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Sample records for pelvic muscle training

  1. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery ...

  2. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258946 . Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091581 . Herderschee R, Hay-Smith EJC, Herbison GP, Roovers JP, Heineman MJ. Feedback ...

  3. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    PubMed

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:25921509

  4. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training: Underutilization in the USA.

    PubMed

    Lamin, Eliza; Parrillo, Lisa M; Newman, Diane K; Smith, Ariana L

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are highly prevalent in women of all ages and can greatly impair quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a viable treatment option for several pelvic floor conditions including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. PFMT is a program of therapy initiated by an experienced clinician (e.g., women's health or urology nurse practitioner (NP), physical therapist (PT)) that involves exercises for women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) and exercises combined with behavioral or conservative treatments (lifestyle changes, bladder training with urge suppression) for women with urgency or mixed UI. These exercise programs are more comprehensive than simple Kegel exercises. Despite evidence-based research indicating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness for treatment of urinary incontinence, PFMT is not commonly used as a first-line treatment in clinical practice in the USA (Abrams et al., 2012). This article will review PFMT for the treatment of UI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and theorize how this conservative therapy can be utilized more effectively in the USA. PMID:26757904

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence postpartum.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bethany; Woodward, Sue

    The offering of pelvic floor muscle exercises to all women during their first pregnancy is recommended by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. Pelvic floor muscles suffer significant trauma throughout pregnancy and childbirth, which may sometimes lead to urinary incontinence postpartum. However, it is uncertain how effective pelvic floor muscle exercises are in treating this incontinence. Several trials have been analysed to try to understand this question. Issues such as when the exercises were undertaken, how often they were performed and in what circumstances they were carried out, have all been considered. While it is still uncertain whether they are effective in reducing urinary incontinence postpartum, as they are non-invasive and fairly simple to carry out, they are still the first-line management for urinary incontinence postpartum with other treatments being considered if this is ineffective. PMID:26067791

  6. Pelvic Muscle Exercises Using A Home Trainer for Pelvic Muscle Dysfunction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic muscle exercises can help improve symptoms of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction. This article describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with moderate pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and mild urinary incontinence (UI) who initiated pelvic muscle exercises with the assistance of a novel, at-home trainer equipped with a vaginal sensor and accompanying smartphone app software, the PeriCoach system (Analytica, 2015). After 8 weeks of training with the device, she showed improvements in strength, endurance, and disability, as measured by manual muscle test, electromyography, and Pelvic Floor Disability Index scores. Older women can use biofeedback technology to improve pelvic floor muscle function successfully at home. PMID:27281865

  7. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training. PMID:25233622

  8. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Valeria Regina; Riccetto, Cássio; Martinho, Natalia Miguel; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo Cesar; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT) using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI) muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76) years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP) of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001) following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women. PMID:27564290

  9. A Comparative Study of Whole Body Vibration Training and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Women's Stress Urinary Incontinence: Three- Month Follow- Up

    PubMed Central

    Farzinmehr, Azizeh; Moezy, Azar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Kashanian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Whole Body Vibration Training (WBVT) is effective at improving pelvic floor muscles strength in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). Materials and methods: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. 43 women with SUI were randomly assigned in two groups; WBVT and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT) and received interventions for four weeks. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, quality of life and incontinence intensity were evaluated. All measurements were conducted pre and post intervention and also after 3 months in all participants. The ANOVA and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between the groups. Results: This study showed the WBVT protocol in this study was effective in pelvic floor muscles strength similar to PFMT, and also in reducing the severity of incontinence and increasing I-QOL questionnaire score. We found significant differences in each group pre and post intervention (p = 0.0001); but no significant difference in comparison of two groups' outcomes. Also after three-month follow up, there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in improving pelvic floor muscles strength and quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence in four-week treatment period and after three months follow up. PMID:27047560

  10. Pelvic floor muscle training for urgency urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greer, Joy A; Smith, Ariana L; Arya, Lily A

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of existing physiotherapy modalities for the treatment of urge urinary incontinence (UUI). A systematic review was performed for primary studies of physiotherapy techniques for UUI published in English between 1996 and August 2010 in major electronic databases. Only randomized clinical trials that reported outcomes separately for women with UUI were included. Outcomes assessed were reduction in UUI, urinary frequency, and nocturia. Data from 13 full-text trials including the modalities of pelvic floor muscles exercises with or without biofeedback, vaginal electrical stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and vaginal cones were analyzed. The methodologic quality of these trials was fair. Significant improvement in UUI was reported for all physiotherapy techniques except vaginal cone therapy. There are insufficient data to determine if pelvic physiotherapy improves urinary frequency or nocturia. Evidence suggests that physiotherapy techniques may be beneficial for the treatment of UUI. PMID:22246576

  11. Kegel Exercises for Your Pelvic Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... control until after 6 to 12 weeks of daily exercises. Still, most women notice an improvement after just ... Weak pelvic muscles often lead to urine leakage. Daily exercises can strengthen pelvic muscles. These exercises often improve ...

  12. The effects of training by virtual reality or gym ball on pelvic floor muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Silva, Valéria R.; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Iunes, Denise H.; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of abdominopelvic training by virtual reality compared to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) using a gym ball (a previously tested and efficient protocol) on postmenopausal women’s pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 postmenopausal women, randomly allocated into two groups: Abdominopelvic training by virtual reality – APT_VR (n=30) and PFMT using a gym ball – PFMT_GB (n=30). Both types of training were supervised by the same physical therapist, during 10 sessions each, for 30 minutes. The participants’ PFM strength was evaluated by digital palpation and vaginal dynamometry, considering three different parameters: maximum strength, average strength and endurance. An intention-to-treat approach was used to analyze the participants according to original groups. Results No significant between-group differences were observed in most analyzed parameters. The outcome endurance was higher in the APT_VR group (p=0.003; effect size=0.89; mean difference=1.37; 95% CI=0.46 to 2.28). Conclusion Both protocols have improved the overall PFM strength, suggesting that both are equally beneficial and can be used in clinical practice. Muscle endurance was higher in patients who trained using virtual reality. PMID:27437716

  13. A pilot study on the use of acupuncture or pelvic floor muscle training for mixed urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Mona; Alræk, Terje; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Klovning, Atle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility and acceptability of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) acupuncture and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in reducing symptoms and bothersomeness in women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI); and to estimate the sample size for a full scale trial. Methods Thirty-four women with MUI were randomly assigned to either 12 sessions of TCM acupuncture, 12 sessions of PFMT, or to a waiting list control group. Outcome measures included an assessment of interest to participate in the trial, identification of successful recruitment strategies, the appropriateness of eligibility criteria, and compliance with treatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks, and included the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF), expectations of treatment effect, and adverse events. Results Recruitment was feasible and randomisation worked adequately by means of SurveyMonkey. SurveyMonkey does not permit stratification by ICIQ-UI SF baseline score. Fourteen of 22 women found the treatment options acceptable. The dropout rate was high, especially in the control group (6/12). Outcome forms were completed by 20 of 34 women. The median (IQR) changes of the ICIQ-UI SF scores in the acupuncture, physiotherapy, and waiting list group were 5.5 (2.3 to 6.8), 1.0 (−3.0 to 4.5), and 1.5 (−1.5 to 3.0), respectively, suggesting the need for a full scale trial. Conclusions Women with MUI were willing to participate in this study. There is a need for adjusting eligibility criteria. A sample size of 129 women, 43 in three arms, is required. No major adverse events occurred. PMID:26362793

  14. Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Patricia B; Grimmer, Karen A; Deenadayalan, Yamini

    2006-01-01

    Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a prevalent and costly condition which may be treated surgically or by physical therapy. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) performed alone and together with adjunctive therapies (eg biofeedback, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones) for the treatment of female SUI. Methods All major electronic sources of relevant information were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed English language abstracts or papers published between 1995 and 2005. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and other study designs eg non-randomised trials, cohort studies, case series, were considered for this review in order to source all the available evidence relevant to clinical practice. Studies of adult women with a urodynamic or clinical diagnosis of SUI were eligible for inclusion. Excluded were studies of women who were pregnant, immediately post-partum or with a diagnosis of mixed or urge incontinence. Studies with a PFMT protocol alone and in combination with adjunctive physical therapies were considered. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study, its level of evidence and the methodological quality. Due to the heterogeneity of study designs, the results are presented in narrative format. Results Twenty four studies, including 17 RCTs and seven non-RCTs, met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies varied but lower quality scores did not necessarily indicate studies from lower levels of evidence. This review found consistent evidence from a number of high quality RCTs that PFMT alone and in combination with adjunctive therapies is effective treatment for women with SUI with rates of 'cure' and 'cure/improvement' up to 73% and 97% respectively. The contribution of adjunctive therapies is unclear and there is limited evidence about treatment

  15. Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled study with focus on pelvic floor muscle training

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Stenlund, Hans; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add? Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) affects 10–35% of women, and it is sometimes very distressful. Pelvic floor exercises are the first line of treatment, but access barriers or embarrassment may prevent women from seeking help. There is a need for new, simple, and effective ways to deliver treatment. Management of SUI without face-to-face contact is possible, and Internet-based treatment is a new, promising treatment alternative. Objective To compare two treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without face-to-face contact: one Internet-based and one sent by post. Patients and Methods Randomised, controlled trial conducted in Sweden 2009–2011. Computer-generated block-randomisation, allocation by independent administrator. No ‘blinding’. The study included 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years, with SUI ≥1 time/week. Consecutive online recruitment. The women had 3 months of either; (i) An Internet-based treatment programme (124 women), including e-mail support and cognitive behavioural therapy assignments or (ii) A treatment programme sent by post (126). Both programmes focused mainly on pelvic floor muscle training. Primary outcomes: symptom-score (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, ICIQ-UI SF) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life, ICIQ-LUTSQoL). Secondary outcomes: (i) Patient Global Impression of Improvement, (ii) Incontinence aids, (iii) Patient satisfaction, (iv) Health-specific QoL (EQ5D-Visual Analogue Scale), and (v) Incontinence episode frequency. Follow-up after 4 months via self-assessed postal questionnaires. Results In all, 12% (30 women) were lost to follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed highly significant improvements (P < 0.001) with large effect sizes (>0.8) with both interventions, but there were no significant differences between groups in primary outcomes

  16. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Women With Stress Urinary Incontinence Causes Hypertrophy of the Urethral Sphincters and Reduces Bladder Neck Mobility During Coughing

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Linda; Varette, Kevin; Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; Harvey, Marie-Andree; Baker, Kevin; Sauerbrei, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 12-week pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training program on urethral morphology and mobility in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Forty women with SUI were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the treatment group received 12 weekly physiotherapy sessions during which they learned how to properly contract their pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and a home exercise program was prescribed, reviewed, and progressed; the control group received no treatment. Before and after the 12-week study period, ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate bladder neck position and mobility during coughing and Valsalva maneuver in supine and in standing, as well as urethral morphology. Secondary outcome measures included a 3-day bladder diary, 30-min pad test, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6). Results The women in the treatment group demonstrated reduced bladder neck mobility during coughing and increased cross-sectional area of their urethra after as compared to before the training. These changes were not evident in the control group. No differences in the resting position of the bladder neck or in bladder neck excursion during Valsalva maneuver were noted in either group. Concomitantly the women in the treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in the 3-day bladder diary and IIQ-7 after the PFM training and improved significantly more than the control group. Conclusion Physiotherapist-supervised PFM training reduces bladder neck motion during coughing, and results in hypertrophy of the urethral sphincter in women who present with SUI. PMID:23861324

  17. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks. Abdominal ultrasonography measurements in transverse and longitudinal planes, the PERFECT scheme, perineometric evaluation, the stop test, the stress test, and the pad test were used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength in all cases. [Results] After training, the PERFECT, perineometry and transabdominal ultrasonography measurements were found to be significantly improved, and the stop test and pad test results were significantly decreased in the pelvic floor muscle training group, whereas no difference was observed in the control group. There was a positive correlation between the PERFECT force measurement scale and ultrasonography force measurement scale before and after the intervention in the control and pelvic floor muscle training groups (r=0.632 and r=0.642, respectively). [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive method to identify the change in pelvic floor muscle strength with exercise training. PMID:27065519

  18. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks. Abdominal ultrasonography measurements in transverse and longitudinal planes, the PERFECT scheme, perineometric evaluation, the stop test, the stress test, and the pad test were used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength in all cases. [Results] After training, the PERFECT, perineometry and transabdominal ultrasonography measurements were found to be significantly improved, and the stop test and pad test results were significantly decreased in the pelvic floor muscle training group, whereas no difference was observed in the control group. There was a positive correlation between the PERFECT force measurement scale and ultrasonography force measurement scale before and after the intervention in the control and pelvic floor muscle training groups (r=0.632 and r=0.642, respectively). [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive method to identify the change in pelvic floor muscle strength with exercise training. PMID:27065519

  19. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19-21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25-75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  20. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    PubMed Central

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  1. Enhanced muscle activity during lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Seong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pelvic stabilization affects multifidus (MF) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscle activities during dynamic extension exercise. Nine males (age, 25.1±6.3 yr; height, 176.6±2.4 cm; body mass, 74.9±6.7 kg) performed an isometric lumbar extension strength test and dynamic exercise in an upright seated position with or without pelvic stabilization. The electromyography and muscle strength of the MF and IL muscles were measured when the subjects performed the isometric lumbar extension strength test at the trunk angle 110°, 146°, and 182°. In addition, the trunk extensor muscle activities were measured using 50% muscle strength of maximum isometric strength during a dynamic trunk extension exercise. The MF and IL muscle activities were significantly higher at 110°, 146°, and 182° with pelvic stabilization than that without pelvic stabilization during the isometric lumbar extension strength test (P<0.05) and the dynamic exercise (P<0.05). These results suggest that the lumbar extension exercise with pelvic stabilization may be more effective for MF and IL muscle activity compared to that without pelvic stabilization. PMID:26730390

  2. Development and evolution of the muscles of the pelvic fin.

    PubMed

    Cole, Nicholas J; Hall, Thomas E; Don, Emily K; Berger, Silke; Boisvert, Catherine A; Neyt, Christine; Ericsson, Rolf; Joss, Jean; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2011-10-01

    Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was critical to the success of the tetrapod transition. PMID:21990962

