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Sample records for pelvic cancers study

  1. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. Methods From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. Findings After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24–58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·16 (95% CI 0·87–1·54; p=0·31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI −4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1·35 (1·06–1·73; p=0·017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1–12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1·04 (0·74–1·45; p=0·83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1·25 (0·93–1·66; p=0·14). Interpretation Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall

  2. Gut microbial dysbiosis may predict diarrhea and fatigue in patients undergoing pelvic cancer radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Ling, Zongxin; Yang, Zhixiang; Kiela, Pawel R; Wang, Tao; Wang, Cheng; Cao, Le; Geng, Fang; Shen, Mingqiang; Ran, Xinze; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Wang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue and diarrhea are the most frequent adverse effects of pelvic radiotherapy, while their etiologies are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlations between fatigue, diarrhea, and alterations in gut microbiota induced by pelvic radiotherapy. During the 5-week treatment of pelvic radiotherapy in 11 cancer patients, the general fatigue score significantly increased and was more prominent in the patients with diarrhea. The fatigue score was closely correlated with the decrease of serum citrulline (an indicator of the functional enterocyte mass) and the increases of systemic inflammatory proteins, including haptoglobin, orosomuoid, α1-antitrypsin and TNF-α. Serum level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also elevated, especially in the patients with diarrhea indicating epithelial barrier breach and endotoxemia. Pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed that microbial diversity, richness, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio were significantly altered prior to radiotherapy in patients who later developed diarrhea. Pelvic radiotherapy induced further changes in fecal microbial ecology, some of which were specific to the patients with or without diarrhea. Our results indicate that gut microbial dysbiosis prior to radiation therapy may be exploited to predict development of diarrhea and to guide preventive treatment options. Radiation-induced dysbiosis may contribute to pelvic radiation disease, including mucositis, diarrhea, systemic inflammatory response, and pelvic radiotherapy-associated fatigue in cancer patients. PMID:25955845

  3. Feasibility Study of Pelvic Helical IMRT for Elderly Patients with Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Nickers, Philippe; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Cordoba, Abel; Leblanc, Eric; Comte, Pauline; Lacornerie, Thomas; Lartigau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Standard treatment for early-stage endometrial cancer involves surgery (when possible) followed by brachytherapy or external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for high-risk tumors. EBRT is not without toxicity, meaning that it could be difficult to complete for elderly patients, who typically have decreased reserve and resistance to stressors. Patients and methods Patients aged 70 and over treated between April 2009 and May 2013 for endometrial cancer and received IMRT (Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy) were included in this observational study. IMRT could be performed as adjuvant treatment or as an exclusive treatment for patients not amenable to surgery. The primary endpoints of this study were to assess the feasibility and toxicity of pelvic IMRT in this population. Secondary endpoints were to assess disease-specific survival, overall survival, and local control. Predictors of toxicity were also explored. Results Forty seven consecutive patients were included in the analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 75 years (range, 70–89 years). Eleven patients were aged 80 years and older. Toxicities were found in thirty four patients (72%) during treatment. Among these, toxicity did not exceed grade 2 for 32 patients (68%). Two patients had a grade 3 toxicity (4%). Overall survival rates were 87% and 83% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Six patients (12.8%) had a local relapse and nine others (19.1%) had distant relapse. Conclusions Pelvic helical IMRT for patients aged 70 and older is feasible with full standard radiation doses, showing that age greater than 70 should not be considered as a reason not to perform optimal treatment. PMID:25423024

  4. Quality Assurance of Multifractionated Pelvic Interstitial Brachytherapy for Postoperative Recurrences of Cervical Cancers: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Pragya; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Paul, Siji Nojin; Phurailatpam, Reena; SV, Jamema; Shrivastava, Shyam K.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate three-dimensional needle displacements during multifractionated interstitial brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients scheduled to undergo pelvic interstitial BT for postoperative and or postradiation vault recurrences were included from November 2009 to December 2010. All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia. Postprocedure BT planning CT scans were obtained with patients in supine position with arms on the chest (interslice thickness of 3 mm). Thereafter, verification CT was repeated at every alternate fraction. Needle displacements were measured in reference to a relocatable bony point. The mean cranial, caudal, anteroposterior, and mediolateral displacements were recorded. Statistical significance of mean interfraction displacements was evaluated with Wilcoxon Test. Results: Twenty patients were included. Seventeen received boost BT (20 Gy/5 fractions/3 days) after external radiation, three received radical BT alone (36 Gy/9 fractions/5-8 days). An average of three scans (range, 2-3) were available per patient, and 357 needle displacements were analyzed. For the entire study cohort, the average of mean needle displacement was 2.5 mm (range, 0-7.4), 17.4 mm (range, 0-27.9), 1.7 mm (range, 0-6.7), 2.1 mm (range, 0-9.5), 1.7 mm (range, 0-9.3), and 0.6 mm (range, 0-7.8) in cranial, caudal, anterior, posterior, right, and left directions, respectively. The mean displacement in the caudal direction was higher between Days 1 and 2 than that between Days 2 and 3 (13.4 mm vs. 3.8 mm; p = 0.01). The average caudal displacements were no different between reirradiation and boost cohort (15.2 vs. 17.8 mm). Conclusions: Clinically significant caudal displacements occur during multifractionated pelvic brachytherapy. Optimal margins need to be incorporated while preplanning brachytherapy to account for interfraction displacements.

  5. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  6. Enumerating pelvic recurrence following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: A Canadian multi-institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Libni J.; Jones, Edward; Kassouf, Wassim; Lambert, Carole; Morgan, Scott C.; Moussa, Madeleine; Nam, Robert; Parliament, Matthew; Russell, Laurie; Saad, Fred; Siemens, D. Robert; Souhami, Luis; Szumacher, Ewa; Tyldesley, Scott; Xu, Yan; Zbieranowski, Ingrid; Breau, Rodney H.; Belanger, Eric; Black, Peter; Estey, Eric; Bowan, Julie; Bora, Bishwajit; Brundage, Michael; Chung, Peter; Fleshner, Neil; Evans, Andrew; Bauman, Glenn; Izawa, Jonathan; Davidson, Chris; Brimo, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to enumerate the rate of pelvic recurrence following radical cystectomy at university-affiliated hospitals in Canada. Methods: Canadian, university-affiliated hospitals were invited to participate. They were asked to identify the first 10 consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy starting January 1, 2005, who had urothelial carcinoma stages pT3/T4 N0-2 M0. The first 10 consecutive cases starting January 1, 2005 who met these criteria were the patients submitted by that institution with information regarding tumour stage, age, number of nodes removed, and last known clinical status in regard to recurrence and patterns of failure. Results: Of the 111 patients, 80% had pT3 and 20% pT4 disease, with 62% being node-negative, 14% pN1, and 27% pN2; 57% had 10 or more nodes removed. Cumulative incidence of pelvic relapse was 40% among the entire group Conclusions: This review demonstrates a high rate of pelvic tumour recurrence following radical cystectomy for pT3/T4 urothelial cancer. PMID:27217852

  7. A Study of Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Fiducials for Localized Prostate Cancer Including Pelvic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Annie; Pawlicki, Todd; Luxton, Gary; Hara, Wendy; King, Christopher R. . E-mail: crking@stanford.edu

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To study the impact on nodal coverage and dose to fixed organs at risk when using daily fiducial localization of the prostate to deliver intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Five patients with prostate cancer in whom prostate and pelvic nodes were irradiated with IMRT were studied. Dose was prescribed such that 95% of the prostate planning target volume (PTV) and 90% of the nodal PTV were covered. Random and systematic prostate displacements in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, and left-right directions were simulated to shift the original isocenter of the IMRT plan. The composite dose during the course of treatment was calculated. Results: Compared with a static setup, simulating random shifts reduced dose by less than 1.5% for nodal hotspot (i.e., dose to 1 cm{sup 3}), by less than 1% for the 90% nodal PTV coverage, and by less than 0.5% for the nodal mean dose. Bowel and femoral head hotspots were reduced by less than 1.5% and 2%, respectively. A 10-mm systematic offset reduced nodal coverage by up to 10%. Conclusion: The use of prostate fiducials for daily localization during IMRT treatment results in negligible changes in dose coverage of pelvic nodes or normal tissue sparing in the absence of a significant systematic offset. This offers a simple and practical solution to the problem of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer when including pelvic nodes.

  8. Dosimetric Study of Pelvic Proton Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Vargas, Carlos; Morris, Christopher G.; Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Yeung, Daniel; Duvvuri, Srividya; Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy Price

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions in targeted tissues (prostate, seminal vesicles, pelvic regional nodes) and nontargeted tissues in the pelvis with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and forward-planned, double-scattered, three-dimensional proton radiotherapy (3D-PRT). Methods and Materials: IMRT, IMRT followed by a prostate 3D-PRT boost (IMRT/3D-PRT), and 3D-PRT plans were created for 5 high-risk prostate cancer patients (n = 15 plans). A 78-CGE/Gy dose was prescribed to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles and a 46-CGE/Gy was prescribed to the pelvic nodes. Various dosimetric endpoints were compared. Results: Target coverage of the prostate and nodal planning target volumes was adequate for all three plans. Compared with the IMRT and IMRT/3D-PRT plans, the 3D-PRT plans reduced the mean dose to the rectum, rectal wall, bladder, bladder wall, small bowel, and pelvis. The relative benefit of 3D-PRT (vs IMRT) at reducing the rectum and rectal wall V5-V40 was 53% to 71% (p < 0.05). For the bladder and bladder wall, the relative benefit for V5 to V40 CGE/Gy was 40% to 63% (p < 0.05). The relative benefit for reducing the volume of small bowel irradiated from 5 to 30 CGE/Gy in the 3D-PRT ranged from 62% to 69% (p < 0.05). Use of 3D-PRT did not produce the typical low-dose 'bath' of radiation to the pelvis seen with IMRT. Femoral head doses were higher for the 3D-PRT. Conclusions: Use of 3D-PRT significantly reduced the dose to normal tissues in the pelvis while maintaining adequate target coverage compared with IMRT or IMRT/3D-PRT. When treating the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes in prostate cancer, proton therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio beyond what is possible with IMRT.

  9. Penile Rehabilitation after Pelvic Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  10. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  11. Pelvic Insufficiency Fracture After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae Nam, Heerim; Park, Won; Han, Youngyih; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Lee, Je Ho

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Medical records and imaging studies, including bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI of 557 patients with cervical cancer who received whole-pelvic RT between January 1998 and August 2005 were reviewed. Results: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed as having PIF after pelvic RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PIF was 19.7%. The most commonly involved site was the sacroiliac joint. Pelvic pain developed in 48 patients (57.8%) at diagnosis. Eleven patients (13.3%) needed admission or narcotics because of severe pain, and others had good relief of symptoms with conservative management. In univariate analysis, age {>=}55 years (p < 0.001), anteroposterior/posteroanterior parallel opposing technique (p = 0.001), curative treatment (p < 0.001), and radiation dose {>=}50.4 Gy (p = 0.005) were the predisposing factors for development of PIF. Concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.78) was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that age {>=}55 years (p < 0.001), body weight <55 kg (p = 0.02), curative treatment (p = 0.03), and radiation dose {>=}50.4 Gy (p = 0.04) were significant predisposing factors for development of PIF. Conclusion: The development of PIF is not rare after pelvic RT. The use of multibeam arrangements to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture, especially in elderly women with low body weight.

  12. Conformal 3D planned radiotherapy for pelvic lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Stefan; Käsmann, Lukas; Cegla, Robert; Rades, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome and toxicity of 3D conformal radiotherapy (RT) for persistent lymphoceles following surgery for urological cancer. A total of 6 patients with bladder (n=1) and prostate cancer (n=5), with persistent lymphoceles following surgery for a primary tumor were treated with total doses of 10–12 Gy (1 Gy single dose) after computed tomography (CT) based 3D planning in order to suspend secretion. No acute or chronic toxicities were observed. In 5 patients, secretion of lymph fluid resolved after RT and in 1 patient RT had no effect. After a mean follow-up of 21 months (range, 5–47 months), no patient suffered from any symptoms concerning his former lymphoceles. This is the first analysis, to the best of our knowledge, to evaluate a homogenous patient collective of urological cancer patients with persistent lymphoceles after surgery for the initial tumor. RT to lymphoceles in urological cancer patient is effective, very well-tolerated and should be offered to patients with persistent secretion following drainage.

  13. A qualitative study of cancer survivors' responses to information on the long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy 1-11 years post treatment.

    PubMed

    Boulton, M; Adams, E; Horne, A; Durrant, L; Rose, P; Watson, E

    2015-09-01

    As more patients survive cancer for longer term, the long-term and late effects of treatments become increasingly important issues for cancer survivors and providing information to enable survivors to recognise and manage them becomes an increasingly pressing challenge for health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer survivors regarding information given on potential long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 cancer survivors who had had radiotherapy to the pelvic area for a range of cancers 1-11 years previously. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling from a larger questionnaire survey of patients treated at one hospital. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework. Participants recognised the value of information to reassure and to inform action but also its potentially undesirable effects to frighten or raise anxieties about future problems and its inherent limitations in meeting their wider needs. They identified the timing, amount of information and context in which it was given as of particular importance. Information based on personal experience was also valued. These findings highlight the importance of appropriate, individualised information during treatment, at hospital discharge and subsequently in primary care. PMID:26202602

  14. Could machine learning improve the prediction of pelvic nodal status of prostate cancer patients? Preliminary results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Bari, B; Vallati, M; Gatta, R; Simeone, C; Girelli, G; Ricardi, U; Meattini, I; Gabriele, P; Bellavita, R; Krengli, M; Cafaro, I; Cagna, E; Bunkheila, F; Borghesi, S; Signor, M; Di Marco, A; Bertoni, F; Stefanacci, M; Pasinetti, N; Buglione, M; Magrini, S M

    2015-07-01

    We tested and compared performances of Roach formula, Partin tables and of three Machine Learning (ML) based algorithms based on decision trees in identifying N+ prostate cancer (PC). 1,555 cN0 and 50 cN+ PC were analyzed. Results were also verified on an independent population of 204 operated cN0 patients, with a known pN status (187 pN0, 17 pN1 patients). ML performed better, also when tested on the surgical population, with accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity ranging between 48-86%, 35-91%, and 17-79%, respectively. ML potentially allows better prediction of the nodal status of PC, potentially allowing a better tailoring of pelvic irradiation. PMID:25950849

  15. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    SciTech Connect

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Toita, Takafumi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Niibe, Yuzuru; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Shikama, Naoto; Kenjo, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Chikako; Suzuki, Osamu; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  16. Endometrial cancers occurring 10 or more years after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Hart, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen patients who developed cancer of the endometrium 10 or more years after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma were selected for study from a group of 64 cases of postirradiation malignant pelvic tumors diagnosed during a 48-year span. The average interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the subsequent endometrial cancer was 17.2 years. Irradiation initially had been done for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in 13 cases (87%) and for ovarian tumors in two instances. Almost all patients had received megavoltage external radiation combined with radium implants. Two-thirds of the tumors were adenocarcinomas and one-third were carcinosarcomas (either homologous or heterologous). Although the risk of second primary malignant tumors following therapeutic irradiation for pelvic tumors probably is very low, the emergence of new genital tract cancers in long-term survivors must be anticipated, regardless of whether the postirradiation cancers are spontaneous or radiation-induced.

  17. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Igdem, Sefik; Alco, Guel; Ercan, Tuelay; Barlan, Metin; Ganiyusufoglu, Kuersat; Unalan, Buelent; Turkan, Sedat; Okkan, Sait

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence, predisposing factors, and clinical characteristics of insufficiency fractures (IF) in patients with prostate cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy as part of their definitive treatment. Methods and Materials: The charts of 134 prostate cancer patients, who were treated with pelvic radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. IF was diagnosed by bone scan and/or CT and/or MRI. The cumulative incidence of symptomatic IF was estimated by actuarial methods. Results: Eight patients were identified with symptomatic IF after a median follow-up period of 68 months (range, 12-116 months). The 5-year cumulative incidence of symptomatic IF was 6.8%. All patients presented with lower back pain. Insufficiency fracture developed at a median time of 20 months after the end of radiotherapy and was managed conservatively without any need for hospitalization. Three patients were thought to have metastatic disease because of increased uptake in their bone scans. However, subsequent CT and MR imaging revealed characteristic changes of IF, avoiding any further intervention. No predisposing factors for development of IF could be identified. Conclusions: Pelvic IF is a rare complication of pelvic radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Knowledge of pelvic IF is essential to rule out metastatic disease and prevent unnecessary treatment, especially in a patient cohort with high-risk features for distant spread.

  18. Intraarterial pelvic infusion chemotherapy in advanced gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, S; Railsback, L D; Buchsbaum, H J

    1978-10-01

    Fourteen patients with advanced localized gynecologic cancer were treated with 44 courses of intraarterial pelvic infusion chemotherapy. All patients received methotrexate with folinic acid rescue; 9 patients also received vincristine. Tumor regression was observed in 3 of 14 patients (21.4%). In 5 patients there were major complications related to 28 intraarterial catheter placements. Two patients developed leukopenia following chemotherapy. The value of intraarterial infusion chemotherapy in gynecologic cancer is limited. Its use in gynecologic oncology is discussed. PMID:309571

  19. Adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix: pattern of cancer recurrence in patients undergoing elective radiation following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A.H.; Tong, D.Y.; Figge, D.C.; Tamimi, H.K.; Greer, B.E.; Elder, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thirty-seven patients with invasive cervical cancer have been referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients at high-risk for tumor recurrence were selected for adjuvant pelvic irradiation because of adverse risk factors identified on pathological study of the hysterectomy specimen. All patients were treated because of possible residual, microscopic carcinoma. Fourteen patients (38%) developed recurrent cancer, of whom 10 (27%) manifested initial failure within the irradiated volume. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  20. Pelvic exenterations for gynecological malignancies: twenty-year experience at Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Odunsi, K; Driscoll, D; Lele, S

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the experience with pelvic exenterations for gynecological malignancies at our cancer institute. Charts of 48 women who underwent a pelvic exenteration between January 1980 and December 1999 were reviewed, and several outcomes were analyzed. Majority of patients had received prior radiation therapy. The median survival was 35 months, and the disease-free survival was 32 months. Mortality from the procedure was 4.2%. Early and late postoperative complication rates were 27% and 75%, respectively. Recurrence rate was 60%. Eight patients received intraoperative radiation. Median survival in this group was 11.3 vs 35 months (P = 0.003). Univariate analysis failed to show an association between type of pelvic exenteration, type of fecal and urinary diversion, outcome, need for reoperation, and recurrence. Contemporary pelvic exenterations are associated with a low mortality and a potential for long-term survival in a subset of patients who historically have been given a poor prognosis. In patients with recurrent gynecological cancer confined centrally to the pelvis, pelvic exenteration still remains the choice of therapy as response to chemotherapy to a centrally recurrent tumor in radiated area continues to be poor. Intraoperative radiation in select few patients needs to be further studied. PMID:15882172

  1. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration in patients with advanced ovarian cancer: Farghaly's technique.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, S A

    2010-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of the robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach to anterior pelvic exenteration is evaluated in patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing anterior pelvic exenteration for involvement of the urinary bladder during primary cytoreduction surgery. All patients undergo preoperative lab work, imaging studies and bowel preparation prior to surgery. The Davinci surgical system is used to perform urinary cystectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic adenectomy (including obturator, hypogastic, external iliac, and common iliac lymph nodes). In addition, debulking to less than 1 cm is performed. The anterior pelvic exenteration procedure involves wide perivesical dissection. Then the robot is locked, and ileal conduit is performed via a 6 cm lower midline incision. Operative time can be maintained in 4.6 hours with a mean blood loss of 215 ml and hospital stay of five days. Farghaly's technique of robotic-assisted laparoscopic anterior pelvic exenteration in patients with advanced ovarian cancer is safe, feasible, and cost-effective with acceptable operative, pathological and short- and long-term clinical outcomes. It retains the advantage of minimally invasive surgery. PMID:20882872

  2. Pelvic Fractures in Children Results from the German Pelvic Trauma Registry: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zwingmann, Jörn; Aghayev, Emin; Südkamp, Norbert P; Neumann, Mirjam; Bode, Gerrit; Stuby, Fabian; Schmal, Hagen

    2015-12-01

    As pelvic fractures in children and adolescents are very rare, the surgical management is not well delineated nor are the postoperative complications. The aim of this study using the prospective data from German Pelvic Trauma Registry study was to evaluate the various treatment approaches compared to adults and delineated the differences in postoperative complications after pelvic injuries.Using the prospective pelvic trauma registry established by the German Society of Traumatology and the German Section of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO), International in 1991, patients with pelvic fractures over a 12-year time frame submitted by any 1 of the 23 member level I trauma centers were reviewed.We identified a total of 13,525 patients including pelvic fractures in 13,317 adults and 208 children aged ≤14 years and compared these 2 groups. The 2 groups' Injury Severitiy Score (ISS) did not differ statistically. Lethality in the pediatric group was 6.3%, not statistically different from the adults' 4.6%. In all, 18.3% of the pediatric pelvic fractures were treated surgically as compared to 22.7% in the adult group. No child suffered any thrombosis/embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure (MOF), or neurologic deficit, nor was any septic MOF detected. The differences between adults and children were statistically significant in that the children suffered less frequently from thrombosis/embolism (P = 0.041) and ARDS and MOF (P = 0.006).This prospective multicenter study addressing patients with pelvic fractures reveals that the risk for a thrombosis/embolism, ARDS, and MOF is significant lower in pediatric patients than in adults. No statistical differences could be found in the ratios of operative therapy of the pelvic fractures in children compared to adults. PMID:26705223

  3. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  4. External beam boost irradiation for clinically positive pelvic nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Takuro; Toita, Takafumi; Kasuya, Goro; Nagai, Yutaka; Inamine, Morihiko; Kudaka, Wataru; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Aoki, Youichi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the treatment results of boost external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to clinically positive pelvic nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer. The study population comprised 174 patients with FIGO stages 1B1–4A cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT). Patients with positive para-aortic or common iliac nodes (≥10 mm in the shortest diameter, as evaluated by CT/MRI) were ineligible for the study. Fifty-seven patients (33%) had clinically positive pelvic nodes. The median maximum diameter of the nodes was 15 mm (range, 10–60 mm) and the median number of positive lymph nodes was two (range, one to four). Fifty-two of 57 patients (91%) with positive nodes were treated with boost EBRT (6–10 Gy in three to five fractions). The median prescribed dose of EBRT for nodes was 56 Gy. The median follow-up time for all patients was 66 months (range, 3–142 months). The 5-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate and pelvic control rate for patients with positive and negative nodes were 73% and 92% (P = 0.001), 58% and 84% (P < 0.001), and 83% and 92% (P = 0.082), respectively. Five of 57 node-positive patients (9%) developed pelvic node recurrences. All five patients with nodal failure had concomitant cervical failure and/or distant metastases. No significant difference was observed with respect to the incidence or severity of late complications by application of boost EBRT. The current retrospective study demonstrated that boost EBRT to positive pelvic nodes achieves favorable nodal control without increasing late complications. PMID:23365264

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up of Preoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy and Concomitant Boost Irradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Multi-Institutional Phase II Study (KROG 04-01)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Taek-Keun; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Lee, Doo Seok; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Chang, Hee Jin; Yoon, Mee Sun; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Jang, Hong Seok

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a prospective phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant small-field boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, mid-to-lower rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. They had received preoperative chemoradiation therapy and total mesorectal excision. Pelvic radiation therapy of 43.2 Gy in 24 fractions plus concomitant boost radiation therapy of 7.2 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the pelvis and tumor bed for 5 weeks. Two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered for 3 days in the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The pathologic response, survival outcome, and treatment toxicity were evaluated for the study endpoints. Results: Of 69 patients, 8 (11.6%) had a pathologically complete response. Downstaging rates were 40.5% for T classification and 68.1% for N classification. At the median follow-up of 69 months, 36 patients have been followed up for more than 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 66.0% and 75.3%, respectively. Higher pathologic T (P = .045) and N (P = .032) classification were significant adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and high-grade histology was an adverse prognostic factor for both DFS (P = .025) and overall survival (P = .031) on the multivariate analysis. Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity, and 7 patients (10.1%) had long-term toxicity. Conclusion: Preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks showed acceptable acute and long-term toxicities. However, the benefit of concomitant small-field boost irradiation for 5 weeks in rectal cancer patients was not demonstrated beyond conventional irradiation for 6 weeks in terms of tumor response and

  6. Risk of Endometrial Cancer in Women With Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng-Kai; Chung, Chi-Jung; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and endometrial cancer (EC). We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study, and data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. We defined 41,065 patients with PID as the PID cohort and 82,130 randomly selected patients as the control cohort through frequency matching by age and index year. PID and EC were diagnosed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Clinical Modification. Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier method were used in the analysis. Incidence rates of 16.1 and 9.6 per 100,000 person-years and mean follow-up durations of 4.84 and 6.63 years were observed in the PID and non-PID cohorts, respectively. After adjusting for potential risk factors, the PID cohort had a 1.79-fold higher risk of developing EC than the non-PID cohort. The incidence of EC increased with age, particularly for those aged >50 years (HR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.29-4.65). Higher EC risk was also observed in the PID cohort with hypertension than in the non-PID cohort. The results of this large-scale population-based study showed an increased risk of EC in PID patients, particularly in older patients or those with hypertension. Future large-scale clinical trials are warranted to clarify the function of medication in PID-related EC progression. PMID:26313769

  7. Diagnosis of pelvic lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer using single optical fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Denkçeken, Tuba; Canpolat, Murat; Baykara, Mehmet; Başsorgun, İbrahim; Aktaş-Samur, Anıl

    2016-09-01

    Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy system (ELSSS) is a biomedical tool which is used for detection of cancerous tissues ex-vivo. ELSSS spectra depend primarily on the size of scatterers in the tissue and are not directly related to changes in the absorption which are caused by variations of the biological macromolecules. In the present study, we aimed to detect metastasis in the pelvic lymph node by using combination of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Single-scattering spectra in the 450-750nm wavelength regions were obtained from the total of 83 reactive lymph node and 12 metastatic lymph node samples from 10 prostatic cancer patients. The ELSSS spectral data were compared against the "gold standard" histopathology results. Data analyses were done via using PCA, followed by LDA. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed for differentiating performance. The classification based on discriminant score provided sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96.4%, in differentiating non-metastatic (reactive) from metastatic pelvic lymph nodes, with a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 0.8, a Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 0.99 and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.99, respectively. In this study, it was shown that ELSSS system can accurately distinguish reactive and metastatic pelvic lymph nodes of prostate cancer with high PPV and NPV. It can be concluded that diagnostic accuracy of ELSSS system allows detecting metastatic tissues during operation. PMID:26526175

  8. Outcomes of pelvic exenteration for recurrent or primary locally advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hwa Yeon; Park, Sung Chan; Hyun, Jong Hee; Seo, Ho Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of pelvic exenteration for patients with primary locally advanced colorectal cancer (LACRC) or locally recurrent colorectal cancer (LRCRC), and to identify clinically relevant prognostic factors. Methods Between January 2001 and December 2010, 40 consecutive patients with primary LACRC or LRCRC underwent pelvic exenteration at the National Cancer Center, Republic of Korea. We retrospectively reviewed their medical records. Results The median age was 59 years and the median follow-up time was 26 months (range, 1-117 months). The overall complication and in-hospital mortality rates were 70% (28/40) and 7.5% (3/40), respectively. The complication rates were similar between patients with primary LACRC (69.6%) and those with LRCRC (70.6%). The overall recurrence rate was 50% (17/34), and was lower in patients with primary LACRC than in patients with LRCRC (33.3% vs. 76.9%, P = 0.032). The 5-year overall survival was significantly different between primary LACRC and patients with LRCRC (58.7% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis revealed that radicality (R0 vs. R1/R2) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.020). Conclusion The complication and operative mortality rates of pelvic exenteration remained high, but pelvic exenteration might provide an opportunity for long-term survival and good local control. Complete (R0) resection was the only independent prognostic factor for overall survival. PMID:26366382

  9. Prospective Evaluation of Ultrasound Accuracy in the Detection of Pelvic Carcinomatosis in Patients with Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Vit; Fischerova, Daniela; Semeradova, Ivana; Slama, Jiri; Dundr, Pavel; Dusek, Ladislav; Cibula, David; Zikan, Michal

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the accuracy of transvaginal sonography in detection of pelvic carcinomatosis in ovarian cancer patients and factors (age, body mass index, performance status, ascites, stage, histotype, tumor grade) influencing the performance of ultrasound. In this prospective study, all 191 consecutively included patients underwent a pre-operative ultrasound staging examination according to institutional protocol. Peritoneal spread was assessed on the basis of peri-operative findings or histology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of carcinomatosis was 0.90 (0.84-0.93); the sensitivity was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%-%90), specificity 96% (95% CI: 89%-99%), positive predictive value 96% (95% CI: 89%-99%), negative predictive value 83% (95% CI: 74%-90%) and overall accuracy 89% (95% CI: 84%-93%). We report that transvaginal sonography is clinically useful in the detection of pelvic carcinomatosis. PMID:27365257

  10. Neoadjuvant Treatment With Single-Agent Cetuximab Followed by 5-FU, Cetuximab, and Pelvic Radiotherapy: A Phase II Study in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, Federica Chiara, Silvana; Bengala, Carmelo; Antognoni, Paolo; Dealis, Cristina; Zironi, Sandra; Malavasi, Norma; Scolaro, Tindaro; Depenni, Roberta; Jovic, Gordana; Sonaglio, Claudia; Rossi, Aldo; Luppi, Gabriele; Conte, Pier Franco

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery represents the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Cetuximab has proved activity in advanced colorectal cancer, and its incorporation in preoperative treatment may increase tumor downstaging. Methods and Materials: After biopsy and staging, uT3/uT4 N0/+ LARC received single-agent cetuximab in three doses, followed by weekly cetuximab plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), concomitantly with RT. Sample size was calculated according to Bryant and Day test, a two-stage design with at least 10 pathologic complete remissions observed in 60 patients (pts) able to complete the treatment plan. Results: Forty pts with LARC were entered: male/female = 34/6; median age: 61 (range, 28-77); 12 uT3N0 Ed(30%); 25 uT3N1 (62%); 3 uT4N1 (8%); all Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group = 0. Thirty-five pts completed neoadjuvant treatment; 5 (12%) withdrew therapy after one cetuximab administration: three for hypersensitivity reactions, one for rapid progression, and one for purulent arthritis. They continued 5-FU in continuous infusion in association with RT. Thirty-one pts (77%) presented with acnelike rash; dose reduction/interruption of treatment was necessary in six pts (15%): two for Grade 3 acnelike rash, two for Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity, and two for refusal. Thirty-eight pts were evaluable for pathological response (one patient refused surgery, and one was progressed during neoadjuvant treatment). Pathological staging was: pT0N0 three pts (8%), pT1N0 1 pt (3%); pT2N0 13 pts (34%), and pT3 19 pts (50%) (N0:9, N1:5; N2:5); pT4 2 pts (5%). Conclusions: Preoperative treatment with 5-FU, cetuximab, and pelvic RT is feasible with acceptable toxicities; however, the rate of pathologic responses is disappointingly low.

  11. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M.; Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  12. Does initial 45Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduce late complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? A cohort control study using definitive chemoradiotherapy with high-dose rate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chien, Chun-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing initial 45 Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and non-IMRT in terms of the late toxicities associated with advanced cervical cancer that has also been treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB). Patients and methods This retrospective study included 320 stage IB2-IIIB cervical cancer patients treated with CCRT (83 IMRT and 237 non-IMRT). The two groups had similar stage and HDRICB ratings. Following 45 Gy to the pelvis, HDRICB of 24 Gy in four courses was prescribed. Late toxicities, including rectal complications (RC), bladder complications (BC) and non-rectal intestinal injury (NRRII), were scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the complications. Results With a median follow-up duration of 33 and 77 months for IMRT and non-IMRT, 33 patients had Grade 2 or higher late RC (7.2% IMRT, 11.4% non-IMRT), whereas that for BC was 40 (9.6% IMRT, 13.5% non-IMRT) and for NRRII was 48 (12.0% IMRT, 16.0% non-IMRT). The cumulative rate for total grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities was 8.4% and 11.8% (p = 0.33). IMRT did not reduce the OR for all endpoints; however, the ORs for rectum and bladder reference doses to Point A were associated with RC and BC. Conclusions Locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with initial 45Gy of pelvic IMRT and HDRICB have similar treatment-related late toxicities as those treated with non-IMRT. Optimization of the brachytherapy scheme is essential to minimize late toxicities. PMID:23801915

  13. Factors for Predicting Rectal Dose of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy After Pelvic Irradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study With Radiography-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Engyen; Wang Chongjong; Lan Jenhong; Chen Huichun; Fang Fumin; Hsu, H.-C.; Huang Yujie; Wang Changyu; Wang Yuming

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD. Results: Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1) Conclusion: Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT.

  14. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Study the Impact of Pretreatment FDG-PET for Cervical Cancer Patients With MRI-Detected Positive Pelvic but Negative Para-Aortic Lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-S.; Lai, C.-H.; Chang, T.-C.; Yen, T.-C.; Ng, K.-K.; Hsueh Swei; Lee, Steve P.; Hong, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: This prospective randomized study was undertaken to determine the possible impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on extrapelvic metastasis detection, radiation field design, and survival outcome for cervical cancer patients with enlarged pelvic nodes on MRI image. Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were patients with newly diagnosed Stage I-IVA cervical cancer and with positive pelvic but negative para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) as detected by magnetic resonance image and good performance status for concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eligible patients were randomized to receive either pretreatment FDG-PET (study group) or not (control group). Whole pelvis was the standard irradiation field for the control group and those with no extrapelvic findings on PET. The radiation fields for the rest of the study group were extended to include the PALN region or were modified according to the extrapelvic PET finding. Results: From January 2002 to April 2006, 129 patients were included, and 66 of them were randomized to receive FDG-PET. PET detected seven extrapelvic metastases (11%, 6 PALN and 1 omental node), and four of them remained disease-free after treatment modification. For patients who underwent PET compared with those who did not, there were no differences in the 4-year rates of overall survival (79% vs. 85%, p = 0.65), disease-free survival (75% vs. 77%, p = 0.64), and distant metastasis-free survival (82% vs. 78%, p = 0.83). Conclusions: Pretreatment FDG-PET in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging can improve the detection of extrapelvic metastasis, mainly PALN, and help select patients for extended-field radiotherapy. However, the addition of FDG-PET may not translate into survival benefit, even though PALN relapses are reduced.

