.001) in summer (1,026.3±105.06) and lower in winter (723.3±77.75). There were higher values for L* (33.7±0.94), b* (11.5±0.48) and WBSF (29.5±1.46) in summer season than in winter season; L* (29.4±0.64), b* (10.2±0.33) and WBSF (21.2±0.99). The activity of plasma CK was influenced by the type of breed with Dormer having the highest (p>0.001) levels (1,358.6±191.08) of CK. South African Mutton Merino had higher values for pH24 (5.9±0.06), L* (34.2±0.97), b* (12.2±0.50) and WBSF (26.8±1.51) and Blackhead Persian had higher values (35.5±2.17) for cooking loss (CL%) than the other breeds. Computed Principal Component Analyses (PCA) on the activity of plasma CK and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton revealed no correlations between these variables. However, positive correlations were observed between pH24, L*, a*, b*, CL% and WBSF. Relationships between pre-slaughter stress, CK activity and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were also

  7. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with