  3. Development and Evolution of the Muscles of the Pelvic Fin

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Nicholas J.; Hall, Thomas E.; Don, Emily K.; Berger, Silke; Boisvert, Catherine A.; Neyt, Christine; Ericsson, Rolf; Joss, Jean; Gurevich, David B.; Currie, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was critical to the success of the tetrapod transition. PMID:21990962

  4. Analysis of muscle forces acting on fragments in pelvic fractures.

    PubMed

    Elabjer, Esmat; Nikolić, Vasilije; Matejcić, Aljosa; Stancić, Marin; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    CT was used in 50 adult pelvic fractures to determine the size and the position of relevant muscles with regard to bony elements in order to calculate muscle forces acting upon certain pelvic portions. Muscle length was measured to calculate muscle volume and physiological muscle cross-section. Among others, the size and direction of muscle forces were calculated for iliac, pubic and ischiadic fractures. The strongest muscle acting in iliac fractures is m. gluteus medius. The strongest upward pulling of iliac bone fragments is exerted by the erector muscles, while the major anterior, medial and downward pulling is performed by the iliopsoas muscle. In pubic bone fractures, eight muscles push bone fragments downward, the strongest among them being m. adductor magnus. Two muscles pull them upwards: m. rectus abdominis and m. obliquus externus. Nine muscles are responsible for downward displacement of bone fragments in ischiadic fractures, but the strongest is m. semitendinosus. Calculation of moments of muscle forces acting upon bone fragments using CT of pelvic fractures gives additional data for planning of optimal operative treatment that can guarantee stable fixation in individual patients. PMID:20102053

  5. Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: 1- and 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial with a focus on pelvic floor muscle training

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Stenlund, Hans; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term effects of two non-face-to-face treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) based on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Subjects and Methods The present study was a randomized controlled trial with online recruitment of 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years with SUI ≥ one time/week. Diagnosis was based on validated self-assessed questionnaires, 2-day bladder diary and telephone interview with a urotherapist. Consecutive computer-generated block randomization was carried out with allocation by an independent administrator to 3 months of treatment with either an internet-based treatment programme (n = 124) or a programme sent by post (n = 126). Both interventions focused mainly on PFMT. The internet group received continuous e-mail support from a urotherapist, whereas the postal group trained on their own. Follow-up was performed after 1 and 2 years via self-assessed postal questionnaires. The primary outcomes were symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-UI SF]) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life [ICIQ-LUTSqol]). Secondary outcomes were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, health-specific quality of life (EQ-visual analogue scale [EQ-VAS]), use of incontinence aids, and satisfaction with treatment. There was no face-to-face contact with the participants at any time. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Results We lost 32.4% (81/250) of participants to follow-up after 1 year and 38.0% (95/250) after 2 years. With both interventions, we observed highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements with large effect sizes (>0.8) for symptoms and condition-specific quality of life (QoL) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups. The mean (sd) changes in symptom score were 3.7 (3.3) for the internet group and 3.2 (3.4) for the postal group (P = 0

  6. Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training, Electrical Stimulation, Vaginal Cones, and No Active Treatment in the Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rodrigo A.; Arruda, Raquel M.; Zanetti, Miriam R. D.; Santos, Patricia D.; Sartori, Marair G. F.; Girão, Manoel J. B. C.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. PATIENTS AND METHODS One hundred eighteen subjects were randomly selected to recieve pelvic floor exercises (n=31), ES (n=30), vaginal cones (n=27), or no treatment (untreated control) (n=30). Women were evaluated before and after completion of six months of treatment by the pad test, quality of life questionnaire (I-QOL), urodynamic test, voiding diary, and subjective response. RESULTS In the objective evaluation, we observed a statistically significant reduction in the pad test (p=0.003), in the number of stress urinary episodes (p<0.001), and a significant improvement in the quality of life (p<0.001) in subjects who used pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones compared to the control group. No significant difference was found between groups in the urodynamic parameters. In the subjective evaluation, 58%, 55%, and 54% of women who had used pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones, respectively, reported being satisfied after treatment. In the control group, only 21% patients were satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSION Based on this study, pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones are equally effective treatments and are far superior to no treatment in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. PMID:18719756

  7. A shell finite element model of the pelvic floor muscles.

    PubMed

    d'Aulignac, D; Martins, J A C; Pires, E B; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M Natal

    2005-10-01

    The pelvic floor gives support to the organs in the abdominal cavity. Using the dataset made public in (Janda et al. J. Biomech. (2003) 36(6), pp. 749-757), we have reconstructed the geometry of one of the most important parts of the pelvic floor, the levator ani, using NURB surfaces. Once the surface is triangulated, the corresponding mesh is used in a finite element analysis with shell elements. Based on the 3D behavior of the muscle we have constructed a shell that takes into account the direction of the muscle fibers and the incompressibility of the tissue. The constitutive model for the isotropic strain energy and the passive strain energy stored in the fibers is adapted from Humphrey's model for cardiac muscles. To this the active behavior of the skeletal muscle is added. We present preliminary results of a simulation of the levator ani muscle under pressure and with active contraction. This research aims at helping simulate the damages to the pelvic floor that can occur after childbirth. PMID:16298856

  8. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  9. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  10. Cortical Activation Associated with Muscle Synergies of the Human Male Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    Asavasopon, Skulpan; Rana, Manku; Kirages, Daniel J.; Yani, Moheb S.; Fisher, Beth E.; Hwang, Darryl H.; Lohman, Everett B.; Berk, Lee S.

    2014-01-01

    Human pelvic floor muscles have been shown to operate synergistically with a wide variety of muscles, which has been suggested to be an important contributor to continence and pelvic stability during functional tasks. However, the neural mechanism of pelvic floor muscle synergies remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation in motor cortical regions associated with pelvic floor activation are part of the neural substrate for such synergies. We first use electromyographic recordings to extend previous findings and demonstrate that pelvic floor muscles activate synergistically during voluntary activation of gluteal muscles, but not during voluntary activation of finger muscles. We then show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that a region of the medial wall of the precentral gyrus consistently activates during both voluntary pelvic floor muscle activation and voluntary gluteal activation, but not during voluntary finger activation. We finally confirm, using transcranial magnetic stimulation, that the fMRI-identified medial wall region is likely to generate pelvic floor muscle activation. Thus, muscle synergies of the human male pelvic floor appear to involve activation of motor cortical areas associated with pelvic floor control. PMID:25297107

  11. Ultrasound Evaluation of Dynamic Responses of Female Pelvic Floor Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qiyu; Jones, Ruth; Shishido, Keiichi; Constantinou, Christos E.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor carrys diagnostically important information about the dynamic response of the Pelvic Floor Muscles (PFM) to potentially incontinence-producing stress, which can not be readily captured and assimilated by the observer during the scanning process. We presented an approach based on motion tracking to quantatively analyze the dynamic parameters of PFM on the Ano-Rectal Angle (ARA). Perineal ultrasonography was performed on 22 asymptomatic females and 9 Stress Urinary Incontinent (SUI) patients with a broad age distribution and parity. The ventral-dorsal and cephalad-caudad movements of the ARA were resolved and kinematic parameters, in terms of displacement, trajectory, velocity and acceleration were analyzed. The results revealed the possible mechanisms of PFM responses to prevent the urine from incontinence in fast and stress events. The statistical analyses showed the PFM responses of the healthy subjects and the SUI patients are significantly different in both the supine and standing experiments. PMID:17210220

  12. Pelvic floor muscle exercises in genuine urinary stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Cammu, H; Van Nylen, M

    1997-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises, in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence, have been used successfully since 1948. One may expect a significant improvement (warranting no further therapy), or cure rate of about 50%. These exercises have a long-lasting effect. Poorly motivated women should be discouraged to follow exercise sessions. An active co-operation between urogynecologist, physiotherapist and the patient is important in order to avoid undertreated and dissatisfied women. The option to be operated upon must be easily available. PMID:9557995

  13. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  14. Pelvic Belt Effects on Pelvic Morphometry, Muscle Activity and Body Balance in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Soisson, Odette; Lube, Juliane; Germano, Andresa; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Josten, Christoph; Sichting, Freddy; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.; Hammer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application. Methods Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects. Results Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level. Discussion Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest. PMID:25781325

  15. A three-dimensional muscle activity imaging technique for assessing pelvic muscle function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Dan; Timm, Gerald W.

    2010-11-01

    A novel multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG)-based three-dimensional muscle activity imaging (MAI) technique has been developed by combining the bioelectrical source reconstruction approach and subject-specific finite element modeling approach. Internal muscle activities are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the intra-vaginal surface EMG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. The MAI technique was employed to minimally invasively reconstruct electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter from multi-channel intra-vaginal surface EMG recordings. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the present MAI technique. With appropriate numerical modeling and inverse estimation techniques, we have demonstrated the capability of the MAI technique to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from surface EMG recordings. This MAI technique combined with traditional EMG signal analysis techniques is being used to study etiologic factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in women by correlating functional status of muscles characterized from the intra-vaginal surface EMG measurements with the specific pelvic muscle groups that generated these signals. The developed MAI technique described herein holds promise for eliminating the need to place needle electrodes into muscles to obtain accurate EMG recordings in some clinical applications.

  16. Pelvic Examination Instruction and Experience: A Comparison of Laywoman-Trained and Physician-Trained Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Dawn E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of pelvic examination training given to medical students by a laywoman who served as both teacher and patient with training by an attending physician with a laywoman serving only as the patient. Found that the laywoman-trained students demonstrated better interpersonal skills than did physician-trained students. No…

  17. Neural control of the female urethral and anal rhabdosphincters and pelvic floor muscles

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The urethral rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles are important in maintenance of urinary continence and in preventing descent of pelvic organs [i.e., pelvic organ prolapse (POP)]. Despite its clinical importance and complexity, a comprehensive review of neural control of the rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles is lacking. The present review places historical and recent basic science findings on neural control into the context of functional anatomy of the pelvic muscles and their coordination with visceral function and correlates basic science findings with clinical findings when possible. This review briefly describes the striated muscles of the pelvis and then provides details on the peripheral innervation and, in particular, the contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the function of the various pelvic muscles. The locations and unique phenotypic characteristics of rhabdosphincter motor neurons located in Onuf's nucleus, and levator ani motor neurons located diffusely in the sacral ventral horn, are provided along with the locations and phenotypes of primary afferent neurons that convey sensory information from these muscles. Spinal and supraspinal pathways mediating excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the motor neurons are described; the relative contributions of the nerves to urethral function and their involvement in POP and incontinence are discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of the neurochemical anatomy of Onuf's nucleus and the pharmacological control of the rhabdosphincter are provided. PMID:20484700

  18. Numerical simulation of the damage evolution in the pelvic floor muscles during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dulce A; Parente, Marco P L; Calvo, Begoña; Mascarenhas, Teresa; Natal Jorge, Renato M

    2016-02-29

    Several studies have shown that pelvic floor injuries during a vaginal delivery can be considered a significant factor in the development of pelvic floor dysfunction. Such disorders include a group of conditions affecting women like urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and fecal incontinence. Numerical simulations are valuable tools that are contributing to the clarification of the mechanisms behind pelvic floor disorders. The aim of this work is to propose a mechanical model implemented in the finite element method context to estimate the damage in the pelvic floor muscles by mechanical effects during a vaginal delivery of a fetus in vertex presentation and occipitoanterior position. The constitutive model adopted has already been successfully used in the simulation of childbirth and the structural damage model added has previously been applied to characterize the damage process in biological soft tissues undergoing finite deformations. The constitutive parameters were fit to experimental data available in the literature and the final proposed material model is suitable to estimate the mechanical damage in the pelvic floor muscle during a vaginal delivery. The computational model predicts that even an apparently uneventful vaginal delivery inflicts injuries to the pelvic floor muscles, particularly during the extension of the fetus head, having been obtained more than 10% of damaged fibers. As a clinical evidence, the present work allows to conclude that the puborectalis component of the levator ani muscle is the most prone to damage. PMID:26895779

  19. Dose-Effect Relationships for Individual Pelvic Floor Muscles and Anorectal Complaints After Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Hopman, Wim P.M.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To delineate the individual pelvic floor muscles considered to be involved in anorectal toxicity and to investigate dose-effect relationships for fecal incontinence-related complaints after prostate radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: In 48 patients treated for localized prostate cancer, the internal anal sphincter (IAS) muscle, the external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle, the puborectalis muscle (PRM), and the levator ani muscles (LAM) in addition to the anal wall (Awall) and rectal wall (Rwall) were retrospectively delineated on planning computed tomography scans. Dose parameters were obtained and compared between patients with and without fecal urgency, incontinence, and frequency. Dose-effect curves were constructed. Finally, the effect of an endorectal balloon, which was applied in 28 patients, was investigated. Results: The total volume of the pelvic floor muscles together was about three times that of the Awall. The PRM was exposed to the highest RT dose, whereas the EAS received the lowest dose. Several anal and rectal dose parameters, as well as doses to all separate pelvic floor muscles, were associated with urgency, while incontinence was associated mainly with doses to the EAS and PRM. Based on the dose-effect curves, the following constraints regarding mean doses could be deduced to reduce the risk of urgency: {<=}30 Gy to the IAS; {<=}10 Gy to the EAS; {<=}50 Gy to the PRM; and {<=}40 Gy to the LAM. No dose-effect relationships for frequency were observed. Patients treated with an endorectal balloon reported significantly less urgency and incontinence, while their treatment plans showed significantly lower doses to the Awall, Rwall, and all pelvic floor muscles. Conclusions: Incontinence-related complaints show specific dose-effect relationships to individual pelvic floor muscles. Dose constraints for each muscle can be identified for RT planning. When only the Awall is delineated, substantial components of the continence apparatus are

  20. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Chandana; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ballala, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha; Pandey, Deeksha

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8-10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82%) LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51%) of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3). Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2), while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less) should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises. PMID:27119044

  1. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Chandana; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ballala, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8–10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82%) LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51%) of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3). Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2), while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less) should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises. PMID:27119044