  15. Predicting Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Current-Era Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Sophia; Cosmatos, Harry; Dave, Giatri; Williams, Stephen; Tome, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The Roach formula [2/3 Multiplication-Sign prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score - 6) Multiplication-Sign 10], derived in 1993 during the early prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening era, has been used to predict the risk of pelvic lymph node involvement in patients with prostate cancer. In the current era of widespread PSA screening with a shift to earlier disease stages, there is evidence to suggest that the Roach score overestimates risk of nodal metastasis. This study retrospectively reviews the validity of this formula as a prediction tool. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective institutional review including men with clinical T1c-T3 prostate cancer, with baseline PSA levels and biopsy-obtained Gleason scores who underwent radical prostatectomy with pelvic node dissection from 2001 through 2009 (N = 1,022). The predicted risk of nodal involvement was calculated for each patient using the Roach formula and then compared with actual rates following surgery. Results: The study included 1,022 patients; 99.6% had clinical T1c/T2 disease, with a mean of 10.3 lymph nodes surgically evaluated. Overall, 42 patients (4.1%) had nodal metastasis. For every range of scores, the Roach formula overestimates the risk of nodal involvement. Observed nodal positivity was 1%, 6.3%, 10%, 15.2%, and 16.7% for Roach scores {<=}10%, >10%-20%, >20%-30%, >30%-40%, and >40%, respectively. The Roach score overestimates the risk by approximately 4.5-fold in patients with scores {<=}10%, by 2.5-fold for all scores between 10% and 40%, and by 4-fold for scores >40%. Conclusion: The Roach formula overpredicts the risk of pelvic nodal involvement in current-era prostate cancer patients undergoing regular PSA screening and with mainly T1c/T2 disease. Contemporary patients are much less likely to have nodal involvement for a given PSA and Gleason score.

  16. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer: Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bogani, Giorgio; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Ghezzi, Fabio; Rossetti, Diego; Mariani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current evidence on the role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer. In 1988, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended surgical staging for endometrial cancer patients. However, 25 years later, the role of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Although the findings of two large independent randomized trials suggested that pelvic lymphadenectomy provides only adjunctive morbidity with no clear influence on survival outcomes, the studies have many pitfalls that limit interpretation of the results. Theoretically, lymphadenectomy may help identify patients with metastatic dissemination, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy, thus reducing radiation-related morbidity. Also, lymphadenectomy may eradicate metastatic disease. Because lymphatic spread is relatively uncommon, our main effort should be directed at identifying patients who may potentially benefit from lymph node dissection, thus reducing the rate of unnecessary treatment and associated morbidity. This review will discuss the role of lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer, focusing on patient selection, extension of the surgical procedure, postoperative outcomes, quality of life and costs. The need for new surgical studies and efficacious systemic drugs is recommended. PMID:24472047

  17. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  18. Doppler ultrasound studies in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Tinkanen, H; Kujansuu, E

    1992-01-01

    Ten women with tubo-ovarian abscess caused by pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were investigated by transvaginal Doppler ultrasound during the acute and healing phases of the infection. The pulsatility index (PI) of the uterine arteries was measured and compared with the values obtained from 19 healthy women. Each control patient was investigated three times during a single menstrual cycle. In PID patients, the PI values were significantly lower than in controls in the same phase of the menstrual cycle. When C-reactive protein was > 50, the PI values were lowest and reverted to normal values when the infection subsided. In a case of chronic infection, the PI did not rise to normal despite normal infection parameters. Doppler ultrasound seems to offer a new method of assessing PID. PMID:1487185

  19. Pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring during robotic-assisted low anterior resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Grade, Marian; Beham, Alexander W; Schüler, P; Kneist, Werner; Ghadimi, B Michael

    2016-06-01

    While the oncological outcome of patients with rectal cancer has been considerably improved within the last decades, anorectal, urinary and sexual functions remained impaired at high levels, regardless of whether radical surgery was performed open or laparoscopically. Consequently, intraoperative monitoring of the autonomic pelvic nerves with simultaneous electromyography of the internal anal sphincter and manometry of the urinary bladder has been introduced to advance nerve-sparing surgery and to improve functional outcome. Initial results suggested that pelvic neuromonitoring may result in better functional outcomes. Very recently, it has also been demonstrated that minimally invasive neuromonitoring is technically feasible. Because, to the best of our knowledge, pelvic neuromonitoring has not been performed during robotic surgery, we report the first case of robotic-assisted low anterior rectal resection combined with intraoperative monitoring of the autonomic pelvic nerves. PMID:26705113

  20. Radical Vaginal Trachelectomy with Laparoscopic Pelvic Lymphadenectomy for Fertility Preservation in Young Women with Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brătilă, Elvira; Brătilă, C P; Coroleuca, C B

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe our experience with the conservative treatment of early-stage cervical cancer (stages IA1, IA2, and IB1) with radical vaginal trachelectomy (RVT) and laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy. This retrospective observational case series included 36 patients with early cervical cancer. Radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed as described by D. Dargent in 32 of these cases. Oncologic, reproductive, and obstetric outcomes were observed subsequently over a median period of 42 (24-96) weeks. A total of 32 RVTs were preformed with a mean operating time of 117 ± 22.8 (77-167) minutes and an average blood loss of 486 mL (150-800 mL). All obtained resection margins were negative for cancer. Lymphovascular space invasion was noted in 11 (30.55 %) of the cases. No recurrences occurred during the study period. Seven (17.8 %) patients were able to become pregnant postoperatively, five of whom delivered healthy infants near term. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy appears to be a safe therapeutic option for fertility preservation in young women with early cervical cancer. PMID:27574342

  1. Long-Term Results of a Prospective, Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Ablation, Pelvic Radiotherapy, Brachytherapy Boost, and Adjuvant Docetaxel in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    DiBiase, Steven J.; Hussain, Arif; Kataria, Ritesh; Amin, Pradip; Bassi, Sunakshi; Dawson, Nancy; Kwok, Young

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We report the long-term results of a prospective, Phase II study of long-term androgen deprivation (AD), pelvic radiotherapy (EBRT), permanent transperineal prostate brachytherapy boost (PB), and adjuvant docetaxel in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligibility included biopsy-proven prostate adenocarcinoma with the following: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 20 ng/ml; or Gleason score of 7 and a PSA >10 ng/ml; or any Gleason score of 8 to 10; or stage T2b to T3 irrespective of Gleason score or PSA. Treatment consisted of 45 Gy of pelvic EBRT, followed 1 month later by PB with either iodine-125 or Pd-103. One month after PB, patients received three cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy (35 mg/m{sup 2} per week, Days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). All patients received 2 years of AD. Biochemical failure was defined as per the Phoenix definition (PSA nadir + 2). Results: From August 2000 to March 2004, 42 patients were enrolled. The median overall and active follow-ups were 5.6 years (range, 0.9-7.8 years) and 6.3 years (range, 4-7.8 years), respectively. Grade 2 and 3 acute genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were 50.0% and 14.2%, respectively, with no Grade 4 toxicities noted. Grade 3 and 4 acute hematologic toxicities were 19% and 2.4%, respectively. Of the patients, 85.7% were able to complete the planned multimodality treatment. The 5- and 7-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failures rates were 89.6% and 86.5%, and corresponding rates for disease-free survival were 76.2% and 70.4%, respectively. The 5- and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 83.3% and 80.1%, respectively. The 5- and 7-year actuarial rates of late Grade 2 GI/GU toxicity (no Grade 3-5) was 7.7%. Conclusions: The trimodality approach of using 2 years of AD, external radiation, brachytherapy, and upfront docetaxel in high-risk prostate cancer is well tolerated, produces encouraging long-term results, and should be validated in a

  2. Pelvic irradiation does not increase the risk of hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dybvik, Eva; Furnes, Ove; D. Fosså, Sophie; Trovik, Clement; Lie, Stein Atle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term survivors of cancer can develop adverse effects of the treatment. 60% of cancer patients survive for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Pelvic irradiation can cause bone damage in these long-term survivors, with increased risk of fracture and degeneration of the hip. Patients and methods — Analyses were based on linkage between the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). All women who had been exposed to radiation for curative radiotherapy of gynecological cancer (40–60 Gy for at least 28 days) were identified in the CRN. Radiotherapy had been given between 1998 and 2006 and only patients who were irradiated within 6 months of diagnosis were included. The control group contained women with breast cancer who had also undergone radiotherapy, but not to the pelvic area. Fine and Gray competing-risk analysis was used to calculate subhazard-rate ratios (subHRRs) and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for the risk of having a prosthesis accounting for differences in mortality. Results — Of 962 eligible patients with gynecological cancer, 26 (3%) had received a total hip replacement. In the control group without exposure, 253 (3%) of 7,545 patients with breast cancer had undergone total hip replacement. The 8-year CIF for receiving a total hip replacement was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.6–2.8) for gynecological cancer patients and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.95–3.03) for breast cancer patients; subHRR was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.53–1.22; p = 0.3). In both groups, the most common reason for hip replacement was idiopathic osteoarthritis. Interpretation — We did not find any statistically significantly higher risk of undergoing total hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer who had had pelvic radiotherapy than in women with breast cancer who had not had pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:25238432

  3. [A case of recurrent pelvic tumor of sigmoid colon cancer showing partial response to lipiodolization].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, K; Hazama, S; Mitsunaga, H; Uchiyama, T; Oka, M; Suzuki, T

    1991-08-01

    We performed lipiodolization and immunochemotherapy for recurrent pelvic tumor of sigmoid colon cancer using an infuserport which was implanted and connected to the catheter placed in the right internal iliac artery. Following lipiodolization, the level of CEA (980 ng/ml) decreased to within the normal range. MRI showed necrotic change and regression (more than 50%) of tumor. DSA revealed disappearance of tumor neovascularity. No serious side effect but skin erosion in the gluteal region was encountered after lipiodolization. This result suggests that lipiodolization is worth performing in further clinical trials for pelvic tumor. PMID:1652230

  4. Image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) combined with whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer: a prospective study from Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Tippanya, Damrongsak; Nopnop, Wannapa; Galalae, Razvan; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A report of preliminary results and toxicity profiles using image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) combined with whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (WP-IMRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Material and methods Fifteen patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were enrolled into the study. WP-IMRT was used to treat the Clinical Target Volume (CTV) with a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m2) was prescribed during radiotherapy (RT) on weekly basis. IGBT using computed tomography was performed at the dose of 7 Gy × 4 fractions to the High-Risk Clinical Target Volume (HR-CTV). Results The mean cumulative doses – in terms of equivalent dose of 2 Gy (EQD2) – of IGBT plus WP-IMRT to HR-CTV, bladder, rectum, and sigmoid colon were 88.3, 85.0, 68.2 and 73.6 Gy, respectively. In comparison with standard (point A prescription) dose-volume histograms, volume-based image-guided brachytherapy improved the cumulative doses for bladder of 67%, rectum of 47% and sigmoid of 46%. At the median follow-up time of 14 months, the local control, metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 93%, 100% and 93%, respectively. No grade 3-4 acute and late toxicities were observed. Conclusion The combination of image-guided brachytherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy improved the dose distribution to tumor volumes and avoided overdose in OARs which could be converted in excellent local control and toxicity profiles. PMID:23634150

  5. Enteric morbidity of postoperative pelvic external beam and brachytherapy for uterine cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Potish, R.A.; Dusenbery, K.E. )

    1990-05-01

    From 1970 through 1986, 219 women received postoperative pelvic external beam therapy and vaginal radium or cesium for uterine cancer. Prescribed external beam and total vaginal surface doses ranged from 38 to 51 Gy and from 70 to 119 Gy, respectively. Severe enteric morbidity developed in 7.8% of patients (15 small bowel, 1 sigmoid, 1 rectal). Complications occurred more frequently in patients with pelvic lymph node sampling at hysterectomy, abdominal surgery prior to hysterectomy, and low body weight. Logistic analysis demonstrated no significant effect of pelvic external beam dose, vaginal surface boost dose, or milligram hours. Five and 10-year overall survival rates were 85% and 74%, respectively. There were two proximal and one distal vaginal recurrences. Recommendations for avoiding complications are presented.

  6. Split-Course, High-Dose Palliative Pelvic Radiotherapy for Locally Progressive Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Hickey, Brigid; Baumann, Kathryn; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Holt, Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Local progression, in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, often causes significant morbidity. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) provides effective palliation in this setting, with most published studies supporting the use of high-dose regimens. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of split-course hypofractionated RT used at our institution in treating this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 men with locoregionally progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer, treated with a split course of pelvic RT (45-60 Gy in 18-24 fractions) between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed. The primary endpoints were the response rate and actuarial locoregional progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, compliance, and acute and late toxicity. Results: The median age was 71 years (range, 53-88). Treatment resulted in an overall initial response rate of 91%, a median locoregional progression-free survival of 43 months, and median overall survival of 28 months. Compliance was excellent and no significant late toxicity was reported. Conclusions: The split course pelvic RT described has an acceptable toxicity profile, is effective, and compares well with other high-dose palliative regimens that have been previously reported.

  7. Pelvic insufficiency fracture after definitive radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer: retrospective analysis of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Uezono, Haruka; Tsujino, Kayoko; Moriki, Keno; Nagano, Fumiko; Ota, Yosuke; Sasaki, Ryohei; Soejima, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of postradiation pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) in women with uterine cervical cancer. We reviewed the medical records of 126 patients who received definitive radiotherapy (RT) for uterine cervical cancer between 2003 and 2009 at our institution. Among them, 99 patients who underwent at least one computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis during their follow-up at more than 6 months were included in this analysis. The relationship between the incidence of PIF and several patient- and treatment-related factors was analyzed. The median follow-up period was 21 months. Of the 126 patients, 33 (with a total of 50 lesions) were diagnosed with PIF. The 2-year cumulative incidence was 32%. Univariate analysis showed that age ≥70 years (P= 0.0010), postmenopausal state (P = 0.0013), and lower CT density of bone and bone marrow (P= 0.020) significantly related to PIF. In a multivariate analysis, of the 59 patients whose CT densities were evaluable, lower CT density was the only significant factor associated with PIF (P = 0.0026). In conclusion, postradiation PIFs were detected in a considerable number of patients after definitive RT for cervical cancer. Predisposing factors were older age, postmenopausal state, and decreased density of bone and bone marrow on CT. PMID:23685668

  8. Treatment of Urethral Strictures from Irradiation and Other Nonsurgical Forms of Pelvic Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Parke, Jacob; Chennamsetty, Avinash; Burks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), photon beam therapy (PBT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryotherapy are noninvasive treatment options for pelvic malignancies and prostate cancer. Though effective in treating cancer, urethral stricture disease is an underrecognized and poorly reported sequela of these treatment modalities. Studies estimate the incidence of stricture from BT to be 1.8%, EBRT 1.7%, combined EBRT and BT 5.2%, and cryotherapy 2.5%. Radiation effects on the genitourinary system can manifest early or months to years after treatment with the onus being on the clinician to investigate and rule-out stricture disease as an underlying etiology for lower urinary tract symptoms. Obliterative endarteritis resulting in ischemia and fibrosis of the irradiated tissue complicates treatment strategies, which include urethral dilation, direct-vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU), urethral stents, and urethroplasty. Failure rates for dilation and DVIU are exceedingly high with several studies indicating that urethroplasty is the most definitive and durable treatment modality for patients with radiation-induced stricture disease. However, a detailed discussion should be offered regarding development or worsening of incontinence after treatment with urethroplasty. Further studies are required to assess the nature and treatment of cryotherapy and HIFU-induced strictures. PMID:26494994

  9. Treatment of Urethral Strictures from Irradiation and Other Nonsurgical Forms of Pelvic Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Parke, Jacob; Chennamsetty, Avinash; Burks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), photon beam therapy (PBT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryotherapy are noninvasive treatment options for pelvic malignancies and prostate cancer. Though effective in treating cancer, urethral stricture disease is an underrecognized and poorly reported sequela of these treatment modalities. Studies estimate the incidence of stricture from BT to be 1.8%, EBRT 1.7%, combined EBRT and BT 5.2%, and cryotherapy 2.5%. Radiation effects on the genitourinary system can manifest early or months to years after treatment with the onus being on the clinician to investigate and rule-out stricture disease as an underlying etiology for lower urinary tract symptoms. Obliterative endarteritis resulting in ischemia and fibrosis of the irradiated tissue complicates treatment strategies, which include urethral dilation, direct-vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU), urethral stents, and urethroplasty. Failure rates for dilation and DVIU are exceedingly high with several studies indicating that urethroplasty is the most definitive and durable treatment modality for patients with radiation-induced stricture disease. However, a detailed discussion should be offered regarding development or worsening of incontinence after treatment with urethroplasty. Further studies are required to assess the nature and treatment of cryotherapy and HIFU-induced strictures. PMID:26494994

  10. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, Supriya; Dora, Tapas; Chinnachamy, Anand N.; Thomas, Biji; Kannan, Sadhna; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N.; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dose–volume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2 cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15 Gy, 30 Gy, and 40 Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. Results: The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-65 years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50 Gy in 25 fractions for 5 weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 8-29 months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15 Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  11. Can manipulation of a pelvic tumour influence the serum level of cancer antigen 125 and cancer-associated serum antigen?

    PubMed Central

    Kiekegaard, O.; Mogensen, O.; Mogensen, B.; Ahrons, S.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) and cancer-associated serum antigen (CASA) were measured in 24 women with pelvic masses before and after a gynaecological examination and ultrasonography. CA 125 decreased median 16% after manipulation (P < 0.0001) and CASA decreased median 8% (P = 0.0077). The decline was found in patients with benign tumours as well as in patients with malignant tumours. PMID:9667684

  12. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sokbom; Park, Jung-Yeol; Lim, Myung-Chul; Song, Yong-Joong; Park, Se-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Ki; Chung, Dae-Chul; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  13. Patient specific modeling of palpation-based prostate cancer diagnosis: effects of pelvic cavity anatomy and intrabladder pressure.

    PubMed

    Palacio-Torralba, Javier; Jiménez Aguilar, Elizabeth; Good, Daniel W; Hammer, Steven; McNeill, S Alan; Stewart, Grant D; Reuben, Robert L; Chen, Yuhang

    2016-01-01

    Computational modeling has become a successful tool for scientific advances including understanding the behavior of biological and biomedical systems as well as improving clinical practice. In most cases, only general models are used without taking into account patient-specific features. However, patient specificity has proven to be crucial in guiding clinical practice because of disastrous consequences that can arise should the model be inaccurate. This paper proposes a framework for the computational modeling applied to the example of the male pelvic cavity for the purpose of prostate cancer diagnostics using palpation. The effects of patient specific structural features on palpation response are studied in three selected patients with very different pathophysiological conditions whose pelvic cavities are reconstructed from MRI scans. In particular, the role of intrabladder pressure in the outcome of digital rectal examination is investigated with the objective of providing guidelines to practitioners to enhance the effectiveness of diagnosis. Furthermore, the presence of the pelvic bone in the model is assessed to determine the pathophysiological conditions in which it has to be modeled. The conclusions and suggestions of this work have potential use not only in clinical practice and also for biomechanical modeling where structural patient-specificity needs to be considered. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26190813

  14. Incidental Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymph Node Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Detected During Surgical Staging of Pelvic Cancer in Women Without Symptomatic Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis or Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Firetag, Brandie; Sangoi, Ankur R; Post, Miriam D; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2015-08-01

    Extrapulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplasm of spindle cells exhibiting melanocytic and myoid differentiation that arises as a mass in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, uterine wall, and/or intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Many patients also have pulmonary LAM, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and/or other neoplasms of the perivascular epithelioid cell tumor family. This study reports 26 patients with clinically occult LAM involving pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes removed from women undergoing surgical staging of a uterine (17), ovarian (5), cervical (3), or urinary bladder (1) neoplasm. None of the patients exhibited symptoms of pulmonary LAM, and the median patient age (56 y) was older than what would be expected for patients presenting with pulmonary LAM. Only 2/26 patients had TSC. Four patients also had uterine LAM. One of these 4 had uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and 1 had vaginal angiomyolipoma. In all 26 patients the lymph node LAM was grossly occult, measured 3.5 mm on average (1 to 19 mm), and involved either a single lymph node (12/26) or multiple lymph nodes (14/26). HMB45 was positive in 24/25 cases, mostly in a focal or patchy distribution. Other melanocytic markers included MiTF (12/14) and MelanA (2/12). Myoid markers included smooth muscle actin (23/23) and desmin (15/16), mostly in a diffuse distribution. Estrogen receptor was positive in all cases tested, as was D240 expression in the lymphatic endothelium lining the spindle cell bundles. Concurrent findings in the involved lymph nodes included metastatic carcinoma (3/26), endosalpingiosis (3/26), and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (13/26). This study demonstrates that clinically occult lymph node LAM can be detected during surgical staging of pelvic cancer and is not commonly associated with pulmonary LAM or TSC, although these patients should still be formally evaluated for both of these diseases. PMID:25786086

  15. A phase II study of capecitabine and irinotecan in combination with concurrent pelvic radiotherapy (CapIri-RT) as neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willeke, F; Horisberger, K; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, U; Wenz, F; Leitner, A; Hochhaus, A; Grobholz, R; Willer, A; Kähler, G; Post, S; Hofheinz, R-D

    2007-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety data of a combination regimen using weekly irinotecan in combination with capecitabine and concurrent radiotherapy (CapIri-RT) as neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer in a phase-II trial. Patients with rectal cancer clinical stages T3/4 Nx or N+ were recruited to receive irinotecan (50 mg m−2 weekly) and capecitabine (500 mg m−2 bid days 1–38) with a concurrent RT dose of 50.4 Gy. Surgery was scheduled 4–6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. A total of 36 patients (median age 62 years; m/f: 27:9) including three patients with local recurrence were enclosed onto the trial. The median distance of the tumour from the anal verge was 5 cm. The main toxicity observed was (NCI-CTC grades 1/2/3/4 (n)): Anaemia 23/9/−/−; leucocytopenia 12/7/7/2, diarrhoea 13/15/4/−, nausea/vomiting 9/10/2/−, and increased activity of transaminases 3/3/1/−. One patient had a reversible episode of ventricular fibrillation during chemoradiation, most probably caused by capecitabine. The relative dose intensity was (median/mean (%)): irinotecan 95/91, capecitabine 100/92). Thirty-four patients underwent surgery (anterior resection n=25; abdomino-perineal resection n=6; Hartmann's procedure n=3). R0-resection was accomplished in all patients. Two patients died in the postoperative course from septic complications. Pathological complete remission was observed in five out of 34 resected patients (15%), and nine patients showed microfoci of residual tumour (26%). After a median follow-up of 28 months one patient had developed a local recurrence, and five patients distant metastases. Three-year overall survival for all patients with surgery (excluding three patients treated for local relapse or with primary metastatic disease) was 80%. In summary, preoperative chemoradiation with CapIri-RT exhibits promising efficacy whereas showing managable toxicity. The local recurrence and distant failure rates observed after

  16. Prospective study of treatment techniques to minimize the volume of pelvic small bowel with reduction of acute and late effects associated with pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M.J.; Brereton, H.D.; Rostock, R.A.; Zero, J.M.; Zekoski, D.A.; Poyss, L.F.; Richter, M.P.; Kligerman, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    The volume, distribution, and mobility of opacified pelvic small bowel (PSB) were determined by fluoroscopy and orthogonal radiographs in 150 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic irradiation. Various techniques including uteropexy, omental transposition, bladder distention, inclining the patient, and anterior abdominal wall compression in the supine and prone treatment position were studied for their effect on the volume and location of small bowel within the pelvis. Abdominal wall compression in the prone position combined with bladder distention was selected for further investigation because of its simplicity, reproducibility, patient comfort, and ability to displace the small bowel. Factors correlating with the volume of pelvic small bowel (PSB) included prior pelvic surgery, pelvic irradiation (XRT), and body mass index. After pelvic surgery, especially following abdominoperineal resection (APR), there was a greater volume of PSB which was also less mobile. The severity of acute gastrointestinal effects positively correlated with the volume of irradiated small bowel. Overall, 67% of patients experienced little or no diarrhea, 30% developed mild diarrhea, and no patient required treatment interruption. Late gastrointestinal effects correlated with the prior pelvic surgery and with the volume of small bowel receiving greater than 45 Gy. Small bowel obstruction was not observed in 75 patients who had no previous pelvic surgery. However, following pelvic surgery excluding APR, 2/50 patients and following APR, 3/25 patients developed small bowel obstruction.

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William; Goudreault, Julie

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  18. Dose-Volume Relationships for Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Pelvic Nodal Irradiation for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, Claudio Alongi, Filippo; Perna, Lucia; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Cozzarini, Cesare; Di Muzio, Nadia; Fazio, Ferruccio; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To find correlation between dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the intestinal cavity (IC) and moderate-severe acute bowel toxicity in men with prostate cancer treated with pelvic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 191 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent whole-pelvis radiotherapy with radical or adjuvant/salvage intent during January 2004 to November 2007. Complete planning/clinical data were available in 175 of these men, 91 of whom were treated with a conventional four-field technique (50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) and 84 of whom were treated with IMRT using conventional Linac (n = 26, 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) or Helical TomoTherapy (n = 58, 50-54 Gy, 1.8-2 Gy/fraction). The IC outside the planning target volume (PTV) was contoured and the DVH for the first 6 weeks of treatment was recovered in all patients. The correlation between a number of clinical and DVH (V10-V55) variables and toxicity was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. The correlation between DVHs for the IC outside the PTV and DVHs for the whole IC was also assessed. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced toxicity (3/22 in the IMRT/tomotherapy group). Univariate analyses showed a significant correlation between V20-V50 and toxicity (p = 0.0002-0.001), with a higher predictive value observed for V40-V50. Previous prostatectomy (p = 0.066) and abdominal/pelvic surgery (p = 0.12) also correlated with toxicity. Multivariate analysis that included V45, abdominal/pelvic surgery, and prostatectomy showed that the most predictive parameters were V45 (p = 0.002) and abdominal/pelvic surgery (p = 0.05, HR = 2.4) Conclusions: Our avoidance IMRT approach drastically reduces the incidence of acute bowel toxicity. V40-V50 of IC and, secondarily, previous abdominal/pelvic surgery were the main predictors of acute bowel toxicity.

  19. Anatomical basis and clinical research of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation with laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Tao, Kai-xiong; Ma, Jian-hua; Cai, Kai-lin; Wang, Lin-fang; Niu, Yan-feng; Wang, Guo-bin

    2016-04-01

    The clinical effect of laparoscopic rectal cancer curative excision with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) was investigated. This study evaluated the frequency of urinary and sexual dysfunction of 149 male patients with middle and low rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open total mesorectal excision with pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP) from March 2011 to March 2013. Eighty-four patients were subjected to laparoscopic surgery, and 65 to open surgery respectively. The patients were followed up for 12 months, interviewed, and administered a standardized questionnaire about postoperative functional outcomes and quality of life. In the laparoscopic group, 13 patients (18.37%) presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction, and were medically treated. So did 12 patients (21.82%) in open group. Sexual desire was maintained by 52.86%, un-ability to engage in intercourse by 47.15%, and un-ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 34.29% of the patients in the laparoscopic group. Sexual desire was maintained by 56.36%, un-ability to engage in intercourse by 43.63%, and un-ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 33.73% of the patients in the open group. No significant differences in urinary and sexual dysfunction between the laparoscopic and open rectal resection groups were observed (P>0.05). It was concluded that laparoscopic rectal cancer radical excision with PANP did not aggravate or improve sexual and urinary dysfunction. PMID:27072964

  20. Risk of Hypogonadism From Scatter Radiation During Pelvic Radiation in Male Patients With Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, Ivan; Vuong, Te Garant, Aurelie; Ducruet, Thierry; Doran, Patrick; Faria, Sergio; Liberman, Sender; Richard, Carole; Letellier, Francois; Charlebois, Patrick; Loungnarath, Rasmy; Stein, Barry; Devic, Slobodan

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have reported fluctuations in sex hormones during pelvic irradiation. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of radiation on hormonal profiles for two treatment modalities: conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) given neoadjuvantly for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Routine serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were collected from 119 consecutive male patients receiving either EBRT, using 45.0-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy or HDRBT using 26 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: Thirty patients with initially abnormal profiles were excluded. Profiles included in this study were collected from 51 patients treated with EBRT and 38 patients treated with HDRBT, all of whom had normal hormonal profiles before treatment. Mean follow-up times were 17 months for the entire patient cohort-14 and 20 months, respectively-for the EBRT and HDRBT arms. Dosimetry results revealed a mean cumulative testicular dose of 1.24 Gy received in EBRT patients compared with 0.27 Gy in the HDRBT group. After treatment, FSH and LH were elevated in all patients but were more pronounced in the EBRT group. The testosterone-to-LH ratio was significantly lower (p = 0.0036) in EBRT patients for tumors in the lower third of the rectum. The 2-year hypogonadism rate observed was 2.6% for HDRBT compared with 17.6% for EBRT (p = 0.09) for tumors in the lower two thirds of the rectum. Conclusion: HDRBT allows better hormonal sparing than EBRT during neoadjuvant treatment of patients with rectal cancer.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Reconstructive Study of Pelvic Cavity in the New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Emrullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been performed to reveal biometrical aspects and diameter-related differences in terms of sexes regarding pelvic cavity via three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images of pelvic cavity of the New Zealand rabbit. A total of 16 adult New Zealand rabbits, including 8 males and 8 females, were used in this study. Under anesthesia, the images obtained from MDCT were stacked and overlaid to reconstruct the 3D model of the pelvic cavity using 3D modeling software (Mimics 13.1). Measurements, such as the conjugate, transverse, and vertical diameters of the pelvic cavity, and the pelvic inclination were calculated and analyzed statistically. Biometrical differences of the pelvic diameters in New Zealand rabbits of both sexes were shown clearly. It was concluded that the pelvic diameters revealed by 3D modeling techniques can shed light on medical students who take both anatomy training and gynecological applications. The authors hope that the synchronization of medical approaches may give rise to novel diagnostic and therapeutic developments related to pelvic cavity. PMID:25379534

  2. Clinical significance of enlarged lateral pelvic lymph nodes before and after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, YASUHIRO; SAIGUSA, SUSUMU; HIRO, JUNICHIRO; TOIYAMA, YUJI; ARAKI, TOSHIMITSU; TANAKA, KOJI; MOHRI, YAUSHIKO; KUSUNOKI, MASATO

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with total mesorectal excision (TME) is the widely accepted treatment for rectal cancer (RC) in Western countries. However, there remains controversy as to whether preoperative CRT is useful in tumors that extend beyond the mesorectum, including metastasis to the lateral pelvic lymph nodes (LPLN). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of LPLN enlargement in patients with RC who receive preoperative CRT followed by TME without LPLN dissection. We evaluated the prognostic effect of radiographic LPLN enlargement before and after CRT, as well as the patients' clinicopathological and genetic profiles. Of the 104 patients investigated, pretreatment imaging identified 19 (18%) as LPLN-positive (>7 mm in diameter). Of these 19 patients, 7 (37%) exhibited LPLN downsizing to <7 mm following CRT. The median follow-up period was 52 months. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) or relapse-free survival (RFS) did not differ significantly between patients who did and those who did not have positive LPLN on pretreatment imaging. However, LPLN that remained positive after CRT were significantly associated with poorer 5-year CSS (73 vs. 84%, respectively; P=0.0052) and RFS (32 vs. 78%, respectively; P=0.0264). None of the patients whose LPLN were downsized to <7 mm following CRT developed recurrence; however, those with positive LPLN after CRT had a 55% higher recurrence rate, characterized by delayed local recurrence, a pattern that may be affected by certain chemokines. In conclusion, changes in initially positive LPLN (>7 mm) may predict the prognosis of patients with RC who receive preoperative CRT-TME. LPLN positivity after CRT was associated with shorter CSS and RFS. Strategies to improve patient survival may include selective LPLN dissection or more aggressive multimodality therapy. PMID:27313860

  3. Whole pelvic helical tomotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer: technical implementation of IMRT with helical tomothearapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background To review the experience and to evaluate the treatment plan of using helical tomotherapy (HT) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods Between November 1st, 2006 and May 31, 2009, 10 cervical cancer patients histologically confirmed were enrolled. All of the patients received definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with whole pelvic HT (WPHT) followed by brachytherapy. During WPHT, all patients were treated with cisplatin, 40 mg/m2 intravenously weekly. Toxicity of treatment was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). Results The mean survival was 25 months (range, 3 to 27 months). The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control and distant metastasis-free rates at 2 years were 67%, 77%, 90% and 88%, respectively. The average of uniformity index and conformal index was 1.06 and 1.19, respectively. One grade 3 of acute toxicity for diarrhea, thrombocytopenia and three grade 3 leucopenia were noted during CCRT. Only one grade 3 of subacute toxicity for thrombocytopenia was noted. There were no grade 3 or 4 subacute toxicities of anemia, leucopenia, genitourinary or gastrointestinal effects. Compared with conventional whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT), WPHT decreases the mean dose to rectum, bladder and intestines successfully. Conclusion HT provides feasible clinical outcomes in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Long-term follow-up and enroll more locally advanced cervical carcinoma patients by limiting bone marrow radiation dose with WPHT technique is warranted. PMID:20003321