  2. Alterations in pelvic floor muscles and pelvic organ support by pregnancy and vaginal delivery in squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Michelle; Gendron, Jilene M.; Pierce, Lisa M.; Runge, Val M.; Kuehl, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to measure the effects of pregnancy and parturition on pelvic floor muscles and pelvic organ support. Methods Levator ani, obturator internus, and coccygeus (COC) muscle volumes and contrast uptake were assessed by MRI of seven females prior to pregnancy, 3 days, and 4 months postpartum. Bladder neck and cervix position were measured dynamically with abdominal squeezing. Results The sides of three paired muscles were similar (p>0.66). COC volumes were greater (p<0.004) after parturition than before pregnancy or after recovery. COC contrast uptake increased (p<0.02) immediately after delivery. Bladder neck position both in the relaxed state and abdominal pressure descended (p<0.04) after delivery and descended further (p<0.001) after recovery. Cervical position in the relaxed state before delivery was higher (p<0.001) than postpartum but was unchanged (p=0.50) with abdominal pressure relative to delivery. Conclusion In squirrel monkeys, coccygeus muscles demonstrate the greatest change related to parturition, and parturition-related bladder neck descent seems permanent. PMID:21567260

  3. Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength evaluations in nulliparous and primiparous women: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Sousa, Vanessa Oliveira; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe; Muchailh, Rosana Carneiro; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength of nulliparous and primiparous women. METHODS: A total of 100 women were prospectively distributed into two groups: Group 1 (G1) (n = 50) included healthy nulliparous women, and Group 2 (G2) (n = 50) included healthy primiparous women. Pelvic floor muscle strength was subjectively evaluated using transvaginal digital palpation. Pelvic floor muscle strength was objectively assessed using a portable perineometer. All of the parameters were evaluated simultaneously in G1 and were evaluated in G2 during the 20th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and 45 days after delivery. RESULTS: In G2, 14 women were excluded because they left the study before the follow-up evaluation. The median age was 23 years in G1 and 22 years in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. The average body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 in G1 and 25.0 kg/m2 in G2; there was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0004). In G2, transvaginal digital palpation evaluation showed significant impairments of pelvic floor muscle strength at the 36th week of pregnancy (p = 0.0006) and 45 days after vaginal delivery (p = 0.0001) compared to G1. Objective evaluations of pelvic floor muscle strength in G2 revealed a significant decrease 45 days after vaginal delivery compared to nulliparous patients. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and vaginal delivery may cause weakness of the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:21915489

  4. Inspiratory muscle training: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Padula, Cynthia A; Yeaw, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although extensive research on IMT has accumulated, its benefits have been debated, primarily because of methodological limitations of studies. Using relevant key words, multiple databases were searched from 1966. Selected studies used PImax (maximal inspiratory pressure) as an outcome variable. Overall, research demonstrated that a standard protocol of 30% or higher for a duration of 20 to 30 minutes per day for 10 to 12 weeks improves dyspnea and inspiratory strength and endurance with either inspiratory resistive or inspiratory threshold training. Regardless of method, IMT protocols for people with COPD and inspiratory muscle weakness and dyspnea are generally safe, feasible, and effective. Patient selectivity and study of subgroups are recommended. PMID:17190116

  5. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  6. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. Methods: We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6–152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). Conclusions: The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24883105

  7. The effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after delivery

    PubMed Central

    Golmakani, Nahid; Zare, Zahra; Khadem, Nayereh; Shareh, Hossein; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Selection and acceptance of appropriate sexual behavior and sexual function are made difficult by low sexual self-efficacy in the postpartum period. The general purpose of this research is to define the effects of an 8-week pelvic floor muscle exercise program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after childbirth. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 79 primiparous women who referred to health care centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2013, 8 weeks after delivery, to receive health care services. They were selected by easy sampling. The samples were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group was trained in Kegel exercises for 8 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks. Data collection tools included: Demographic information, sexual self-efficacy, and Brink scale. Data were analyzed using repeated measures, Friedman test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: The results showed significant increase in pelvic floor muscle strength in the intervention group at 4 and 8 weeks after exercises (P < 0.0001), but no significant difference was observed in the control group (P = 0.368). There was a significant increase in sexual self-efficacy in the intervention (P < 0.0001) and control groups (P = 0.001) at 4 and 8 weeks after the start of the study. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in sexual self-efficacy after they performed these exercises (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The findings showed that 8-week pelvic muscle exercises increase the sexual self-efficacy in women after delivery. PMID:26120335

  8. Bilateral recurrent external obturator muscle hematoma: An unusual cause of pelvic pain in hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    ARPACI, TANER; SASMAZ, ILGEN; AKBAS, TUGANA; EKEN, ALPER; OZGUR, ANIL; ANTMEN, BULENT

    2016-01-01

    Following joint hemorrhages, intramuscular hemorrhages are the second most prevalent bleeding pattern in hemophiliac patients. Hematomas of the iliopsoas muscle are a well-known complication of hemophilia; however, obturator muscle hematomas are rare. We herein report a case of spontaneous bleeding of the bilateral external obturator muscles, which occured three times within a period of 9 months in a hemophilia patient with factor VIII inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case of an obturator externus muscle hematoma in hemophilia. In addition to hip hemarthrosis, iliopsoas hematomas and acute appendicitis, obturator muscle hematoma should be considered as one of the diagnostic alternatives for pelvic pain in hemophiliaψ patients. Magnetic resonance imaging enables rapid diagnosis of obturator muscle hematoma. PMID:27073678

  9. Clarification and confirmation of the Knack maneuver: the effect of volitional pelvic floor muscle contraction to preempt expected stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Miller, Janis M; Sampselle, Carolyn; Ashton-Miller, James; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; DeLancey, John O L

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the immediate effect of timing a pelvic muscle contraction with the moment of expected leakage (the Knack maneuver) to preempt cough-related stress incontinence. Women performed a standing stress test using three hard coughs without and then with the Knack maneuver. Volume of urine loss under both conditions was quantified with paper-towel test. Two groups of women were tested: nonpregnant women (n = 64) and pregnant women (n = 29). In nonpregnant women, wetted area decreased from a median (range) of 43.2 (0.2-183.7) cm2 without the Knack maneuver to 6.9 (range of 0 to 183.7 cm2) with it (p < 0.0001); while in pregnant women it decreased from 14.8 (0-169.7) cm2 to 0 (0-96.5) cm2, respectively (p = 0.001). This study confirms the effect from the Knack maneuver as immediate and provides a partial explanation for early response to widely applied pelvic muscle training regimens in women with stress incontinence. PMID:18204797

  10. CT-Guided Needle Biopsy of Deep Pelvic Lesions by Extraperitoneal Approach Through Iliopsoas Muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay; Madoff, David C.; Ahrar, Kamran; Morello, Frank A.; Wallace, Michael J.; Murthy, Ravi; Hicks, Marshall E.

    2003-11-15

    We report our experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided coaxial needle biopsy of deep pelvic lesions by an extraperitoneal approach through the iliopsoas muscle, using a curved needle for difficult-to-reach lesions. We reviewed the records of all patients with pelvic masses who underwent CT-guided percutaneous biopsy via iliopsoas muscle between January 1999 and December 2001. Direct anterior or posterior approach to the lesion was obstructed by bowel, bladder, vessels, or bones in all patients. An 18-gauge guide needle was advanced through the iliopsoas muscle and a 22-gauge Chiba needle was used to perform the biopsy. A custom-tailored curved 22-g needle was used in 17 procedures when the location of the iliac vessels and the slope of the iliac wing obstructed a straight path to the lesion. Fifty-three patients underwent 57 CT-guided needle biopsies during the study period. The lesions comprised obturator (n = 25), internal iliac (n = 11), anterior external iliac (n = 4), and common iliac nodes (n = 4); soft tissue masses along pelvic side-wall (n = 6); adnexal lesions (n = 5); a loculated fluid collection, and a perirectal node. All lesions were safely accessed, and major vessels and viscera were avoided in all cases. Of the 57 biopsies, 53 (93%) yielded diagnostic specimens. No major complications were encountered. CT-guided coaxial needle biopsy by an anterolateral approach through the iliopsoas muscle, with the use of a curved needle in selected cases is safe and effective for obtaining samples from deep pelvic lesions.

  11. Comparison of pelvic muscle architecture between humans and commonly used laboratory species

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Marianna; Tuttle, Lori J.; Conner, Blair R.; Dixon, Danielle M.; Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are deleteriously affected by vaginal birth, which contributes to the development of pelvic floor disorders. To mechanistically link these events, experiments using animal models are required, as access to human PFM tissue is challenging. In choosing an animal model, a comparative study of PFM design is necessary, since gross anatomy alone is insufficient to guide the selection. Methods Human PFM architecture was measured using micromechanical dissection and then compared with mouse (n=10), rat (n=10), and rabbit (n=10) using the Architectural Difference Index (ADI) (parameterizing a combined measure of sarcomere length-to-optimal-sarcomere ratio, fiber-to-muscle-length ratio, and fraction of total PFM mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) contributed by each muscle). Coccygeus (C), iliocaudalis (IC), and pubocaudalis (PC) were harvested and subjected to architectural measurements. Parameters within species were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's tests. The scaling relationships of PFM across species were quantified using least-squares regression of log-10-transformed variables. Results Based on the ADI, rat was found to be the most similar to humans (ADI = 2.5), followed by mouse (ADI = 3.3). When animals' body mass was regressed against muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and PCSA scaling coefficients showed a negative allometric relationship or smaller increase than predicted by geometric scaling. Conclusion In terms of muscle design among commonly used laboratory animals, rat best approximates the human PFM, followed by mouse. Negative allometric scaling of PFM architectural parameters is likely due to the multifaceted function of these muscles. PMID:24915840

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue and muscles of the ...

  13. Concentration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Pelvic Floor Muscles: An Experimental Comparative Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Hung-Yen; Changchien, Eileen; Lin, Mei-Fung; Chiang, Chi-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explore non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs) potency for pelvic floor muscle pain by measuring local concentration in a rat model. Materials and Methods We used nine NSAIDs, including nabumetone, naproxen, ibuprofen, meloxicam, piroxicam, diclofenac potassium, etodolac, indomethacin, and sulindac, and 9 groups of female Wister rats. Each group of rats was fed with one kind of NSAID (2 mg/mL) for three consecutive days. Thereafter, one mL of blood and one gram of pelvic floor muscle were taken to measure drug pharmacokinetics, including partition coefficient, lipophilicity, elimination of half-life (T1/2) and muscle/plasma converting ratio (Css, muscle/Css, plasma). Results Diclofenac potassium had the lowest T1/2 and the highest mean Css, muscle/Css, plasma (1.9 hours and 0.85±0.53, respectively). The mean Css, muscle/Css, plasma of sulindac, naproxen and ibuprofen were lower than other experimental NSAIDs. Conclusion Diclofenac potassium had the highest disposition in pelvic floor muscle in a rat model. The finding implies that diclofenac potassium might be the choice for pain relief in pelvic muscle. PMID:24954342

  14. The impact of the pelvic floor muscles on dynamic ventilation maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hankyu; Hwang, Byoungha; Kim, Yeoungsung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) on dynamic ventilation maneuvers. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 healthy female adults in their 20s who consented to participate in the present study. Electromyography (EMG) was used to examine respiratory muscle activity, and a spirometer was used to examine vital capacity before and during contraction of the PFM. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) when the PFM was contracted. [Conclusion] Contraction of the PFM can be effective in promoting activation of the respiratory muscles and vital capacity. Therefore, the PFM should be considered to improve the effects of respiratory activity. PMID:26644664

  15. Is there a difference in the electromyographic activity of the pelvic floor muscles across the phases of the menstrual cycle?

    PubMed Central

    Micussi, Maria Thereza; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse; Soares, Elvira Maria; Lemos, Telma Maria; Maranhão, Técia Maria

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the electrical activity of the pelvic floor muscle in women during the follicular, ovulatory, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and its correlation with estradiol and total testosterone levels. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study involved 30 women with ovulatory menstrual cycles. Total testosterone and estradiol levels were measured and the muscle tone and maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles were evaluated using surface electromyography. [Results] Muscle tone was significantly lower during the follicular (21.1±3.3 μV) and ovulatory (27.1±5.9 μV) phases than the luteal phase (30.4±4.1 μV). The maximum voluntary contraction was not different across phases. The estradiol level on the 7th day of the menstrual cycle showed a strong positive correlation with muscle tone and maximum voluntary contraction, and the testosterone level was positively correlated with muscle tone on the 21st day. [Conclusion] Women have better muscle tone during the luteal phase. The muscle tone and maximum voluntary contraction were strongly correlated with the estradiol level on the 7th day, and the muscle tone was correlated with the testosterone level on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle. These findings suggest that hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle alter pelvic floor muscle activity. PMID:26311960

  16. Respiratory muscles training in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Costi, Stefania; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Clini, Enrico M

    2007-01-01

    It is known that respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to overload stimuli during exercise training in stable COPD patients, thus resulting in significant increase of respiratory muscle function as well as the individual's improvements. The present article reviews the most updated evidence with regard to the use of respiratory muscle training (RMT) methods in COPD patients. Basically, three types of RMT (resistive training, pressure threshold loading, and normocapnic hyperpnea) have been reported. Frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise must be carefully considered for a training effect. In contrast with the plentitude of existing data inherent to inspiratory muscle training (IMT), literature is still lacking in showing clinical and physiological studies related to expiratory muscle training (EMT). In particular, while it seems that IMT is slightly superior to EMT in providing additional benefits other than respiratory muscle function such as a reduction in dyspnea, both the effects and the safety of EMT is still to be definitively elucidated in patients with COPD. PMID:18044062

  17. Respiratory muscles training in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Costi, Stefania; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Clini, Enrico M

    2007-01-01

    It is known that respiratory muscles undergo adaptation in response to overload stimuli during exercise training in stable COPD patients, thus resulting in significant increase of respiratory muscle function as well as the individual’s improvements. The present article reviews the most updated evidence with regard to the use of respiratory muscle training (RMT) methods in COPD patients. Basically, three types of RMT (resistive training, pressure threshold loading, and normocapnic hyperpnea) have been reported. Frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise must be carefully considered for a training effect. In contrast with the plentitude of existing data inherent to inspiratory muscle training (IMT), literature is still lacking in showing clinical and physiological studies related to expiratory muscle training (EMT). In particular, while it seems that IMT is slightly superior to EMT in providing additional benefits other than respiratory muscle function such as a reduction in dyspnea, both the effects and the safety of EMT is still to be definitively elucidated in patients with COPD. PMID:18044062