  4. Whole-pelvic volumetric-modulated arc therapy for high-risk prostate cancer: treatment planning and acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Ogino, Ryo; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Fujioka, Chiaki; Okada, Wataru; Nakahara, Ryota; Kawamorita, Ryu; Tada, Takuhito; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate dosimetric quality and acute toxicity of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and daily image guidance in high-risk prostate cancer patients. A total of 100 consecutive high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with definitive VMAT with prophylactic whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) were enrolled. All patients were treated with a double-arc VMAT plan delivering 52 Gy to the prostate planning target volume (PTV), while simultaneously delivering 46.8 Gy to the pelvic nodal PTV in 26 fractions, followed by a single-arc VMAT plan delivering 26 Gy to the prostate PTV in 13 fractions. Image-guided RT was performed with daily cone-beam computed tomography. Dose–volume parameters for the PTV and the organs at risk (OARs), total number of monitor units (MUs) and treatment time were evaluated. Acute toxicity was assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. All dosimetric parameters met the present plan acceptance criteria. Mean MU and treatment time were 471 and 146 s for double-arc VMAT, respectively, and were 520 and 76 s for single-arc VMAT, respectively. No Grade 3 or higher acute toxicity was reported. Acute Grade 2 proctitis, diarrhea, and genitourinary toxicity occurred in 12 patients (12%), 6 patients (6%) and 13 patients (13%), respectively. The present study demonstrated that VMAT for WPRT in prostate cancer results in favorable PTV coverage and OAR sparing with short treatment time and an acceptable rate of acute toxicity. These findings support the use of VMAT for delivering WPRT to high-risk prostate cancer patients. PMID:25304328

  5. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of pelvic metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, G; Zhou, H; Deng, H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI has emerged as a new technique for detecting the pelvic lymph metastases in patients with cervical cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the diagnostic value of DW imaging (DWI) for benign/malignant discrimination of pelvic lymph nodes (LNs). Studies about DWI for the detection of metastatic LNs were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese databases. Based on the extracted data, we determined pooled sensitivities, specificities and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) and Q* obtained. We also analysed the heterogeneity between studies based on subgroup analysis, threshold effect and publication bias. In total, 15 studies involving 1021 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR of DWI were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–0.89], 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83–0.86) and 47.21 (95% CI, 25.67–86.81), respectively. LR syntheses yielded overall positive LR of 6.55 (95% CI, 4.77–9.01) and negative LR of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12–0.23). The AUC and Q* index were 0.9384 and 0.8754, respectively. The heterogeneity was relatively high between studies; however, there was no evidence for threshold effect and publication bias. DWI is beneficial in the pelvic nodal assessment in patients with cervical cancer. Large-scale, high-quality trials with standard protocols are required to evaluate its clinical value for discrimination of metastatic from non-metastatic pelvic LNs in patients with cervical cancer. Advances in knowledge include providing evidence to assess the role of DWI in nodal staging of cervical cancer. PMID:26111112

  6. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of pelvic metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, G; Zhou, H; Jia, Z; Deng, H

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI has emerged as a new technique for detecting the pelvic lymph metastases in patients with cervical cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the diagnostic value of DW imaging (DWI) for benign/malignant discrimination of pelvic lymph nodes (LNs). Studies about DWI for the detection of metastatic LNs were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese databases. Based on the extracted data, we determined pooled sensitivities, specificities and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) and Q* obtained. We also analysed the heterogeneity between studies based on subgroup analysis, threshold effect and publication bias. In total, 15 studies involving 1021 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR of DWI were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-0.89], 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) and 47.21 (95% CI, 25.67-86.81), respectively. LR syntheses yielded overall positive LR of 6.55 (95% CI, 4.77-9.01) and negative LR of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12-0.23). The AUC and Q* index were 0.9384 and 0.8754, respectively. The heterogeneity was relatively high between studies; however, there was no evidence for threshold effect and publication bias. DWI is beneficial in the pelvic nodal assessment in patients with cervical cancer. Large-scale, high-quality trials with standard protocols are required to evaluate its clinical value for discrimination of metastatic from non-metastatic pelvic LNs in patients with cervical cancer. Advances in knowledge include providing evidence to assess the role of DWI in nodal staging of cervical cancer. PMID:26111112

  7. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer in Patients With Prior Pelvic Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Prajnan; Delclos, Marc E.; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry W.; Chang, George J.; Eng, Cathy; Bedi, Manpreet; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine rates of toxicity, freedom from local progression, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with reirradiation. Methods and Materials: Between February 2001 and February 2005, 50 patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy were treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for primary (n = 2 patients) or recurrent (n = 48 patients) rectal adenocarcinoma. Patients were treated with 150-cGy fractions twice daily, with a total dose of 39 Gy (n = 47 patients) if the retreatment interval was >=1 year or 30 Gy (n = 3) if the retreatment interval was <1 year. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 48 (96%) patients. Eighteen (36%) patients underwent surgical resection following radiotherapy. Results: Two patients had grade 3 acute toxicity and 13 patients had grade 3 to 4 late toxicity. The 3-year rate of grade 3 to 4 late toxicity was 35%. The 3-year rate of freedom from local progression was 33%. The 3-year freedom from local progression rate was 47% in patients undergoing surgery and 21% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.057). The 3-year overall survival rate was 39%. The 3-year overall survival rate was 66% in patients undergoing surgery and 27% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.003). The 3-year overall survival rate was 53% in patients with a retreatment interval of >2 years and 21% in those with a retreatment interval of <=2 years (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated, accelerated reirradiation was well tolerated, with low rates of acute toxicity and moderate rates of late toxicity. Reirradiation may help improve pelvic control in rectal cancer patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy.

  8. Human pelvic extramural ganglion cells: a semiquantitative and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kanoko; Furuya, Kenichi; Kawada, Michihiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Omote, Kiichi; Namiki, Akiyoshi; Uchiyama, Eiichi; Murakami, Gen

    2006-12-01

    In pelvic surgery, much attention is paid to nerve bundles but not to ganglion cells. Using serial section histology of 14 postmortem-treated hemipelvis (eight males, six females; mean, 79 years old), we examined the population number, distribution, and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (TH-IR; suggesting sympathetic neurons) of extramural pelvic ganglion cells. All pelvic ganglion cells were uniformly sized (25-30 microm) contrasting with small intramural rectal neurons. Abundant ganglion cells (30,000-140,000 unilaterally) existed not only along the pelvic viscera except for the rectum, but also along the hypogastric nerve, pelvic splanchnic nerve, pelvic plexus, and associated branches excluding those within the mesorectum. The intrapelvic ganglion cells outside the sympathetic trunk did not form macroscopically identifiable ganglia, but made small clusters (0.1-2.0 mm of maximum diameter) or were diffusely scattered within nerve bundles. More than half of these cells appeared TH-IR positive, although the positive/negative proportion differed between nerves and specimens. Greater numbers of ganglion cells were found in dorsosuperior sites (e.g., around the seminal vesicle) rather than in ventroinferior sites (e.g., along the urethra) in males, and vice versa in females. However, in total cell numbers, interindividual variations were evident rather than intergender difference. Due to significant interindividual variations in cell number, differences are likely to exist between patients in "resistance" to surgical stresses. We hypothesized that pelvic ganglion cells are liable to be damaged due to drying along the surgical margin, hypoxia in venous bleeding, pressure from surgical retractors, extension stress with taping and excess traction and/or direct injury with electrical scalpels. PMID:17033734

  9. Changes in the Pelvic Anatomy After an IMRT Treatment Fraction of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Crevoisier, Renaud de; Melancon, Adam D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex M.; Tucker, Susan L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang Lifei; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei . E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To quantify the three-dimensional variations of pelvic anatomy after a single treatment fraction. Methods and Materials: Forty-six prostate cancer patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning with an in-room CT-on-rail system, before and immediately after one intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) session. To study the soft-tissue anatomy changes, the pre- and post-treatment CT images were registered using the bony structure with an in-house image registration software system. The center of volume for both the prostate and seminal vesicles was used to assess the relative displacement of the same structure after the treatment fraction. Results: During one treatment fraction (21 {+-} 4 min), both the prostate and seminal vesicles showed statistically significant systematic trends in the superior and anterior directions of the patient's anatomy. The net increase in bladder volume was huge (127 {+-} 79 cm{sup 3}), yet this change did not translate into large target displacements. Although the population mean displacements in either direction were 1.3 {+-} 2.9 mm for the prostate and 1.2 {+-} 4.1 mm for the seminal vesicles in the anterior direction, a few patients had displacements as large as 8.4 mm and 15.6 mm, respectively. These large displacements correlated strongly (p < 0.001) with large rectal volume increases caused by gaseous build-up in the rectum. Conclusion: The observed intrafraction variations in anatomy during prostate IMRT sessions suggest that, for any given fraction, the organ motion and volume changes can potentially lead to compromised target coverage in about 15% of patients in whom the prostate position shifted >4 mm.

  10. Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in the Treatment of Invasive Bladder Cancer: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Elzayat, Ehab A.; Al-Zahrani, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    The standard surgical treatment of invasive bladder cancer is the radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Up to one-third of patients with invasive bladder cancer have lymph node metastasis. Thus, PLND has important therapeutic and prognostic benefits. The number of lymph nodes that should be removed and the extent of the PLND are still a controversial issue. Recently, the trend of PLND increased toward more extended PLND. Several prognostic factors related to PLND were reported in the literature. In this paper, we will discuss the different PLND templates, number of lymph nodes that should be resected, lymph node density, lymphovascular invasion, tumor burden, extracapsular extension, and the aggregate lymph node metastasis diameter. PMID:21904544

  11. Diffusion weighted imaging of female pelvic cancers: concepts and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Punwani, Shonit

    2011-04-01

    Early applications of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were limited to neuroimaging, concentrating either on stroke or brain tumours. With recent advances in MRI hardware and software DWI is now increasingly being investigated for cancer assessment throughout the body. Clinical applications of DWI relating to female pelvic cancers have largely concentrated on detection, localisation and staging of disease. More recently investigators have started to evaluate the ability of DWI for determining tumour histology and even predicting the outcome of chemoradiation treatment. This article reviews the physical concepts of MR diffusion weighting, illustrates the biophysical basis of diffusion contrast and reports the clinical applications of DWI for cervical, endometrial, ovarian, rectal and bladder tumours. PMID:20801592

  12. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain – a prospective single-subject research design study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. Methods A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Results Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Conclusion Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage. PMID:24629145

  13. Preservation of the vegetative pelvic nerves and local reccurence in the operative treatment of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jota, G J; Karadzov, Z; Panovski, M; Vasilevski, V; Serafimoski, V

    2006-12-01

    Life quality of the patients operated from rectal cancer is a serious problem. Despite the curing as a primary objective in the treatment of the rectal cancer, special attention is paid to the life quality upon the performed operation on the subjected patients. The analyzed series consists of 29 patients with rectal cancer, operated on at the Digestive Surgery Clinic within the framework of the Clinical Centre in Skopje, in the period between 2001-2006. Our series involves patients from the T2 and T3 stage of the illness, where it possible to preserve the vegetative pelvic nerves, that are characterized by a relatively long-lasting symptomatology and relatively high percentage of lymphatic metastases. The standardization of the operative intervention resulted in an increase in the number of patients with continuous operations and preservation of the neuro-vegetative plexus without influencing the radicalism of the intervention. The application of the Stapler and Double Stapler technique brought about an increase in the number of continuous operations characterized by a termino-terminal colorectal anastomosis. On the other hand the preventive creation of LOOP ileostomies in the case of the ultra low resections resulted in a decrease in the level of dehiscence of this type as one of the most common and most difficult complications. The preservation of the pelvic neuro-vegetative plexus prolongs the operation time by 30 to 60 minutes, depending on the case and the patient. We assume that the procedure does not have a particular influence on the frequency of the complications, and at the same time it positively affects the revival of the urinal and sexual function. Taking into consideration the fact that the lymphatic dissection increases the possibility of removal of the malignant tissue and enables an adequate "staging" and on the other hand the preservation of the pelvic plexus improves the quality of life, both in terms of the sexual function and the function of

  14. [Three Cases of Stage Ⅳ Low Rectal Cancer with Lateral Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Ryoma; Tajima, Yosuke; Okamura, Takuma; Nakano, Masato; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi; Nogami, Hitoshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Takii, Yasumasa

    2015-11-01

    Case 1: A 61-year-old man who had a diagnosis of low rectal cancer with lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) metastasis and multiple liver metastases underwent low anterior resection with LPLN dissection. The initial surgery was followed by chemotherapy, and then an extended right hepatectomy with partial resection of the liver was performed. Subsequently, a lung metastasis was detected, and the lung was partially resected. The patient was alive 9 years and 6 months after the initial operation. Case 2: A 53-year-old man had a diagnosis of low rectal cancer. After 5 courses of mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab, he underwent low anterior resection with LPLN dissection and resection of the peritoneal metastasis. The patient was alive 6 years and 3 months after the surgery without any signs of recurrence. Case 3: A 48-year-old man had a diagnosis of low rectal cancer and multiple liver metastases. He underwent low anterior resection with LPLN dissection and right hepatic lobectomy. He subsequently showed liver and lung metastases. The patient received systemic chemotherapy, and is alive with recurrent disease. We report 3 cases of Stage Ⅳ low rectal cancer with LPLN metastasis, and propose that LPLN dissection is important as a part of R0 resection for Stage Ⅳ low rectal cancer. PMID:26805345

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Pelvic Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Planning Procedures and Early Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Muren, Ludvig Paul Wasbo, Ellen; Helle, Svein Inge; Hysing, Liv Bolstad; Karlsdottir, Asa; Odland, Odd Harald; Valen, Harald; Ekerold, Randi; Johannessen, Dag Clement

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: We present planning and early clinical outcomes of a study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 43 patients initially treated with an IMRT plan delivering 50 Gy to the prostate, seminal vesicles, and pelvic lymph nodes, followed by a conformal radiotherapy (CRT) plan delivering 20 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles, were studied. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data for the added plans were compared with dose-volume histogram data for the sum of two CRT plans for 15 cases. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity, based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system, was recorded weekly throughout treatment as well as 3 to 18 months after treatment and are presented. Results: Treatment with IMRT both reduced normal tissue doses and increased the minimum target doses. Intestine volumes receiving more than 40 and 50 Gy were significantly reduced (e.g., at 50 Gy, from 81 to 19 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.026), as were bladder volumes above 40, 50, and 60 Gy, rectum volumes above 30, 50, and 60 Gy, and hip joint muscle volumes above 20, 30, and 40 Gy. During treatment, Grade 2 GI toxicity was reported by 12 of 43 patients (28%), and Grade 2 to 4 GU toxicity was also observed among 12 patients (28%). With 6 to 18 months of follow-up, 2 patients (5%) experienced Grade 2 GI effects and 7 patients (16%) experienced Grade 2 GU effects. Conclusions: Use of IMRT for pelvic irradiation in prostate cancer reduces normal tissue doses, improves target coverage, and has a promising toxicity profile.

  16. The pain management approach to chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D

    1987-05-01

    Chronic pelvic pain remains a difficult management problem that is often refractory to traditional medical or surgical therapy. The pain management center approach used successfully for the treatment of cancer pain and headache can be adapted to the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that the multidisciplinary techniques of pain management promise to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:2439689

  17. Lack of benefit of pelvic radiation in prostate cancer patients with a high risk of positive pelvic lymph nodes treated with high-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos Enrique; Galalae, Razavan; Demanes, Jeffrey; Harsolia, Asif; Meldolesi, Elisa; Nuernberg, Nils; Schour, Lionel; Martinez, Alvaro . E-mail: amartinez@beaumont.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The use of pelvic radiation for patients with a high risk of lymph node (LN) metastasis (>15%) remains controversial. We reviewed the data at three institutions treating patients with a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy to address the prognostic implications of the use of the Roach formula and the benefit of pelvic treatment. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2003, 1,491 patients were treated with external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The Roach formula [2/3 prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score -6) x 10] could be calculated for 1,357 patients. Group I consisted of patients having a risk of positive LN {<=}15% (n = 761), Group II had a risk >15% and {<=}30% (n = 422), and Group III had a risk of LN disease >30% (n 174). A >15% risk of having positive LN was found in 596 patients and was used to determine the benefit of pelvic radiation. The pelvis was treated at two of the cancer centers (n = 312), whereas at the third center (n = 284) radiation therapy was delivered to the prostate and seminal vesicles alone. Average biologic effective dose was {>=}100 Gy ({alpha}{beta} = 1.2). Biochemical failure was as per the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition. Statistics included the log-rank test as well as Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: For all 596 patients with a positive LN risk >15%, median follow-up was 4.3 years, with a mean of 4.8 years. For all cases, median follow-up was 4 years and mean follow-up was 4.4 years. Five-year results for the three groups based on their risk of positive LN were significantly different in terms of biochemical failure (p < 0.001), clinical control (p < 0.001), disease-free survival excluding biochemical failure (p < 0.001), cause-specific survival (p < 0.001), and overall survival (p < 0.001). For all patients with a risk of positive LN >15% (n 596), Group II (>15-30% risk), or Group III (>30% risk

  18. TH-C-BRD-11: Robustness of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Pelvic Cancer Under Anatomical Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinges, E; Bhatia, S; Gross, B; McGuire, S; Wang, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy provides excellent dosimetric benefits in pelvic cancer treatment, yet day-to-day anatomical variations in pelvic region tend to cause range uncertainties. This study evaluates the dosimetric robustness under anatomical changes for three PBS intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), IMPT using worstcase robust optimization (thereafter ‘Robust IMPT’), and single-field uniform dose (SFUD), in cervical cancer treatment. Methods: IMPT, Robust IMPT, and SFUD plans using the same beam directions and the same prescription (Rx) were generated on computed tomography (CT) images acquired on the simulation day. The dose from each plan was then recomputed on CT images acquired in subsequent two to five weeks using the same protocol. The weekly CTs were registered to the planning CT based on bony anatomy. Target coverage was considered adequate on each weekly CT if dose to 99% of the internal target volume (D-ITV99%) reached at least 95% of the Rx dose. Statistical analysis was then performed on the 21 weekly CT images available for the 7 enrolled patients. Results: Statistically, IMPT was unable to maintain target coverage (mean D-ITV99% = 90.5% Rx, p = 0.004), and SFUD was able to maintain target coverage (mean D-ITV99% = 98.0% Rx, p = 0.0064), in the weeks following simulation. Robust IMPT was able to improve the robustness of IMPT significantly (p < 0.0001), though its maintenance of target coverage was not statistically significant by the 95% Rx criteria (mean D-ITV99% = 96.0%, p = 0.1677). Conclusion: During the multi-week treatment course with anatomical variations, SFUD is robust in terms of maintaining target coverage while IMPT is not. The worst-case optimized Robust IMPT, assuming ±3.5% range uncertainties, improves the robustness of IMPT under anatomical changes significantly, even though it was not designed to account for anatomical changes by mechanism.

  19. Prophylactic pelvic girdle irradiation in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, T.A.; Giri, S.

    1981-06-01

    This is a report of a pilot study of the effectiveness of irradiation therapy to the pelvic girdle in decreasing the incidence of bony metastases in patients with prostatic cancer. Thirty-two patients were entered in the study; none of them failed in the pelvic bones and four failed outside the pelvis. A total tumor dose of 6800 rad was delivered, the pelvic nodes received 5000 rad and the pelvic girdle 800 rad. The non-conventional fractionation scheme used in this study diminishes the incidence of osseous metastases but produces unacceptable bowel injury. Forty-three percent of patients had proctitis and 20% of the patients required colostomy.

  20. Prospective Study of Functional Bone Marrow-Sparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Pelvic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Yun; Bydder, Mark; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Rose, Brent S.; Cornell, Mariel; Hoh, Carl K.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Einck, John; Saenz, Cheryl; Fanta, Paul; Mundt, Arno J.; Bydder, Graeme M.; and others

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can reduce radiation dose to functional bone marrow (BM) in patients with pelvic malignancies (phase IA) and estimate the clinical feasibility and acute toxicity associated with this technique (phase IB). Methods and Materials: We enrolled 31 subjects (19 with gynecologic cancer and 12 with anal cancer) in an institutional review board-approved prospective trial (6 in the pilot study, 10 in phase IA, and 15 in phase IB). The mean age was 52 years; 8 of 31 patients (26%) were men. Twenty-one subjects completed {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging by use of quantitative IDEAL (IDEAL IQ; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). The PET/CT and IDEAL IQ were registered, and BM subvolumes were segmented above the mean standardized uptake value and below the mean fat fraction within the pelvis and lumbar spine; their intersection was designated as functional BM for IMRT planning. Functional BM-sparing vs total BM-sparing IMRT plans were compared in 12 subjects; 10 were treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT per protocol. Results: In gynecologic cancer patients, the mean functional BM V{sub 10} (volume receiving {>=}10 Gy) and V{sub 20} (volume receiving {>=}20 Gy) were 85% vs 94% (P<.0001) and 70% vs 82% (P<.0001), respectively, for functional BM-sparing IMRT vs total BM-sparing IMRT. In anal cancer patients, the corresponding values were 75% vs 77% (P=.06) and 62% vs 67% (P=.002), respectively. Of 10 subjects treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT, 3 (30%) had acute grade 3 hematologic toxicity or greater. Conclusions: IMRT can reduce dose to BM subregions identified by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT and IDEAL IQ. The efficacy of BM-sparing IMRT is being tested in a phase II trial.

  1. Emotional and sexual concerns in women undergoing pelvic surgery and associated treatment for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stabile, Cara; Gunn, Abigail; Sonoda, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of gynecologic cancer can cause short- and long-term effects on sexuality, emotional well being, reproductive function, and overall quality of life (QoL). Fortunately, innovative approaches developed over the past several decades have improved oncologic outcomes and reduced treatment sequelae; however, these side effects of treatment are still prevalent. In this article, we provide an overview of the various standard-of-care pelvic surgeries and multimodality cancer treatments (chemotherapy and radiation therapy) by anatomic site and highlight the potential emotional and sexual consequences that can influence cancer survivorship and QoL. Potential screening tools that can be used in clinical practice to identify some of these concerns and treatment side effects and possible solutions are also provided. These screening tools include brief assessments that can be used in the clinical care setting to assist in the identification of problematic issues throughout the continuum of care. This optimizes quality of care, and ultimately, QoL in these women. Prospective clinical trials with gynecologic oncology populations should include patient-reported outcomes to identify subgroups at risk for difficulties during and following treatment for early intervention. PMID:26816823

  2. Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Exam, Pelvic Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1500x1230 View Download Large: 3000x2460 View Download Title: Exam, Pelvic Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

  3. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence–Free Survival Between Periprostatic and Pelvic Lymph Node Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    González-Roibón, Nilda; Han, Jeong S.; Lee, Stephen; Feng, Zhaoyong; Arslankoz, Sehbal; Smith, Nathaniel; Pierorazio, Philip M.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Deweese, Theodore L.; Partin, Alan W.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Han, Misop; Trock, Bruce; Netto, Georges J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the pathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of periprostatic lymph node (LN) metastasis of prostate cancer. The latter was performed by comparing biochemical recurrence (BCR)–free survival in cases of periprostatic LN metastasis versus matched patients showing pelvic LN metastasis Methods and Materials We identified 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy in our institution (1984–2011) showing positive periprostatic and negative pelvic LN with available follow-up information (group 1). These patients were matched 1:2 to patients with positive pelvic LN (group 2) for pertinent clinicopathologic parameters. Results Main locations of positive periprostatic LN were posterior base and mid posterolateral. Overall higher rate of positive margins, smaller LN, and metastasis size were encountered in group 1 compared with group 2. At 5 years postprostatectomy, 69% of patients in group 1 were free of BCR, whereas 26% of those in group 2 remained BCR free, suggesting that patients with periprostatic node metastasis appeared to have a lower risk of BCR. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .072). The same was true when adjusted for the effect of prostate-specific antigen, surgical margin status, size of LNs, size of metastasis, age, and year of surgery. Conclusion Patients with periprostatic node metastasis may have a lower risk of BCR compared with those with metastasis to pelvic LN. Future analysis of larger cohorts will help establish the biologic significance of prostate cancer metastasis to periprostatic LN. PMID:23564700

  4. Prospective multicenter study on the clinical utility of ca-72.4 in postmenopausal patients with pelvic mass.

    PubMed

    Maggino, T; Gadducci, A; Daddario, V; Pecorelli, S; Lissoni, A; Stella, M; Romagnolo, C; Ferdeghini, M; Zucca, S; Trio, D; Trovo, S

    1995-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CA 72.4 and CA 125 determination, separately and in combination, for diagnosing ovarian tumors in post-menopausal women with pelvic mass. The 299 patients recruited in this study underwent gynecological examination, plasma determination of CA 72.4 and CA 125, and laparotomy with histological definition of pelvic mass. CA 72.4 assay values were under 3.9 U/ml in 194 cases (70.8%); values ranged from 3.9 to 4.5 U/ml in 7 cases (2.5%) and were greater than 4.5 U/ml in 73 cases (26.6%). CA 72.4 assay was positive (>4.5 U/ml) in 56 cases (57.1%) of malignant ovarian pathology, in 4 cases (25%) of malignant extra-ovarian pathology as well as in 9 cases (7.1%) of benign ovarian pathology and in 4 cases (11.8%) of benign extra-ovarian pathology. With a cut-off at 3.9 U/ml, CA 72.4 showed a specificity of 91.3% and a sensitivity of 62.2%, whereas with a cut-off at 4.5 U/ml specificity was 92.9% and sensitivity 57.1%. Results of CA 125 assay for diagnosing a pelvic neoplasia (ovarian or extra-ovarian), showed a specificity of 85.3% and sensitivity of 68.8%. The agreement of the two markers (CA 125 and CA 72.4) as negative or positive shows a specificity of 77% and a sensitivity of 84.7% for ovarian cancer and a specificity of 73.5% and sensitivity of 75% for the diagnosis of pelvic neoplasias. PMID:21597855

  5. Predicting the Risk of Pelvic Node Involvement Among Men With Prostate Cancer in the Contemporary Era

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L. Chen, M.-H.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Katz, Matthew S.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: The 'Roach formula' for the risk of pelvic lymph node metastases [(2/3) * PSA + (Gleason score - 6) * 10] was developed in the early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era. We examined the accuracy of this formula in contemporary patients. Methods: We included men in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry with a diagnosis of clinical T1c-T4 prostate cancer in 2004 who had a surgical lymph node evaluation, Gleason score (typically from prostatectomy), and baseline PSA level (n = 9,387). Expected and observed rates of node positivity were compared. Results: Ninety-eight percent were clinical T1c/T2, and 97% underwent prostatectomy. Overall, 309 patients (3.29%) had positive lymph nodes. Roach scores overestimated the actual rate of positive lymph nodes in the derivation set by 16-fold for patients with Roach score less than or equal to 10%, by 7-fold for scores greater than 10-20%, and by approximately 2.5-fold for scores greater than 20%. Applying these adjustment factors to Roach scores in the validation data set yielded accurate predictions of risk. For those with Roach score less than or equal to 10%, adjusted expected risk was 0.2% and observed risk was 0.2%. For Roach score greater than 10-20%, adjusted expected risk was 2.0% and observed risk was 2.1%. For Roach score greater than 20-30%, adjusted expected risk was 9.7% and observed risk was 6.5%. For Roach score greater than 30-40%, adjusted expected risk was 13.9% and observed risk was 13.9%. Conclusion: Applied to contemporary patients with mainly T1c/T2 disease, the Roach formula appears to overestimate pelvic lymph node risk. The adjustment factors presented here should be validated by using biopsy Gleason scores and extended lymphadenectomies.

  6. Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Caravatta, Luciana; Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Macchia, Gabriella; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa; Rossi, Marco; Flocco, Mariano; Scapati, Andrea; and others

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation and at least an 8-hour interval. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the maximum tolerated dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute toxicity of grade 3 or greater, using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. The effect on quality of life was evaluated according to Cancer Linear Analog Scale (CLAS). Results: Of the 27 enrolled patients, 11 were male and 16 were female, with a median age of 72 years (range 47-86). The primary tumor sites were gynecologic (48%), colorectal (33.5%), and genitourinary (18.5%). The most frequent baseline symptoms were bleeding (48%) and pain (33%). Only grade 1-2 acute toxicities were recorded. No patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity. With a median follow-up time of 6 months (range 3-28), no late toxicities were observed. The overall (complete plus partial) symptom remission was 88.9% (95% confidence interval 66.0%-97.8%). Five patients (41.7%) had complete pain relief, and six (50%) showed >30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

  7. Comparative diagnostic values of grey-scale USS versus CT scan in the primary management of gynaecological pelvic mass with emphasis on ovarian cancer detection and staging.

    PubMed

    Onyeka, B A; Atalla, A; Deemer, H

    2001-09-01

    Thirty-one consecutive patients with clinical pelvic masses suspected to be gynaecological in origin were initially investigated by transabdominal grey-scale ultrasound (TAUS) and then by computed tomography (CT) prior to surgery and or chemotherapy. Retrospective comparative review of the reports of the two imaging methods was carried out on each patient and then correlated with surgical findings and histopathology report. The diagnostic potentials of the two imaging methods with respect to ovarian cancer detection and staging were particularly emphasised. The results were analysed and compared with published results of similar studies in the literature. Compared with TAUS we found CT scan more sensitive in making an overall presumptive diagnosis of pelvic mass (15/31, 48% vs. 9/31, 29%). The sensitivity of CT scan for all ovarian cancer detection was greater than that of TAUS (5/6, 83% vs. 4/6, 67%) but TAUS was more specific. The false negative and false positive values for cancer detection were comparable. Both methods were equally efficacious in detecting and staging advanced ovarian cancer cases (4/4, 100%). Visualisation of the ovaries occurred more readily with TAUS, which in addition offered a more precise assessment of ovarian tumour size. There were no significant differences in the two methods regarding tumour localisation (organ of origin), characterisation and the details of descriptive report when no presumptive diagnosis is offered. Overall CT did not offer significant additional features and did not result in changes in management plan in any of the patients reviewed. The marginal benefit of CT scan over TAUS will not warrant its routine usage in the diagnosis of gynaecological pelvic mass. Our findings largely reflected the conclusions of published reports in the literature. PMID:12521811

  8. [Stabilizing the pelvic ring with the external fixator. Biomechanical studies and clinical experiences].

    PubMed

    Egbers, H J; Draijer, F; Havemann, D; Zenker, W

    1992-11-01

    Experimental studies were performed on anatomic pelvis specimens. In different series of experiments the positioning of the screws and the assembly of the external fixator were changed. We tried fixing the external fixator to the screws at varying distances from the body surface. For stabilisation of the fractured pelvic girdle a self-constructed "bow fixator", fixed to supra-acetabular screws with proximal compression and distal traction showed the best results. Homogeneous distribution of the pressure could be achieved on the unstable dorsal pelvic ring structures. In clinical routine we used the triangular external fixator, which in the experimental situation yielded results close to those of the bow fixator. External fixation of the pelvic girdle has been performed 128 times since 1977, in January 1991 a prospective study was started. For Tile type B injuries the external fixator itself represents an effective, minimally invasive system, but type C fractures often require an additional internal fixation of the dorsal lesion. PMID:1475122

  9. Diagnosis of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis of T1 lower rectal cancer using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case report with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection of lower rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SHIMPEI; ITABASHI, MICHIO; HIROSAWA, TOMOICHIRO; HASHIMOTO, TAKUZO; BAMBA, YOSHIKO; OKAMOTO, TAKAHIRO

    2016-01-01

    The present study presented a 35-year-old female patient in whom fecal occult blood was detected in a medical check-up. Colonoscopy revealed a superficial elevated-type tumor with central depression in the lower rectum. The tumor was diagnosed as T1 deep invasive cancer. No swollen lymph nodes or distant metastasis were found on computed tomography or [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography with computed tomography. However, a swollen right lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN; short axis 4 mm) was revealed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This lymph node exhibited high intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), suggesting metastasis. Low anterior resection, regional lymph node dissection and right LPLN dissection (LPLD) were performed. Histological analysis revealed metastasis in the right LPLN, as suggested by the high DWI intensity. The indication for LPLD in the current Japanese guidelines is based on the tumor location and depth of invasion (≥T3), however, not on the status of LPLN metastasis in pre-operative evaluation. The present case was cT1, which is not included in this indication. DWI is sensitive for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer, although inflammation-induced swelling of lymph nodes in advanced rectal cancer may cause a false-positive result, which is uncommon in T1 cases. Therefore, an LPLN with a high intensity DWI signal in T1 cases is likely to be metastasis-positive. Pre-operative DWI-MRI may be useful for identifying LPLN metastasis when planning the treatment strategy in these cases. The present study suggested reinvestigation of the indication for LPLD with inclusion of LPLN status on pre-operative imaging. PMID:27123286

  10. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  11. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Sousa, Vanessa Oliveira; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe; Muchailh, Rosana Carneiro; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1) (n = 50) included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2) (n = 50) included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 in G1 and 25.0 kg/m2 in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004). In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006) and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001) compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:21915489

  12. Treating patients with advanced rectal cancer and lateral pelvic lymph nodes with preoperative chemoradiotherapy based on pretreatment imaging

    PubMed Central

    Otowa, Yasunori; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Kanemitsu, Kiyonori; Sumi, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Masashi; Kanaji, Shingo; Imanishi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) dissection (LPLD) based on pretreatment imaging are performed to improve oncological outcomes at our institution. However, the advantage of LPLD following preoperative CRT in advanced rectal cancer remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to assess the validity of this approach. Thirty-two patients with advanced rectal cancer were included in the study. All patients were treated with preoperative CRT and curative operation. Of these, 16 patients who were treated between August 2005 and June 2008 underwent LPLD on both sides (LPLD group). Sixteen patients who were treated between July 2008 and January 2013 underwent LPLD only on the side with suspected LPLN metastasis determined by pretreatment imaging; in cases without LPLN metastasis, only total mesorectal excision was performed (limited-LPLD group). The overall survival and relapse-free survival between the LPLD and the limited-LPLD groups were compared. Preoperative CRT was able to lower clinical lymph node status in 50% of the cases. In addition, pathological lymph node status did not exceed the pretreatment clinical lymph node status stage in the LPLD group. There were no differences in the overall survival and relapse-free survival between the two groups (P=0.729 and P=0.874, respectively). We conclude that multi-imaging studies have a very low risk of overlooking pathologically positive LPLN metastases. Therefore, limited LPLD is a feasible strategy for patients with advanced rectal cancer and suspicious LPLN metastases based on pretreatment imaging. PMID:26604786

  13. Robotic Radical Hysterectomy Versus Total Laparoscopic Radical Hysterectomy With Pelvic Lymphadenectomy for Treatment of Early Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Datta, M. Shoma; Liu, Connie; Chuang, Linus; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To compare intraoperative, pathologic and postoperative outcomes of robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) to total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (TLRH) in patients with early stage cervical carcinoma. Methods: We prospectively analyzed cases of TLRH or RRH with pelvic lymphadenectomy performed for treatment of early cervical cancer between 2000 and 2008. Results: Thirty patients underwent TLRH and pelvic lymph-adenectomy for cervical cancer from August 2000 to June 2006. Thirteen patients underwent RRH and pelvic lymph-adenectomy for cervical cancer from April 2006 to January 2008. There were no differences between groups for age, tumor histology, stage, lymphovascular space involvement or nodal status. No statistical differences were observed regarding operative time (323 vs 318 min), estimated blood loss (157 vs 200 mL), or hospital stay (2.7 vs 3.8 days). Mean pelvic lymph node count was similar in the two groups (25 vs 31). None of the robotic or laparoscopic procedures required conversion to laparotomy. The differences in major operative and postoperative complications between the two groups were not significant. All patients in both groups are alive and free of disease at the time of last follow up. Conclusion: Based on our experience, robotic radical hysterectomy appears to be equivalent to total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with respect to operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, and oncological outcome. We feel the intuitive nature of the robotic approach, magnification, dexterity, and flexibility combined with significant reduction in surgeon's fatigue offered by the robotic system will allow more surgeons to use a minimally invasive approach to radical hysterectomy. PMID:18765043

  14. A study on difference and importance of sacral slope and pelvic sacral angle that affect lumbar curvature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seyoung; Lee, Minsun; Kwon, Byongan

    2014-01-01

    Individual pelvic sacral angle was measured, compared and analyzed for the 6 male and female adults who were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and mild spondylolisthesis in accordance with spinal parameters, pelvic parameters and occlusion state of sacroiliac joint presented by the author of this thesis based on the fact that the degree of lumbar excessive lordosis that was one of the causes for lumbar pain was determined by sacral slope. The measured values were compared with the standard values of the average normal range from 20 s to 40 s of normal Koreans stated in the study on the change in lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope in accordance with the age by Oh et al. [5] and sacral slope and pelvic sacral slope of each individual of the subjects for measurement were compared. Comparing the difference between the two tilt angles possessed by an individual is a comparison to determine how much the sacroiliac joint connecting pelvis and sacral vertebrae compensated and corrected the sacral vertebrae slope by pelvic tilt under the condition of synarthrodial joint.Under the condition that the location conforming to the line in which the sagittal line of gravity connects with pelvic ASIS and pubic pubic tuberele is the neutral location of pelvic tilt, sacral slope being greater than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic anterior tilting, whereas sacral slope being smaller than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic posterior tilting. On that account, male B, female A and female C had a pelvic posterior tilting of 16 degrees, 1 degree and 5 degrees respectively, whereas male A, male C and female B had a pelvic anterior tilting of 3 degrees, 9 degrees and 4 degrees respectively. In addition, the 6 patients the values of lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope that were almost twice as much as the normal standard values of Koreans. It is believed that this is because the pelvic sacral slope maintaining an angle that is

  15. Whole-Pelvic Nodal Radiation Therapy in the Context of Hypofractionation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients: A Step Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Roach, Mack; Créhange, Gilles

    2013-07-15

    Given the low α/β ratio of prostate cancer, prostate hypofractionation has been tested through numerous clinical studies. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that with high conformal radiation therapy and even with more sophisticated radiation techniques, such as high-dose-rate brachytherapy or image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, morbidity associated with shortening overall treatment time with higher doses per fraction remains low when compared with protracted conventional radiation therapy to the prostate only. In high-risk prostate cancer patients, there is accumulating evidence that either dose escalation to the prostate or hypofractionation may improve outcome. Nevertheless, selected patients who have a high risk of lymph node involvement may benefit from whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Although combining WPRT with hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy is feasible, it remains investigational. By combining modern advances in radiation oncology (high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy with an improved image guidance for soft-tissue sparing), it is hypothesized that WPRT could take advantage of recent results from hypofractionation trials. Moreover, the results from hypofractionation trials raise questions as to whether hypofractionation to pelvic lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement might improve the outcomes in WPRT. Although investigational, this review discusses the challenging idea of WPRT in the context of hypofractionation for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  16. Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation-Induced Vaginal Stenosis After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Rectal and Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Christina H.; Law, Ethel; Oh, Jung Hun; Apte, Aditya P.; Yang, T. Jonathan; Riedel, Elyn; Wu, Abraham J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized toxicity in women who receive pelvic radiation therapy (RT), the relationship between RT dose and the volume and extent of toxicity has not been analyzed. We modeled this relationship to identify predictors of VS. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 54 women, aged 29 to 78 years, who underwent pelvic RT for rectal or anal cancer during 2008 to 2011 and were enrolled in a prospective study evaluating vaginal dilator use. Maximum dilator size was measured before RT (baseline) and 1 month and 12 months after RT. Dilator use was initiated at 1 month. The difference (D) in dilator size before and after RT was recorded. Those with D ≤−1 were classified as having VS (n=35); those with D ≥0 were classified as having no VS (n=19 at 1 month). Dose-volume parameters were extracted, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was used to build a predictive model. Results: The mean vaginal doses were 50.0 Gy and 36.8 Gy for anal and rectal cancer patients, respectively. One month after RT, a gEUD model using a wide range of a values suggests that sparing of vaginal volume to a low dose may be important. When gEUD (a = −1) was <35 Gy and the mean vaginal dose was <43 Gy, severe VS was reduced (P=.02). A 1-year analysis suggests increasingly negative D values with increasing mean dose. However, patients with compliance <40% were more likely to have toxicity. Conclusions: Vaginal stenosis is influenced by multiple RT dose-volume characteristics. Mean dose and gEUD constraints together may reduce the risk of severe VS. Patients receiving higher mean vaginal doses should have greater compliance with dilator therapy to minimize risk of toxicity. Further validation with independent datasets is needed.

  17. Robot-Assisted Extended Pelvic Lymph Nodes Dissection for Prostate Cancer: Personal Surgical Technique and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Francesco, Porpiglia; Stefano, De Luca; Riccardo, Bertolo; Roberto, Passera; Fabrizio, Mele; Matteo, Manfredi; Daniele, Amparore; Ivano, Morra; Cristian, Fiori

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection (EPLND) allows the removal of a higher number of lymph nodes than limited PLND. The aims of this study were to describe our robot-assisted EPLND (RAEPLND) technique with related complications, and to report the number of lymph nodes removed and the rate of lymph nodal metastasis. Materials and Methods: 153 patients underwent RAEPLND prior to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Indications were defined according to Briganti nomogram, to predict risk of lymph-nodal metastasis. Lymphatic packages covering the distal tract of the common iliac artery, the medial portion of the external iliac artery, the external iliac vein and the internal iliac vessels, together with the obturator and the presacral lymphatic packages were removed on both sides. Results: Median preoperative PSA was 7.5 ng/mL (IQR 5.5–11.5). Median operative time was 150 min (135–170). Median RAEPLND alone operative time was 38 min (32.75–41.25); for right and left side, 18 (15–29) and 20 min (15.75–30) (p=0.567). Median number of lymph nodes retrieved per patient was 25 (19.25–30); 13 (11–16) and 11 (8–15) for right and left side. In 19 patients (12.41%) metastasis was found at the level of pelvic lymph nodes. Median number of positive lymph nodes was 1 (1–4.6) per patient. Complications occurred in 11 patients (7.3%). Conclusions: the number of lymph nodes removed was comparable to published data about open series, allowing the increase of detection rate of lymph nodal metastasis for minimally invasive approach without compromising complications' rate if performing the procedure following reported technique. PMID:26742982

  18. Phase I Trial of Pelvic Nodal Dose Escalation With Hypofractionated IMRT for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adkison, Jarrod B.; McHaffie, Derek R.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Patel, Rakesh R.; Khuntia, Deepak; Petereit, Daniel G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Tome, Wolfgang; Ritter, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Toxicity concerns have limited pelvic nodal prescriptions to doses that may be suboptimal for controlling microscopic disease. In a prospective trial, we tested whether image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can safely deliver escalated nodal doses while treating the prostate with hypofractionated radiotherapy in 5 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half weeks. Methods and Materials: Pelvic nodal and prostatic image-guided IMRT was delivered to 53 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) high-risk patients to a nodal dose of 56 Gy in 2-Gy fractions with concomitant treatment of the prostate to 70 Gy in 28 fractions of 2.5 Gy, and 50 of 53 patients received androgen deprivation for a median duration of 12 months. Results: The median follow-up time was 25.4 months (range, 4.2-57.2). No early Grade 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group or Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3.0 genitourinary (GU) or gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were seen. The cumulative actuarial incidence of Grade 2 early GU toxicity (primarily alpha blocker initiation) was 38%. The rate was 32% for Grade 2 early GI toxicity. None of the dose-volume descriptors correlated with GU toxicity, and only the volume of bowel receiving {>=}30 Gy correlated with early GI toxicity (p = 0.029). Maximum late Grades 1, 2, and 3 GU toxicities were seen in 30%, 25%, and 2% of patients, respectively. Maximum late Grades 1 and 2 GI toxicities were seen in 30% and 8% (rectal bleeding requiring cautery) of patients, respectively. The estimated 3-year biochemical control (nadir + 2) was 81.2 {+-} 6.6%. No patient manifested pelvic nodal failure, whereas 2 experienced paraaortic nodal failure outside the field. The six other clinical failures were distant only. Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT nodal dose escalation to 56 Gy was delivered concurrently with 70 Gy of hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy in a convenient, resource-efficient, and well-tolerated 28-fraction schedule. Pelvic nodal dose

  19. Pelvic Nodal Radiotherapy in Patients With Unfavorable Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Evidence, Rationale, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Lisa K.; Roach, Mack

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 15 years, there have been three major advances in the use of external beam radiotherapy in the management of men with clinically localized prostate made. They include: (1) image guided (IG) three-dimensional conformal/intensity modulated radiotherapy; (2) radiation dose escalation; and (3) androgen deprivation therapy. To date only the last of these three advances have been shown to improve overall survival. The presence of occult pelvic nodal involvement could explain the failure of increased conformality and dose escalation to prolong survival, because the men who appear to be at the greatest risk of death from clinically localized prostate cancer are those who are likely to have lymph node metastases. This review discusses the evidence for prophylactic pelvic nodal radiotherapy, including the key trials and controversies surrounding this issue.

  20. Effect of Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy on Second Cancer Risk in the Postoperative Treatment of Endometrial and Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zwahlen, Daniel R. Ruben, Jeremy D.; Jones, Phillip; Gagliardi, Frank; Millar, Jeremy L.; Schneider, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of second cancer risk (SCR) for postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: To estimate SCR, the organ equivalent dose concept with a linear-exponential, a plateau, and a linear dose-response model was applied to dose distributions, calculated in a planning computed tomography scan of a 68-year-old woman. Three plans were computed: four-field 18-MV 3DCRT and nine-field IMRT with 6- and 18-MV photons. SCR was estimated as a function of target dose (50.4 Gy/28 fractions) in organs of interest according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection Results: Cumulative SCR relative to 3DCRT was +6% (3% for a plateau model, -4% for a linear model) for 6-MV IMRT and +26% (25%, 4%) for the 18-MV IMRT plan. For an organ within the primary beam, SCR was +12% (0%, -12%) for 6-MV and +5% (-2%, -7%) for 18-MV IMRT. 18-MV IMRT increased SCR 6-7 times for organs away from the primary beam relative to 3DCRT and 6-MV IMRT. Skin SCR increased by 22-37% for 6-MV and 50-69% for 18-MV IMRT inasmuch as a larger volume of skin was exposed. Conclusion: Cancer risk after IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancer is dependent on treatment energy. 6-MV pelvic IMRT represents a safe alternative with respect to SCR relative to 3DCRT, independently of the dose-response model. 18-MV IMRT produces second neutrons that modestly increase the SCR.

  1. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter; Fuller, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  2. Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Should Be Considered in Prostate Cancer Patients with Pelvic Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Plagakis, Sophie; Foreman, Darren; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We highlight two cases of transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in patients with pelvic kidneys because of congenital development and renal transplant. These uncommon cases present a challenge to the surgeon contemplating surgery because of access and anomalous vascular and ureteral anatomy. We describe the technical considerations that are paramount in effectively completing transperitoneal RARP, and believe it should be considered as a treatment option in men with pelvic kidneys. PMID:27579412

  3. Phase II study assessing the feasibility of using elemental supplements to reduce acute enteritis in patients receiving radical pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Craighead, P S; Young, S

    1998-12-01

    From June 1994 through September 1995, 17 patients with gynecologic cancer were entered into a feasibility study using elemental supplements (ES) during the course of pelvic radiotherapy. The level of compliance with the ES regimen was evaluated by assessing sachet counts and patients' weekly diaries. Diaries were also used to assess compliance with a modified diet program. Bowel function in 45 patients receiving radiotherapy outside this study was assessed concurrently. All patients were reviewed weekly to record bowel function, which was also recorded 1 year after radiotherapy. After treatment of all patients the grade, duration of enteritis, need for antidiarrheal agents, and the likelihood of resolution at 1 year after radiotherapy were analyzed. The study used compliance with the ES regimen as its primary endpoint. Compliance with the ES regimen was achieved in 76.5% of patients, and compliance with the modified diet was achieved regardless of whether the ES was tolerated. Patients not complying with the ES, or who did not receive ES, had higher grade diarrhea, which was longer in duration and was less likely to have resolved than patients in the compliant group. Elemental supplements are well tolerated when taken during a course of pelvic radiotherapy and cause a mild diarrhea, which resolves after treatment has been discontinued. The lack of enteritis 1 year later in patients who complied with ES suggests that reducing the grade of acute enteritis might influence the appearance of later bowel effects. PMID:9856658

  4. Transiliac Osteotomy in Surgical Management of Pelvic Post-Traumatic Malunions: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun; Wu, Junwei; Fu, Baisheng; Dong, Jinlei; Yang, Yongliang; Xin, Maoyuan; Wang, Guodong; He, Tong-Chuan; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2016-03-01

    While uncommon, post-traumatic pelvic malunions present reconstructive challenges and are associated with significant disability and financial burden. A transiliac osteotomy is a surgical technique useful to correct certain types of pelvic fracture malunions, and is only used when the correction of a limb-length discrepancy is the primary goal. This study aims to present our experience with this technique in the treatment of post-traumatic pelvic malunions. Eight patients who underwent transiliac osteotomies for post-traumatic pelvic malunions at our department from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic results of these patients. By the time of their last follow-up, all osteotomy sites and iliac bone graft had healed with no evidence of internal fixation failure. Of the 3 patients who complained of preoperative posterior pain, 2 reported an improvement. All 8 patients noted the resolution of their lower back pain. At the time of their final follow-up, 4 patients could walk normally, 2 had a slight limp without a cane, 1 patient used a cane to help with standing and walking, and the final felt limited during ambulation with a cane. Limb-lengthening relative to preoperative measurements was 2.86 cm (2.2-3.0 cm) at the time of the last follow-up. Two patients were able to return to their previous jobs, 4 patients changed their jobs or engaged in light manual labor while the final 2 were able to perform activities of daily living but were unable to participate in work or labor. Three patients reported being "extremely satisfied" with their outcomes, 3 were "satisfied," and 2 were "unsatisfied." A transiliac osteotomy can be used to manage selected cases of post-traumatic pelvic malunions that are unable to be corrected with a traditional release and osteotomy. However, in these cases the correction of limb-length discrepancies should be the primary reconstructive goal. PMID:27043674

  5. Phase I trial of pelvic radiation, weekly cisplatin, and 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) for locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kunos, Charles A.; Waggoner, Steven; von Gruenigen, Vivian; Eldermire, Elisa; Pink, John; Dowlati, Afshin; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of three-times weekly intravenous 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) in combination with once weekly intravenous cisplatin and daily pelvic radiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. 3-AP is a novel small molecule inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and is being tested as a potential radiosensitizer and chemosensitizer. Experimental Design Patients with stage IB2-IVB cervical cancer (n=10) or recurrent uterine sarcoma (n=1) were assigned to dose-finding cohorts of 2-hour 3-AP infusions during five weeks of cisplatin chemoradiation. Pharmacokinetic and methemoglobin samples and tumor biopsy for RNR activity were obtained on days 1 and 10. Clinical response was assessed. Results The maximum tolerated 3-AP dose is 25mg/m2 given three-times weekly during cisplatin and pelvic radiation. Two patients experienced manageable 3-AP-related grade 3 or 4 electrolyte abnormalities. 3-AP pharmacokinetics showed a 2-hour half-life, with median peak plasma concentrations of 277ng/mL (25mg/m2) and 467ng/mL (50mg/m2). Median methemoglobin levels peaked at 1% (25mg/m2) and 6% (50mg/m2) at 4 hours after initiating 3-AP infusions. No change in RNR activity was found on day 1 versus 10 in six early complete responders, while elevated RNR activity was seen on day 10 as compared to day 1 in four late complete responders (P =0.02). Ten (100%) patients with stage IB2-IVB cervical cancer achieved complete clinical response and remain without disease relapse with a median 18 months of follow-up (6-32 months). Conclusions 3-AP was well tolerated at a three-times weekly intravenous 25mg/m2 dose during cisplatin and pelvic radiation. PMID:20145183

  6. DLL4 as a predictor of pelvic lymph node metastasis and a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Liu, YunDuo; Xia, BaiRong; Deng, Jiangpeng; Liu, TianBo; Li, Qi; Yang, YanPing; Wang, YaoXian; Ning, XiaoMing; Zhang, YunYan; Xiao, Min

    2016-04-01

    Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4), one of the five Notch signaling ligands in mammals, has an important function in proliferation, invasion, metastasis, progression, and angiogenesis of malignancies. This study aimed to investigate DLL4 expression level in early-stage cervical carcinoma and to evaluate its clinical significance. We used fresh frozen and paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues to analyze DLL4 expression and its clinical significance. DLL4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in cervical cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal cervical tissues. High DLL4 protein level was clearly correlated with high International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P = 0.044), lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) (P = 0.015), pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) (P = 0.001), and recurrence (P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that DLL4 overexpression was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 2.790; 95 % CI, 1.344-5.791; P = 0.006). Moreover, survival analysis revealed that DLL4 expression was an independent factor of unfavorable overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.130; 95 % CI, 1.108-4.097; P = 0.023) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.965; 95 % CI, 1.085-3.560; P = 0.026) in patients with cervical cancer. Overall, our data indicate that high DLL4 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor survival in cervical cancer. Therefore, DLL4 may be a potential clinical diagnostic marker for patients with early-stage cervical cancer. PMID:26546434

  7. Radiochemotherapy combined with regional pelvic hyperthermia induces high response and resectability rates in patients with nonresectable cervical cancer {>=}FIGO IIB 'bulky'

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasa, Geetha; Hildebrandt, Bert; Kuemmel, Sherko; Jungnickel, Kirsten; Cho, Chie Hee; Tilly, Wolfgang; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter . E-mail: peter.wust@charite.de

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate preoperative radiochemotherapy combined with regional pelvic hyperthermia in patients with nonresectable cervical cancer {>=} International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB 'bulky' in a Phase II study. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two patients with nonresectable FIGO IIB-IVA cervical cancer confined to the pelvis were treated with radiochemotherapy (5 x 1.8 Gy/wk, 45-50.4 Gy; cisplatin, 40 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) and weekly regional pelvic hyperthermia (SIGMA-60 applicator, system BSD-2000; BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT). Responders underwent hysterectomy if possible, whereas patients still unresectable received definitive hyperthermic radiochemotherapy. Feasibility, toxicity, as well as response and resectability, local progression free- and overall survival rates, were evaluated. Results: Thirty of 32 patients completed treatment. Grade III/IV toxicities (National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria) were diarrhea (n = 5), weight loss >10 kg (n = 4), and nausea (n = 2). Twenty-four of 32 patients (75%) achieved a partial remission after 45-50 Gy, and 20 patients underwent hysterectomy (18 patients, R0; 8 patients pCR). Three-year overall survival was 60%, with moderate (13%) rates of severe late toxicity. R0-resected patients had a favorable chronic toxicity profile and an excellent prognosis (3-year survival rate: 93%). Response depended on thermal parameters (vaginal reference point), whereas response, R0-resection, and FIGO stage are significant prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion: Preoperative hyperthermic radiochemotherapy (45-50 Gy) induces high response rates and enables curative surgery in a high proportion of patients with nonresectable cervical cancer. Therefore, the use of hyperthermia in conjunction with standard chemo-/radiotherapy {+-} surgery may allow for more effective tumor treatment while decreasing the risk of complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  8. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary What are pelvic support problems? The pelvic organs include the vagina , cervix , uterus , bladder , urethra , small intestines, and rectum . The pelvic ...

  9. Comparison of Coregistration Accuracy of Pelvic Structures Between Sequential and Simultaneous Imaging During Hybrid PET/MRI in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Balar, Arjun V.; Huang, William C.; Jackson, Kimberly; Friedman, Kent P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare coregistration of the bladder wall, bladder masses, and pelvic lymph nodes between sequential and simultaneous PET and MRI acquisitions obtained during hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI performed using a diuresis protocol in bladder cancer patients. Methods Six bladder cancer patients underwent 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, including IV Lasix administration and oral hydration, before imaging to achieve bladder clearance. Axial T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was obtained approximately 40 minutes before PET (“sequential”) and concurrently with PET (“simultaneous”). Three-dimensional spatial coordinates of the bladder wall, bladder masses, and pelvic lymph nodes were recorded for PET and T2WI. Distances between these locations on PET and T2WI sequences were computed and used to compare in-plane (x-y plane) and through-plane (z-axis) misregistration relative to PET between T2WI acquisitions. Results The bladder increased in volume between T2WI acquisitions (sequential, 176 [139]mL; simultaneous, 255 [146]mL). Four patients exhibited a bladder mass, all with increased activity (SUV, 9.5–38.4). Seven pelvic lymph nodes in 4 patients showed increased activity (SUV, 2.2–9.9). The bladder wall exhibited substantially less misregistration relative to PET for simultaneous, compared with sequential, acquisitions in in-plane (2.8 [3.1]mm vs 7.4 [9.1]mm) and through-plane (1.7 [2.2]mm vs 5.7 [9.6]mm) dimensions. Bladder masses exhibited slightly decreased misregistration for simultaneous, compared with sequential, acquisitions in in-plane (2.2 [1.4]mm vs 2.6 [1.9]mm) and through-plane (0.0 [0.0]mm vs 0.3 [0.8]mm) dimensions. FDG-avid lymph nodes exhibited slightly decreased in-plane misregistration (1.1 [0.8]mm vs 2.5 [0.6]mm), although identical through-plane misregistration (4.0 [1.9]mm vs 4.0 [2.8]mm). Conclusions Using hybrid PET/MRI, simultaneous imaging substantially improved bladder wall coregistration and slightly improved

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 are associated with acute normal tissue toxicity in Chinese rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Mengyun; Shi, Tingyan; Shen, Lijun; Zhu, Ji; Sun, Menghong; Deng, Yun; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Wu, Yongxin; Fan, Ming; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) are crucial mediators of the intestinal microenvironment and are involved in radiation-induced acute and chronic injury. To evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 were predictors of radiation-induced injury in patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively evaluated 356 rectal cancer patients who had received pelvic radiotherapy and analyzed the association of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 with acute toxicities after radiotherapy. Acute adverse events were scored, including dermatitis, fecal incontinence (anal toxicity), hematological toxicity, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients were grouped into grade ≥2 and grade 0–1 toxicity groups to analyze the acute toxicities. Genotyping of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAI-1 and PAR-1 was performed using TaqMan assays. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 356 individuals, 264 (72.5%) had grade ≥2 total toxicities; within this group, there were 65 (18.3%) individuals who reached grade ≥3 toxicities. There were 19.5% (69/354) and 36.9% (130/352) patients that developed grade ≥2 toxicities for diarrhea and fecal incontinence, respectively. The variant genotype GG of rs1050955 in PAI-1 was found to be negatively associated with the risk of diarrhea and incontinence (P<0.05), whereas the AG and GG genotypes of rs2227631 in PAI-1 were associated with an increased risk of incontinence. The CT genotype of PAR-1 rs32934 was associated with an increased risk of total toxicity compared with the CC allele. Our results demonstrated that SNPs in the PAI-1 and PAR-1 genes were associated with acute injury in rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic irradiation. These SNPs may be useful biomarkers for predicting acute radiotoxicity in patients with rectal cancer if validated in future studies. PMID:26347502

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 are associated with acute normal tissue toxicity in Chinese rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Mengyun; Shi, Tingyan; Shen, Lijun; Zhu, Ji; Sun, Menghong; Deng, Yun; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Wu, Yongxin; Fan, Ming; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) are crucial mediators of the intestinal microenvironment and are involved in radiation-induced acute and chronic injury. To evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 were predictors of radiation-induced injury in patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively evaluated 356 rectal cancer patients who had received pelvic radiotherapy and analyzed the association of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 with acute toxicities after radiotherapy. Acute adverse events were scored, including dermatitis, fecal incontinence (anal toxicity), hematological toxicity, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients were grouped into grade ≥2 and grade 0-1 toxicity groups to analyze the acute toxicities. Genotyping of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAI-1 and PAR-1 was performed using TaqMan assays. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 356 individuals, 264 (72.5%) had grade ≥2 total toxicities; within this group, there were 65 (18.3%) individuals who reached grade ≥3 toxicities. There were 19.5% (69/354) and 36.9% (130/352) patients that developed grade ≥2 toxicities for diarrhea and fecal incontinence, respectively. The variant genotype GG of rs1050955 in PAI-1 was found to be negatively associated with the risk of diarrhea and incontinence (P<0.05), whereas the AG and GG genotypes of rs2227631 in PAI-1 were associated with an increased risk of incontinence. The CT genotype of PAR-1 rs32934 was associated with an increased risk of total toxicity compared with the CC allele. Our results demonstrated that SNPs in the PAI-1 and PAR-1 genes were associated with acute injury in rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic irradiation. These SNPs may be useful biomarkers for predicting acute radiotoxicity in patients with rectal cancer if validated in future studies. PMID:26347502

  12. Intensity-modulated pelvic radiation therapy and simultaneous integrated boost to the prostate area in patients with high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report of disease control.

    PubMed

    Saracino, Biancamaria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Marzi, Simona; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Sara, Gomellini; Arcangeli, Stefano; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Pinnarò, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Strigari, Lidia

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to report the clinical results in patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the prostate area. A total of 110 patients entered our study, 37 patients presented with localized prostate cancer and radiological evidence of node metastases or ≥15% estimated risk of lymph node (LN) involvement, while 73 patients underwent postoperative adjuvant or salvage irradiation for biochemical or residual/recurrent disease, LN metastases, or high risk of harboring nodal metastases. All patients received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for 2 years. The median follow-up was 56.5 months. For the whole patient group, the 3- and 5-year freedom from biochemical failure were 82.6% and 74.6%, respectively, with a better outcome in patients treated with radical approach. The 3- and 5-year freedom from local failure were 94.4% and 90.2%, respectively, while the 3- and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival were 87.8% and 81.7%, respectively. For all study patients, the rate of freedom from G2 acute rectal, intestinal, and urinary toxicities was 60%, 77%, and 61%, respectively. There was no G3 acute toxicity, ≥G2 late intestinal toxicity, or G3 late urinary or rectal toxicity. The 3- and 5-year ≥G2 freedom from late rectal toxicity rate were 98% and 95%, respectively, while the 3- and 5-year ≥G2 freedom from late urinary toxicity rate were 95% and 88%, respectively. The study concludes that pelvic IMRT and SIB to the prostatic area in association with 2-year ADT was a well-tolerated technique, providing high disease control in patients with prostate cancer requiring LN treatment. PMID:24976538

  13. Intensity-modulated pelvic radiation therapy and simultaneous integrated boost to the prostate area in patients with high-risk prostate cancer: a preliminary report of disease control

    PubMed Central

    Saracino, Biancamaria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Marzi, Simona; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Sara, Gomellini; Arcangeli, Stefano; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Pinnarò, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Strigari, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the clinical results in patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated with pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the prostate area. A total of 110 patients entered our study, 37 patients presented with localized prostate cancer and radiological evidence of node metastases or ≥15% estimated risk of lymph node (LN) involvement, while 73 patients underwent postoperative adjuvant or salvage irradiation for biochemical or residual/recurrent disease, LN metastases, or high risk of harboring nodal metastases. All patients received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for 2 years. The median follow-up was 56.5 months. For the whole patient group, the 3- and 5-year freedom from biochemical failure were 82.6% and 74.6%, respectively, with a better outcome in patients treated with radical approach. The 3- and 5-year freedom from local failure were 94.4% and 90.2%, respectively, while the 3- and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival were 87.8% and 81.7%, respectively. For all study patients, the rate of freedom from G2 acute rectal, intestinal, and urinary toxicities was 60%, 77%, and 61%, respectively. There was no G3 acute toxicity, ≥G2 late intestinal toxicity, or G3 late urinary or rectal toxicity. The 3- and 5-year ≥G2 freedom from late rectal toxicity rate were 98% and 95%, respectively, while the 3- and 5-year ≥G2 freedom from late urinary toxicity rate were 95% and 88%, respectively. The study concludes that pelvic IMRT and SIB to the prostatic area in association with 2-year ADT was a well-tolerated technique, providing high disease control in patients with prostate cancer requiring LN treatment. PMID:24976538

  14. SU-E-J-125: A Novel IMRT Planning Technique to Spare Sacral Bone Marrow in Pelvic Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S; Bhatia, S; Sun, W; Menda, Y; Ponto, L; Gross, B; Buatti, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop an IMRT planning technique that can preferentially spare sacral bone marrow for pelvic cancer patients. Methods: Six pelvic cancer patients (two each with anal, cervical, and rectal cancer) were enrolled in an IRB approved protocol to obtain FLT PET images at simulation, during, and post chemoradiation therapy. Initially, conventional IMRT plans were created to maintain target coverage and reduce dose to OARs such as bladder, bowel, rectum, and femoral heads. Simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans to spare bone marrow identified as regions with SUV of 2 or greater (IMRT-BMS) within the pelvic bones from top of L3 to 5mm below the greater trochanter without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing when compared to the initial IMRT plan. IMRT-BMS plans used 8–10 beam angles that surrounded the subject. These plans were used for treatment. Retrospectively, the same simulation FLT PET images were used to create IMRT plans that spared bone marrow located in the sacral pelvic bone region (IMRT-FAN) also without compromising PTV coverage or OAR sparing. IMRT-FAN plans used 16 beam angles every 12° anteriorly from 90° – 270°. Optimization objectives for the sacral bone marrow avoidance region were weighted to reduce ≥V10. Results: IMRT-FAN reduced dose to the sacral bone marrow for all six subjects. The average V5, V10, V20, and V30 differences from the IMRT-BMS plan were −2.2 ± 1.7%, −11.4 ± 3.6%, −17.6 ± 5.1%, and −19.1 ± 8.1% respectively. Average PTV coverage change was 0.5% ± 0.8% from the conventional IMRT plan. Conclusion: An IMRT planning technique that uses beams from the anterior and lateral directions reduced the volume of sacral bone marrow that receives ≤10Gy while maintaining PTV coverage and OAR sparing. Additionally, the volume of sacral bone marrow that received 20 or 30 Gy was also reduced.