  18. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. PMID:25108498

  19. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the pelvic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Rhodes, L; Andrews, J; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle-tendon architecture and geometry of the pelvic limb of an elite sprint athlete, the racing greyhound. Specifically, muscle masses, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and muscle moment arms were measured. Maximum isometric force and power of muscles, the maximum muscle torque at joints and tendon stress and strain were estimated. We compare data with that published for a generalized breed of canid, and other cursorial mammals such as the horse and hare. The pelvic limb of the racing greyhound had a relatively large volume of hip extensor muscle, which is likely to be required for power production. Per unit body mass, some pelvic limb muscles were relatively larger than those in less specialized canines, and many hip extensor muscles had longer fascicle lengths. It was estimated that substantial extensor moments could be created about the tarsus and hip of the greyhound allowing high power output and potential for rapid acceleration. The racing greyhound hence possesses substantial specializations for enhanced sprint performance. PMID:18657259

  20. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip-knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait. PMID:27146688

  1. Inferring muscle functional roles of the ostrich pelvic limb during walking and running using computer optimization

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their cursorial background, ostriches (Struthio camelus) walk and run with high metabolic economy, can reach very fast running speeds and quickly execute cutting manoeuvres. These capabilities are believed to be a result of their ability to coordinate muscles to take advantage of specialized passive limb structures. This study aimed to infer the functional roles of ostrich pelvic limb muscles during gait. Existing gait data were combined with a newly developed musculoskeletal model to generate simulations of ostrich walking and running that predict muscle excitations, force and mechanical work. Consistent with previous avian electromyography studies, predicted excitation patterns showed that individual muscles tended to be excited primarily during only stance or swing. Work and force estimates show that ostrich gaits are partially hip-driven with the bi-articular hip–knee muscles driving stance mechanics. Conversely, the knee extensors acted as brakes, absorbing energy. The digital extensors generated large amounts of both negative and positive mechanical work, with increased magnitudes during running, providing further evidence that ostriches make extensive use of tendinous elastic energy storage to improve economy. The simulations also highlight the need to carefully consider non-muscular soft tissues that may play a role in ostrich gait. PMID:27146688

  2. Architectural design of the pelvic floor is consistent with muscle functional subspecialization

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Lori J.; Nguyen, Olivia T.; Cook, Mark S.; Alperin, Marianna; Shah, Sameer B.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Skeletal muscle architecture is the strongest predictor of a muscle’s functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to define the architectural properties of the deep muscles of the female pelvic floor (PFMs) to elucidate their structure–function relationships. Methods PFMs coccygeus (C), iliococcygeus (IC), and pubovisceral (PV) were harvested en bloc from ten fixed human cadavers (mean age 85 years, range 55–102). Fundamental architectural parameters of skeletal muscles [physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length, and sarcomere length (Ls)] were determined using validated methods. PCSA predicts muscle-force production, and normalized fiber length is related to muscle excursion. These parameters were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc t tests, as appropriate. Significance was set to α=0.05. Results PFMs were thinner than expected based on data reported from imaging studies and in vivo palpation. Significant differences in fiber length were observed across PFMs: C=5.29±0.32 cm, IC=7.55±0.46 cm, PV=10.45±0.67 cm (p<0.001). Average Ls of all PFMs was short relative to the optimal Ls of 2.7 µm of other human skeletal muscles: C=2.05±0.02 µm, IC=2.02±0.02 µm, PC/PR=2.07±0.01 µm (p=<0.001 compared with 2.7 µm; p=0.15 between PFMs, power=0.46). Average PCSA was very small compared with other human muscles, with no significant difference between individual PFMs: C=0.71±0.06 cm2, IC=0.63±0.04 cm2, PV=0.59±0.05 cm2 (p=0.21, power=0.27). Overall, C had shortest fibers, making it a good stabilizer. PV demonstrated the longest fibers, suggesting that it functions to produce large excursions. Conclusions PFM design shows individual muscles demonstrating differential architecture, corresponding to specialized function in the pelvic floor. PMID:23903821

  3. Functional subdivision of fin protractor and retractor muscles underlies pelvic fin walking in the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Brett R; King, Heather M; Hale, Melina E

    2014-10-01

    African lungfish Protopterus annectens can produce rotational movements around the joint between the pelvis and the pelvic fin, allowing these animals to walk across benthic substrates. In tetrapods, limb rotation at the hip joint is a common feature of substrate-based locomotion. For sprawling tetrapods, rotation can involve nine or more muscles, which are often robust and span multiple joints. In contrast, P. annectens uses a modest morphology of two fan-shaped muscles, the pelvic fin protractor and retractor, to accomplish this movement. We hypothesized that functional subdivision, coupled with their broad insertions on the femur, allows each of these muscles to pull on the limb from multiple directions and provides a mechanism for fin rotation. To test this hypothesis, we examined the muscle activity at three locations in both the protractor and the retractor muscles during walking. Electromyograms show differences in the timing of muscle activation between dorsal and ventral regions of each muscle, suggesting that each muscle is functionally subdivided once. The subdivisions demonstrate sequential onsets of muscle activity and overlap of activity between regions, which are also features of limb control in tetrapods. These data indicate that subdivisions of protractor and retractor muscles impart functional complexity to a morphologically simple system, and suggest a mechanism that allows lungfish to produce a tetrapod-like walking gait with only two muscles. As one of few extant sarcopterygian fishes, P. annectens may provide important functional data to inform interpretation of limb movement of fossil relatives. PMID:25104761

  4. Can women correctly contract their pelvic floor muscles without formal instruction?

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Welles; Wang, Siqing; Egger, Marlene J; Masters, Maria; Nygaard, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown how many women presenting for primary care can appropriately contract their pelvic floor muscle (PFM) or whether this ability differs between women with or without pelvic floor disorders. We sought to describe the proportion of women who initially incorrectly contract the PFM, and how many can learn after basic instruction. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 779 women presenting to community based primary care practices. During PFM assessment, research nurses recorded whether women could correctly contract their PFM after a brief verbal cue. We defined POP as prolapse to or beyond the hymen and SUI as a score of > 3 on the Incontinence Severity Index. Results PFM contraction was done correctly on first attempt in 85.5%, 83.4%, 68.6%, and 85.8% of women with POP, SUI, both POP and SUI and neither POP nor SUI, respectively (p=0.01 for difference between POP and SUI versus neither POP nor SUI). Of 120 women who initially incorrectly contracted the PFM, 94 (78%) learned after brief instruction. Women with POP were less likely to learn than women with neither POP nor SUI (54.3% vs. 85.7%, p=0.001). Increasing vaginal delivery and decreasing caffeine intake (but not age or other demographic factors) were associated with incorrect PFM contraction; only decreased caffeine intake remained significant on multivariable analysis. Conclusions Most women with no or mild pelvic floor disorders can correctly contract their PFM after a simple verbal cue, suggesting that population-based prevention interventions can be initiated without clinical confirmation of correct PFM technique. PMID:23321652

  5. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  6. Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Larissa Ramalho Dantas; Torres, Vanessa Braga; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse Melo; Eugênia de Oliveira, Maria Clara; Matias de Barros, Alef Cavalcanti; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho; Micussi, Maria Thereza de Albuquerque Barbosa Cabral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 postmenopausal women, aged between 45 and 65 years, divided into three groups according to menopausal stage: hysterectomized and early and late postmenopause. Patients were assessed for sociodemographic and gyneco-obstetric factors and subjected to a muscle strength test and perineometry. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and multiple regression were applied. [Results] The results showed homogeneity in sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. There was no difference in pelvic floor muscle function among the three groups. Type of delivery, parity and physical activity level showed no influence on muscle function. [Conclusion] The findings demonstrate that parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level had no influence on pelvic floor muscle pressure in postmenopausal women. One hypothesis to explain these results is the fact that the decline in muscle function in postmenopausal women is related to the female aging process. PMID:27134366

  7. Pregnancy-induced adaptations in the intrinsic structure of rat pelvic floor muscles

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Marianna; Lawley, Danielle M.; Esparza, Mary C.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Maternal birth trauma to the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) is a major risk factor for pelvic floor disorders. Modeling and imaging studies suggest that demands placed on PFMs during childbirth exceed their physiologic limits; however many parous women do not sustain PFM injury. Here we determine whether pregnancy induces adaptations in PFM architecture, the strongest predictor of muscle function, and/or intramuscular extracellular matrix (ECM), responsible for load bearing. To establish if parallel changes occur in muscles outside of the PFM, we also examined a hind limb muscle. STUDY DESIGN Coccygeus, iliocaudalis, pubocaudalis, and tibialis anterior of 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley virgin, mid-pregnant, and late-pregnant; 6-month-old virgin; and 4- and 12-week postpartum rats (N = 10/group) were fixed in situ and harvested. Major architectural parameters determining muscle’s excursion and force-generating capacity were quantified, namely, normalized fiber length (Lfn), physiologic cross-sectional area, and sarcomere length. Hydroxyproline content was used as a surrogate for intramuscular ECM quantity. Analyses were performed by 2-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc testing at a significance level of .05. RESULTS Pregnancy induced a significant increase in Lfn in all PFMs by the end of gestation relative to virgin controls. Fibers were elongated by 37% in coccygeus (P < .0001), and by 21% in iliocaudalis and pubocaudalis (P < .0001). Importantly, no Lfn change was observed in the tibialis anterior. Physiologic cross-sectional area and sarcomere length were not affected by pregnancy. By 12 weeks’ postpartum, Lfn of all PFMs returned to the prepregnancy values. Relative to virgin controls, ECM increased by 140% in coccygeus, 52% in iliocaudalis, and 75% in pubocaudalis in late-pregnant group, but remained unchanged across time in the tibialis anterior. Postpartum, ECM collagen content returned to prepregnancy levels in iliocaudalis and pubocaudalis

  8. Effects of Combined Spinal-Epidural Analgesia during Labor on Postpartum Electrophysiological Function of Maternal Pelvic Floor Muscle: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiao-Ming; Huang, Li; Lao, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Mei; Gao, Shan; Huang, Qiong-Yan; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Di-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) is sometimes used for difficult births, but whether it contributes to postpartum pelvic muscle disorder is unclear. This randomized controlled trial examined whether CSEA given during labor affects the electrophysiological index of postpartum pelvic floor muscle function. Methods A consecutive sample of primiparous women who delivered vaginally at term were randomly assigned to a CSEA group (n = 143) and control group (n = 142) between June 2013 and June 2014. All were assessed 6–8 weeks later for electrophysiological function of pelvic floor muscle. Results The two groups were similar in the degree of muscle strength, muscle fatigue, and pelvic dynamic pressure of pelvic floor muscle. The CSEA and control groups showed similar proportions of women with normal muscle strength (score ≥4) in type I pelvic fibers (23.1% vs. 14.1%, P = 0.051) and type II pelvic fibers (28.0% vs. 24.6%, P = 0.524). The groups also contained similar proportions of women who showed no fatigue in type I fibers (54.5% vs. 48.6%, P = 0.315) or type II fibers (88.8% vs. 87.3%, P = 0.699). Similarly low proportions of women in the CSEA group and control group showed normal pelvic dynamic pressure (11.2% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.321). However, women in the CSEA group spent significantly less time in labor than those in the control group (7.25 vs. 9.52 h, P <0.001). Conclusions CSEA did not affect the risk of postpartum pelvic muscle disorder in this cohort of primiparous women who gave birth vaginally. A significant shorter duration of labour was observed in the CSEA-group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02334150 PMID:26340002

  9. Training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boffi, F M; Cittar, J; Balskus, G; Muriel, M; Desmaras, E

    2002-09-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a genetically controlled response of cells to commit suicide and is associated with DNA fragmentation or laddering. The common inducers of apoptosis include Ca2+i and oxygen free radicals/oxidative stress, which are also implicated in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced myopathies. To examine training-induced apoptosis, Thoroughbred horses were subjected to 3 months training programme on a treadmill. At the end of the training programme venous blood samples were taken for a creatine kinase (CK) assay. In addition, muscle biopsy samples were obtained for a membrane lipid peroxidation measurement by malondialdehyde (MDA) assay and for apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was studied by visualising the apoptotic myocytes on the paraffin sections by the modified TUNEL method. DNA laddering was evaluated by subjecting the DNA obtained from the biopsies to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) of protein-bound MDA, and a nonsignificant trend (P = 0.14) for the control group to have higher levels of CK compared to the trained group. Under light microscopy, percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was higher (P<0.001) in the training group. This result was corroborated with the findings of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, which showed higher ladders of DNA band at the same group. In conclusion, these results clearly demonstrate that there is training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle. It is probable that apoptosis allows the work/recovery/rebound/supercompensation cycle, when unaccustomed muscle cells activate programmed cell death and are replaced by new and stronger cells, which is the mechanism for training-induced increases in fitness. PMID:12405700

  10. [Respiratory Muscle Training: State of the Art].

    PubMed

    Göhl, O; Walker, D J; Walterspacher, S; Langer, D; Spengler, C M; Wanke, T; Petrovic, M; Zwick, R-H; Stieglitz, S; Glöckl, R; Dellweg, D; Kabitz, H-J

    2016-01-01

    Specific respiratory muscle training (IMT) improves the function of the inspiratory muscles. According to literature and clinical experience, there are 3 established methods: 1.) resistive load 2.) threshold load and 3.) normocapnic hyperpnea. Each training method and the associated devices have specific characteristics. Setting up an IMT should start with specific diagnostics of respiratory muscle function and be followed by detailed individual introduction to training. The aim of this review is to take a closer look at the different training methods for the most relevant indications and to discuss these results in the context of current literature. The group of neuromuscular diseases includes muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, paralysis of the phrenic nerve, and injuries to the spinal cord. Furthermore, interstitial lung diseases, sarcoidosis, left ventricular heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), kyphoscoliosis and obesity are also discussed in this context. COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF-bronchiectasis are among the group of obstructive lung diseases. Last but not least, we summarize current knowledge on weaning from respirator in the context of physical activity. PMID:26789431

  11. Impact of Different Body Positions on Bioelectrical Activity of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Nulliparous Continent Women

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P < 0.00024) and lying and ball-sitting positions (P < 0.0053). Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs. PMID:25793212

  12. Effects of pelvic suspension of beef carcasses on quality and physical traits of five muscles from four gender-age groups.

    PubMed

    Ahnström, Maria Lundesjö; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2012-03-01

    Pelvic and Achilles suspension methods for beef carcasses were compared for four gender-age groups (24month bulls, 34month bulls, heifers, and cows) and five muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. adductor (AD), M. psoas major (PM), and M. gluteus medius (GM)]. Pelvic suspension increased muscle and sarcomere lengths in the SM, LD, GM, and AD muscles. The following effects were significant (p<0.05). Peak force was reduced by pelvic suspension in the LD and GM of bulls-24 and bulls-34, but not heifers and cows. Furthermore, peak forces decreased for the SM after pelvic suspension in bulls-24, bulls-34, and heifers. For the AD, the only decrease in peak force was for bulls-34. Water-holding capacity increased and purge in vacuum bags decreased for pelvic suspension of all muscles except the PM. Although the effects of pelvic suspension varied somewhat between gender-age groups and muscles, this method of hanging carcasses merits industrial consideration because it improves muscle yields, tenderness, and reduces variation within muscles. PMID:22077997

  13. Association between the Functionality of Pelvic Floor Muscles and Sexual Satisfaction in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Darski, Caroline; Barbosa, Lia Janaina Ferla; Paiva, Luciana Laureano; Vieira, Adriane

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to associate the results obtained while assessing the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) functionality with the score of sexual satisfaction of young adult women. Methods This is an observational and cross-sectional study. The inclusion criteria were women aged between 20 and 40 years who have had sexual intercourse, nulliparous, BMI lower than 25 kg/m(2), and absence of pelvic floor dysfunction. The evaluation consisted of both the medical history and assessment of the PFM functionality using the Perina pressure biofeedback and Oxford Scale. We measured sexual satisfaction using the Female Sexual Quotient questionnaire and used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to verify the normality of the data. We analyzed non-parametric variables using the Spearman correlation test. The significance level was 5%. Results A total of 80 women with a median age of 26 years and median BMI of 21.64 kg/m(2) participated in this study. We divided the subjects into two groups, best and worse PFM functionality, according to median Perina pressure biofeedback and Oxford scale. We found no difference between the groups when comparing the sexual satisfaction scores. There was only a slight significant correlation between the Contraction Voluntary Average obtained using the pressure biofeedback and the primary domain (r = 0.27; p = 0.01). Conclusion This study found a slight correlation between PFM functionality and the functionality of the primary domain of the Female Sexual Quotient questionnaire. Therefore, it is not possible to state whether there is an association between the PFM functionality and female sexual satisfaction in young adults. PMID:27088707

  14. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Marques, Joseane; Silva, Valéria R.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Botelho, Simone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9) participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96), average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97), and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92) dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25993624

  15. Physical Therapy in the Management of Pelvic Floor Muscles Hypertonia in a Woman with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Aline Moreira; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge; Cristine Lemes Mateus-Vasconcelos, Elaine; Moroni, Rafael Mendes; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Brito, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic floor (PF) hypertonic disorders are a group of conditions that present with muscular hypertonia or spasticity, resulting in a diminished capacity to isolate, contract, and relax the PF. Their presentation includes voiding and sexual dysfunctions, pelvic pain, and constipation. Various factors are associated, such as complicated vaginal birth, muscular injury, scar tissue formation, and neuropathies. Study Design. The case of a single patient will be presented, together with the management strategies employed. Case Description. A woman with hereditary spastic paraparesis and a history of muscle spasticity and urinary and fecal complaints since childhood. She presented to this institution seeking treatment for pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, constipation, and micturition problems. A physical therapy protocol was developed, with the trial of several treatment modalities. Outcome. After some failed attempts, perineal and pelvic floor stretching proved to be very efficacious therapies for this patient's complaint, leading to improved pain during intercourse, constipation, pelvic pain, and urinary stream. Discussion. PF spasticity can lead to severe disability and interfere with daily basic functions, such as micturition and evacuation. Physical therapy plays an essential role in the management of these patients and can lead to significant improvement in quality of life. PMID:25478261

  16. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study 1

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Edilaine de Paula Batista; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; Oliveira, Sheyla Guimaraes; da Silva, Renata Luana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. Results: the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2) and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7) in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036) and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010), compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. Conclusion: pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength. PMID:27533267

  17. Inspiratory muscle training in the patient with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    McCool, F D; Tzelepis, G E

    1995-11-01

    Pulmonary complications due to respiratory muscle dysfunction are commonly a source of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases. This review discusses the adverse effects of respiratory muscle weakness on pulmonary mechanics and examines the role that inspiratory muscle training may play in reversing pulmonary dysfunction in these individuals. In asymptomatic persons, it is well established that the inspiratory muscles can be trained to increase both force and endurance. In patients with neuromuscular diseases, the effects of training protocols on force and endurance are more controversial. This article reviews seven studies that have evaluated respiratory muscle training in a total of 75 patients with varied neuromuscular disorders. Training regimens included breathing through inspiratory resistive loads and isocapnic hyperpnea. Despite methodologic differences among studies, investigators have generally shown that the inspiratory muscles are similar to other skeletal muscle groups in that they can be trained for both force and endurance in these patients. The training-related improvements in inspiratory muscle performance are more pronounced in patients who are less severely affected by their disease. In those patients who have disease to the extent that they are already retaining carbon dioxide, there is little change in force or endurance with training. In these individuals, the inspiratory muscles may already be working at a level sufficiently severe to provide a training stimulus with each breath. No adverse effects of inspiratory muscle training were reported. Inspiratory muscle training can improve force and endurance in patients with neuromuscular weakness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7480122

  18. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and layers of connective tissue, which are called fascia, become weakened, stretched, or are torn the pelvic ... delivery) can cause injury to the muscles or fascia of the pelvic floor. The increased pressure of ...

  19. Physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, A P

    1994-08-01

    Non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment for female pelvic floor dysfunction is represented by rehabilitation in urogynecology. Since Kegel, in 1948, who proposed the concept of functional restoration of the perineal muscles, no specific term has actually been established. Owing to the number of specialists involved in the management of female pelvic floor disorders (such as gynecologists, urologists, coloproctologists, and neurologists) and the different types of health care providers concerned (such as physicians, physical therapists, nurses, and midwives), it is difficult to make the proper choice between 'physical therapy for pelvic floor', 'pelvic floor rehabilitation', 'pelvic muscle re-education', and 'pelvic floor training'. Because muscle re-education is under the control of physical therapists, we have chosen the term of physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders. Muscle re-education has an important role in the primary treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. A multidisciplinary collaboration may be of particular interest, and a thorough evaluation is useful for a proper selection of patients. PMID:7742496

  20. The Effect of Pelvic Muscle Exercises on Urinary Incontinency and Self-Esteem of Elderly Females With Stress Urinary Incontinency, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Talebizadeh, Malihe; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of women are afflicted with stress urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is mentioned as one of the geriatric syndromes, together with pressure ulcers, functional decline, falls, and low self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pelvic muscle exercises on urinary incontinency and self- esteem of elderly females with stress urinary incontinency in Shiraz, Iran, 2013. Material and Method: In this interventional study, 50 old females aged 60-74 years were chosen among the members of Jahandidegan center, and they were asked to sign the informed consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire. Then, Quid questionnaire was used for choosing the type of incontinence in the elderly females. Next, the participants completed the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires. Then, they were randomly assigned to case and control groups. Each participant took part in 8 training classes. Finally, the subjects filled the ICIQ and self-esteem questionnaires before and 2 months after the intervention. Result: The results is shown that after the intervention, ICIQ score has a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.001). Also, after the treatment, self-esteem average scores of studied unit indicated a significant statistical difference in experimental group. In other words, the training sessions improved the score of self-esteem in the experimental group (P<0.001) versus control group (P=0.08). Conclusion: Pelvic muscle exercises were an empowerment mechanism for incontinent women in improving their quality of life and self-esteem, so recommended that such these exercising programs be used in elderly health care centers as a factor to improve health promotion of elderlies ’that are suffering from urinary incontinence. PMID:25716389

  1. A simple teaching tool for training the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Ingrid M; Riss, Paul A; Hanzal, Engelbert; Dungl, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    The pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) system is currently the most common and specific system describing different prolapse stages. Nevertheless, its use is not yet accepted worldwide in routine care. Our aim was to develop a simple teaching tool for the POPQ system capable of simulating different stages of uterovaginal prolapse for use in medical education with hands on training. We constructed a moveable and flexible tool with an inverted Santa Claus' cap, which simulated the vaginal cuff and the tassel at the end representing the cervix. A wooden embroidery frame fixed the cap and served as the hymen, the reference point for all measurements. Inside the cap, we sewed buttons to define the anatomic landmark points Aa and Ap located 3 cm distal from the frame. After explaining the device to the students, we used the three-by-three grid for recording the quantitative description of the pelvic organ support. First, each student had to demonstrate a specific prolapse with his cap device. Then, a prolapse was simulated on the cap, and the student had to take the relevant measurements and record them in the POPQ grid. The main training effect to understand the POPQ system seems to be the possibility for each trainee to simulate a three-dimensional prolapse with this flexible vagina model. PMID:17219254

  2. Inspiratory muscle training in Morquio's syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Savci, Sema; Ozturk, Melda; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Gultekin, Zuhal; Arikan, Hulya; Sivri, H Serap Kalkanoglu

    2006-12-01

    We reported a case of MPS IV A presented with dyspnea on exertion and respiratory muscle weakness. The patient underwent inspiratory muscle training (IMT) using threshold loading for 18 weeks. After 6 weeks of initial IMT, aerobic exercise training consisting of walking was added to the treatment program. Inspiratory muscle strength increased 70%, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance increased to 47 m. With the inclusion of aerobic exercise training, additional increases in inspiratory muscle strength (7%) and 6MWT distance (26.5 m) were obtained. Exertional dyspnea improved from severe to slight after 6 weeks of IMT, and to very slight after additional 12 weeks of combined aerobic training and IMT. Health-related quality of life improved especially in social function, emotional function, vitality, and physical role. In conclusion, inspiratory muscles can be trained with the improvement of muscle strength in a patient with Morquio's syndrome. PMID:16998925

  3. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Methods Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20–45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an “upright standing” reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. Results In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Conclusion Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may

  4. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Słupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a woman’s ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the

  5. Evaluation of the relationship between the pelvic floor muscles and insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Micussi, Maria Thereza; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado; Angelo, Priscylla Helouyse; Soares, Elvira Maria; Lemos, Telma Maria; Maranhão, Técia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) in women with insulin resistance (IR) using surface electromyography and to associate the results with insulin levels. Patients and methods Through an analytical, cross-sectional study, 86 women were evaluated and divided into two groups: a control group (n=35) and an IR group (n=51). Data were collected through detailed history-taking, physical examination, and biochemical analysis. Fasting insulin levels were used for diagnosing IR. Electromyography of the PFMs was used for analyzing the tone and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The measures of central tendency and linear regression models were used. Results The average age was 25.3±4.5 years in the IR group and 27.2±4.4 years in the control group. The mean weight was 75.6±17.6 kg and 51.8±4.9 kg in the IR and control groups, respectively. Fasting insulin levels were 19.7±6.6 µIU/mL in the IR group and 5.4±1.8 µIU/mL in the control group (P<0.010). There were significant differences between the groups with regard to PFM tone (IR: 13.4±3.4 µV; control: 25.1±3.3 µV; P<0.001) and MVC (IR: 47.6±4.5 µV; control: 64.3±5.0 µV; P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis using the insulin levels as dependent variable showed a significant association for MVC (P=0.047), weight (P=0.017), and waist circumference (P=0.000). Conclusion Compared with the control group, the IR group showed lower electromyographic activity of the PFMs, and there was an association between insulin levels and electromyographic activity. PMID:26357485

  6. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Activity of Pelvic Floor Muscles and Synergistic Muscles Depending on Orientation of Pelvis in Menopausal Women with Symptoms of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Preliminary Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Słupska, Lucyna; Dymarek, Robert; Bartnicki, Janusz; Halska, Urszula; Król, Agata; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and the synergistic muscles, depending on the orientation of the pelvis, in anterior (P1) and posterior (P2) pelvic tilt. Design. Preliminary, prospective observational study. Setting. Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Participants. Thirty-two menopausal and postmenopausal women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixteen women aged 55 to 70 years were enrolled in the study. Primary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles by electromyography (sEMG) and vaginal probe. Secondary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of activity of the synergistic muscles by sEMG and surface electrodes. Results. No significant differences between orientations P1 and P2 were found in functional and resting sEMG activity of the PFM. During resting and functional PFM activity, higher electrical activity in P2 than in P1 has been recorded in some of the synergistic muscles. Conclusions. This preliminary study does not provide initial evidence that pelvic tilt influences PFM activation. Although different activity of synergistic muscles occurs in various orientations of the pelvic tilt, it does not have to affect the sEMG activity of the PFM. PMID:24701567

  7. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the mO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster O2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle. PMID:25801957

  8. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mVO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the VmO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mVO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster VO2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle. PMID:25801957

  9. Relative activity of respiratory muscles during prescribed inspiratory muscle training in healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Nan-soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of different intensities of inspiratory muscle training on the relative respiratory muscle activity in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy male volunteers were instructed to perform inspiratory muscle training (0%, 40%, 60%, and 80% maximal inspiratory pressure) on the basis of their individual intensities. The inspiratory muscle training was performed in random order of intensities. Surface electromyography data were collected from the right-side diaphragm, external intercostal, and sternocleidomastoid, and pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, and their ratio; peak expiratory flow; and maximal inspiratory pressure) were measured. [Results] Comparison of the relative activity of the diaphragm showed significant differences between the 60% and 80% maximal inspiratory pressure intensities and baseline during inspiratory muscle training. Furthermore, significant differences were found in sternocleidomastoid relative activity between the 60% and 80% maximal inspiratory pressure intensities and baseline during inspiratory muscle training. [Conclusion] During inspiratory muscle training in the clinic, the patients were assisted (verbally or through feedback) by therapists to avoid overactivation of their accessory muscles (sternocleidomastoid). This study recommends that inspiratory muscle training be performed at an accurate and appropriate intensity through the practice of proper deep breathing. PMID:27134409

  10. Changes in skeletal muscle with aging: effects of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M A; Evans, W J