  15. Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection may be Limited on the Contralateral Side in Strictly Unilateral Bladder Cancer without Compromising Oncological Radicality

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Bernhard; Paerli, Michael; Schöndorf, Daniel; Burkhard, Fiona C.; Thalmann, George N.; Roth, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results of a dynamic multimodality mapping study showed no lymphatic drainage of the lateral bladder wall to the contralateral internal iliac region. Objectives: To validate whether pathoanatomical mapping in bladder cancer (BC) patients can confirm these results. Methods: Between 01/2000 and 07/2013, 825 BC patients preoperatively staged ≥pT1 and without clinical signs of metastases (cN0 cM0) underwent extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) and radical cystectomy at our department. Of these patients, 23% (193/825) were lymph node (LN) positive in the pathological specimen; 26% (51/193) of this subgroup had strictly unilateral BC. Pathoanatomical mapping was used to retrospectively validate the distribution of LN involvement in these 51 patients. Results: A median of 35 LNs were removed per patient (range: 13–80 LNs), with a median of 2 positive LNs (range: 1–14 LNs). 27% (14/51) of patients presented with LN metastases on the contralateral side. No positive LNs were found in the contralateral internal iliac region or the contralateral fossa of Marcille. 10% (5/51) of patients had LN metastases only on the contralateral side without evidence of metastases on the tumor-bearing side. Conclusions: Our findings corroborate the data of a dynamic mapping study showing bilateral lymphatic drainage in almost one third of patients with strictly unilateral BC, but no lymphatic drainage from the lateral bladder wall to the contralateral internal iliac region. If prospective studies confirm these results, the contralateral internal iliac region may be omitted during ePLND in patients with strictly unilateral BC. PMID:27376125

  16. Monocyte/macrophage and T-cell infiltrates in peritoneum of patients with ovarian cancer or benign pelvic disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xipeng; Deavers, Michael; Patenia, Rebecca; Bassett, Roland L; Mueller, Peter; Ma, Qing; Wang, Ena; Freedman, Ralph S

    2006-01-01

    Background We previously showed that tumor-free peritoneum of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) exhibited enhanced expression of several inflammatory response genes compared to peritoneum of benign disease. Here, we examined peritoneal inflammatory cell patterns to determine their concordance with selected enhanced genes. Methods Expression patterns of selected inflammatory genes were mined from our previously published data base. Bilateral pelvic peritoneal and subjacent stromal specimens were obtained from 20 women with EOC and 7 women with benign pelvic conditions. Sections were first stained by indirect immunoperoxidase and numbers of monocytes/macrophages (MO/MA), T cells, B cells, and NK cells counted. Proportions of CD68+ cells and CD3+ cells that coexpressed MO/MA differentiation factors (CD163, CCR1, CXCR8, VCAM1, and phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2 [pcPLA2]), which had demonstrated expression in EOC peritoneal samples, were determined by multicolor immunofluorescence. Results MO/MA were present on both sides of the pelvic peritoneum in EOC patients, with infiltration of the subjacent stroma and mesothelium. CD68+ MO/MA, the most commonly represented population, and CD3+ T cells were present more often in EOC than in benign pelvic tumors. NK cells, B cells, and granulocytes were rare. CXCL8 (IL-8) and the chemokine receptor CCR1 were coexpressed more frequently on MO/MA than on CD3+ cells contrasting with CD68+/CD163+ cells that coexpressed CXCL8 less often. An important activated enzyme in the eicosanoid pathway, pcPLA2, was highly expressed on both CD68+ and CD163+ cells. The adherence molecule Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM1) was expressed on CD31+ endothelial cells and on a proportion of CD68+ MO/MA but rarely on CD3+ cells. Conclusion The pelvic peritoneum in EOC exhibits a general pattern of chronic inflammation, represented primarily by differentiated MO/MA, and distinct from that in benign conditions concordant with

  17. Clinical results of an EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry method for pelvic cancers treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, J; Mazurier, J; Franck, D; Dudouet, P; Latorzeff, I; Franceries, X

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of our work was to investigate the feasibility of using an EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry method initially designed for conformal fields on pelvic dynamic IMRT fields. The method enables a point dose delivered to the patient to be calculated from the transit signal acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). After defining a set of correction factors allowing EPID pixel values to be converted into absolute doses, several tests on homogeneous water-equivalent phantoms were performed to estimate the validity of the method in reference conditions. The effects of different treatment parameters, such as delivered dose, field size dependence and patient thickness were also studied. The model was first evaluated on a group of 53 patients treated by 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and then on 92 patients treated by IMRT, both for pelvic cancers. For each measurement, the dose was reconstructed at the isocenter (DREC) and compared with the dose calculated by our treatment planning system (DTPS). Excellent agreement was found between DREC and DTPS for both techniques. For 3DCRT treatments, the mean deviation between DREC and DTPS for the 211 in-vivo dose verifications was equal to -1.0  ±  2.2% (1SD). Concerning IMRT treatments, the averaged deviation for the 418 fields verified was equal to -0.3 ± 2.6% (1SD) proving that the method is able to reconstruct a dose for dynamic IMRT pelvic fields. Based on these results, tolerance criteria and action levels were established before its implementation in clinical routine. PMID:24656798

  18. Comparative study of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of large renal pelvic stones

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Yasser M.; Morsy, Gamal; Badr, Magdy M.; Al Emam, Abdel Baset A.; Farid, Mourad; Etafy, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to investigate whether laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (LPL) could be used to manage large renal pelvic stones, generally considered excellent indications for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Methods: This study was performed from May 2009 to March 2012 at Al-Azhar University Hospitals (Assiut and Cairo), Egypt. It included two groups of patients with large renal pelvic stones; only patients with stones 2.5 cm2 or greater were included. Group 1 included 40 patients treated by PNL and Group 2 included 10 patients treated by LPL. The differences between the two procedures were compared and analyzed. Results: There was no difference between the two groups regarding patient demographics and stone size. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding mean estimated blood loss (65 ± 12.25 [range: 52.75–77.25] vs. 180 ± 20.74 [range: 159.26–200.74] mL, p ≤ 0001), mean hospital stay (2.3 ± 0.64 [range: 1.66–2.94] vs. 3.7 ± 1.4 [range: 2.3–5.1] days, p ≤ 0.006), rate of postoperative blood transfusion (0% vs. 4.8%, p ≤ 0.0024), and stone-free rate (80% vs. 78.6%, p ≤ 0.23). The mean operative time was significantly longer in Group 2 (LPL) (131 ± 22.11 [range: 108.89–153.11) vs. 51.19 ± 24.39 [range: 26.8–75.58] min, p ≤ 0001), respectively. Conclusion: Although PNL is the standard treatment in most cases of renal pelvic stones, LPL is another feasible surgical technique for patients with large renal pelvic stones. PMID:23589752

  19. Pelvic floor physical therapy for lifelong vaginismus: a retrospective chart review and interview study.

    PubMed

    Reissing, Elke D; Armstrong, Heather L; Allen, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic floor physical therapy is used in the treatment of sexual pain disorders; however, women with lifelong vaginismus have not yet been included in treatment studies or have not been differentiated from women with acquired vaginismus and/or dyspareunia. This retrospective chart review and interview study was intended to obtain initial information on physical therapy interventions, course, and outcome in women who have never been able to experience vaginal intercourse. The files of 53 women, consecutively treated at one physical therapy clinic, were included in the chart review; 13 of these women volunteered to be interviewed. The chart review revealed significant pelvic floor pathology and an average treatment course of 29 sessions. Internal manual techniques were found to be most effective, followed by patient education, dilatation exercises, and home exercises. Although participants were very satisfied with the physical therapy, some symptoms, such as pain, anxiety/fear, and pelvic floor tension remained and scores on the Female Sexual Distress Scale and Female Sexual Function Index indicated clinical levels of sexual distress and impaired sexual function after treatment. Although there appears to be no linear relation between symptom reduction and healthy sexual function, this initial information suggests that physical therapy may be a promising treatment option for some women with lifelong vaginismus and merits further evaluation. PMID:23470141

  20. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of the Pelvic Lymph Nodes to the Aortic Bifurcation in Higher Risk Prostate Cancer: Early Toxicity Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hesselberg, Gina; Fogarty, Gerald; Haydu, Lauren; Dougheney, Nicole; Stricker, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) in higher risk prostate carcinoma is controversial. The primary focus of the study was to evaluate the early toxicity profile for this cohort of patients treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). Methods. Patient, tumour, and treatment characteristics of those who received VMAT from May 2010 to December 2012 were analysed. A simplified contouring process of the PLNs to the aortic bifurcation was developed based on consensus guidelines. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were documented according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Version 2 Guidelines. Successive Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) values after treatment were measured on average 3 months apart. Results. 113 patients were treated between May 2010 to December 2012 with a median follow-up of 14 months. No patients experienced acute grade 3 or 4 GU and GI toxicity. Only 1 patient experienced a late grade 3 GU complication. No late grade 4 GU or GI events have yet occurred. Conclusions. This study reviews the first Australian experience of VMAT in the treatment of pelvic lymph nodes in prostate cancer, specifically to the level of the aortic bifurcation. It demonstrates a favorable acute toxicity profile whilst treating large PLN volumes with optimal dose coverage. PMID:26539522

  1. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA–IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Ming-Zhu; Li, Ming-Xia; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wei, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75–80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs), unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA–IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People's Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases). Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00) was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00), the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04) and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03) had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00), depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00) and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03) were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  2. A clinical study on the trocar-guided mesh repair system for pelvic organ prolapse surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Seul Gi; Moon, Jeong Beom; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Kyoung A; Lee, Ju Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the complication and recurrence rates in patients undergoing trocar-guided mesh implant for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) treatment. Methods A retrospective study was performed based on the medical records of patients who had undergone mesh implant by one surgeon from May 2006 to August 2013 at the Presbyterian Medical Center in Korea. We evaluated perioperative complications such as bladder injury, mesh exposure, urinary symptoms, infections, and chronic pelvic pain. Recurrence was defined as a POP-quantification system stage ≥II or any symptomatic prolapse. Results Sixty-seven patients were evaluated, and the mean age of patients was 65.4±7.2 years. Stage ≥III POP-quantification Ba was noted in 61 patients (91%). Intraoperative complications included three cases of bladder injury (4.5%). The mean follow-up period was 44.1±7.9 months. Postoperative complications occurred in seven women (10.5%): four cases of urinary symptoms (6%), two cases of infections (3%), and one case of chronic pelvic pain (1.5%). Mesh exposure did not occur (0%). Prolapse recurrence was reported in five patients (7.5%). Conclusion Based on our operational result, the trocar-guided mesh implant seems to provide safe and effective outcomes. PMID:27200311

  3. The role and strategy of IMRT in radiotherapy of pelvic tumors: Dose escalation and critical organ sparing in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.-M.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Lee, M.-L.; Huang, P.-I.; Hsieh, C.-M.; Chen, P.-H.; Lin, Y.-H.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H. . E-mail: shyen@vghtpe.gov.tw

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) strategy in dose escalation of prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Plan dosimetric data of 10 prostate cancer patients were compared with two-dimensional (2D) or IMRT techniques for pelvis (two-dimensional whole pelvic radiation therapy [2D-WPRT] or IM-WPRT) to receive 50 Gy or 54 Gy and additional prostate boost by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or IMRT (3D-PBRT or IM-PBRT) techniques up to 72 Gy or 78 Gy. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs), normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) of critical organ, and conformity of target volume in various combinations were calculated. Results: In DVH analysis, the plans with IM-WPRT (54 Gy) and additional boost up to 78 Gy had lower rectal and bladder volume percentage at 50 Gy and 60 Gy, compared with those with 2D-WPRT (50 Gy) and additional boost up to 72 Gy or 78 Gy. Those with IM-WPRT (54 Gy) also had better small bowel sparing at 30 Gy and 50 Gy, compared with those with 2D-WPRT (50 Gy). In NTCP, those with IM-WPRT and total dose of 78 Gy achieved lower complication rates in rectum and small bowel, compared with those of 2D-WPRT with total dose of 72 Gy. In conformity, those with IM-WPRT had better conformity compared with those with 2D-WPRT with significance (p < 0.005). No significant difference in DVHs, NTCP, or conformity was found between IM-PBRT and 3D-PBRT after IM-WPRT. Conclusions: Initial pelvic IMRT is the most important strategy in dose escalation and critical organ sparing. IM-WPRT is recommended for patients requiring WPRT. There is not much benefit for critical organ sparing by IMRT after 2D-WPRT.

  4. Pelvic autonomic nerve preservation in radical rectal cancer surgery: changes in the past 3 decades

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Min-Hoe; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Lim, Evan; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The advent of total mesorectal excision (TME) together with minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopic colorectal surgery and robotic surgery has improved surgical results. However, the incidence of bladder and sexual dysfunction remains high. This may be particularly distressing for the patient and troublesome to manage for the surgeon when it does occur. The increased use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant radiotherapy is also associated with poorer functional outcomes. In this review, we evaluate current understanding of the anatomy of pelvic nerves which are divided into the areas of the inferior mesenteric artery pedicle, the lateral pelvic wall and dissection around the urogenital organs. Surgical techniques in these areas are discussed. We also discuss the results in functional outcomes of the various techniques including open, laparoscopic and robotic over the last 30 years. PMID:27478196

  5. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, Marvin . E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Bundy, Brian; Lentz, Samuel S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Zaino, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or

  6. The MAPP research network: a novel study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) may be defined to include interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The hallmark symptom of UCPPS is chronic pain in the pelvis, urogenital floor, or external genitalia often accompanied by lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite numerous past basic and clinical research studies there is no broadly identifiable organ-specific pathology or understanding of etiology or risk factors for UCPPS, and diagnosis relies primarily on patient reported symptoms. In addition, there are no generally effective therapies. Recent findings have, however, revealed associations between UCPPS and “centralized” chronic pain disorders, suggesting UCPPS may represent a local manifestation of more widespread pathology in some patients. Here, we describe a new and novel effort initiated by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to address the many long standing questions regarding UCPPS, the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network. The MAPP Network approaches UCPPS in a systemic manner, in which the interplay between the genitourinary system and other physiological systems is emphasized. The network’s study design expands beyond previous research, which has primarily focused on urologic organs and tissues, to utilize integrated approaches to define patient phenotypes, identify clinically-relevant subgroups, and better understand treated natural history and pathophysiology. Thus, the MAPP Network provides an unprecedented, multi-layered characterization of UCPPS. Knowledge gained is expected to provide important insights into underlying pathophysiology, a foundation for better segmenting patients for future clinical trials, and ultimately translation into improved clinical management. In addition, the MAPP Network’s integrated multi

  7. Association of hip and pelvic geometrywith tibiofemoral osteoarthritis: Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST)

    PubMed Central

    Boissonneault, A; Lynch, JA; Wise, BL; Segal, NA; Gross, KD; Murray, DW; Nevitt, MC; Pandit, HG

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) is overall less common than medial tibiofemoral OA, but it is more prevalent in women. This may be explained by sex differences in hip and pelvic geometry. The aim of this study is to explore sex differences in hip and pelvic geometry and determine if such parameters are associated with the presence of compartment-specific knee OA. Methods This case-control study reports on 1,328 hips/knees from 664 participants and is an ancillary to the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST). Of the 1,328 knees, 219 had lateral OA, 260 medial OA, and 849 no OA. Hip and pelvic measurements were taken from full-limb radiographs on the ipsilateral side of the knee of interest. After adjusting for covariates, means were compared between sexes and also between knees with medial and lateral OA versus no OA using separate regression models. Results Women were shown to have a reduced femoral offset (mean 40.9 mm vs. 45.9 mm; p=0.001) and more valgus neck-shaft angle (mean 128.4° vs. 125.9°; p<0.001) compared to men. Compared to those with no OA, knees with lateral OA were associated with a reduced femoral offset (p=0.012), increased height of hip centre (p=0.003), more valgus neck-shaft angle (p=0.042), and increased abductor angle (p=0.031). Knees with medial OA were associated with a more varus neck-shaft angle (p=0.043) and a decreased abductor angle (p=0.003). Conclusion These data suggest anatomical variations at the hip and pelvis are associated with compartment-specific knee OA and may help to explain sex differences in patterns of knee OA. PMID:24971867

  8. Factors Associated With Pelvic Fracture-Related Arterial Bleeding During Trauma Resuscitation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Laszlo; King, Kate L.; McGrath, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine predictors of pelvic fracture-related arterial bleeding (PFRAB) from the information available in the Emergency Department (ED). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Single level-1 Trauma Center. Patients: In a 3-year period ending in December 2008, consecutive high-energy pelvic fracture patients older than 18 years were included. Patients who arrived >4 hours after injury or dead on arrival were excluded. Patient management followed advanced trauma life support and institutional guidelines. Collected data included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, vital signs, acid-base status, fluid resuscitation, trauma scores, fracture patterns, procedures, and outcomes. Potential predictors were identified using standard statistical tests: Univariate analysis, Pearson correlation (r), receiver operator characteristic, and decision tree analysis. Intervention: Observational study. Outcome Measures: PFRAB was determined based on angiography or computed tomography angiogram or laparotomy findings. Results: Of the 143 study patients, 15 (10%) had PFRAB. They were significantly older, more severely injured, more hypotensive, more acidotic, more likely to require transfusions in the ED, and had higher mortality rate than non-PFRAB patients. No single variable proved to be a strong predictor but some had a significant correlation with PFRAB. Useful predictors identified were worst base deficit (BD), receiver operator characteristic (0.77, cutoff: 6 mmol/L, r = 0.37), difference between any 2 measures of BD within 4 hours (ΔBD) >2 mmol/L, transfusion in ED (yes/no), and worst systolic blood pressure <104 mm Hg. Demographics, injury mechanism, fracture pattern, temperature, and pH had poor predictive value. Conclusions: BD <6 mmol/L, ΔBD >2 mmol/L, systolic blood pressure <104 mm Hg, and the need for transfusion in ED are independent predictors of PFRAB in the ED. These predictors can be valuable to triage blunt trauma victims for pelvic

  9. Treatment of bulky stage IB and IIB cervical cancers with outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation and extrafascial hysterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nagell, J.R.; Maruyama, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.S.; Hanson, M.B.; Gallion, H.H.; Powell, D.E.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    From January, 1977, to December, 1982, twenty-nine patients with bulky (>4 cms diameter) Stage IB or IIB cervical cancer were treated at the University of Kentucky Medical Center by a combination of out-patient neutron brachytherapy (Cf-252) and external pelvic radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. Residual tumor was present in the hysterectomy specimens of 25 per cent. Complications during and following radiation therapy and surgery were minimal and included vaginal stenosis, proctitis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. The mean duration of hospitalization for surgery in these patients was 6.6 days (range 5-15 days) and postoperative morbidity was low. No patient required blood transfusion. Four patients developed urinary tract infections and two had superficial wound separations. Following treatment, patients were seen at monthly intervals for one year, every three months for two years, and every six months thereafter. No patient has been lost to follow-up. Two patients (7 per cent) developed tumor recurrence and have died of disease (1 of distant metastases; 1 local). The remaining 27 patients (93 per cent) are alive and well with no evidence of disease 24-89 months (mean 48 months) after therapy. No radiogenic fistulae or bowel obstruction were observed. These preliminary results suggest that the combination of outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation, and extrafascial hysterectomy for patients with Stage IB and IIB cervical cancer is well tolerated. Complications associated with this treatment regimen have been minimal, and the recurrence rate is low. The duration of intracavitary neutron brachytherapy was short, and outpatient therapy was well received by patients.

  10. Toxicity Assessment of Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Hypofractionated Simultaneous Integrated Boost to Prostate for Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, Robert; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Kavanagh, Brian; Newell, Sherri B.S.; Newman, Francis M.S.; Raben, David

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the prostate for patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective toxicity analysis was performed in 30 consecutive patients treated definitively with pelvic SIB-IMRT, all of whom also received androgen suppression. The IMRT plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 28 fractions (2.5 Gy/fraction) to the prostate while simultaneously delivering 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (1.8 Gy/fraction) to the pelvic lymph nodes. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to score toxicity. Results: The most common acute Grade 2 events were cystitis (36.7%) and urinary frequency/urgency (26.7%). At a median follow-up of 24 months, late toxicity exceeding Grade 2 in severity was uncommon, with two Grade 3 events and one Grade 4 event. Grade 2 or greater acute bowel toxicity was associated with signficantly greater bowel volume receiving {>=}25 Gy (p = .04); Grade 2 or greater late bowel toxicity was associated with a higher bowel maximal dose (p = .04) and volume receiving {>=}50 Gy (p = .02). Acute or late bladder and rectal toxicity did not correlate with any of the dosimetric parameters examined. Conclusion: Pelvic IMRT with SIB to the prostate was well tolerated in this series, with low rates of Grade 3 or greater acute and late toxicity. SIB-IMRT combines pelvic radiotherapy and hypofractionation to the primary site and offers an accelerated approach to treating intermediate- to high-risk disease. Additional follow-up is necessary to fully define the long-term toxicity after hypofractionated, whole pelvic treatment combined with androgen suppression.

  11. Clinical results of early stage prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymphadenectomy and /sup 125/I implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kandzari, S.J.; Belis, J.A.; Kim, J.C.; Gnepp, D.R.; Riley, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    Eighty patients with clinically early stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with pelvic lymphadenectomy and interstitial implantation of /sup 125/I seeds. A new applicator that permits greater accuracy in spacing the seeds has been developed. Postoperative complications were minimal, with urinary irritability being the most common. Multiple transrectal needle biopsies were performed 12 and 18 months after treatment in 46 patients. The prostatic biopsies were negative for carcinoma in 61 per cent and positive in 39 per cent of the patients. Long-term followup is needed to correlate post-treatment biopsies with survival and to determine if patients with positive biopsies should receive further treatment.

  12. Clinical holistic medicine: pilot study on the effect of vaginal acupressure (Hippocratic pelvic massage).

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    This is a pilot study of 20 female patients with a long history of sexual problems (mean is 8.92 years) who received vaginal acupressure (VA) with a quantitative and qualitative evaluation: 56% experienced help and none reported setbacks, 89% rated the treatment to be of high quality, and 89% rated it as valuable. After the treatment, most reported their problems to be less serious and their general quality of life improved. Only 17% reported minor or temporary side effects. VA was found statistically and clinically significant (p < 0.05, improvement more than 0.5 step on a 5-point Likert scale) to help patients with chronic genital pains, pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse, lack of desire or orgasm, and subjective sexual insufficiency, and all patients taken as one group (about 1 step up a 5-point Likert scale). Self-evaluated physical and mental health was significantly improved for the total group; the relationship with partner, the subjective sexual ability, and the quality of life that were measured with QOL1 and QOL5 questionnaires were all significantly improved. VA or Hippocratic pelvic massage is technically a simple procedure corresponding to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings provoked followed by processing and integration of these feelings, but ethical aspects are complicated. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done according to the highest ethical standard with great care, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient within the framework of the local laws. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing. PMID:17370006

  13. Predictors for postpartum pelvic girdle pain in working women: the Mom@Work cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Bruinvels, David J; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine which factors during pregnancy and postpartum predict pelvic girdle pain (PGP) at 12 weeks postpartum among working women. A total of 548 Dutch pregnant employees were recruited in 15 companies, mainly health care, child care, and supermarkets. The definition of PGP was any pain felt in the pelvic girdle region at 12 weeks postpartum. Participants received questionnaires at 30 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum with demographic, work-related, pregnancy-related, fatigue, psychosocial, PGP-related and delivery-related questions. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Almost half of the women experienced pain in their pelvic girdle at 12 weeks postpartum. However, the level of pain and the degree of disability due to postpartum PGP was low. Pregnancy-related predictors for PGP at 12 weeks were history of low back pain, higher somatisation, more than 8 hours of sleep or rest per day, and uncomfortable postures at work. The pregnancy and postpartum-related predictors were: more disability at 6 weeks, having PGP at 6 weeks, higher mean pain at 6 weeks, higher somatisation during pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum, higher birth weight of the baby, uncomfortable postures at work and number of days of bed rest. Based on these results, it is concluded that extra attention should be given to women who experience PGP during pregnancy to prevent serious PGP during late pregnancy and postpartum. More research is needed to confirm the roles of hours of sleep, somatisation, and bed rest in relation to PGP. PMID:23137900

  14. Diagnosing pelvic osteomyelitis beneath pressure ulcers in spinal cord injured patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Brunel, A-S; Lamy, B; Cyteval, C; Perrochia, H; Téot, L; Masson, R; Bertet, H; Bourdon, A; Morquin, D; Reynes, J; Le Moing, V

    2016-03-01

    There is no consensus on a diagnostic strategy for osteomyelitis underlying pressure ulcers. We conducted a prospective study to assess the accuracy of multiple bone biopsies and imaging to diagnose pelvic osteomyelitis. Patients with clinically suspected osteomyelitis beneath pelvic pressure ulcers were enrolled. Bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical bone biopsies (three or more for microbiology and one for histology per ulcer) were performed. Bacterial osteomyelitis diagnosis relied upon the association of positive histology and microbiology (at least one positive culture for non-commensal microorganisms or three or more for commensal microorganisms of the skin). From 2011 to 2014, 34 patients with 44 pressure ulcers were included. Bacterial osteomyelitis was diagnosed for 28 (82.3%) patients and 35 (79.5%) ulcers according to the composite criterion. Discrepancy was observed between histology and microbiology for 5 (11.4%) ulcers. Most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (77.1%), Peptostreptococcus (48.6%) and Bacteroides (40%), cultured in three or more samples in 42.9% of ulcers for S. aureus and ≥20% for anaerobes. Only 2.8% of ulcers had three or more positive specimens with coagulase-negative staphylococci, group B Streptococcus, and nil with enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus and group milleri Streptococcus were recovered from one sample in 22.8%, 11.4% and 11.4% of ulcers, respectively. Agreement was poor between biopsies and MRI (κ 0.2). Sensitivity of MRI was 94.3% and specificity was 22.2%. The diagnosis of pelvic osteomyelitis relies on multiple surgical bone biopsies with microbiological and histological analyses. At least three bone samples allows the detection of pathogens and exclusion of contaminants. MRI is not routinely useful for diagnosis. PMID:26620686

  15. A study of the inferior mesenteric and pelvic ganglia of guinea-pigs with intracellular electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Crowcroft, P. J.; Szurszewski, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    1. Ganglion cells in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) and the pelvic plexus of the guinea-pig were studied using intracellular micro-electrodes. 2. Ganglion cells had resting membrane potentials of 55-65 mV. Threshold for initiation of an action potential ranged from 10 to 20 mV depolarization. Action potentials often exceeded 100 mV in amplitude and were followed by an after-hyperpolarization of up to 20 mV. 3. Synaptic responses were recorded from cells in the IMG in response to stimulation of the right and left hypogastric nerves, ascending mesenteric, inferior splanchnic and colonic nerves. It has been established that more than forty preganglionic fibres converge on any one cell. Preganglionic fibres to the IMG were also observed in the pelvic nerves. 4. In contrast to the IMG, ganglion cells in the pelvic plexus received up to ten preganglionic fibres. 5. Ganglion cells responded to supramaximal preganglionic stimulation with up to four action potentials. 6. In the IMG, action potentials in response to synaptic action were followed by a prolonged period of hyperpolarization (after-hyperpolarization) and a later phase of prolonged depolarization (after-depolarization). The time course of these after potentials depended on the pattern of firing of action potentials during the period of stimulation. In the presence of dihydro-β-erythroidine, or if synaptic action was insufficient to evoke action potentials, only the after-depolarization was observed. 7. Other cells were impaled whose properties differed from those described above. In one group of cells the resting membrane potentials were higher (up to 85 mV), input resistances lower and the threshold for initiation of an action potential was higher. The other group were inexcitable, had high resting membrane potentials (up to 85 mV), low input resistances and underwent a slow depolarization in response to repetitive stimulation of preganglionic fibres. 8. This study indicates that marked convergence of

  16. The Potential for Dose Dumping in Normal Tissues with IMRT for Pelvic and H and N Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Nandanuri; Mazur, Andrzej K.; Sampath, Seshadri; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brij M.; Ravi, Akkamma; Nori, Dattatreyudu

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the potential for dose dumping in normal tissues (>85% of prescription dose) and to analyze effectiveness of techniques used in reducing dose dumping during IMRT. Two hundred sixty-five intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for 55 patients with prostate, head-and-neck (H and N), and cervix cancers with 6-MV photon beams and >5 fields were reviewed to analyze why dose dumping occurred, and the techniques used to reduce dose dumping. Various factors including gantry angles, depth of beams (100 - SSD), duration of optimization, severity of dose-volume constraints (DVC) on normal structures, and spatial location of planning treatment volumes (PTV) were reviewed in relation to dose dumping. In addition, the effect of partial contouring of rectum in beam's path on dose dumping in rectum was studied. Dose dumping occurred at d{sub max} in 17 pelvic cases (85% to 129%). This was related to (1) depth of beams (100 SSD [source-to-skin distance]), (2) PTV located between normal structures with DVC, and (3) relative lack of rectum and bladder in beam's path. Dose dumping could be reduced to 85% by changing beam angles and/or DVC for normal structures in 5 cases and by creating 'phantom structures' in 12 cases. Decreasing the iterations (duration of optimization) also reduced dose dumping and monitor units (MUs). Part of uncontoured rectum, if present in the field, received a higher dose than the contoured rectum with DVC, indicating that complete delineation of normal structures and DVC is necessary to prevent dose dumping. In H and N, when PTV extends inadvertently into air beyond the body even by a few millimeters, dose dumping occurred in beam's path (220% for 5-field and 170%, 7-field plans). Keeping PTV margins within body contour reduced this type of dose dumping. Beamlet optimization, duration of optimization, spatial location of PTV, and DVC on PTV and normal structures has the potential to cause dose dumping

  17. The value of pelvic radiation therapy after hysterectomy for early endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Eifel, Patricia J

    2013-10-01

    Although endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting women, most cases are detected at an early stage and are cured with hysterectomy alone. Most recurrences occur in the relatively small subset of patients whose surgical specimens reveal multiple risk factors. Clinicians have sought to define adjuvant treatments that can improve the outcome of treatment for these higher-risk patients. Although randomized trials have demonstrated that radiation therapy improves local control, they have failed to demonstrate an improvement in survival with radiation therapy. In this review, the results and limitations of studies concerning adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy for endometrial cancer will be discussed, focusing on evidence that can help to guide treatment decisions. PMID:24367856

  18. Category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: insights from the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network studies.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis; Alexander, Richard B; Anderson, Rodney; Berger, Richard; Comiter, Craig V; Datta, Nand S; Fowler, Jackson E; Krieger, John N; Landis, J Richard; Litwin, Mark S; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; O'Leary, Michael P; Pontari, Michel A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Shoskes, Daniel A; White, Paige; Kusek, John; Nyberg, Leroy

    2008-07-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains an enigmatic medical condition. Creation of the National Institutes of Health-funded Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) has stimulated a renewed interest in research on and clinical aspects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Landmark publications of the CPCRN document a decade of progress. Insights from these CPCRN studies have improved our management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and offer hope for continued progress. PMID:18765132

  19. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reviewed: 04/12/2013 Related A-Z Topics Endometriosis Menstruation and Menstrual Problems Pelvic Floor Disorders All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights Endometriosis linked to increased risk for heart disease, NIH- ...

  20. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. PMID:25108498

  1. Preoperative whole pelvic external irradiation in Stage I endometrial cancer. [/sup 60/Co; /sup 226/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Ritcher, N.; Lucas, W.E.; Yon, J.L.; Sanford, F.G.

    1981-07-01

    Between 1966 and 1978, 201 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium were treated at two hospitals in San Diego. Of these patients, 161 had disease limited to the corpus at the time of diagnosis. The majority of these patients received external whole-pelvic irradiation, followed as soon as possible by simple extrafascial hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. When this treatment method was used, actuarial survivals of 95% for Stage I disease were achieved. Also reported is the low incidence of wound complications in the group of patients operated soon after cessation of irradiation. The patients treated in this fashion had good survival rates, little morbidity from the adjunctive irradiation, and fewer wound complications than previously anticipated.