    1993-01-01

    There is an approximate 30% decline in muscle strength and a 40% reduction in muscle area between the second and seventh decades of life. Thus, the loss of muscle mass with aging appears to be the major factor in the age-related loss of muscle strength. The loss of muscle mass is partially due to a significant decline in the numbers of both Type I and Type II muscle fibers plus a decrease in the size of the muscle cells, with the Type II fibers showing a preferential atrophy. There appears to be no loss of glycolytic capacity in senescent skeletal muscle whereas muscle oxidative enzyme activity and muscle capillarization decrease by about 25%. Vigorous endurance exercise training in older people, where the stimulus is progressively increased, elicits a proliferation of muscle capillaries, an increase in oxidative enzyme activity, and a significant improvement in VO2max. Likewise, progressive resistive training in older individuals results in muscle hypertrophy and increased strength, if the training stimulus is of a sufficient intensity and duration. Since older individuals adapt to resistive and endurance exercise training in a similar fashion to young people, the decline in the muscle's metabolic and force-producing capacity can no longer be considered as an inevitable consequence of the aging process. Rather, the adaptations in aging skeletal muscle to exercise training may prevent sarcopenia, enhance the ease of carrying out the activities of daily living, and exert a beneficial effect on such age-associated diseases as Type II diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, and obesity. PMID:8504850

  11. Reliability of MR-Based Volumetric 3-D Analysis of Pelvic Muscles among Subjects with Low Back with Leg Pain and Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Keczmer, Przemysław; Łochowski, Rafał M.; Tomal, Paulina; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Aim Lately, the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging, Lasègue sign and classic neurological signs have been considered not accurate enough to distinguish the radicular from non-radicular low back with leg pain (LBLP) and a calculation of the symptomatic side muscle volume has been indicated as a probable valuable marker. However, only the multifidus muscle volume has been calculated so far. The main objective of the study was to verify whether LBLP subjects presented symptomatic side pelvic muscle atrophy compared to healthy volunteers. The second aim was to assess the inter-rater reliability of 3-D manual method for segmenting and measuring the volume of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscles in both LBLP patients and healthy subjects. Method Two independent raters analyzed MR images of LBLP and healthy subjects towards muscle volume of four pelvic muscles, i.e. the piriformis, gluteus minimus, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. For both sides, the MR images of the muscles without adipose tissue infiltration were manually segmented in 3-D medical images. Results Symptomatic muscle atrophy was confirmed in only over 50% of LBLP subjects (gluteus maximus (p<0.001), gluteus minimus (p<0.01) and piriformis (p<0.05)). The ICC values indicated that the inter-rater reproducibility was greater than 0.90 for all measurements (LBLP and healthy subjects), except for the measurement of the right gluteus medius muscle in LBLP patients, which was equal to 0.848. Conclusion More than 50% of LBLP subjects presented symptomatic gluteus maximus, gluteus minimus and piriformis muscle atrophy. 3-D manual segmentation reliably measured muscle volume in all the measured pelvic muscles in both healthy and LBLP subjects. To answer the question of what kind of muscle atrophy is indicative of radicular or non-radicular pain further studies are required. PMID:27459688

  12. Examination of Strength Training and Detraining Effects in Expiratory Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine strength gains following expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and to determine detraining effects when the training stimulus is removed. Method: Thirty-two healthy participants were enrolled in an EMST program. Sixteen participants trained for 4 weeks (Group 1) and 16 participants trained…

  13. Effects of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Hajime; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and expiratory muscle training (EMT) on ventilatory muscle strength, pulmonary function and responses during exercise testing. Young healthy women were randomly assigned to 3 groups: IMT (n=16); EMT (n=16); or untrained normal controls (NC, n=8). Subjects in the IMT and EMT groups trained for 15 minutes twice daily over 2 weeks at loads of 30% maximal inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, respectively. Ventilatory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength; PImax and PEmax, respectively), pulmonary function and progressive exercise testing was performed. Both PImax and PEmax increased in the IMT group, and PEmax increased in the EMT group. Neither trained group demonstrated any change in pulmonary function or peak values during exercise testing. In the IMT group, exercise-induced increases in heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO2/kg) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) decreased with training, as did increases in VO2/kg and RPE in the EMT group. The increased ventilatory muscle strength in both IMT and EMT groups might improve ventilatory efficacy during exercise, and increased inspiratory muscle strength might facilitate oxygen delivery through improved circulatory responses. PMID:25792941

  14. Strategies of muscle training in very severe COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, I

    2011-10-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training, constituting the cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation, improves exercise tolerance, dyspnoea sensations, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, intolerable sensations of breathlessness and/or peripheral muscle discomfort may prevent such patients from tolerating high-intensity exercise levels for sufficiently long periods of time to obtain true physiological training effects. Accordingly, the major issue that arises is the selection of the appropriate training strategy, which is tailored to the cardiovascular, pulmonary and peripheral muscle limitations of the individual patient and is aimed at maximising the effect of exercise conditioning. Within this context, the present article explores the application of strategies that optimise exercise tolerance by reducing dyspnoea sensations, namely noninvasive mechanical ventilation, oxygen and/or heliox supplementation. Administration of heliox or oxygen during exercise also increases peripheral muscle oxygen delivery, thereby delaying the onset of peripheral muscle fatigue. Particular emphasis is also given to interval exercise and resistance-muscle training as both modalities allow the application of intense loads on peripheral muscles with tolerable levels of dyspnoea sensations. In patients with profound muscle weakness and intense breathlessness upon physical exertion, execution of short bouts of interval or local muscle strength conditioning, along with oxygen breathing, may constitute a feasible and effective approach to pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:21737548

  15. Effect of unilateral exercise on spinal and pelvic deformities, and isokinetic trunk muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Kim, Soonyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to collect basic data regarding the prevention of spinal and pelvic deformities by investigating the spinal shape and muscular function characteristics of imbalance reduction and functional improvement following asymmetric activities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 14 archery athletes who mostly perform unilateral motion with spinal and pelvic pain, and 19 healthy subjects. All the participants were evaluated using spinal structure analysis and for 60°/sec isokinetic muscular strength of the trunk. [Results] Between the two groups, there were significant differences in the interaction effect of trunk inclination deformities, and flexor and extensor 60°/sec isokinetic muscular strength of the trunk. Also, the main effects of gender comparison showed significant differences in the trunk inclination deformities, pelvic rotation deformities, lordosis angles, and flexor and extensor 60 ˚/sec isokinetic muscular strengths of the trunk. [Conclusion] The basic data obtained in this study can be used to help develop a strategic exercise program for improving unilateral movement and malalignment of the spine and pelvis. PMID:27134369

  16. The effect of the correlation between the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles and diaphragmatic motion during breathing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hankyu; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the correlation between the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and diaphragmatic motion during breathing. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students who listened to an explanation of the study methods, purpose and agreed to participate in the experiment. [Methods] Radiograph equipment was used to examine diaphragmatic motion with contraction of the PFM during breathing, and a spirometer was used to examine lung vital capacity. [Results] The results revealed a significant change in the diaphragmatic motion and pulmonary function (FEV1, MVV). FEV1 and MVV showed significant differences when the PFM was contracted. Diaphragmatic motion showed a significant difference when the PFM was contracted. [Conclusion] Diaphragmatic motion and contraction of the PFM correlate with breathing. In addition, breathing is much more effective during contraction of the PFM. Therefore, PFM strengthening exercises should be included in respiratory rehabilitation programs. PMID:26311935

  17. Prolonged androgen deprivation may influence the autoregulation of estrogen receptors in the brain and pelvic floor muscles of male rats.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Erik; Calich, Hannah J; Currie, R William; Wassersug, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Androgen deprivation in males has detrimental effects on various tissues and bodily functions, some of which can be restored by estradiol (E2) administration. We investigated how the duration of androgen deprivation affects the autoregulation of estrogen receptors (ERs) levels in core brain areas associated with sexual behavior and cognition, as well as in pelvic floor muscles (PFM). We also measured c-Fos levels in brain areas associated with sexual behavior shortly after the rats mated. Prolonged castration increases ERα levels in the preoptic area (POA) and E2 treatment reverses these effects. In the POA, c-Fos levels after mating are not affected by the duration of androgen deprivation and/or E2 treatment. ERβ levels in the POA as well as c-Fos levels in the POA and the core area of nucleus accumbens correlate with the mounting frequency for E2-treated Short-Term castrates. Additionally, ERβ levels in the medial amygdala are positively correlated with the mounting frequency of Long-Term castrates that received E2 treatment. In the hippocampus, ERs are downregulated only when E2 is administered early after castration, whereas downregulation of ERα in the prefrontal cortex only occurs with delayed E2 treatment. Early, but not delayed, E2 treatment after castration increases ERβ levels in the bulbocavernosus and ERα levels in the levator ani of male rats. Our data suggest that the duration of androgen deprivation may influence the autoregulation of ERs by E2 treatment in select brain areas and pelvic floor muscles of male rats. PMID:25746452

  18. The effect of parity on pelvic floor muscle strength and quality of life in women with urinary incontinence: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Özdemır, Özlem Çınar; Bakar, Yesim; Özengın, Nuriye; Duran, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activity after vaginal birth, and the effect of parity on PFM strength and quality of life (QoL) in women with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Patients (n=241) who gave birth vaginally and experienced urinary incontinence were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of women having 1–3 children, group 2 consisted of women having 4–6 children, and group 3 consisted of women having more than 6 children. All patients underwent detailed examination of the PFM. The Turkish version of the self-administered Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QoL) questionnaire was used to evaluate the effects of stress urinary incontinence on participants’ QoL. [Results] Comparison of PFM strengths showed a significant intergroup difference. Group 1 showed significantly higher PFM strength scores than those of groups 2 and 3. I-QoL scores related to stress incontinence showed a significant intergroup difference. As number of deliveries increased, quality of life decreased. Comparison of PFM strengths and I-QoL scores related to stress incontinence showed a significant intergroup difference. [Conclusion] Increasing the awareness of PFM training in women will reduce potential postpartum incontinence due to a weak PFM strength; and will increase quality of life. PMID:26311939

  19. Kinesthetic imagery training of forceful muscle contractions increases brain signal and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wan X; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Allexandre, Didier; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of training using internal imagery (IMI; also known as kinesthetic imagery or first person imagery) with that of external imagery (EMI; also known as third-person visual imagery) of strong muscle contractions on voluntary muscle strengthening. Eighteen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (6 in each group): internal motor imagery (IMI), external motor imagery (EMI), or a no-practice control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6 weeks (~15 min/day, 5 days/week). The participants' right arm elbow-flexion strength, muscle electrical activity, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) were evaluated before and after training. Only the IMI group showed significant strength gained (10.8%) while the EMI (4.8%) and CTRL (-3.3%) groups did not. Only the IMI group showed a significant elevation in MRCP on scalp locations over both the primary motor (M1) and supplementary motor cortices (EMI group over M1 only) and this increase was significantly greater than that of EMI and CTRL groups. These results suggest that training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions was effective in improving voluntary muscle strength without physical exercise. We suggest that the IMI training likely strengthened brain-to-muscle (BTM) command that may have improved motor unit recruitment and activation, and led to greater muscle output. Training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions may change the activity level of cortical motor control network, which may translate into greater descending command to the target muscle and increase its strength. PMID:24133427

  20. Spine lateral flexion strength development differences between exercises with pelvic stabilization and without pelvic stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straton, Alexandru; Gidu, Diana Victoria; Micu, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Poor lateral flexor muscle strength can be an important source of lumbar/thoracic back pain in women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pelvic stabilization (PS) and no pelvic stabilization (NoPS) lateral flexion strength exercise training on the development of isolated right and left lateral flexion strength. Isometric torque of the isolated right and left lateral flexion muscles was measured at two positions (0° and 30° opposed angle range of motion) on 42 healthy women before and after 8 weeks of PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise training. Subjects were assigned in three groups, the first (n=14) trained 3 times/week with PS lateral flexion strength exercise, the second (n=14) trained 3 times/week with NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise and the third (control, n=14) did not train. Post training isometric strength values describing PS and NoPS lateral flexion strength improved in greater extent for the PS lateral flexion strength exercise group and in lesser extent for the NoPS lateral flexion strength exercise group, in both angles (p<0.05) relative to controls. These data indicate that the most effective way of training the spine lateral flexion muscles is PS lateral flexion strength exercises; NoPS lateral flexion strength exercises can be an effective way of training for the spine lateral flexion muscles, if there is no access to PS lateral flexion strength training machines.