  2. The new approach to the rectal cancer: 'down-to-up' double endolaparoscopic pelvic access. Preliminary evaluation of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Borreca, Dario; Bona, Alberto; Bellomo, Maria Paola; Borasi, Andrea; De Paolis, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Laparoscopic access in low anterior rectal resection is widely adopted, performing an 'up-to-down' dissection. The aim of this study is to present and analyze the outcomes of a novel surgical 'down-to-up' total mesorectal excision technique that could obviate to the well-known issues of the standard treatment. 18 suitable patients underwent double endolaparoscopic pelvic access (DEPA) 'down-to-up' technique. DEPA TME was completed in all patients, with intact mesorectum. Mean operative time was 365 min (range 280-510 min). The morbidity rate was 22%, including three radiologically detected leakage (grade A) and one pelvic abscess, requiring only a conservative management. Mortality rate at 30 and 90 days was 0%. Resection margins were negative in all patients. A median of 11 nodes (range 5-19) was retrieved per specimen. Mean length of hospital stay was 9 days (range 7-19 days). Patients were followed for an average of 14 months (range 0-42 months), with no recurrence. Despite exiguous patient's sample in this pilot study, transanal endoscopic TME with laparoscopic assistance seems to be feasible and safe, and is a promising alternative to open and laparoscopic TME. However, a conspicuous functional and oncologic long-term evaluation is required, before the widespread adoption could be recommended. PMID:26109139

  3. A prospective comparison of acute intestinal toxicity following whole pelvic versus small field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Park, Jin-hong; Yun, In-Ha; Kim, Young Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the acute intestinal toxicity of whole pelvic (WP) and small field (SF) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer using dosimetric and metabolic parameters as well as clinical findings. Methods Patients who received IMRT in either a definitive or postoperative setting were prospectively enrolled. Target volume and organs at risk including intestinal cavity (IC) were delineated in every patient by a single physician. The IC volume that received a 10–50 Gy dose at 5-Gy intervals (V10–V50) and the percentage of irradiated volume as a fraction of total IC volume were calculated. Plasma citrulline levels, as an objective biological marker, were checked at three time points: baseline and after exposure to 30 Gy and 60 Gy. Results Of the 41 patients, only six experienced grade 1 acute intestinal toxicity. Although all dose–volume parameters were significantly worse following WP than SF IMRT, there was no statistically significant relationship between these dosimetric parameters and clinical symptoms. Plasma citrulline levels did not show a serial decrease by radiotherapy volume difference (WP versus SF) and were not relevant to the irradiated doses. Conclusion Given that WP had comparable acute intestinal toxicities to those associated with SF, WP IMRT appears to be a feasible approach for the treatment of prostate cancer despite dosimetric disadvantages. PMID:27022287

  4. Prevention of pelvic radiation disease.

    PubMed

    Fuccio, Lorenzo; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Guido, Alessandra

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Treatment of patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that frequently includes radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity is a major complication and the transient or long-term problems, ranging from mild to very severe, arising in non-cancerous tissues resulting from radiation treatment to a tumor of pelvic origin, are actually called as pelvic radiation disease. The incidence of pelvic radiation disease changes according to the radiation technique, the length of follow up, the assessment method, the type and stage of cancer and several other variables. Notably, even with the most recent radiation techniques, i.e., intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the incidence of radiation-induced GI side effects is overall reduced but still not negligible. In addition, radiation-induced GI side effects can develop even after several decades; therefore, the improvement of patient life expectancy will unavoidably increase the risk of developing radiation-induced complications. Once developed, the management of pelvic radiation disease may be challenging. Therefore, the prevention of radiation-induced toxicity represents a reasonable way to avoid a dramatic drop of the quality of life of these patients. In the current manuscript we provide an updated and practical review on the best available evidences in the field of the prevention of pelvic radiation disease. PMID:25664197

  5. Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor dysfunctions in female athletes in Brazil: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M B A; Barra, A A; Saltiel, F; Silva-Filho, A L; Fonseca, A M R M; Figueiredo, E M

    2016-09-01

    The pelvic floor (PF) provides support to all pelvic organs, as well as appropriately closure/opening mechanism of the urethra, vagina, and anus. Therefore, it is likely that female athletes involved in high-impact and in strong-effort activities are at risk for the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of UI and other PF dysfunctions (PFD) [anal incontinence (AI), symptoms of constipation, dyspareunia, vaginal laxity, and pelvic organ prolapse] in 67 amateur athletes (AT) compared with a group 96 of nonathletes (NAT). An ad hoc survey based on questions from reliable and valid instruments was developed to investigate the occurrence of PFD symptoms. The risk of UI was higher in AT group (odds ratio: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.50-5.61), mostly among artistic gymnastics and trampoline, followed by swimming and judo athletes. Whereas, AT group reported less straining to evacuate (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96), manual assistance to defecate (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05-1.12), and a higher stool frequency (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.64) than NAT group. The occurrence of loss of gas and sexual symptoms was high for both groups when compared with literature, although with no statistical difference between them. Pelvic organ prolapse was only reported by nonathletes. Athletes are at higher risk to develop UI, loss of gas, and sexual dysfunctions, either practicing high-impact or strong-effort activities. Thus, pelvic floor must be considered as an entity and addressed as well. Also, women involved in long-term high-impact and strengthening sports should be advised of the impact of such activities on pelvic floor function and offered preventive PFD strategies as well. PMID:26369504

  6. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Tatu, C.A.; Bushon, R.N.; Stoeckel, D.M.; Brady, A.M.G.; Beck, M.; Lerch, H.E.; McGee, B.; Hanson, B.C.; Shi, R.; Orem, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  7. Possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and renal pelvic cancer in northwestern Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Joseph E; Tatu, Calin A; Bushon, Rebecca N; Stoeckel, Donald M; Brady, Amie M G; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C; Shi, Runhua; Orem, William H

    2006-12-01

    In May and September, 2002, 14 private residential drinking water wells, one dewatering well at a lignite mine, eight surface water sites, and lignite from an active coal mine were sampled in five Parishes of northwestern Louisiana, USA. Using a geographic information system (GIS), wells were selected that were likely to draw water that had been in contact with lignite; control wells were located in areas devoid of lignite deposits. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (cultures maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically) and for metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and presence of pathogenic leptospiral bacteria. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis (RPC) based on data obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry for the five Parishes included in the study. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the presence in drinking water of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO(4) and NH(3), and 13 chemical elements. Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was detected in four out of eight (50%) of the surface water sites sampled. The present study of a stable rural population examined possible linkages between aquifers containing chemically reactive lignite deposits, hydrologic conditions favorable to the leaching and transport of toxic organic compounds from the lignite into the groundwater, possible microbial contamination, and RPC risk. PMID:17120101

  8. Radiation dose reduction in thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT using tube current modulation: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Mustafa, Zakira; Nassir, Khadijah Mohd; Hamid, Hamzaini Abdul; Sun, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    This phantom study was designed to compare the radiation dose in thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT scans with and without use of tube current modulation (TCM). Effective dose (ED) and size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) were calculated with the absorbed doses measured at selective radiosensitive organs using a thermoluminescence dosimeter-100 (TLD-100). When compared to protocols without TCM, the ED and SSDE were reduced significantly with use of TCM for both the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT. With use of TCM, the ED was 6.50 ± 0.29 mSv for thoracic and 6.01 ± 0.20 mSv for the abdomen-pelvic CT protocols. However without use of TCM, the ED was 20.07 ± 0.24 mSv and 17.30 ± 0.41 mSv for the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols, respectively. The corresponding SSDE was 10.18 ± 0.48 mGy and 11.96 ± 0.27 mGy for the thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols with TCM, and 31.56 ± 0.43 mGy and 33.23 ± 0.05 mGy for thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT protocols without TCM, respectively. The highest absorbed dose was measured at the breast with 8.58 ± 0.12 mGy in the TCM protocols and 51.52 ± 14.72 mGy in the protocols without TCM during thoracic CT. In the abdomen-pelvic CT, the absorbed dose was highest at the skin with 9.30 ± 1.28mGy and 29.99 ± 2.23 mGy in protocols with and without use of TCM, respectively. In conclusion, the TCM technique results in significant dose reduction; thus it is to be highly recommended in routine thoracic and abdomen-pelvic CT. PMID:25679153

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in women with pelvic floor disorders: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Shannon L.; Komesu, Yuko; Omotosho, Tola; Hammil, Sarah; Lewis, Cindi; Sapien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to compare complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in women with and without pelvic floor disorders (PFD). Methods We conducted a survey of women presenting to a specialty urogynecology (Urogyn) and gynecology (Gyn) clinic that examined demographic data, CAM use, and the presence of PFD (validated questionnaires). T tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression were used for analysis. To detect a 20% difference between groups, 234 Urogyn and 103 Gyn patients were needed. Results Participants included 234 Urogyn and 103 Gyn patients. Urogyn patients reported more CAM use than Gyn patients, even when controlled for differences between groups (51% vs. 32%, adjusted p=0.006). Previous treatment (61% vs. 39%, adjusted p<0.001) and increased number of PFD was associated with increased CAM use (adjusted p=0.02). Conclusions Women with PFD use CAM more frequently than women without PFD. PMID:19967336

  10. Nonhuman primate models used to study pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jason D; Bergin, Ingrid L; Schmidt, Kelsey; Zochowski, Melissa K; Aronoff, David M; Patton, Dorothy L

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a global health concern that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. Throughout history animals have been used for anatomical studies and later as models of human disease. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs) have permitted investigations of human disease in a biologically, physiologically, and anatomically similar system. The use of NHPs as human PID models has led to a greater understanding of the primary microorganisms that cause disease (e.g., Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorroheae), the pathogenesis of infection and its complications, and the treatment of people with PID. This paper explores historical and contemporary aspects of NHP modeling of chlamydial PID, with an emphasis on advantages and limitations of this approach and future directions for this research. PMID:21869858

  11. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Marques, Joseane; Silva, Valéria R.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Botelho, Simone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9) participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96), average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97), and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92) dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25993624

  12. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  13. Recommendations on routine screening pelvic examination

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Gorber, Sarah Connor; Moore, Ainsley; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the 2014 American College of Physicians (ACP) guideline on the use of pelvic examinations to screen for cancer (other than cervical), pelvic inflammatory disease, or other benign gynecologic conditions to determine whether the ACP guideline on routine pelvic examinations was consistent with Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) standards and could be adapted or adopted. Methods The SNAP-IT (Smooth National Adaptation and Presentation of Guidelines to Improve Thrombosis Treatment) method was used to determine whether the ACP guideline was consistent with CTFPHC standards and could be adapted or adopted. Recommendations The CTFPHC recommends not performing a screening pelvic examination to screen for noncervical cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, or other gynecological conditions in asymptomatic women. This is a strong recommendation with moderate-quality evidence. Conclusion The CTFPHC adopts the recommendation on screening pelvic examination as published by the ACP in 2014. PMID:26975912

  14. Radiation-Related Predictors of Hematologic Toxicity After Concurrent Chemoradiation for Cervical Cancer and Implications for Bone Marrow-Sparing Pelvic IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Albuquerque, Kevin; Giangreco, David; Morrison, Courtney; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Sinacore, Jim; Potkul, Ronald; Roeske, John

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To determine factors predictive for hematologic toxicity (HT) associated with concurrent chemoradiation for Stage II through IV cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 40 women receiving concurrent chemoradiation for cervical cancer were reviewed. Hematologic toxicity was defined by use of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0). Variables predicting for HT including age, body mass index, transfusions, and bone marrow volumes irradiated were included in the data analysis. Results: Of the patients, 13 (32.5%) had Grade 0 or 1 HT and 27 (67.5%) had Grade 2 through 4 HT (HT2+). Multiple logistic regression analysis of potential predictors showed that only the volume of bone receiving 20 Gy (V20) for whole pelvic bone tended toward significance for predicting HT2+. A strong correlation was noted between HT2+ and V20 (r = 0.8, p < 0.0001). A partitioning analysis to predict HT2+ showed a cutoff value of 79.42% (approximately 80%) for V20 of whole pelvic bone. That is, if the V20 of the whole pelvis exceeds 80%, the risk of HT2+ developing increases by a factor (odds ratio) of 4.5 (95%, confidence interval, 1.08-18.69) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We have shown a correlation between bone marrow volume radiated and development of HT. This has implications for use of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy, which can potentially decrease the volume of bone marrow radiated.

  15. CT in ovarian cancer staging: how to review and report with emphasis on abdominal and pelvic disease for surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Sahdev, Anju

    2016-01-01

    CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the first line imaging modality for staging, selecting treatment options and assessing disease response in ovarian cancer. The staging CT provides disease distribution, disease burden and is the imaging surrogate for surgico-pathological FIGO staging. Optimal cyto-reductive surgery offers patients' the best chance for disease control or cure, but sub-optimal resection confers no advantage over chemotherapy and adversely increases the risk of post surgical complications. Although there is extensive literature comparing performance of CT against laparoscopy and surgery, for the staging abdominal and pelvic CT, there are currently no accepted guidelines for interpretation or routinely used minimum data set templates for reporting these complex CT scans often with extensive radiological findings. This review provides a systematic approach for identifying the important radiological findings and highlighting important sites of disease within the abdomen and pelvis, which may alter or preclude surgery at presentation or after adjuvant chemotherapy. The distribution of sites and volume of disease can be used to categorize patients as suitable, probably suitable or not suitable for optimal cyto-reductive surgery. This categorization can potentially assist oncological surgeons and oncologists as a semi objective assessment tool useful for selecting patient treatment, streamlining multi disciplinary discussion and improving the reproducibility and correlation of CT with surgical findings. The review also highlights sites of disease and complications of ovarian cancer which should be included as part of the radiological report as these may require additional surgical input from non gynaecological surgeons or influence treatment selection. PMID:27484100

  16. Automatic Segmentation of Pelvic Structures From Magnetic Resonance Images for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David . E-mail: d-pasquier@o-lambret.fr; Lacornerie, Thomas; Vermandel, Maximilien; Rousseau, Jean; Lartigau, Eric; Betrouni, Nacim

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: Target-volume and organ-at-risk delineation is a time-consuming task in radiotherapy planning. The development of automated segmentation tools remains problematic, because of pelvic organ shape variability. We evaluate a three-dimensional (3D), deformable-model approach and a seeded region-growing algorithm for automatic delineation of the prostate and organs-at-risk on magnetic resonance images. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic delineation were compared in 24 patients using a sagittal T2-weighted (T2-w) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence and an axial T1-weighted (T1-w) 3D fast-field echo (FFE) or TSE sequence. For automatic prostate delineation, an organ model-based method was used. Prostates without seminal vesicles were delineated as the clinical target volume (CTV). For automatic bladder and rectum delineation, a seeded region-growing method was used. Manual contouring was considered the reference method. The following parameters were measured: volume ratio (Vr) (automatic/manual), volume overlap (Vo) (ratio of the volume of intersection to the volume of union; optimal value = 1), and correctly delineated volume (Vc) (percent ratio of the volume of intersection to the manually defined volume; optimal value 100). Results: For the CTV, the Vr, Vo, and Vc were 1.13 ({+-}0.1 SD), 0.78 ({+-}0.05 SD), and 94.75 ({+-}3.3 SD), respectively. For the rectum, the Vr, Vo, and Vc were 0.97 ({+-}0.1 SD), 0.78 ({+-}0.06 SD), and 86.52 ({+-}5 SD), respectively. For the bladder, the Vr, Vo, and Vc were 0.95 ({+-}0.03 SD), 0.88 ({+-}0.03 SD), and 91.29 ({+-}3.1 SD), respectively. Conclusions: Our results show that the organ-model method is robust, and results in reproducible prostate segmentation with minor interactive corrections. For automatic bladder and rectum delineation, magnetic resonance imaging soft-tissue contrast enables the use of region-growing methods.

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  18. Pelvic Floor Disorders Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop and perform research studies related to women with pelvic floor disorders. In this way, studies can be done more quickly than if the medical centers were working alone. Doctors, nurses, other health care workers, and support staff all play important roles.The ...

  19. Defining the “Hostile Pelvis” for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: The Impact of Anatomic Variations in Pelvic Dimensions on Dose Delivered to Target Volumes and Organs at Risk in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Whole Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yirmibeşoğlu Erkal, Eda; Karabey, Sinan; Karabey, Ayşegül; Hayran, Mutlu; Erkal, Haldun Şükrü

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of variations in pelvic dimensions on the dose delivered to the target volumes and the organs at risk (OARs) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) to be treated with whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT) in an attempt to define the hostile pelvis in terms of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 45 men with high-risk PCa to be treated with WPRT, the target volumes and the OARs were delineated, the dose constraints for the OARs were defined, and treatment plans were generated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0924 protocol. Six dimensions to reflect the depth, width, and height of the bony pelvis were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from the planning computed tomographic scans. The minimum dose (D{sub min}), maximum dose (D{sub max}), and mean dose (D{sub mean}) for the target volumes and OARs and the partial volumes of each of these structures receiving a specified dose (V{sub D}) were calculated from the dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The data from the DVHs were correlated with the pelvic dimensions and indexes. Results: According to an overall hostility score (OHS) calculation, 25 patients were grouped as having a hospitable pelvis and 20 as having a hostile pelvis. Regarding the OHS grouping, the DVHs for the bladder, bowel bag, left femoral head, and right femoral head differed in favor of the hospitable pelvis group, and the DVHs for the rectum differed for a range of lower doses in favor of the hospitable pelvis group. Conclusions: Pelvimetry might be used as a guide to define the challenging anatomy or the hostile pelvis in terms of treatment planning for IMRT in patients with high-risk PCa to be treated with WPRT.

  20. Survival implications of pretreatment pelvic CT in rectal cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chunyan; Zhang, Min; Tian, Li; Jiang, Wu; Zeng, Zhifang; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the correlation between pretreatment computed tomography (CT) data and survival duration after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and methods: 122 consecutive patients with advanced rectal cancer were assessed retrospectively. Pretreatment imaging and postoperative data were evaluated through Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results: Pretreatment CT identified 557 metastatic lymph nodes (mean, 4.55 per patient; median 4). Survival durations were measured during the period between the application of CT and death or the last follow-up examination. Univariate analysis showed that the following factors had a significant impact on survival: maximum tumor diameter (P = 0.019), distance from inferior tumor margin to anorectal ring (P <0.0001), number of lymph nodes involved in patients with short-axis, lymph node diameter ≥8 mm (P <0.0001) in pretreatment CT, distance from the anorectal ring (P = 0.027), ypN stage (P = 0.0008), ypM stage (P = 0.046) and number of metastatic lymph nodes (P <0.0001) in clinical assessment. Multivariate analysis showed that the following factors were significant: number of lymph nodes in patients with short-axis lymph node diameter ≥5 mm but <8 mm (P = 0.044) and in those with this diameter ≥8 mm (P = 0.028; pretreatment CT) and number of metastatic lymph nodes (assessed in histopathological examination). Conclusion: Pretreatment lymph node size and number can predict survival duration after treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. For patients with lymph nodes >8 mm (short-axis diameter) and/or >1, such lymph nodes tend to have a poor performance for prognosis. PMID:26550194

  1. Is IMRT needed to spare the rectum when pelvic lymph nodes are part of the initial treatment volume for prostate cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Cavey, Matthew L.; Endres, Eugene J. C.; Brandon, Gunn G.; Bayouth, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether a 4-field box technique (4FBT), along with its technical refinements, is an adequate approach in terms of rectal sparing and target coverage for patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing whole-pelvic radiotherapy followed by a prostate boost and whether or not intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is needed. Methods and Materials: For 8 patients, 31 plans were generated, each of them differing in one or more features, including prescription (dose/volume) and/or technical factors. For the latter, several 'solutions' to try to reduce the amount of irradiated rectal volume were addressed, including modifications of the 4FBT and the use of sequential IMRT. We constructed a database with 248 plans that were tested for their ability to meet a series of rectal dose-volume constraints at V50, V60, V65, V70, V75, and V75.6. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with the end point. Successful solutions were also compared in terms of coverage of both pelvic node and prostate planning target volume (PTV) by isodose 95%. Results: At multivariate logistic regression, both rectal blocking and IMRT were independent predictors of the probability of meeting rectal dose-volume constraints during the pelvic and boost phases of treatment with close relative risks. However, on average, partial rectal blocking on lateral fields of 4FBT during whole-pelvic radiotherapy resulted in about 3% of pelvic node PTV being outside isodose 95%; only 2 of 8 patients had the pelvic nodal PTV covered similarly to what was achieved by whole-pelvis IMRT. Conversely, blocking the rectum during the last 3 fractions of the conformal boost showed a dosimetric coverage of prostate PTV similar to that achieved by IMRT boost. Interestingly, patient anatomic configuration was the strongest predictor of rectal sparing. Finally, the size of prostate margins to generate PTV was also independently associated with the probability

  2. Measurement of pelvic osteolytic lesions in follow-up studies after total hip arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Totterman, Saara; O'Keefe, Regis; Looney, R. John

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the plausibility of using volumetric computerized tomography to provide an accurate representation and measurement of volume for pelvic osteolytic lesions following total hip joint replacement. These studies have been performed manually (or computed-assisted) by expert radiologists with the disadvantage of poor reproducibility of the experiment. The purpose of this work is to minimize the effect of user interaction in these experiments by introducing Laplacian level set methods in the volume segmentation process and using temporal articulated registration in order to follow the evolution of a lesion over time. Laplacian level set methods reduce the inter and intra-observer variability by attaching the segmented contour to edges defined in the image while keeping smoothness. The registration process allows the information of the lesion from the first visit to be used in the segmentation process of the current visit. This work compares the automated results on 7 volunteers versus the volume measured manually. Results have shown that the proposed technique is able to track osteolytic lesions and detect changes in volume over time. Intra-reader and inter-observer variabilities were reduced.

  3. Acupuncture and Immune Function in Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Liong, Men Long; Yuen, Kah Hay; Krieger, John N

    2014-01-01

    Objective The immune system has been implicated as one mechanism underlying the benefits of acupuncture therapy. Evidence suggests that acupuncture can ameliorate symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), but the association between clinical response and the immune system has not been investigated. Design/Setting We investigated 12 CP/CPPS patients participating in a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for effects on cellular immunity. Blood samples were taken before the first needling and after the last of 20 treatment sessions (week 10). Patients also completed questionnaires examining their CP/CPPS symptoms and mood status at the baseline and end of study visits. Results At the end of study 8 of 12 participants (67%) were classified as treatment responders, 4 participants each from the acupuncture and sham groups. The acupuncture group averaged a 5% increase in natural killer cell levels compared to corresponding sham (-13%; p=0.03). Similarly, patients randomized to acupuncture reported a reduction in other white blood cell parameters examined, supporting the possibility that immunity might be important in the pathophysiology of CP/CPPS. Conclusions The specific effect of acupuncture on CP/CPPS remains unclear. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanisms by which acupuncture therapy may improve clinical symptoms in patients with CP/CPPS. PMID:25453515

  4. Biomechanical response of the pubic symphysis in lateral pelvic impacts: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuoping; Kim, Jong-Eun; Davidson, James S; Etheridge, Brandon S; Alonso, Jorge E; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2007-01-01

    Automotive side impacts are a leading cause of injuries to the pubic symphysis, yet the mechanisms of those injuries have not been clearly established. Previous mechanical testing of isolated symphyses revealed increased joint laxity following drop tower lateral impacts to isolated pelvic bone structures, which suggested that the joints were damaged by excessive stresses and/or deformations during the impact tests. In the present study, a finite element (FE) model of a female pelvis including a previously validated symphysis sub-model was developed from computed tomography data. The full pelvis model was validated against measured force-time impact responses from drop tower experiments and then used to study the biomechanical response of the symphysis during the experimental impacts. The FE models predicted that the joint underwent a combination of lateral compression, posterior bending, anterior/posterior and superior/inferior shear that exceeded normal physiological levels prior to the onset of bony fractures. Large strains occurred concurrently within the pubic ligaments. Removal of the contralateral constraints to better approximate the boundary conditions of a seated motor vehicle occupant reduced cortical stresses and deformations of the pubic symphysis; however, ligament strains, compressive and shear stresses in the interpubic disc, as well as posterior bending of the joint structure remained as potential sources of joint damage during automotive side impacts. PMID:17399721

  5. Fatigue and other adverse effects in men treated by pelvic radiation and long-term androgen deprivation for locally advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lilleby, Wolfgang; Stensvold, Andreas; Dahl, Alv A

    2016-07-01

    Background We compared the development of adverse effects and psychosocial measures from baseline to 36-month follow-up in patients with prostate cancer (T1-3 M0) referred to our department for definitive radiotherapy encompassing the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (RAD + IMRT) or radiotherapy to the prostatic gland only (RAD), applied with standard adjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) in all patients. Few studies have explored the impact of fatigue on patients' reported quality of life (QoL) after combined therapy for prostate cancer. Material and methods The 206 consecutive eligible men (RAD + IMRT = 64 and RAD = 142) completed the UCLA-PCI questionnaire for adverse effects at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. QoL, anxiety and depression, and fatigue were rated at the same time points. Between-group and longitudinal within-group changes at different time points were reported. At 36 months variables associated with fatigue were analyzed with regression analyses. Results Our main novel finding is the long-term high level of fatigue and high prevalence of chronic fatigue, affecting patients receiving radiotherapy combined with long-term AD. Except for urinary bother in the RAD + IMRT group all functions and the other bothers mean scores were significantly worse at 36 months compared to baseline. In multivariable analyses only physical QoL remained significantly associated with fatigue at 36-months follow-up. Conclusions Fatigue and impaired QoL in patients considered to curative irradiation with long-term AD should be addressed when counseling men to combined treatment. PMID:26959297

  6. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue and muscles of the ...

  7. Pelvic floor neuropathy: a comparative study of diabetes mellitus and idiopathic faecal incontinence.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, J; Levy, D M; Henry, M M; Misiewicz, J J

    1988-01-01

    Twenty one patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 18 with idiopathic faecal incontinence and 11 normal controls were studied with techniques of mucosal electrosensitivity, rectal distension for the quantitative assessment of anorectal sensation, and manometric and electromyographic tests for the assessment of anorectal motor function. An asymptomatic sensorimotor deficit was found in the anal canal of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mucosal electrosensitivity thresholds in the anal canal were significantly higher (p less than 0.01 v controls) and fibre density of the external anal sphincter significantly raised (p less than 0.0001 v controls). Anal manometry and pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies were similar to controls. In patients with idiopathic faecal incontinence the tests of sensory and motor function also showed a sensorimotor neuropathy; compared with controls, mucosal electrosensitivity thresholds were significantly higher (p less than 0.002), anal canal resting and maximum squeeze pressures were significantly lower (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.002 respectively), and pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies and fibre density of the external anal sphincter were significantly raised (both p less than 0.05). Sensory thresholds to rectal distension were similar in all groups. Pelvic floor sensorimotor neuropathy in diabetic patients has several features in common with that of patients with idiopathic faecal incontinence but its functional significance remains uncertain. PMID:3384360

  8. Risk of psychiatric disorders following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a common infection in women that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. A clear temporal causal relationship between PID and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with PID between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without PID. A total of 21 930 PID and 21 930 matched control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until 31 December 2009. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with PID were significantly higher (HR: 2.671, 2.173, 2.006 and 2.251, respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. PID may increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder, which will impair life quality. Our findings highlight that clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in PID patients. PMID:26821967

  9. Prevalence and use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E.; Learman, Lee A.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of and factors associated with use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Design We analyzed data from the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy and Intervention Alternatives (SOPHIA), a prospective cohort study of women seeking care for noncancerous pelvic problems with intact uteri at enrollment. Among a subset of 699 participants who reported having CPP, we analyzed the prevalence of complementary health approaches used and associated patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life, attitudes and beliefs, and conventional health care practices. Results At baseline, slightly over one-half (51%) of women with CPP used at least one complementary health approach in the past year, including acupuncture (8%), special foods or diets (22%), herbs (27%), and vitamins and minerals (29%). During follow-up surveys conducted annually for four years, a substantial proportion of women (44.8%) used complementary health approaches at more than half of the assessments. Users of complementary health approaches were more likely to undergo a hysterectomy or oophorectomy or to use gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or opioids during the study compared with non-users. Women with CPP who used complementary health approaches also had more optimal health-related quality of life measured by the Pelvic Problem Impact Questionnaire (31.6 vs. 25.6, p<0.001). Conclusion(s) Many women with CPP consistently use complementary health approaches. The substantial interest in and high prevalence of complementary health approaches used alongside conventional medical approaches highlights the need for better understanding of multimodal approaches to address the complex condition of CPP. PMID:25279935

  10. Laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration using transanal minimal invasive surgery technique with en bloc bilateral lymph node dissection for advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kengo; Kotake, Masanori; Kakiuchi, Daiki; Yamada, Sho; Hada, Masahiro; Kato, Yosuke; Hiranuma, Chikashi; Oyama, Kaeko; Hara, Takuo

    2016-12-01

    A 59-year-old man presenting with fecal occult blood visited our hospital. He was diagnosed with advanced lower rectal cancer, which was contiguous with the prostate and the left seminal vesicle. There were no metastatic lesions with lymph nodes or other organs. We performed laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration (LTPE) using transanal minimal invasive surgery technique with bilateral en bloc lateral lymph node dissection for advanced primary rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The total operative time was 760 min, and the estimated blood loss was 200 ml. LTPE is not well established technically, but it has many advantages including good visibility of the surgical field, less blood loss, and smaller wounds. A laparoscopic approach may be an appropriate choice for treating locally advanced lower rectal cancer, which requires TPE. PMID:27460130

  11. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics after stereotactic body radiotherapy as monotherapy or boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun Jung; Phak, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woo Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after SBRT has not been well characterized. The purpose of the current study is to assess the kinetics of PSA for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with SBRT using Cyberknife as both monotherapy and boost after whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in the absence of androgen deprivation therapy. Methods A total of 61 patients with low- and intermediated-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT as monotherapy (36.25 Gy in 5 fractions in 32 patients) and SBRT (21 Gy in 3 fractions in 29 patients) boost combined with WPRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated and compared. Results With a median follow-up of 52.4 months (range, 14–74 months), for SBRT monotherapy, the median PSA nadir was 0.31 ng/mL (range, 0.04–1.15 ng/mL) and slopes were –0.41 ng/mL/mo, –0.17 ng/mL/mo, –0.12 ng/mL/mo, and –0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively, for durations of 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years postradiotherapy. Similarly, for SBRT boost after WPRT, the median PSA nadir was 0.34 ng/mL (range, 0.04–1.44 ng/mL) and slopes were –0.53 ng/mL/mo, –0.25 ng/mL/mo, –0.14 ng/mL/mo, and –0.09 ng/mL/mo, respectively. The median nadir and slopes of SBRT monotherapy did not differ significantly from those of SBRT boost after WPRT. Benign PSA bounces were common in 30.4% of all cohorts, and the median time to PSA bounce was 12 months (range, 6–25 months). Conclusions In this report of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients, an initial period of rapid PSA decline was followed by a slow decline, which resulted in a lower PSA nadir. The PSA kinetics of SBRT monotherapy appears to be comparable to those achieved

  12. Intermittent androgen ablation in patients with biochemical failure after pelvic radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cury, Fabio L.B.; Souhami, Luis . E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Rajan, Raghu; Tanguay, Simon; Gagnon, Bruno; Duclos, Marie; Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio L.; David, Marc; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of intermittent androgen ablation (IAA) in patients with biochemical failure after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients received a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog every 2 months for a total of 4 doses. IAA was then discontinued if serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) fell to a normal level with a castrate level of testosterone. Therapy was restarted when the serum PSA level reached {>=}10 ng/mL and was discontinued if hormone resistance or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Results: Median PSA was 9.1 ng/mL at the time of first IAA. The median time between the first and the second cycles was 20.1 months, decreasing to 15.5 months between the third and fourth cycles. Two patients discontinued the treatment because of severe hot flushes. Four patients developed hormone resistance. With a median follow-up of 56.4 months, 5-year survival is 92.3%. Three patients died of unrelated causes. The incidence of distant metastasis is 6.8%. Conclusions: The use of IAA seems to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with biochemical failure post radiotherapy and no evidence of metastatic disease. The use of IAA limits hormone-related side effects and health care costs without an apparent increase in the risk for the development of metastatic disease.

  13. MUSCLE TENDERNESS IN MEN WITH CHRONIC PROSTATITIS/CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME: THE CHRONIC PROSTATITIS COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Shoskes, Daniel A.; Berger, Richard; Elmi, Angelo; Landis, J. Richard; Propert, Kathleen J.; Zeitlin, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Myofascial pain is a possible etiology for category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), either secondary to infection/inflammation or as the primary cause. We wished to document tenderness on physical exam in a large multicenter cohort of CPPS patients, and compare to controls. Methods Data were reviewed from the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Cohort study on 384 men with CPPS and 121 asymptomatic controls who had complete unblinded physical exam data, from 7 clinical centers between 10/98 - 8/01. Tenderness in 11 sites including prostate, genitals, abdomen and pelvic floor together with prostate size and consistency was evaluated. Data was correlated with cultures and symptoms. Results Overall, 51% of CPPS patients and 7% of controls had any tenderness. The most common site was prostate (41% CPPS, 5% controls), followed by external and internal pelvic floor (13% and 14% CPPS, 0 controls) and suprapubic (9% CPPS, 0 controls). In CPPS patients, 25% had 1 tender site, 11% had 2 and 6% had 3. Tenderness did not correlate with inflammation or infection in the prostate fluid. Prostate consistency was normal in 79% of CPPS patients and in 95% of controls, and did not correlate with symptom severity. CPPS patients with any tenderness had significantly higher CPSI scores at baseline, and at 1 year (24.1 vs 21.2 and 20.2 vs 17.5, p<0.0001), compared to patients without tenderness. Conclusions Abdominal/pelvic tenderness is present in half of CPPS patients, but only 7% of controls. Extraprostatic tenderness may identify a cohort of patients with a neuromuscular source of pain. PMID:18082223

  14. External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbe, Bengt; Horvath, Gyoergy; Andersson, Hakan; Boman, Karin; Lundgren, Caroline; Pettersson, Birgitta

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-year overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despite a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.

  15. [Study of effective components and molecular mechanism for Guizhi Fuling formula treatment of dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease and uterine fibroids].

    PubMed

    Ke, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Xin-zhuang; Ding, Yue; Cao, Ze-yu; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuan-jie; Zhang, Chen-feng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei; Xu, Xiao-jie

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the active components and potential molecular .mechanism of Guizhi Fuling formula in treatment on dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammation, and hysteromyoma were investigated using network pharmacological methods. Sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes, with high moleculal network degree, revealed promising effects on anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, and immune-regulation, according to D-T network analysis. On the other hand, the targets with high degree were involved in inflammatory, coagulation, angiopoiesis, smooth muscle contraction, and cell reproduction, which showed the novel function in anti-dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammation, and hysteromyoma. Furthermore, the formula was indicated to play a key role in smooth muscle proliferation, inhibition of new vessels, circulation improvement, reduction of hormone secretion, alleviation of smooth muscle, block of arachidonic acid metabolism, and inflammation in uterus. Thus, the main mechanism of Guizhi Fuling formula was summarized. In conclusion, Guizhi Fuling formula was proven to alleviated dysmenorrhea, pelvic inflammation, and hysteromyoma by acting on multiple targets through several bioactive compounds, regulating 21 biological pathways. PMID:26226734

  16. Clinical Response of Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenopathy to a Radiation Boost in the Definitive Management of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rash, Dominique L.; Lee, Yongsook C.; Kashefi, Amir; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Mathai, Mathew; Valicenti, Richard; Mayadev, Jyoti S.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Optimal treatment with radiation for metastatic lymphadenopathy in locally advanced cervical cancer remains controversial. We investigated the clinical dose response threshold for pelvic and para-aortic lymph node boost using radiographic imaging and clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: Between 2007 and 2011, 68 patients were treated for locally advanced cervical cancer; 40 patients had clinically involved pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph nodes. Computed tomography (CT) or 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans obtained pre- and postchemoradiation for 18 patients were reviewed to assess therapeutic radiographic response of individual lymph nodes. External beam boost doses to involved nodes were compared to treatment response, assessed by change in size of lymph nodes by short axis and change in standard uptake value (SUV). Patterns of failure, time to recurrence, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were determined. Results: Sixty-four lymph nodes suspicious for metastatic involvement were identified. Radiation boost doses ranged from 0 to 15 Gy, with a mean total dose of 52.3 Gy. Pelvic lymph nodes were treated with a slightly higher dose than para-aortic lymph nodes: mean 55.3 Gy versus 51.7 Gy, respectively. There was no correlation between dose delivered and change in size of lymph nodes along the short axis. All lymph nodes underwent a decrease in SUV with a complete resolution of abnormal uptake observed in 68%. Decrease in SUV was significantly greater for lymph nodes treated with ≥54 Gy compared to those treated with <54 Gy (P=.006). Median follow-up was 18.7 months. At 2 years, OS and DFS for the entire cohort were 78% and 50%, respectively. Locoregional control at 2 years was 84%. Conclusions: A biologic response, as measured by the change in SUV for metastatic lymph nodes, was observed at a dose threshold of 54 Gy. We recommend that involved lymph nodes be treated to this minimum dose.