  1. Dynamics of male pelvic floor muscle contraction observed with transperineal ultrasound imaging differ between voluntary and evoked coughs

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Ryan E.; Mazzone, Stuart; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Constantinou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Coughing provokes stress urinary incontinence, and voluntary coughs are employed clinically to assess pelvic floor dysfunction. Understanding urethral dynamics during coughing in men is limited, and it is unclear whether voluntary coughs are an appropriate surrogate for spontaneous coughs. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of urethral motion in continent men during voluntary and evoked coughs. Thirteen men (28–42 years) with no history of urological disorders volunteered to participate. Transperineal ultrasound (US) images were recorded and synchronized with measures of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), airflow, and abdominal/chest wall electromyography during voluntary coughs and coughs evoked by inhalation of nebulized capsaicin. Temporal and spatial aspects of urethral movement induced by contraction of the striated urethral sphincter (SUS), levator ani (LA), and bulbocavernosus (BC) muscles and mechanical aspects of cough generation were investigated. Results showed coughing involved complex urethral dynamics. Urethral motion implied SUS and BC shortening and LA lengthening during preparatory and expulsion phases. Evoked coughs resulted in greater IAP, greater bladder base descent (LA lengthening), and greater midurethral displacement (SUS shortening). The preparatory inspiration cough phase was shorter during evoked coughs, as was the latency between onset of midurethral displacement and expulsion. Maximum midurethral displacement coincided with maximal bladder base descent during voluntary cough, but followed it during evoked cough. The data revealed complex interaction between muscles involved in continence in men. Spatial and temporal differences in urethral dynamics and cough mechanics between cough types suggest that voluntary coughing may not adequately assess capacity of the continence mechanism. PMID:24526580

  2. High-intensity inspiratory muscle training in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Jenkins, S C; Philippe, D L; Cecins, N; Shepherd, K L; Green, D J; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an interval-based high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (H-IMT) programme on inspiratory muscle function, exercise capacity, dyspnoea and health-related quality of life (QoL) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was performed. Sixteen subjects (11 males, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 37.4+/-12.5%) underwent H-IMT performed at the highest tolerable inspiratory threshold load (increasing to 101% of baseline maximum inspiratory pressure). Seventeen subjects (11 males, mean FEV(1 )36.5+/-11.5%) underwent sham inspiratory muscle training (S-IMT) at 10% of maximum inspiratory pressure. Training took place three times a week for 8 weeks and was fully supervised. Pre- and post-training measurements of lung function, maximum inspiratory pressure, maximum threshold pressure, exercise capacity, dyspnoea and QoL (Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire; CRDQ) were obtained. H-IMT increased maximum inspiratory pressure by 29%, maximum threshold pressure by 56%, 6-min walk distance by 27 m, and improved dyspnoea and fatigue (CRDQ) by 1.4 and 0.9 points per item, respectively. These changes were significantly greater than any seen following S-IMT. In conclusion, high-intensity inspiratory muscle training improves inspiratory muscle function in subjects with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, yielding meaningful reductions in dyspnoea and fatigue. PMID:16772388

  3. Effect of resistance training on muscle use during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz, Lori L.; Tesch, Per A.; Biro, Ronald L.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effect of resistance training on exercise-induced contrast shift in magnetic resonance (MR) images. It was hypothesized that a given load could be lifted after training with less muscle showing contrast shift, thereby suggesting less muscle was used to perform the exercise. Nine males trained the left quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle 2 days/wk for 9 wk using 3-6 sets of 12 knee extensions each day. The right QF served as a control. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in MR images evoked by each of three bouts of exercise (5 sets of 10 knee extensions with a load equal to 50, 75, and 100% of the maximum pretraining load that could be lifted for 5 sets of 10 repetitions) were quantified pre- and posttraining. MR image contrast shift was quantified by determining QF cross-sectional area (CSA) showing increased spin-spin relaxation time. One repetition maximum increased 14% in the left trained QF and 7% in the right untrained QF. Left QF CSA increased 5%, with no change in right QSF CSA. Left QF CSA showing contrast shift was less after each bout of the exercise test posttraining. This was also true, to a lesser extent, for the right QF at the higher two loads. The results suggest that short-term resistance training reduces MR image contrast shift evoked by a given effort, thereby reflecting the use of less muscle to lift the load. Because this response was evident in both trained and contralateral untrained muscle, neural factors are suggested to be responsible. The consequence of this adaptation could be to increase 'stress' per unit area of active muscle during the course of training and thereby evoke hypertrophy.

  4. Length Tension Function of Puborectalis Muscle: Implications for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence and Pelvic Floor Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Ravinder K; Sheean, Geoff; Padda, Bikram S; Rajasekaran, Mahadevan R

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims External anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PRM) play important role in anal continence function. Based on length-tension measurement, we recently reported that the human EAS muscle operates at short sarcomere length under physiological conditions. Goal of our study was to determine if PRM also operates at the short sarcomere length. Methods Length-tension relationship of the PRM muscle was studied in vivo in 10 healthy nullipara women. Length was altered by vaginal distension using custom-designed probes of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm diameters as well as by distending a polyethylene bag with different volumes of water. Probes were equipped with a reverse perfuse sleeve sensor to measure vaginal pressure (surrogate of PRM tension). PRM electromyogram (EMG) was recorded using wire electrodes. Three-dimensional ultra-sound images were obtained to determine effect of vaginal distension on PRM length. Results Ultrasound images demonstrate distension volume dependent increase in PRM length. Rest and squeeze pressures of vaginal bag increased with the increase in bag volume. Similarly, the change in vaginal pressure, which represents the PRM contraction increased with the increase in the probe size. Increase in probe size was not associated with an increase in EMG activity (a marker of neural drive) of the PRM. Conclusions Probe size dependent increase in PRM contraction pressure, in the presence of constant EMG (neural input) proves that the human PRM operates at short sarcomere length. Surgically adjusting the PRM length may represent a novel strategy to improve treat anal continence and possibly other pelvic floor disorders. PMID:25273124

  5. Variability in training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    When human skeletal muscle is exposed to exercise training, the outcomes, in terms of physiological adaptation, are unpredictable. The significance of this fact has long been underappreciated, and only recently has progress been made in identifying some of the molecular bases for the heterogeneous response to exercise training. It is not only of great medical importance that some individuals do not substantially physiologically adapt to exercise training, but the study of the heterogeneity itself provides a powerful opportunity to dissect out the genetic and environmental factors that limit adaptation, directly in humans. In the following review I will discuss new developments linking genetic and transcript abundance variability to an individual's potential to improve their aerobic capacity or endurance performance or induce muscle hypertrophy. I will also comment on the idea that certain gene networks may be associated with muscle “adaptability” regardless the stimulus provided. PMID:21030666

  6. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  7. Metabolic benefits of resistance training and fast glycolytic skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kenneth; Arany, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibits remarkable plasticity with respect to its metabolic properties. Recent work has shown that interventions such as resistance training, genetic alterations and pharmacological strategies that increase muscle mass and glycolytic capacity, and not necessarily oxidative competence, can improve body composition and systemic metabolism. We review here recent advances in our understanding of the signaling and transcriptional regulatory pathways of this strategy and review new evidence obtained from mice and humans that supports the notion that increasing muscle mass and glycolytic capacity may effectively counter insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21045171

  8. Systematic Review of Inspiratory Muscle Training After Cerebrovascular Accident.

    PubMed

    Martín-Valero, Rocío; De La Casa Almeida, Maria; Casuso-Holgado, Maria Jesus; Heredia-Madrazo, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines levels of evidence and recommendation grades of various therapeutic interventions of inspiratory muscle training in people who have had a stroke. Benefits from different levels of force and resistance in respiratory muscles are shown in this population. This review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) directives and was completed in November 2014. The search limits were studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. Relevant studies were searched for in MEDLINE, PEDro, OAIster, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, DOAJ, Cochrane, Embase, Academic Search Complete, Fuente Académica, and MedicLatina. Initially, 20 articles were identified. After analyzing all primary documents, 14 studies were excluded. Only 6 studies were relevant to this review. Three different types of interventions were found (maximum inspiratory training, controlled training, and nonintervention) in 3 different groups. One specific study compared 3 inspiratory muscle training groups with a group of breathing exercises (diaphragmatic exercises with pursed lips) and a control group. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed. It is necessary to apply respiratory muscle training as a service of the national health system and to consider its inclusion in the conventional neurological program. PMID:26493591

  9. Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a prevalent problem that can drastically affect quality of life. Pelvic floor rehabilitation is an important first-line treatment for patients with FI, and many published case reports and a small number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide limited evidence for its efficacy. Pelvic floor rehabilitation approaches to the treatment of FI include pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, and volumetric training with rectal balloon catheters. Various forms of external electrical stimulation have also been described and may be of added benefit. Behavioral bowel retraining is an important part of a good rehabilitative approach as well. Pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment for FI is thought to be effective and safe, with reported success rates in a majority of studies at 50 to 80%. Many more high-quality RCTs are needed to define optimal treatment protocols. PMID:25320568

  10. Validity and Reliability of an Instrumented Speculum Designed to Minimize the Effect of Intra-abdominal Pressure on the Measurement of Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Ashton-Miller, James A.; Zielinski, Ruth; Miller, Janis M.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing clinical measurements of pelvic floor muscle strength are contaminated by crosstalk from intra-abdominal pressure. We tested an improved instrumented speculum designed to minimize this crosstalk. The hypotheses were that the speculum yields: 1) maximum vaginal closure forces unrelated to intra-abdominal pressure, 2) discriminatory validity between women who have strong vs. weak pelvic floor muscles, and 3) acceptable test-retest reliability. Methods Maximum voluntary vaginal closure force was measured in 40 incontinent women (20–77 years) using the improved instrumented speculum on two visits spaced one month apart. At the baseline visit, intra-abdominal pressure was also estimated via intra-vesical catheterization during the vaginal closure force measurement. Subjective estimate of pelvic floor muscle strength was also assessed using digital palpation by a skilled examiner to determine group placement as “strong” (n=31) or “weak” (n=9). Findings Vaginal closure force was not significantly correlated with intra-abdominal pressure (r = −.26, p = .109). The groups with subjectively scored strong and weak pelvic floor muscles differed significantly by mean [SD] maximum vaginal closure force (3.8 [1.7] vs. 1.9 [0.8] N respectively, p < .01.) Across both time points the mean vaginal closure force was 3.42 [1.67] N with a range of .68 to 9.05 N. Mean Visit 1 and Visit 2 vaginal closure force scores did not differ (3.41 [1.8] and 3.42 [1.6] N, respectively). The vaginal closure force repeatability coefficient was 3.1 N. Interpretation The improved speculum measured maximum vaginal closure force without evidence of crosstalk from intra-abdominal pressure, while retaining acceptable discriminant validity and repeatability. PMID:25307868

  11. Effects of a Pelvic Belt on the EMG Activity of the Abdominal Muscles during a Single-leg Hold in the Hook-lying Position on a Round Foam Roll.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Ji-Won; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of a pelvic belt on the electromyography (EMG) activity of the abdominal muscles during a single-leg hold in the hook-lying position on a round foam roll. [Subjects] Seventeen healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study. [Methods] The participants performed single-leg-hold exercises on a round foam roll with and without a pelvic belt. Surface EMG was recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) bilaterally. [Results] The EMG activity of the bilateral RA, EO, and IO was significantly lower when the pelvic belt applied. [Conclusions] Our finding that the bilateral EO, IO, and RA muscles were less active with a pelvic belt during trunk-stabilizing exercises on an unstable surface suggests that the pelvic belt provided "form closure". PMID:24259855

  12. Low Intensity Exercise Training Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Potential

    PubMed Central

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester S.; Mancinelli, Rosa; Doria, Christian; Rotini, Alessio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l.) improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women. Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (mi)RNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206). Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12–67%), although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells. PMID:26733888

  13. [Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Lisboa, C; Borzone, G; Cruz, E

    1998-05-01

    We analyze the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with special emphasis on its effects on inspiratory muscle function and clinical outcomes. We reviewed only randomized, controlled studies that have either controlled both the load and the breathing pattern when using resistive training or have employed a threshold trainer in which the load is independent of the pattern of breathing, since methodological aspects may explain inconsistent results in the literature. In these circumstances, most of the studies demonstrated positive effects on inspiratory muscle function. Clinical effects were seldom evaluated; limited available data showed a reduction in dyspnea that was related to an increase in maximal inspiratory pressures (PIMax). When exercise capacity was evaluated through the distance the patients were able to walk in 6 or 12 minutes, most studies demonstrated a significant increase. Other reported positive effects were improvement in nocturnal SaO2, inspiratory muscle power output and maximal inspiratory flow rate. Based in this review, a recommended training regime appears to be an intermediate load (30-40% PIMax) using a threshold device for 30 minutes daily for at least 5 weeks. Although in the literature the criteria for selecting patients are not always well defined, we consider IMT as a helpful procedure for pulmonar rehabilitation in those patients with a moderately severe inspiratory muscle dysfunction presenting dyspnea during daily living activities despite optimal therapy. PMID:9731440

  14. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on resistance to fatigue of respiratory muscles during exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Segizbaeva, M O; Timofeev, N N; Donina, Zh A; Kur'yanovich, E N; Aleksandrova, N P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on resistance to fatigue of the diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene (SC) muscles in healthy humans during exhaustive exercise. Daily inspiratory muscle strength training was performed for 3 weeks in 10 male subjects (at a pressure threshold load of 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) for the first week, 70% of MIP for the second week, and 80% of MIP for the third week). Before and after training, subjects performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Maximal inspiratory pressure and EMG-analysis served as indices of inspiratory muscle fatigue assessment. The before-to-after exercise decreases in MIP and centroid frequency (fc) of the EMG (D, PS, SCM, and SC) power spectrum (P<0.05) were observed in all subjects before the IMT intervention. Such changes were absent after the IMT. The study found that in healthy subjects, IMT results in significant increase in MIP (+18%), a delay of inspiratory muscle fatigue during exhaustive exercise, and a significant improvement in maximal work performance. We conclude that the IMT elicits resistance to the development of inspiratory muscles fatigue during high-intensity exercise. PMID:25248344

  15. Effect of swim exercise training on human muscle fiber function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Costill, D. L.; Gardetto, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of swim exercise training on the human muscle fiber function was investigated in swimmers trained in a typical collegiate swim-training program followed by an intensified 10-day training period. The measured parameters included the peak tension (P0), negative log molar Ca(2+) concentration (pCa)-force, and maximal shortening speed (Vmax) of the slow-twitch type I and fast-twitch type II fibers obtained by biopsy from the deltoid muscle. The P0 values were found to be not altered after either the training or the 10-day intensive program. The type I fibers from the trained swimmers showed pCa-force curves shifted to the right, such that higher free Ca(2+) levels were required to elicit a given percent of P0. The training program significantly increased the Vmax in the type I fibers and decreased that of the type II fibers, and the 10-day intensive training produced a further significant decrease of the type II fibers.

  16. Supercompensation of muscle glycogen in trained and untrained subjects.

    PubMed

    Roedde, S; MacDougall, J D; Sutton, J R; Green, H J

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not trained athletes have the same capacity for supercompensation of muscle glycogen as untrained subjects. Muscle glycogen was measured in 4 highly trained cyclists and 4 untrained controls over a 6 day period of exercise and dietary manipulation. During the week prior to the investigation the trained group tapered their training load but maintained a high carbohydrate intake as they would in preparation for a major competition. Needle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and after exhaustive cycle ergometry at 73% VO2 max followed by several sprint intervals, after 3 days on a carbohydrate-restricted diet and after 2 and 3 days on a high carbohydrate diet. All food intake was quantified and plasma insulin and glucose were monitored daily. The mean initial glycogen concentration for the trained group was 115 mmol X kg-1 wet muscle weight and 92 mmol X kg-1 for the untrained group. Both groups showed similar post exercise depletion and recovery patterns when expressed as a % of their initial values. Following 3 days of high carbohydrate diet, the glycogen concentration for the trained cyclists reached 174 mmol X kg-1 or 152% of its initial value while the untrained-group reached 143 mmol X kg-1 or 155% of its initial value. It was concluded that a regimen of exhaustive exercise, followed by a period of carbohydrate restriction and a period of high carbohydrate intake, results in substantially higher muscle glycogen storage than can be achieved by a reduction in training in combination with high carbohydrate intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3698159

  17. Prevention and management of pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Giarenis, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a highly prevalent condition in the female population, which impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. Despite the lack of robust evidence, selective modification of obstetric events or other risk factors could play a central role in the prevention of prolapse. While the value of pelvic floor muscle training as a preventive treatment remains uncertain, it has an essential role in the conservative management of prolapse. Surgical trends are currently changing due to the controversial issues surrounding the use of mesh and the increasing demand for uterine preservation. The evolution of laparoscopic and robotic surgery has increased the use of these techniques in pelvic floor surgery. PMID:25343034

  18. Modelling the pelvic floor for investigating difficulties during childbirth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinshan; Kruger, Jennifer A.; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Nash, Martyn P.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.