  17. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. PMID:26932162

  18. Scanning proton beam therapy reduces normal tissue exposure in pelvic radiotherapy for anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aman; Bues, Martin; Rule, William G; Keole, Sameer R; Beltran, Chris J; Yin, Jun; Haddock, Michael G; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Miller, Robert C; Ashman, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    An inter-comparison planning study between photon beam therapy (IMRT) and scanning proton beam therapy (SPBT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is presented. SPBT plans offer significant reduction (>50%, P=0.008) in doses to small bowel, and bone marrow thereby offering the potential to reduce bowel and hemotoxicities. PMID:26597231

  19. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  20. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options.

    PubMed

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-12-10

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  1. Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Endometrial and Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Small, William Mell, Loren K.; Anderson, Penny; Creutzberg, Carien; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Gaffney, David; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Schefter, Tracey; Iyer, Revathy; Varia, Mahesh; Winter, Kathryn M.S.; Mundt, Arno J.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an atlas of the clinical target volume (CTV) definitions for postoperative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group led an international collaberation of cooperative groups in the development of the atlas. The groups included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada, European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and American College of Radiology Imaging Network. The members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define the areas that were to be included in the CTV and to outline theses areas on individual computed tomography images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June 2005. Results: The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for postoperative therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of the vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node region. Conclusion: This report serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical cancer.

  2. The Role of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization in Traumatic Pelvic Hemorrhage: Not Only Pelvic Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zatelli, Marianna; Haglmuller, Thomas; Bonatti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The most common life-threatening complication of pelvic trauma is bleeding. Arterial bleedings frequently require active management, preferably with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Hemodynamic instability and/or contrast extravasation at computer tomography (CT) examination are reliable indicators of arterial injury. Unstable pelvic fractures are much more hemorrhagic than stable fractures. Nevertheless, an absent or isolated pelvic fracture does not exclude pelvic hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on our institutional database by collecting data of patients who underwent pelvic angiography and/or embolization due to pelvic blunt trauma in the period between August 2010 and August 2015. Results: In a period of five years, 39 patients with traumatic pelvic bleeding underwent angiography at our institution. Thirty-six of the 39 (92%) patients did show CT signs of active pelvic bleeding. Nineteen of 39 (49%) patients were hemodynamically unstable at presentation. Three of the 39 patients did not require embolization. Technical success was 35/36 (97%), and overall mortality was 3/39 (8%). Notably, 5/39 (13%) patients did not have any pelvic fracture at presentation, and 18/39 (46%) had only isolated or stable pelvic ring fracture. Conclusions: TAE is an effective technique to treat arterial pelvic bleeding after trauma. The absence of a major pelvic fracture does not exclude the risk of active bleeding requiring prompt treatment. PMID:27625908

  3. Presence of Mental Imagery Associated with Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Chantal; Vincent, Katy; Moore, Jane; Tracey, Irene; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether a small sample of patients with chronic pelvic pain experienced any pain-related cognitions in the form of mental images. Patients Ten women with chronic pelvic pain consecutively referred from a tertiary referral center by the physicians in charge of their treatment. Outcome measures An interview was used to determine the presence, emotional valence, content, and impact of cognitions about pain in the form of mental images and verbal thoughts. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed. Results In a population of patients with a prolonged duration of pain and high distress, all patients reported experiencing cognitions about pain in the form of mental images. For each patient, the most significant image was both negative in valence and intrusive. The associated emotional-behavioral pattern could be described within a cognitive behavioral therapy framework. Eight patients also reported coping imagery. Conclusion Negative pain-related cognitions in the form of intrusive mental imagery were reported by women with chronic pelvic pain. Targeting such imagery has led to interesting treatment innovation in the emotional disorders. Thus, imagery, hitherto neglected in pain phenomenology, could provide a novel target for cognitive behavioral therapy in chronic pain. These exciting yet preliminary results require replication and extension in a broader population of patients with chronic pain. PMID:21668746

  4. Less Invasive Endometrial Cancer Surgery with Extraperitoneal Pelvic and Para-aortic Lymphadenectomy via a Small Midline Abdominal Incision and the Retroperitoneal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Shinichi; Takeya, Chiaki; Takahashi, Rena; Nagasaki, Sumito; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To achieve less invasive lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer patients, we performed extraperitoneal pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy via a small midline abdominal incision with retroperitoneal approach. The feasibility and safety of this method were investigated. [Methods] Inclusion criteria were 1) endometrioid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by preoperative biopsy, 2) myometrial invasion by magnetic resonance imaging, and 3) no peritoneal dissemination or distant metastasis by computed tomography. Systematic extraperitoneal dissection of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes was performed via an approximately 12-cm midline lower abdominal incision, after which hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were done (extraperitoneal group). The historical control group was patients who underwent standard transperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The two groups were compared for demographic characteristics, perioperative factors, and complications. [Results] A total of 62 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinicopathological factors showed no differences between the extraperitoneal group (n = 34) and the historical control group (n = 28). The median number of pelvic (30 vs. 28) and para-aortic (14 vs. 17) nodes dissected was also similar. However, median intraoperative blood loss was significantly smaller in the extraperitoneal group than the control group (220 vs. 573 g). Median operating time (265 vs. 323.5 min), median laparotomy time (60 vs. 295 min), and median initial flatus time (8 vs. 32 hours) were all significantly shorter in the extraperitoneal group, while complications and severe postoperative pain were significantly less frequent. [Conclusions] Our new technique was feasible, safe, and less invasive than standard laparotomy. It is an alternative to laparoscope-assisted or robotic procedures. PMID:27313778

  5. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study 1

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Edilaine de Paula Batista; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; Oliveira, Sheyla Guimaraes; da Silva, Renata Luana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. Results: the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2) and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7) in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036) and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010), compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. Conclusion: pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength. PMID:27533267

  6. Development of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Module to Assess the Quality of Life of Patients With Proctitis After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Spry, Nigel; Halkett, Georgia Aoun, Samar; Spry, Jane; Yeoh, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a proctitis-specific quality-of-life module to supplement the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: The module was developed according to EORTC guidelines, which consisted of an extensive literature review to identify previously described issues and interviews conducted with seven health professionals and 10 patients to rationalize the item list for construction into a provisional module. The module developed was then pretested with 28 patients and five health professionals. Results: The final module contains 21-items that are suitable to obtain information about the patients' quality of life after high-dose pelvic irradiation. The questionnaire has now been translated into four languages and commenced field testing in late 2007. Conclusions: The EORTC QLQ-C30, supplemented by EORTC QLQ-PRT21, will enable health professionals to more accurately monitor the side effects that patients experience after pelvic irradiation.

  7. A Comparative Study of Whole Body Vibration Training and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Women's Stress Urinary Incontinence: Three- Month Follow- Up

    PubMed Central

    Farzinmehr, Azizeh; Moezy, Azar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Kashanian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Whole Body Vibration Training (WBVT) is effective at improving pelvic floor muscles strength in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). Materials and methods: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. 43 women with SUI were randomly assigned in two groups; WBVT and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT) and received interventions for four weeks. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, quality of life and incontinence intensity were evaluated. All measurements were conducted pre and post intervention and also after 3 months in all participants. The ANOVA and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between the groups. Results: This study showed the WBVT protocol in this study was effective in pelvic floor muscles strength similar to PFMT, and also in reducing the severity of incontinence and increasing I-QOL questionnaire score. We found significant differences in each group pre and post intervention (p = 0.0001); but no significant difference in comparison of two groups' outcomes. Also after three-month follow up, there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in improving pelvic floor muscles strength and quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence in four-week treatment period and after three months follow up. PMID:27047560

  8. The value of pre-operative multicompartment pelvic floor ultrasonography: a 1-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lone, F; Stankiewicz, A; Thakar, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive assessment of the pelvic floor (PF) provides information and diagnoses of coexisting abnormalities that may affect operative decisions. Our aim was to establish if pre-operative PF ultrasonography (PFUS) in patients complaining of PF dysfunction can complement clinical findings and contribute to additional management strategies. Methods: Females were recruited from the urogynaecology/gynaecology clinics between July and October 2009 and underwent pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) by an independent examiner. PFUS was performed using two-dimensional (2D) transperineal ultrasound (TPUS), high-frequency 2D/three-dimensional (3D) endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) using a biplane probe with linear and transverse arrays and a 360° rotational 3D-EVUS. The clinician performing PFUS was blinded to POPQ results. POPQ and PFUS were repeated at 1 year. Two clinicians analysed the scans independently. Results: 158 of 160 females had a POPQ and PFUS. 105 females had pelvic organ prolapse and/or incontinence and 53 asymptomatic females were controls. 26 additional ultrasound diagnoses were noted at baseline and 46 at 1 year using 2D-TPUS and EVUS. Only one female with additional diagnoses on PFUS needed surgical intervention for this condition. Conclusion: Multicompartment PFUS identifies additional conditions to that diagnosed on clinical assessment. However, it neither changes the initial surgical management nor the management at 1-year follow-up and therefore clinical assessment should not be substituted by PFUS. Advances in knowledge: PFUS can be helpful in providing additional information; however, it does not change the initial management of the patient and therefore should not replace clinical assessment. PMID:24959953

  9. Pelvic floor hypertonic disorders: identification and management.

    PubMed

    Butrick, Charles W

    2009-09-01

    Patients with hypertonic pelvic floor disorders can present with pelvic pain or dysfunction. Each of the various syndromes will be discussed including elimination disorders, bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), vulvodynia, vaginismus, and chronic pelvic pain. The symptoms and objective findings on physical examination and various diagnostic studies will be reviewed. Therapeutic options including physical therapy, pharmacologic management, and trigger point injections, as well as botulinum toxin injections will be reviewed in detail. PMID:19932423

  10. Cancers Selected for Study - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas researchers are mapping the genetic changes in 33 cancers. Find out which cancers have been selected for study, the criteria for selection and the scientific questions being asked about each cancer.

  11. Pelvic Fasciae in Urology

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, B; Cahill, D

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite the vast literature on pelvic fascia, there is confusion over the periprostatic structures and their nomenclature, including their orientation, the neurovascular bundles and the existence of the prostatic ‘capsule’. In this review, we seek to clarify some of these issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS Review of published medical literature relating to the anatomy of the pelvic fascia including a Pubmed search using the terms – pelvic fascia, Denonvilliers' fascia, prostate capsule, neurovascular bundle of Walsh, pubo-prostatic ligament and the detrusor apron. CONCLUSIONS The findings of the study were as follows: The ‘capsule’ of the prostate does not exist. Rather, the fibromuscular band surrounding the prostate forms an integral part of the gland.The prostate is surrounded by fascial structures – anteriorly/anterolaterally by the prostatic fascia and posteriorly by the Denonvilliers' fascia. Laterally, the prostatic fascia merges with the endopelvic fascia.The posterior longitudinal fascia of the detrusor comprises a ‘posterior layer’ of the detrusor apron, extending from the bladder neck to the prostate base.The neurovascular structures tend to be located posterolaterally, but may not always form a bundle. A significant proportion of fibres may lie away from the main nerve structures, along the lateral/posterior aspects of the prostate. PMID:18828961

  12. Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer in Combination with One Stage Prophylactic Laparoscopic Sacrospinal Fixation to Avoid Future Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Törzsök, Péter; Bauer, Sophina; Forstner, Rosemarie; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Janetschek, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women who undergo cystectomy with orthotopic ileal neobladder are more likely to have urinary retention and neocystocele mainly because of anatomical reasons than stress urinary incontinence. The risk is even higher in case of neurologic comorbidities, as in case of our patient. Case Presentation: We present a laparoscopic mesh insertion for sacrospinal colposuspension to prevent a neocystocele and pelvic organ prolapse in combination with laparoscopic radical cystectomy in a female patient suffering from bladder cancer and chronic episodic multiple sclerosis. After a 30-month follow-up, the patient is continent and voids without residual urine. A dynamic MR of the pelvis shows a minimal rectocele without any evidence of a cystocele. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cystectomy combined with sacrospinal mesh fixation is technically feasible and could be an option to prevent neocystocele for female patients.

  13. Anatomic variations of the pelvic floor nerves adjacent to the sacrospinous ligament: a female cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, George; Grigorescu, Bogdan A; Olson, Todd R; Downie, Sherry A; Powers, Kenneth; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2008-05-01

    Our objective was to document variations in the topography of pelvic floor nerves (PFN) and describe a nerve-free zone adjacent to the sacrospinous ligament (SSL). Pelvic floor dissections were performed on 15 female cadavers. The course of the PFN was described in relation to the ischial spine (IS) and the SSL. The pudendal nerve (PN) passed medial to the IS and posterior to the SSL at a mean distance of 0.6 cm (SD = +/-0.4) in 80% of cadavers. In 40% of cadavers, an inferior rectal nerve (IRN) variant pierced the SSL at a distance of 1.9 cm (SD = +/-0.7) medial to the IS. The levator ani nerve (LAN), coursed over the superior surface of the SSL-coccygeus muscle complex at a mean distance of 2.5 cm (SD = +/-0.7) medial to the IS. Anatomic variations were found which challenge the classic description of PFN. A nerve-free zone is situated in the medial third of the SSL. PMID:18038107

  14. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and layers of connective tissue, which are called fascia, become weakened, stretched, or are torn the pelvic ... delivery) can cause injury to the muscles or fascia of the pelvic floor. The increased pressure of ...

  15. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... see what else may be causing your symptoms. Appendicitis or pockets of infection around your tubes and ... pelvic organs. This can lead to: Chronic pelvic pain Ectopic pregnancy Infertility Tuboovarian abscess If you have ...

  16. Pelvic laparoscopy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hysterectomy Ovarian Cysts Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic Pain Uterine Fibroids A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  17. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... found. How is chronic pelvic pain diagnosed? Your health care provider will ask about your medical history. You will have a physical exam, including a pelvic exam . Tests also may be done to find the cause. ...

  18. Effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang-Hyun; Boo, Jung-A; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain (CKC) in hemiplegia patients. [Methods] This study used a reversal design (A-B-A’) for a stroke with hemiplagia. The intervention program consisted of 30 min sessions, once a day, for 15 days. The subjects were trained for 15 sessions in total. Pelvic movements (anterior ·posterior tilting, elevation, depression, forward·backward rotation) during walking and gait speed were measured in hemiplegia patients. [Results] Overall, the angle of pelvic movements was increased in Treatment and, Baseline II compared with Baseline I. The gait speed was maximally increased in Baseline II, followed by Treatment and Baseline I. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain had a positive effect on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients. Also, after treatment, its effect on gait of hemiplegia patients was maintained. PMID:26957780

  19. Hematologic Toxicity in RTOG 0418: A Phase 2 Study of Postoperative IMRT for Gynecologic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Klopp, Ann H.; Moughan, Jennifer; Portelance, Lorraine; Miller, Brigitte E.; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Hildebrandt, Evangeline; Nuanjing, Jenny; D'Souza, David; Souhami, Luis; Small, William; Gaur, Rakesh; Jhingran, Anuja

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), compared with conventional 4-field treatment, can reduce the volume of bone marrow irradiated. Pelvic bone marrow sparing has produced a clinically significant reduction in hematologic toxicity (HT). This analysis investigated HT in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0418, a prospective study to test the feasibility of delivering postoperative IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancer in a multiinstitutional setting. Methods and Materials: Patients in the RTOG 0418 study were treated with postoperative IMRT to 50.4 Gy to the pelvic lymphatics and vagina. Endometrial cancer patients received IMRT alone, whereas patients with cervical cancer received IMRT and weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}). Pelvic bone marrow was defined within the treatment field by using a computed tomography density-based autocontouring algorithm. The volume of bone marrow receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy and the median dose to bone marrow were correlated with HT, graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, criteria. Results: Eighty-three patients were eligible for analysis (43 with endometrial cancer and 40 with cervical cancer). Patients with cervical cancer treated with weekly cisplatin and pelvic IMRT had grades 1-5 HT (23%, 33%, 25%, 0%, and 0% of patients, respectively). Among patients with cervical cancer, 83% received 5 or more cycles of cisplatin, and 90% received at least 4 cycles of cisplatin. The median percentage volume of bone marrow receiving 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy in all 83 patients, respectively, was 96%, 84%, 61%, and 37%. Among cervical cancer patients with a V40 >37%, 75% had grade 2 or higher HT compared with 40% of patients with a V40 less than or equal to 37% (P =.025). Cervical cancer patients with a median bone marrow dose of >34.2 Gy also had higher rates of grade ≥2 HT than did those with a dose of ≤34.2 Gy (74% vs 43%, P=.049). Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT with weekly cisplatin is

  20. The pathophysiology of pelvic floor disorders: evidence from a histomorphologic study of the perineum and a mouse model of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    YIOU, RENÉ; DELMAS, VINCENT; CARMELIET, PETER; GHERARDI, ROMAIN K.; BARLOVATZ-MEIMON, GEORGIA; CHOPIN, DOMINIQUE K.; ABBOU, CLÉMENT-CLAUDE; LEFAUCHEUR, JEAN-PASCAL

    2001-01-01

    The muscle changes related to pelvic floor disorders are poorly understood. We conducted an anatomical and histological study of the perineum of the normal mouse and of a transgenic mouse strain deficient in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA−/−) that was previously reported to develop a high incidence of rectal prolapse. We could clearly identify the iliococcygeus (ILC) and pubococcygeus (PC) muscles and anal (SPA) and urethral (SPU) sphincters in male and female mice. The bulbocavernosus (BC), ischiocavernosus (ISC) and levator ani (LA) muscles could be found only in male mice. Histochemical analysis of the pelvic floor muscles revealed a majority of type IIA fibres. Rectal prolapses were observed only in male uPA−/− mice. The most obvious finding was an irreducible evagination of the rectal mucosa and a swelling of the entire perineal region corresponding to an irreducible hernia of the seminal vesicles through the pelvic outlet. The hernia caused stretching and thinning of the ISC, BC and LA. Myopathic damage, with degenerated and centronucleated myofibres, were observed in these muscles. The PC, ILC, SPA and SPU were not affected. This study provides an original description of a model of pelvic floor disorder and illustrates the differences existing between the perineum of humans and that of a quadruped species. In spite of these differences, the histopathologic changes observed in the pelvic floor muscles of uPA−/− mice with rectal prolapse suggest that prolonged muscular stretching causes a primary myopathic injury. This should be taken into account in the evaluation of pelvic floor disorders. PMID:11760891

  1. Pelvic arteriography in obstetrics and gynecology: arteriovenous fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, G.T.

    1984-12-01

    Pelvic arteriography has become an increasingly useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the past decade along with angiography of other areas of the body. A brief historical review of its development in obstetrics and gynecology since 1950 is presented, including placental localization and study of pelvic arterial adequacy. Modern practical uses include (1) diagnosis and therapy of pelvic arteriovenous fistulas, and (2) arterial embolization for intractable recurrent pelvic hemorrhage associated either with malignancy or with trauma or uncontrollable surgical bleeding.

  2. Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Ariga, Hisanori; Nomura, Kuninori; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

  3. Clinical Outcome in Posthysterectomy Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Concurrent Cisplatin and Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy: Comparison With Conventional Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-F.; Tseng, C.-J.; Tseng, C.-C.; Kuo, Y.-C.; Yu, C.-Y.; Chen, W.-C. . E-mail: rto_chen@yahoo.com.tw

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To assess local control and acute and chronic toxicity with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as adjuvant treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and February 2006, 68 patients at high risk of cervical cancer after hysterectomy were treated with adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) for six cycles every week. Thirty-three patients received adjuvant radiotherapy by IMRT. Before the IMRT series was initiated, 35 other patients underwent conventional four-field radiotherapy (Box-RT). The two groups did not differ significantly in respect of clinicopathologic and treatment factors. Results: IMRT provided compatible local tumor control compared with Box-RT. The actuarial 1-year locoregional control for patients in the IMRT and Box-RT groups was 93% and 94%, respectively. IMRT was well tolerated, with significant reduction in acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities compared with the Box-RT group (GI 36 vs. 80%, p = 0.00012; GU 30 vs. 60%, p = 0.022). Furthermore, the IMRT group had lower rates of chronic GI and GU toxicities than the Box-RT patients (GI 6 vs. 34%, p = 0.002; GU 9 vs. 23%, p = 0.231). Conclusion: Our results suggest that IMRT significantly improved the tolerance to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with compatible locoregional control compared with conventional Box-RT. However, longer follow-up and more patients are needed to confirm the benefits of IMRT.

  4. Clinical efficacy and safety of paclitaxel plus carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for Stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Guo, Jianfeng; Shen, Yi; Cai, Jing; Xiong, Zhoufang; Dong, Weihong; Min, Jie; Wang, Zehua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of paclitaxel plus carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) prior to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods: We reviewed patients with cervical cancer of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB2-IIB who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) with paclitaxel plus carboplatin followed by radical hysterectomy (NACT group) or only received primary radical surgery (PRS group) in our hospital between Jan 2007 and Jan 2012. Toxicity, NACT response, surgery pathological factors and survival data were collected and analyzed. Results: In the NACT group, the overall response rate was 71.3% (82/115). Eighteen (15.7%) patients achieved complete remission. Well differentiated tumors showed a more favorable response to NACT (P=0.011). Myelosuppression was the most common adverse effect (51.7%) and serious adverse effects were rare (3.4%). The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 6-75). The NACT responders had significantly longer OS and PFS when compared to the non-NACT responders and patients in the PRS group. Conclusion: Patients with LACC can benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus carboplatin when they have response to the chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26550314

  5. The relationship between pelvic alignment and dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-jeong; Baek, Il-hun; Goo, Bong-oh

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between pelvic alignment and dysmenorrhea in general women. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred two females participated in this study. They were divided into a dysmenorrhea group and a normal group based on the results of a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). The survey data was collecting from 5th July to 20th September, 2014. Formetric 4D was used to measure the pelvic alignment, including the values of Trunk Imbalance, Pelvic Tilt, Surface Rotation, Lateral Deviation, Kyphosis Angle, Lordosis Angle. [Results] There was a difference in the spine alignments of each group. The value of pelvic torsion was 2.4 ± 1.8 degree in those with dysmenorrhea, while it was 1.7 ± 1.1 degree in those without. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the results suggest that there is a relationship between menstrual pain and pelvic torsion. PMID:27134354

  6. [The application of ultrasonography: uterovaginal and pelvic masses in black African women].

    PubMed

    N'Gbesso, R D; N'Goan, A M; Coulibaly, A; Mushi, M; Diabaté, K; Keita, A K

    1996-01-01

    Echography was prospectively performed in 345 black African female patients with pelvic masses which had been clinically detected in some cases. The women were between 11 and 65 years old. The aims of this study were to list the pelvic masses observed in black. African women, to record any potentially distinguishing features and to evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of echography as applied here. A total of 477 masses were listed. Ovarian masses were the most frequent (56.66%) followed by uterine masses (31.45%). Most masses were benign. We observed only two cases of ovarian cancer. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 97.69%. Eleven cases (2.3%) of the ultrasound diagnoses did not correspond with the final diagnoses. As for distinguishing aspects, these patients were younger than European patients-this was particularly true for patients with fibroid masses (a range of 31 to 40 years compared to 40 to 50 years). Genetic factors in these patients could explain the high rate and early appearance of fibroids. Because the diagnosis of vaginal masses is well established by clinical examination rather than by echography, this lesion was rarely observed. The most frequent clinical complaint was pelvic pain (36.94%), followed by pelvic mass impression (28.65%). We found high rates of both past histories of miscarriage and abortion (60.7%) and postabortion pelvic hematoma. The hematomas comprised 45.4% of the non-genital pelvic masses. Misdiagnosis of pyosalpinx was often a source of diagnostic error. Thus, to avoid false diagnoses of pyosalpinx in evaluating pelvic masses with a void in ultrasound, the possibility of an infectious episode should be evaluated by definitive questioning. Ultrasound examination is of value in evaluating the pelvic masses of women; however, this should be considered within the appropriate disease context. PMID:8764447

  7. Three-dimensional ultrasound appearance of pelvic floor in nulliparous women and pelvic organ prolapse women.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; Liu, Feifei; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46%) cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor. PMID:23155363

  8. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; Liu, Feifei; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46%) cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor. PMID:23155363

  9. A prospective randomized study to compare pelvic floor rehabilitation and dapoxetine for treatment of lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A L; Palleschi, G; Leto, A; Pacini, L; Iori, F; Leonardo, C; Carbone, A

    2012-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual disorder. We compared pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation to on-demand treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor dapoxetine in 40 men with lifelong PE (baseline intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤1 min). Subjects were randomized into the following two treatment groups: (1) PFM rehabilitation or (2) 30 or 60 mg of on-demand dapoxetine. Total treatment time for both groups was 12 weeks, at the end of which, IELT mean values were calculated to compare the effectiveness of the two different therapeutic approaches. At the end of treatment, 11 of the 19 patients (57%) treated with rehabilitation were able to control the ejaculation reflex, with a mean IELT of 126.6 sec (range: 123.6-152.4 sec). In the dapoxetine group, after 12 weeks of therapy, 5 of 8 (62.5%) patients in the 30 mg subgroup and five of seven (72%) in the 60 mg subgroup had an IELT >180 sec (mean: 178.2 and 202.8 sec, respectively). The results obtained in the group treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising, and this treatment represents an important cost reduction if compared to dapoxetine on-demand treatment. The present study confirms the data that are previously available in the literature on the efficacy and safety of the new inhibitor of serotonin reuptake, dapoxetine, as well as proposes and evaluates a new type of physical treatment that may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of PE. PMID:22320846

  10. Pelvic and acetabular fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair.

  11. Preclinical animal study and human clinical trial data of co-electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) and fibrinogen mesh for anterior pelvic floor reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xujun; Wang, Yuru; Zhu, Cancan; Tong, Xiaowen; Yang, Ming; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhang; Huang, Weihong; Wu, Feng; Zong, Honghai; Li, Huaifang; He, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic and biological materials are commonly used for pelvic floor reconstruction. In this study, host tissue response and biomechanical properties of mesh fabricated from co-electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) and fibrinogen (Fg) were compared with those of polypropylene mesh (PPM) in a canine abdominal defect model. Macroscopic, microscopic, histological, and biomechanical evaluations were performed over a 24-week period. The results showed that PLCL/Fg mesh had similar host tissue responses but better initial vascularization and graft site tissue organization than PPM. The efficacy of the PLCL/Fg mesh was further examined in human pelvic floor reconstruction. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and pelvic organ prolapse quantification during 6-month follow-up were compared for patients receiving PLCL/Fg mesh versus PPM. According to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification scores, the anterior vaginal wall 3 cm proximal to the hymen point (Aa point), most distal edge of the cervix or vaginal cuff scar point (C point), and posterior fornix point (D point) showed significant improvement (P<0.01) at 1, 3, and 6 months for both groups compared with preoperatively. At 6 months, improvements at the Aa point in the PLCL/Fg group were significantly more (P<0.005) than the PPM group, indicating that, while both materials improve the patient symptoms, PLCL/Fg mesh resulted in more obvious improvement. PMID:26893556

  12. Preclinical animal study and human clinical trial data of co-electrospun poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) and fibrinogen mesh for anterior pelvic floor reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xujun; Wang, Yuru; Zhu, Cancan; Tong, Xiaowen; Yang, Ming; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhang; Huang, Weihong; Wu, Feng; Zong, Honghai; Li, Huaifang; He, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic and biological materials are commonly used for pelvic floor reconstruction. In this study, host tissue response and biomechanical properties of mesh fabricated from co-electrospun poly(l-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) and fibrinogen (Fg) were compared with those of polypropylene mesh (PPM) in a canine abdominal defect model. Macroscopic, microscopic, histological, and biomechanical evaluations were performed over a 24-week period. The results showed that PLCL/Fg mesh had similar host tissue responses but better initial vascularization and graft site tissue organization than PPM. The efficacy of the PLCL/Fg mesh was further examined in human pelvic floor reconstruction. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and pelvic organ prolapse quantification during 6-month follow-up were compared for patients receiving PLCL/Fg mesh versus PPM. According to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification scores, the anterior vaginal wall 3 cm proximal to the hymen point (Aa point), most distal edge of the cervix or vaginal cuff scar point (C point), and posterior fornix point (D point) showed significant improvement (P<0.01) at 1, 3, and 6 months for both groups compared with preoperatively. At 6 months, improvements at the Aa point in the PLCL/Fg group were significantly more (P<0.005) than the PPM group, indicating that, while both materials improve the patient symptoms, PLCL/Fg mesh resulted in more obvious improvement. PMID:26893556

  13. A Dosimetric Comparison of Tomotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in the Treatment of High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Pelvic Nodal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David; Cavillon, Fabrice; Lacornerie, Thomas; Touzeau, Claire; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Lartigau, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric results of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) in the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer with pelvic nodal radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Plans were generated for 10 consecutive patients treated for high-risk prostate cancer with prophylactic whole pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT) using VMAT and HT. After WPRT, a sequential boost was delivered to the prostate. Plan quality was assessed according to the criteria of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 83 report: the near-minimal (D98%), near-maximal (D2%), and median (D50%) doses; the homogeneity index (HI); and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Beam-on time, integral dose, and several organs at risk (OAR) dosimetric indexes were also compared. Results: For WPRT, HT was able to provide a higher D98% than VMAT (44.3 {+-} 0.3 Gy and 43.9 {+-} 0.5 Gy, respectively; P=.032) and a lower D2% than VMAT (47.3 {+-} 0.3 Gy and 49.1 {+-} 0.7 Gy, respectively; P=.005), leading to a better HI. The DSC was better for WPRT with HT (0.89 {+-} 0.009) than with VMAT (0.80 {+-} 0.02; P=.002). The dosimetric indexes for the prostate boost did not differ significantly. VMAT provided better rectum wall sparing at higher doses (V70, V75, D2%). Conversely, HT provided better bladder wall sparing (V50, V60, V70), except at lower doses (V20). The beam-on times for WPRT and prostate boost were shorter with VMAT than with HT (3.1 {+-} 0.1 vs 7.4 {+-} 0.6 min, respectively; P=.002, and 1.5 {+-} 0.05 vs 3.7 {+-} 0.3 min, respectively; P=.002). The integral dose was slightly lower for VMAT. Conclusion: VMAT and HT provided very similar and highly conformal plans that complied well with OAR dose-volume constraints. Although some dosimetric differences were statistically significant, they remained small. HT provided a more homogeneous dose distribution, whereas VMAT enabled a shorter delivery time.

  14. Quality of Life After Whole Pelvic Versus Prostate-Only External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Matched-Pair Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Holy, Richard; Fischedick, Karin; Klotz, Jens; Szekely-Orban, Dalma; Eble, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Comparison of health-related quality of life after whole pelvic (WPRT) and prostate-only (PORT) external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A group of 120 patients (60 in each group) was surveyed prospectively before radiation therapy (RT) (time A), at the last day of RT (time B), at a median time of 2 months (time C) and >1 year after RT (time D) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). All patients were treated with 1.8- to 2.0-Gy fractions up to 70.2 to 72.0 Gy with or without WPRT up to 45 to 46 Gy. Pairs were matched according to the following criteria: age {+-} 5years, planning target volume {+-} 10 cc (considering planning target volume without pelvic nodes for WPRT patients), urinary/bowel/sexual function score before RT {+-} 10, and use of antiandrogens. Results: With the exception of prognostic risk factors, both groups were well balanced with respect to baseline characteristics. No significant differences were found with regard to urinary and sexual score changes. Mean bladder function scores reached baseline levels in both patient subgroups after RT. However, bowel function scores decreased significantly more for patients after WPRT than in those receiving PORT at all times (p < 0.01, respectively). Significant differences were found for most items in the bowel domain in the acute phase. At time D, patients after WPRT reported rectal urgency (>once a day in 15% vs. 3%; p = 0.03), bloody stools ({>=}half the time in 7% vs. 0%; p = 0.04) and frequent bowel movements (>two on a typical day in 32% vs. 7%; p < 0.01) more often than did patients after PORT. Conclusion: In comparison to PORT, WPRT (larger bladder and rectum volumes in medium dose levels, but similar volumes in high dose levels) was associated with decreased bowel quality of life in the acute and chronic phases after treatment but remained without adverse long-term urinary effects.

  15. Survival Outcomes for Patients with Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer with Grossly Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes: Time to Reconsider the FIGO Staging System?

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Nikhil G.; Klopp, Ann H.; Jhingran, Anuja; Frumovitz, Michael; Iyer, Revathy B.; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate treatment outcomes for patients with vulvar cancer with grossly positive pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs). Methods From a database of 516 patients with vulvar cancer, we identified patients with grossly positive PLNs without distant metastasis at initial diagnosis. We identified 20 patients with grossly positive PLNs; inclusion criteria included PLN 1.5 cm or larger in short axis dimension on CT/MRI (n=11), FDG-avid PLN on PET/CT (n=3), or biopsy-proven PLN disease (n=6). Ten patients were treated with chemoradiation (CRT) therapy, 4 with RT alone, and 6 with various combinations of surgery, RT or CRT. Median follow-up time for patients who had not died of cancer was 47 months (range, 4-228 months). Results Mean primary vulvar tumor size was 6.4 cm; 12 patients presented with 2009 AJCC T2 and 8 with T3 disease. All patients had grossly positive inguinal nodes, and the mean inguinal nodal diameter was 2.8 cm. The 5-year overall survival and disease specific survival rates were 43% and 48%, respectively. Eleven patients had recurrences, some at multiple sites. There were 9 recurrences in the vulva, but no isolated nodal recurrences. Four patients developed distant metastasis within 6 months of starting radiation therapy. Conclusions Aggressive locoregional treatment can lead to favorable outcomes for many patients with grossly involved PLNs that is comparable to that of grossly involved inguinal nodes only. We recommend modification of the FIGO stage IVB classification to more accurately reflect the relatively favorable prognosis of patients with PLN involvement. PMID:25524458

  16. The Influence of Pelvic Ramus Fracture on the Stability of Fixed Pelvic Complex Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jianyin; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Guiying; Wang, Zhihua; Cai, Xianhua

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of pelvic ring injury for the stability of pelvis using the finite element (FE) method. Complex pelvic fracture (i.e., anterior column with posterior hemitransverse lesion) combined with pelvic ramus fracture was used to evaluate the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. Three FE fracture models (i.e., Dynamic Anterior Plate-Screw System for Quadrilateral Area (DAPSQ) for complex pelvic fracture with intact pubic ramus, DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with pubic ramus fracture, and DAPSQ for complex pelvic fracture with fixed pubic ramus fracture) were established to explore the biomechanics stability of the pelvis. The pubic ramus fracture leads to an unsymmetrical situation and an unstable situation of the pelvis. The fixed pubic ramus fracture did well in reducing the stress levels of the pelvic bone and fixation system, as well as displacement difference in the pubic symphysis, and it could change the unstable situation back to a certain extent. The pelvic ring integrity was the prerequisite of the pelvic stability and should be in a stable condition when the complex fracture is treated. PMID:26495033

  17. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery ...

  18. Dose to specific subregions of pelvic bone marrow defined with FDG-PET as a predictor of hematologic nadirs during concomitant chemoradiation in anal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Arcadipane, Francesca; Ragona, Riccardo; Lesca, Adriana; Gallio, Elena; Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Cassoni, Paola; Arena, Vincenzo; Bustreo, Sara; Faletti, Riccardo; Rondi, Nadia; Morino, Mario; Ricardi, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that irradiated volume of specific subregions of pelvic active bone marrow as detected by (18)FDG-PET may be a predictor of decreased blood cells nadirs in anal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation, we analyzed 44 patients submitted to IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Several bony structures were defined: pelvic and lumbar-sacral (LSBM), lower pelvis (LPBM) and iliac (IBM) bone marrow. Active BM was characterized employing (18)FDG-PET and characterized in all subregions as the volume having standard uptake values (SUVs) higher than SUVmean. All other regions were defined as inactive BM. On dose-volume histograms, dosimetric parameters were taken. Endpoints included white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), hemoglobin (Hb) and platelet (Plt) nadirs. Generalized linear modeling was used to find correlations between dosimetric variables and blood cells nadirs. WBC nadir was significantly correlated with LSBM mean dose (β = -1.852; 95 % CI -3.205/-0.500; p = 0.009), V10 (β = -2.153; 95 % CI -4.263/-0.721; p = 0.002), V20 (β = -2.081; 95 % CI -4.880/-0.112; p = 0.003), V30 (β = -1.971; 95 % CI -4.748/-0.090; p = 0.023) and IBM V10 (β = -0.073; 95 % CI -0.106/-0.023; p = 0.016). ANC nadir found to be significantly associated with LSBM V10 (β = -1.878; 95 % CI -4.799/-0.643; p = 0.025), V20 (β = -1.765; 95 % CI -4.050/-0.613; p = 0.030) and IBM V10 (β = -0.039; 95 % CI -0.066/-0.010; p = 0.027). Borderline significance was found for correlation between Plt nadir and LSBM V30 (β = -0.056; 95 % CI -2.748/-0.187; p = 0.060), V40 (β = -0.059; 95 % CI -3.112/-0.150; p = 0.060) and IBM V30 (β = -0.028; 95 % CI -0.074/-0.023; p = 0.056). No inactive BM subsites were found to be correlated with any blood cell nadir. (18)FDG-PET is able to define active bone marrow within pelvic osseous structures. LSBM is the strongest predictor of decreased blood cells

  19. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  20. Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Janette D.; Machan, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Patients with pelvic congestion syndrome present with otherwise unexplained chronic pelvic pain that has been present for greater than 6 months, and anatomic findings that include pelvic venous insufficiency and pelvic varicosities. It remains an underdiagnosed explanation for pelvic pain in young, premenopausal, usually multiparous females. Symptoms include noncyclical, positional lower back, pelvic and upper thigh pain, dyspareunia, and prolonged postcoital discomfort. Symptoms worsen throughout the day and are exacerbated by activity or prolonged standing. Examination may reveal ovarian tenderness and unusual varicosities—vulvoperineal, posterior thigh, and gluteal. Diagnosis is suspected by clinical history and imaging that demonstrates pelvic varicosities. Venography is usually necessary to confirm ovarian vein reflux, although transvaginal ultrasound may be useful in documenting this finding. Endovascular therapy has been validated by several large patient series with long-term follow-up using standardized pain assessment surveys. Embolization has been shown to be significantly more effective than surgical therapy in improving symptoms in patients who fail hormonal therapy. Although there has been variation in approaches between investigators, the goal is elimination of ovarian vein reflux with or without direct sclerosis of enlarged pelvic varicosities. Symptom reduction is seen in 70 to 90% of the treated females despite technical variation. PMID:24436564

  1. Pelvic Nodal Dosing With Registration to the Prostate: Implications for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kishan, Amar U. Lamb, James M.; Jani, Shyam S.; Kang, Jung J.; Steinberg, Michael L.; King, Christopher R.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To determine whether image guidance with rigid registration (RR) to intraprostatic markers (IPMs) yields acceptable coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in the context of a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) regimen. Methods and Materials: Four to seven kilovoltage cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) from 12 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were analyzed, allowing approximation of an SBRT regimen. The nodal clinical target volume (CTV{sub N}) and bladder were contoured on all kilovoltage CBCTs. The V{sub 100} CTV{sub N}, expressed as a ratio to the same parameter on the initial plan, and the magnitude of translational shift between RR to the IPMs versus RR to the pelvic bones, were computed. The ability of a multimodality bladder filling protocol to minimize bladder height variation was assessed in a separate cohort of 4 patients. Results: Sixty-five CBCTs were assessed. The average V{sub 100} CTV{sub N} was 92.6%, but for a subset of 3 patients the average was 80.0%, compared with 97.8% for the others (P<.0001). The average overall and superior–inferior axis magnitudes of the bony-to-fiducial translations were significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (8.1 vs 3.9 mm and 5.8 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P<.0001). Relative bladder height changes were also significantly larger in the subgroup with suboptimal nodal coverage (42.9% vs 18.5%; P<.05). Use of a multimodality bladder-filling protocol minimized bladder height variation (P<.001). Conclusion: A majority of patients had acceptable nodal coverage after RR to IPMs, even when approximating SBRT. However, a subset of patients had suboptimal nodal coverage. These patients had large bony-to-fiducial translations and large variations in bladder height. Nodal coverage should be excellent if the superior–inferior axis bony-to-fiducial translation and the relative bladder height change (both easily measured on CBCT) are kept to a minimum. Implementation of a strict bladder filling

  2. Effect of Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy and Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mantini, Giovanna; Tagliaferri, Luca; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Balducci, Mario; Frascino, Vincenzo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Di Gesu, Cinzia; Ippolito, Edy; Morganti, Alessio G.; Cellini, Numa

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in prostate cancer patients treated with RT and long-term (>1 year) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and materials: Prostate cancer patients with high-risk features (Stage T3-T4 and/or Gleason score {>=}7 and/or prostate-specific antigen level {>=}20 ng/mL) who had undergone RT and long-term ADT were included in the present analysis. Patients with bowel inflammatory disease, colon diverticula, and colon diverticulitis were excluded from WPRT and treated with prostate-only radiotherapy (PORT). Patients were grouped according to nodal risk involvement as assessed by the Roach formula using different cutoff levels (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%). Biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was analyzed in each group according to the RT type (WPRT or PORT). Results: A total of 358 patients treated between 1994 and 2007 were included in the analysis (46.9% with WPRT and 53.1% with PORT). The median duration of ADT was 24 months (range, 12-38). With a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 20-150), the overall 4-year bDFS rate was 90.5%. The 4-year bDFS rate was similar between the patients who had undergone WPRT or PORT (90.4% vs. 90.5%; p = NS). However, in the group of patients with the greatest nodal risk (>30%), a significant bDFS improvement was recorded for the patients who had undergone WPRT (p = .03). No differences were seen in acute toxicity among the patients treated with WPRT or PORT. The late gastrointestinal toxicity was similar in patients treated with PORT or WPRT (p = NS). Conclusions: Our analysis has supported the use of WPRT in association with long-term ADT for patients with high-risk nodal involvement (>30%), although a definitive recommendation should be confirmed by a randomized trial.

  3. An Exploratory Study into Objective and Reported Characteristics of Neuropathic Pain in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Lucy H. R.; Reid, Jen; Choa, Alex; McFee, Stuart; Seretny, Marta; Wilson, John; Elton, Rob A.; Vincent, Katy; Horne, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects 5.7–26.6% women worldwide. 55% have no obvious pathology and 40% have associated endometriosis. Neuropathic pain (NeP) is pain arising as a consequence of a lesion/disease affecting the somatosensory system. The prevalence of NeP in women with CPP is not known. The diagnosis of NeP is challenging because there is no gold-standard assessment. Questionnaires have been used in the clinical setting to diagnose NeP in other chronic pain conditions and quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used in a research setting to identify abnormal sensory function. We aimed to determine if women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have a neuropathic pain (NeP) component to their painful symptoms and how this is best assessed. We performed an exploratory prospective cohort study of 72 pre-menopausal women with a diagnosis of CPP. They underwent a clinician completed questionnaire (DN4) and completed the S-LANSS and PainDETECT™ questionnaires. Additionally QST testing was performed by a clinician. They also completed a patient acceptability questionnaire. Clinical features of NeP were identified by both questionnaires and QST. Of the women who were NeP positive, 56%, 35% and 26% were identified by the S-LANSS, DN4 and PainDETECT™ respectively. When NeP was identified by questionnaire, the associated laparoscopy findings were similar irrespective of which questionnaire was used. No subject had entirely unchanged QST parameters. There were distinct loss and gain subgroups, as well as mixed alteration in function, but this was not necessarily clinically significant in all patients. 80% of patients were confident that questionnaires could diagnose NeP, and 90% found them easy to complete. Early identification of NeP in women with CPP with a simple questionnaire could facilitate targeted therapy with neuromodulators, which are cheap, readily available, and have good safety profiles. This approach could prevent unnecessary or fertility

  4. Phase I Study of Intravenous Triapine (IND # 68338) in Combination With Pelvic Radiation Therapy With or Without Weekly Intravenous Cisplatin Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical, Vaginal, or Pelvic Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  5. Metabolomic Study on the Preventive Effect of Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch on Multipathogen Induced Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Wen, Xiaoke; Zheng, Yi; Xiao, Zuoqi; Luo, Jieying; Chen, Shuqiong; Wang, Yichao; Cheng, Zeneng; Xiang, Daxiong; Nie, Yichu

    2015-01-01

    Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch (PSF), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used as a “heat-clearing and detoxifying” agent. The present study was to illustrate the preventive effect of PSF on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in rats. The PID model was constructed by multipathogen infection of the upper genital tract with reference to the method previously reported. Urine metabolomic analysis was conducted with a GC-MS coupled with derivatization method. In this study, PID rats showed obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevated expression of cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) in upper genital tract, compared with control rats. Sixteen differentiating metabolites contributed to the alteration of metabolic profile in PID rats, including two amino acids, three fat acids, nine organic acids, and two types of sugars. The rats, infected by multipathogen and administered with PSF, showed decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells and lowered expression of cytokines in upper genital tract, compared with PID rats. Meanwhile, PSF intervened in the PID-associated alterations in TCA cycle, sugar metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and other uncertain metabolic pathways. These results indicate that PSF has preventive effect on multipathogen induced PID and holistic interventional effect on disease-associated metabolomic change. PMID:26175792

  6. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome is associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Lin, Herng-Ching; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine this association by comparing the risk of prior irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and matched controls in Taiwan. Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 4870 cases with CP/CPPS and 4870 age-matched controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations of CP/CPPS with previously diagnosed IBS. We found that a total of 753 (7.7%) of the 9740 sampled patients had IBS prior to the index date; IBS was found in 497 (10.2%) cases and in 256 (5.3%) controls. Conditional logistic regression revealed a higher odds ratio (OR) of prior IBS (OR 2.05, 95% CI = 1.75–2.40) for cases than controls. Furthermore, after adjusting for the patients’ monthly income, geographical location, urbanization level, and hypertension and coronary heart disease, the conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that cases were more likely than controls to have prior IBS (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.67–2.29). Furthermore, we found that CP/CPPS was consistently and significantly associated with prior IBS regardless of age group. We concluded that the diagnosis of CP/CPPS was associated with previously diagnosed IBS. Urologists should be aware of the association between CP/CPPS and IBS when treating patients. PMID:27225866

  7. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome is associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Lin, Herng-Ching; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine this association by comparing the risk of prior irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and matched controls in Taiwan. Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 4870 cases with CP/CPPS and 4870 age-matched controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations of CP/CPPS with previously diagnosed IBS. We found that a total of 753 (7.7%) of the 9740 sampled patients had IBS prior to the index date; IBS was found in 497 (10.2%) cases and in 256 (5.3%) controls. Conditional logistic regression revealed a higher odds ratio (OR) of prior IBS (OR 2.05, 95% CI = 1.75-2.40) for cases than controls. Furthermore, after adjusting for the patients' monthly income, geographical location, urbanization level, and hypertension and coronary heart disease, the conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that cases were more likely than controls to have prior IBS (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.67-2.29). Furthermore, we found that CP/CPPS was consistently and significantly associated with prior IBS regardless of age group. We concluded that the diagnosis of CP/CPPS was associated with previously diagnosed IBS. Urologists should be aware of the association between CP/CPPS and IBS when treating patients. PMID:27225866

  8. Evaluation of acute pelvic pain in women.

    PubMed

    Kruszka, Paul S; Kruszka, Stephen J

    2010-07-15

    Diagnosis of pelvic pain in women can be challenging because many symptoms and signs are insensitive and nonspecific. As the first priority, urgent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, ruptured ovarian cyst) and fertility-threatening conditions (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian torsion) must be considered. A careful history focusing on pain characteristics, review of systems, and gynecologic, sexual, and social history, in addition to physical examination helps narrow the differential diagnosis. The most common urgent causes of pelvic pain are pelvic inflammatory disease, ruptured ovarian cyst, and appendicitis; however, many other diagnoses in the differential may mimic these conditions, and imaging is often needed. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be the initial imaging test because of its sensitivities across most etiologies and its lack of radiation exposure. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for pelvic inflammatory disease when other etiologies are ruled out, because the presentation is variable and the prevalence is high. Multiple studies have shown that 20 to 50 percent of women presenting with pelvic pain have pelvic inflammatory disease. Adolescents and pregnant and postpartum women require unique considerations. PMID:20642266

  9. Pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, David; Amadi, Chiemezie; Beckman, Irwin; Patel, Shweta; Surampudi, Ramana

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas are soft-tissue tumors, rare in adults. Accounting for nearly 5% of childhood cancers, they represent less than 0.03% of adult malignancies (1, 2). Three different subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma have been described (embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic), making up approximately 50%, 30%, and 20% of the cases, respectively (3). Although the definitive diagnosis is made pathologically, some distinguishing features among these subtypes, and between rhabdomyosarcomas and other soft-tissue tumors, can be suggested on MRI and CT. We present an interesting case of a 20-year-old female with a locally aggressive pelvic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. While the prognosis has improved with newer treatment techniques, overall survival rates remain poor. Our case study presents typical features of a rare disease, which can often present a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians.

  10. The Detection of Patients at Risk of Gastrointestinal Toxicity during Pelvic Radiotherapy by Electronic Nose and FAIMS: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Covington, James A.; Wedlake, Linda; Andreyev, Jervoise; Ouaret, Nathalie; Thomas, Matthew G.; Nwokolo, Chuka U.; Bardhan, Karna D.; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the electronic nose can be used to identify differences between human health and disease for a range of disorders. We present a pilot study to investigate if the electronic nose and a newer technology, FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry), can be used to identify and help inform the treatment pathway for patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy, which frequently causes gastrointestinal side-effects, severe in some. From a larger group, 23 radiotherapy patients were selected where half had the highest levels of toxicity and the others the lowest. Stool samples were obtained before and four weeks after radiotherapy and the volatiles and gases emitted analysed by both methods; these chemicals are products of fermentation caused by gut microflora. Principal component analysis of the electronic nose data and wavelet transform followed by Fisher discriminant analysis of FAIMS data indicated that it was possible to separate patients after treatment by their toxicity levels. More interestingly, differences were also identified in their pre-treatment samples. We believe these patterns arise from differences in gut microflora where some combinations of bacteria result to give this olfactory signature. In the future our approach may result in a technique that will help identify patients at “high risk” even before radiation treatment is started. PMID:23201982

  11. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 minutes. A back mapper and motion analysis equipment were used to measure pelvic posture and angles of lower limb joints for the experimental and control group. [Results] The values obtained before and after the intervention were compared. For the experimental group, the results were significantly different in terms of reduced differences in hip flexion between the left and right hips and in knee abduction between the left and right knees. Differences in pelvic position and pelvic torsion were also found in the experimental group. No significant differences in the control group were identified. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment affects pelvic position and torsion and this enhancement to pelvic stability decreases hip flexion and knee abduction during walking. PMID:27190468

  12. Cylindroma-like basaloid anal cancer presenting as a large pelvic mass in a patient with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sugong; Tan, Sanda A.; Shon, Wonwoo; Shaw, Christiana M.

    2015-01-01

    Basaloid cancers of the lower gastrointestinal tract are rare. The lack of mucosal involvement of this type of tumor is uncharacteristic and, to our knowledge, has not been described. In addition, the cylindroma-like appearance of this cancer has only a few examples in the literature. A 51-year-old male presented to us with a history of ulcerative colitis (UC) and obstruction of the anal canal. Imaging and colonoscopy revealed an entirely extraluminal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy yielded a diagnosis of cylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anal region. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation resulted in stable disease by RECIST criteria. Surgical planning ensued, which led to R0 resection of the tumor, total colectomy and end ileostomy for his UC, and reconstruction of the perineal defect with a rectus myocutaneous flap. Surveillance at 6 months demonstrated no evidence of disease. PMID:26224891

  13. Survey of a Pelvic Health Physiotherapy Community of Practice: A Pilot Study to Gain Member Input to Help Sustain and Advance the Group

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To gather input and perspectives from members of the Calgary Pelvic Health Physiotherapists' Community of Practice (PHPT CoP) to ensure common goals that help sustain and advance the group. Method: An online survey grounded in CoP theory was used to elicit feedback from 23 PHPTs. Descriptive statistics summarized survey results. Results: The response rate was 96%; all respondents worked in women's pelvic health. Respondents expressed interest in continuing regular face-to-face meetings, a speaker series, case studies, and connecting with other PHPTs. Conclusion: The findings suggest continuation of regular meetings, with a focus on clinical skill development, and an annual Alberta PHPT conference. Members of this community of practice seek a strategy to promote PHPT to the public and develop referral sources. PMID:25931649

  14. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and pelvic floor spasm: can we diagnose and treat?

    PubMed

    Westesson, Karin E; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2010-07-01

    National Institutes of Health category III prostatitis, also known as chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, is a common condition with significant impact on quality of life. This clinically defined syndrome has a multifactorial etiology and seems to respond best to multimodal therapy. At least half of these patients have pelvic floor spasm. There are several approaches to therapy including biofeedback, acupuncture, and myofascial release physical therapy. However, the only multicenter study of pelvic floor physical therapy for pelvic floor spasm in men failed to show an advantage over conventional Western massage. We have proposed a clinical phenotyping system called UPOINT to classify patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain and subsequently direct appropriate therapy. Here, we review the current approach to category III prostatitis and describe how clinical phenotyping with UPOINT may improve therapy outcomes. PMID:20490725

  15. COMPARISON OF BASELINE UROLOGIC SYMPTOMS IN MEN AND WOMEN IN THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN (MAPP) RESEARCH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, J. Quentin; Clauw, Daniel J.; Kreder, Karl; Krieger, John N.; Kusek, John W.; Lai, H. Henry; Rodriguez, Larissa; Williams, David A.; Hou, Xiaoling; Stephens, Alisa; Landis, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The clinical features of interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) are similar to those of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have directly compared the characteristics of these syndromes in men and women. METHODS The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) research network recruited 191 men and 233 women with IC/BPS or CP/CPPS. Baseline data included demographics, the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) and Problem Index (ICPI), the Genitourinary Pain Index (GUPI), the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI), Likert scales to assess urinary urgency, frequency, pain and overall symptom severity, and a single question about the most bothersome pelvic symptom. RESULTS After adjustment for age, income and symptom duration, measures of pain severity were similar across genders. Mean scores for the ICSI, ICPI and AUASI were significantly higher in women than men, reflecting more bladder-focused symptoms in women. The most bothersome single symptom in both men and women was pain in the pubic/bladder area (34% of men, 58% of women). The characteristics of the men and women in the MAPP cohort were similar to those reported in other research cohorts of IC/BPS and CP/CPPS. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that pain severity is similar in both sexes, and that bladder-focused symptoms (urgency, suprapubic pain, frequency) are more common in women. However, a substantial proportion of men also report these types of bladder symptoms. PMID:25463989

  16. The mechanism of diarrhoea resulting from pelvic and abdominal radiotherapy; a prospective study using selenium-75 labelled conjugated bile acid and cobalt-58 labelled cyanocobalamin.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, E K; Lui, D; Lee, N Y

    1984-12-01

    An attempt was made to elucidate the mechanism of diarrhoea resulting from pelvic and abdominal radiotherapy in a prospective study of 10 patients undergoing treatment for curable pelvic malignant tumours using the synthetic trihydroxy 75Se-labelled conjugated bile acid, SeHcat and 58Co-labelled cyanocobalamin (58Co Vit B12). Evidence of malabsorption of vitamin B12 measured as a significant fall in whole body percentage retention of 58Co Vit B12 from baseline levels was found in all nine patients who developed diarrhoea during radiotherapy. Only four out of these nine patients also had malabsorption of the trihydroxy conjugated bile acid, cholic acid, measured as a significant fall in SeHcat whole body percentage retention and these patients had the most severe diarrhoea. The findings are discussed in the light of what is known about the pathophysiology of diarrhoea during pelvic and abdominal radiotherapy and lend support to previous work which implicated increased bowel motility in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced diarrhoea. The hypothesis that local neuroendocrine mechanisms in the gut may be involved is put forward, with possible implications for treatment. PMID:6509291

  17. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  18. Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled study with focus on pelvic floor muscle training

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Stenlund, Hans; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add? Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10–35% of women, and it is sometimes very distressful. Pelvic floor exercises are the first line of treatment, but access barriers or embarrassment may prevent women from seeking help. There is a need for new, simple, and effective ways to deliver treatment. Management of SUI without face-to-face contact is possible, and Internet-based treatment is a new, promising treatment alternative. Objective To compare two treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without face-to-face contact: one Internet-based and one sent by post. Patients and Methods Randomised, controlled trial conducted in Sweden 2009–2011. Computer-generated block-randomisation, allocation by independent administrator. No ‘blinding’. The study included 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years, with SUI ≥1 time/week. Consecutive online recruitment. The women had 3 months of either; (i) An Internet-based treatment programme (124 women), including e-mail support and cognitive behavioural therapy assignments or (ii) A treatment programme sent by post (126). Both programmes focused mainly on pelvic floor muscle training. Primary outcomes: symptom-score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, ICIQ-UI SF) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life, ICIQ-LUTSQoL). Secondary outcomes: (i) Patient Global Impression of Improvement, (ii) Incontinence aids, (iii) Patient satisfaction, (iv) Health-specific QoL (EQ5D-Visual Analogue Scale), and (v) Incontinence episode frequency. Follow-up after 4 months via self-assessed postal questionnaires. Results In all, 12% (30 women) were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed highly significant improvements (P < 0.001) with large effect sizes (>0.8) with both interventions, but there were no significant differences between groups in primary outcomes

  19. 42 CFR 410.56 - Screening pelvic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... screening pelvic examination (including a clinical breast examination) if it is performed by a doctor of... of her medical history or other findings) of developing cervical cancer or vaginal cancer, as determined in accordance with the following risk factors: (i) High risk factors for cervical cancer:...

  20. 42 CFR 410.56 - Screening pelvic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... screening pelvic examination (including a clinical breast examination) if it is performed by a doctor of... of her medical history or other findings) of developing cervical cancer or vaginal cancer, as determined in accordance with the following risk factors: (i) High risk factors for cervical cancer:...

  1. 42 CFR 410.56 - Screening pelvic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... screening pelvic examination (including a clinical breast examination) if it is performed by a doctor of... of her medical history or other findings) of developing cervical cancer or vaginal cancer, as determined in accordance with the following risk factors: (i) High risk factors for cervical cancer:...

  2. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. PMID:26880505

  3. A pilot study on the use of acupuncture or pelvic floor muscle training for mixed urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Mona; Alræk, Terje; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Klovning, Atle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility and acceptability of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) acupuncture and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in reducing symptoms and bothersomeness in women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI); and to estimate the sample size for a full scale trial. Methods Thirty-four women with MUI were randomly assigned to either 12 sessions of TCM acupuncture, 12 sessions of PFMT, or to a waiting list control group. Outcome measures included an assessment of interest to participate in the trial, identification of successful recruitment strategies, the appropriateness of eligibility criteria, and compliance with treatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks, and included the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF), expectations of treatment effect, and adverse events. Results Recruitment was feasible and randomisation worked adequately by means of SurveyMonkey. SurveyMonkey does not permit stratification by ICIQ-UI SF baseline score. Fourteen of 22 women found the treatment options acceptable. The dropout rate was high, especially in the control group (6/12). Outcome forms were completed by 20 of 34 women. The median (IQR) changes of the ICIQ-UI SF scores in the acupuncture, physiotherapy, and waiting list group were 5.5 (2.3 to 6.8), 1.0 (−3.0 to 4.5), and 1.5 (−1.5 to 3.0), respectively, suggesting the need for a full scale trial. Conclusions Women with MUI were willing to participate in this study. There is a need for adjusting eligibility criteria. A sample size of 129 women, 43 in three arms, is required. No major adverse events occurred. PMID:26362793

  4. Non-surgical interventions for pelvic organ prolapse in rural Nepal: a prospective monitoring and evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Bhatta, Surya; Sherpa, Tenzing Y; Malla, Bishwo S; A Fitchett, Elizabeth J; Samen, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major cause of morbidity in Nepal, particularly affecting women in the rural communities. Women with POP in Nepal may suffer from symptoms for decades. At present, the Government of Nepal advocates surgical intervention but access to surgical care is inadequate. This report evaluated the feasibility of a non-surgical public health programme in rural Nepal, and describes risk factors associated with POP in this setting. Design Prospective monitoring and evaluation study of a new public health programme. Setting Baglung district, rural Nepal. Participants Women with gynaecological symptoms of POP. Main outcome measures Risk factors for disease progression were assessed using Fisher’s exact test, Pearson’s χ2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 74 women included in this analysis, 70.8% were diagnosed with stage 2 POP or greater. The majority of women did not have any further children following the onset of POP symptoms (63.5%). Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 months to 60 years, with 73.4% of women suffering for over 5 years and 28.4% suffering for over 20 years. Univariate analyses identified age at screening, age at onset of symptoms, the duration of symptoms and an associated rectocele as factors associated with increasing POP severity (p < 0.05). Kegel exercises were taught to 25 (33.8%) women with POP and ring pessaries were offered to 47 (63.5%) women with POP. Conclusions Non-surgical interventions may provide an opportunity to address the significant burden of POP in rural Nepal. PMID:26664731

  5. Pelvic Fractures in Children Results from the German Pelvic Trauma Registry

    PubMed Central

    Zwingmann, Jörn; Aghayev, Emin; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Neumann, Mirjam; Bode, Gerrit; Stuby, Fabian; Schmal, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As pelvic fractures in children and adolescents are very rare, the surgical management is not well delineated nor are the postoperative complications. The aim of this study using the prospective data from German Pelvic Trauma Registry study was to evaluate the various treatment approaches compared to adults and delineated the differences in postoperative complications after pelvic injuries. Using the prospective pelvic trauma registry established by the German Society of Traumatology and the German Section of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO), International in 1991, patients with pelvic fractures over a 12-year time frame submitted by any 1 of the 23 member level I trauma centers were reviewed. We identified a total of 13,525 patients including pelvic fractures in 13,317 adults and 208 children aged ≤14 years and compared these 2 groups. The 2 groups’ Injury Severitiy Score (ISS) did not differ statistically. Lethality in the pediatric group was 6.3%, not statistically different from the adults’ 4.6%. In all, 18.3% of the pediatric pelvic fractures were treated surgically as compared to 22.7% in the adult group. No child suffered any thrombosis/embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure (MOF), or neurologic deficit, nor was any septic MOF detected. The differences between adults and children were statistically significant in that the children suffered less frequently from thrombosis/embolism (P = 0.041) and ARDS and MOF (P = 0.006). This prospective multicenter study addressing patients with pelvic fractures reveals that the risk for a thrombosis/embolism, ARDS, and MOF is significant lower in pediatric patients than in adults. No statistical differences could be found in the ratios of operative therapy of the pelvic fractures in children compared to adults. PMID:26705223

  6. Psychosocial aspects of chronic pelvic pain, with special reference to sexual abuse. A study of 164 women.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, R. P.; Crisp, A. H.; Beard, R. W.; McGuigan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with chronic pelvic pain attending a tertiary referral centre show certain social, developmental and psychological characteristics. Specifically, they appear to have fewer children and to report more paternal overprotection, and a trend towards low maternal care compared to normals. They also show more depression, free-floating anxiety and somatic anxiety than such populations. The levels are similar to those found in other outpatient populations presenting with migraine or irritable bowel syndrome. Hostility levels are greater than those in normal subjects. Overall the present patient population reports the same degree of childhood sexual abuse as do many other female clinic and community sample populations. Sexual abuse is unlikely to be a specific aetiological factor in the development of chronic pelvic pain though it may yet be found to be important in subsets of the population. PMID:8415346

  7. Stage IIB carcinoma of the cervix that is associated with pelvic kidney: A therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, Isam; Amarin, Zouhair; Jaradat, Imad

    2007-12-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer with congenital pelvic kidney is reported uncommonly. A 50-year-old patient with stage IIB cervical cancer and pelvic kidney was treated with irradiation and concurrent chemotherapy. Follow-up evaluation for 2 years revealed normal renal function and no evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:18060936

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of Incidence and Its Associated Risk Factors of Upper Urinary Tract Recurrence following Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer with Transitional Cell Carcinoma: The Significance of Local Pelvic Recurrence and Positive Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Lee, Jung Hoon; Lee, Eun-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to examine the incidence and risk factors of upper urinary tract recurrence (UUTR) following radical cystectomy (RC) in bladder cancer and to evaluate its relationship with neobladder (Neo) or ileal conduit (IC). Materials and Methods All clinicopathologic parameters and perioperative parameters of 311 patients who underwent RC with either Neo or IC by a single surgeon from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively included in this study. Patients with a history of renal surgery, concomitant UUTR, or a histopathology of non-transitional cell carcinoma were excluded. For statistical analyses of predictive risk factors of UUTR, a multivariate analysis was performed with known risk factors of UUTR, including type of urinary diversion with significance defined as P < 0.05. Results During the median follow-up period of 53 months, 143 (46.0%) IC and 168 (54.0%) Neo were performed, resulting in 11 (3.5%) cases of UUTR (Neo 7 and IC 4) after RC and all patients then underwent nephroureterectomy. No significant differences in incidence and overall survival in UUTR were observed according different types of urinary diversion (p = 483), and the prognosis for survival of Neo was insignificantly better than that of IC (5-year overall survival 78% vs 74%, respectively, p>0.05). Higher number of positive lymph nodes (HR 9.03) and the presence of pelvic local recurrence (HR 7286.08) were significant predictive factors of UUTR (p<0.05). Conclusion This study reports a UUTR rate of 3.5%, and positive lymph nodes and presence of local recurrence at the pelvis as important risk factors. No significant differences in incidence and survival were observed between Neo and IC. PMID:24798444

  9. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its treatment algorithm, and corresponding cases involving unstable pelvic ring injury.

  10. [Influence of the pelvic trauma registry of the DGU on treatment of pelvic ring fractures].

    PubMed

    Holstein, J H; Stuby, F M; Herath, S C; Culemann, U; Aghayev, E; Pohlemann, T

    2016-06-01

    Fractures of the pelvic ring are comparatively rare with an incidence of 2-8 % of all fractures depending on the study in question. The severity of pelvic ring fractures can be very different ranging from simple and mostly "harmless" type A fractures up to life-threatening complex type C fractures. Although it was previously postulated that high-energy trauma was necessary to induce a pelvic ring fracture, over the past decades it became more and more evident, not least from data in the pelvic trauma registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU), that low-energy minor trauma can also cause pelvic ring fractures of osteoporotic bone and in a rapidly increasing population of geriatric patients insufficiency fractures of the pelvic ring are nowadays observed with no preceding trauma.Even in large trauma centers the number of patients with pelvic ring fractures is mostly insufficient to perform valid and sufficiently powerful monocentric studies on epidemiological, diagnostic or therapeutic issues. For this reason, in 1991 the first and still the only registry worldwide for the documentation and evaluation of pelvic ring fractures was introduced by the Working Group Pelvis (AG Becken) of the DGU. Originally, the main objectives of the documentation were epidemiological and diagnostic issues; however, in the course of time it developed into an increasingly expanding dataset with comprehensive parameters on injury patterns, operative and conservative therapy regimens and short-term and long-term outcome of patients. Originally starting with 10 institutions, in the meantime more than 30 hospitals in Germany and other European countries participate in the documentation of data. In the third phase of the registry alone, which was started in 2004, data from approximately 15,000 patients with pelvic ring and acetabular fractures were documented. In addition to the scientific impact of the pelvic trauma registry, which is reflected in the numerous national and