    2008-03-01

    Research has suggested that athletes involved in high-intensity sports for sustained periods have a higher probability of experiencing prolonged second stage of labour compared to non-athletes. The mechanism responsible for this complication is unknown but may depend on the relative size or tone of the pelvic floor muscles. Prolonged training can result in enlargement and stiffening of these muscles, providing increased resistance as the fetal head descends through the birth canal during a vaginal birth. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested an association between increased muscle bulk in athletes and higher distensibility. This project aims to use mathematical modelling to study the relationship between the size and tone of the pelvic floor muscles and the level of difficulty during childbirth. We obtained sets of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the pelvic floor region for a female athlete and a female non-athlete. Thirteen components of the pelvic floor were segmented and used to generate finite element (FE) models. The fetal head data was obtained by laser scanning a skull replica and a FE model was fitted to these data. We used contact mechanics to simulate the motion of the fetal head moving through the pelvic floor, constructed from the non-athlete data. A maximum stretch ratio of 3.2 was induced in the muscle at the left lateral attachment point to the pubis. We plan to further improve our modelling framework to include active muscle contraction and fetal head rotations in order to address the hypotheses that there is a correlation between the level of difficulty and the size or tone of the pelvic floor muscles.

  19. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Methods Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. Results According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Conclusions Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength. PMID:23802051

  20. Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Exam, Pelvic Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1500x1230 View Download Large: 3000x2460 View Download Title: Exam, Pelvic Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

  1. [PELVIC FLOOR RECONSTRUCTION AFTER PELVIC EVISCERATION USING GRACILIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS FLAP].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:26390558

  2. Respiratory Muscle Activity During Simultaneous Stationary Cycling and Inspiratory Muscle Training.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, Nathan J; Folsom, Ian A; Gaz, Dan V; Kakuk, Alynn C; Mack, Jessica L; Ver Mulm, Jacyln A

    2015-12-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) strengthens the muscles of respiration, improves breathing efficiency, and increases fitness. The IMT is generally performed independently of aerobic exercise; however, it is not clear whether there is added benefit of performing the IMT while simultaneously performing aerobic exercise in terms of activating and strengthening inspiratory muscles. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of IMT on respiratory muscle electromyography (EMG) activity during stationary cycling in the upright and drops postures as compared with that when the IMT was performed alone. Diaphragm and sternocleidomastoid EMG activity was measured under different resting and cycling postures, with and without the use of the IMT at 40% maximal inspiratory pressure (n = 10; mean age 37). Cycling in an upright posture while simultaneously performing the IMT resulted in a significantly greater diaphragm EMG activity than while performing the IMT at rest in upright or drops postures (p ≤ 0.05). Cycling in drops postures while performing the IMT had a significantly greater diaphragm EMG activity than when performing the IMT at rest in either upright or drops postures (p ≤ 0.05). Sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased with both cycling and IMT, although posture had little effect. These results support our hypothesis in that the IMT while cycling increases respiratory EMG activity to a significantly greater extent than when performing the IMT solely at rest, suggesting that the combination of IMT and cycling may provide an additive training effect. PMID:26584054

  3. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  4. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dysfunction, and possible information sources. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Stability and validity testing were performed using Kappa statistics and intra class correlation coefficients to define agreement for each question. The study was approved by the ethics Committee (B300201318334). [Results] Using a VAS scale (0 to 10), the women rated their knowledge about the pelvic floor as a mean of 2.4 (SD 2.01). A total of 93% of the women were insufficiently informed and requested more information; 25% had concerns about developing urinary incontinence, and 14% about fecal incontinence. Many of the women were unaware what pelvic floor training meant. [Conclusion] There was a significant lack of knowledge about pelvic floor function among nulliparous women. The majority of nulliparous women expressed a need for education, which might offer a way to reduce dysfunction. PMID:27313364

  5. Prospective randomized comparison of oxybutynin, functional electrostimulation, and pelvic floor training for treatment of detrusor overactivity in women.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Raquel M; Castro, Rodrigo A; Sousa, Gabriela C; Sartori, Marair G F; Baracat, Edmund C; Girão, Manoel J B C

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of oxybutynin, functional electrostimulation (FES), and pelvic floor training (PFT) for treatment of women with detrusor overactivity. Sixty-four subjects were randomized to oxybutynin (n=22), FES (n=21), or PFT (n=21). Women were evaluated before and after completion of 12 weeks of treatment by subjective response, voiding diary, and urodynamic test. There was subjective symptomatic improvement in 77% of the women treated with oxybutynin, 52% with FES, and 76% with PFT. Urgency resolved in 64% of women treated with oxybutynin, 52% with FES, and in 57% with PFT. Urodynamic evaluation was normal in 36% treated with oxybutynin, 57% with FES, and 52% with PFT. Maximum detrusor involuntary contraction pressure decreased in all groups (p<0.05). All treatments were equally effective. Subjective reduction of urge-incontinence episodes was associated with symptomatic improvement. PMID:18330483

  6. The influence of inspiratory muscle work history and specific inspiratory muscle training upon human limb muscle fatigue

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Alison K; Lomax, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the work history of the inspiratory muscles upon the fatigue characteristics of the plantar flexors (PF). We hypothesized that under conditions where the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex has been elicited, PF fatigue would be hastened due to peripheral vasoconstriction. Eight volunteers undertook seven test conditions, two of which followed 4 week of inspiratory muscle training (IMT). The inspiratory metaboreflex was induced by inspiring against a calibrated flow resistor. We measured torque and EMG during isometric PF exercise at 85% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. Supramaximal twitches were superimposed upon MVC efforts at 1 min intervals (MVCTI); twitch interpolation assessed the level of central activation. PF was terminated (Tlim) when MVCTI was <50% of baseline MVC. PF Tlim was significantly shorter than control (9.93 ± 1.95 min) in the presence of a leg cuff inflated to 140 mmHg (4.89 ± 1.78 min; P = 0.006), as well as when PF was preceded immediately by fatiguing inspiratory muscle work (6.28 ± 2.24 min; P = 0.009). Resting the inspiratory muscles for 30 min restored the PF Tlim to control. After 4 weeks, IMT, inspiratory muscle work at the same absolute intensity did not influence PF Tlim, but Tlim was significantly shorter at the same relative intensity. The data are the first to provide evidence that the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex accelerates the rate of calf fatigue during PF, and that IMT attenuates this effect. PMID:16973699

  7. Effect of expiratory muscle strength training on elderly cough function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeock; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle strength, known as sarcopenia, in the expiratory muscles, along with reductions in lung elastic recoil and chest wall compliance decreases the intrathoacic airway pressure as well as expiratory flow rates and velocity, greatly impacting an elderly person's ability to generate the forces essential for cough. This study examined the effects of a 4-week expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) program on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and cough function in 18 healthy but sedentary elderly adults. MEP significantly increased after the EMST program from 77.14+/-20.20 to 110.83+/-26.11cmH(2)O. Parameters measured during reflexive coughs produced by capsaicin challenge, indicated that compression phase duration significantly decreased (from 0.35+/-0.19 to 0.16+/-0.17s), peak expiratory flow rate decreased (from 4.98+/-2.18 to 8.00+/-3.05l/s) and post-peak plateau integral amplitude significantly increased (from 3.49+/-2.46 to 6.83+/-4.16l/ss) with the EMST program. EMST seems to be an effective program to increase the expiratory muscle strength in the sedentary elderly, which contribute to an enhanced cough function. PMID:18457885

  8. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving). Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause deficits in

  9. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters.

  10. MMP(-2) expression in skeletal muscle after strength training.

    PubMed

    Deus, A P L; Bassi, D; Simões, R P; Oliveira, C R; Baldissera, V; Marqueti, R de Cássia; Araujo, H S S; Arena, R; Borghi-Silva, A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of resistance training on ladders (RTL) on MMP(-2) expression and blood lactate concentration [La-]. 30 male (3 months of age), albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control (SC, n=10), low resistance exercise training (Low-IntRT, n=10) and high-intensive exercise training (High-IntRT, n=10). Animals of High-IntRT were submitted to a progressively increasing overload in relation to body weight until exhaustion, while the Low-IntRT group performed the same exercise regimen with no external load. The program had a frequency of 3 times per week over 8 weeks. MMP(-2) expression of tibialis anterior muscle and [La-] were measured. While there was a significant increase of MMP(-2) (pro-form) in both groups, only High-IntRT significantly increased MMP(-2) in active-form (p<0.05). Both trained groups exhibited an increase in [La-] when compared to controls, however, the increase in [La-] was significantly higher in the High-IntRT compared to Low-IntRT (p<0.05). Strong correlation was found between MMP(-2) (active form) and [La-] in High-IntRT (r=0.91). RTL in using low and high-intensity exercise can serve as a model to demonstrate different responses of MMP(-2) expression in an animal model. It appears active form expression of MMP(-2) is modulated by exercise intensity. PMID:22095325

  11. Maximal oxygen uptake during exercise using trained or untrained muscles.

    PubMed

    Moreira-da-Costa, M; Russo, A K; Piçarro, I C; Silva, A C; Leite-de-Barros-Neto, T; Tarasantchi, J; Barbosa, A S

    1984-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake, VO2 max, was determined for cyclists, long-distance runners and non-athletes during uphill running (treadmill) and cycling (cycloergometer) to compare trained and untrained muscles. Blood lactate, maximal heart rate and maximal ventilation during work were also measured. VO2 max was higher for runners and non-athletes during exercise on the treadmill and higher for cyclists during exercise on the cycloergometer. For runners and non-athletes, maximal heart rate accompanied the increase in VO2 max, whereas similar values were obtained for cyclists on both ergometers. Maximal ventilation during work accompanied the difference in VO2 max in both groups of athletes but among non-athletes it was similar during exercise on both the cycloergometer and the treadmill. Blood lactate was similar during exercise on both ergometers for all groups. These results suggest that the quantitative effects of training on cardiovascular and respiratory functions may only be properly evaluated by using an ergometer which requires an activity similar to that usually performed by the subjects. Cycle riding may possibly induce significant and specific alterations in the muscles involved in the exercise, thus increasing peripheral O2 uptake even after stabilization of maximal cardiac output, whereas running may well induce an improvement of all factors which are responsible for aerobic work power. PMID:6518340

  12. Effect of unloading on muscle volume with and without resistance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akima, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Junjiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resistance training on the volume of four muscle groups and/or 17 individual muscles of the human lower limb during 20 days of 6∘ head-down tilt bed rest. Twelve healthy men were divided into two groups: the resistance training group: BR-Tr (n=6) and the control group: BR-Cont (n=6). The volumes of the knee extensor, knee flexor, adductor, plantar flexor, and dorsiflexor muscle groups and their individual muscles were calculated. After the bed rest, the BR-Tr subjects showed no significant change in the volume in almost all tested muscles; in contrast, the volumes of the four muscle groups significantly decreased in the BR-Cont group ( -12% to -8%). These results suggest that resistance training during bed rest can prevent the deteriorating of thigh muscles and calf muscles.

  13. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Guell, Rosa; Barreiro, Esther; Hernandez, Nuria; Mota, Susana; Sangenis, Merce; Broquetas, Joan M; Casan, Pere; Gea, Joaquim

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a specific inspiratory muscle training protocol on the structure of inspiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fourteen patients (males, FEV1, 24 +/- 7% predicted) were randomized to either inspiratory muscle or sham training groups. Supervised breathing using a threshold inspiratory device was performed 30 minutes per day, five times a week, for 5 consecutive weeks. The inspiratory training group was subjected to inspiratory loading equivalent to 40 to 50% of their maximal inspiratory pressure. Biopsies from external intercostal muscles and vastus lateralis (control muscle) were taken before and after the training period. Muscle samples were processed for morphometric analyses using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain isoforms I and II. Increases in both the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles were observed in the inspiratory training group. This improvement was associated with increases in the proportion of type I fibers (by approximately 38%, p < 0.05) and in the size of type II fibers (by approximately 21%, p < 0.05) in the external intercostal muscles. No changes were observed in the control muscle. The study demonstrates that inspiratory training induces a specific functional improvement of the inspiratory muscles and adaptive changes in the structure of external intercostal muscles. PMID:12406842

  14. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  15. MUSCLE TENDERNESS IN MEN WITH CHRONIC PROSTATITIS/CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME: THE CHRONIC PROSTATITIS COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Shoskes, Daniel A.; Berger, Richard; Elmi, Angelo; Landis, J. Richard; Propert, Kathleen J.; Zeitlin, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Myofascial pain is a possible etiology for category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), either secondary to infection/inflammation or as the primary cause. We wished to document tenderness on physical exam in a large multicenter cohort of CPPS patients, and compare to controls. Methods Data were reviewed from the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Cohort study on 384 men with CPPS and 121 asymptomatic controls who had complete unblinded physical exam data, from 7 clinical centers between 10/98 - 8/01. Tenderness in 11 sites including prostate, genitals, abdomen and pelvic floor together with prostate size and consistency was evaluated. Data was correlated with cultures and symptoms. Results Overall, 51% of CPPS patients and 7% of controls had any tenderness. The most common site was prostate (41% CPPS, 5% controls), followed by external and internal pelvic floor (13% and 14% CPPS, 0 controls) and suprapubic (9% CPPS, 0 controls). In CPPS patients, 25% had 1 tender site, 11% had 2 and 6% had 3. Tenderness did not correlate with inflammation or infection in the prostate fluid. Prostate consistency was normal in 79% of CPPS patients and in 95% of controls, and did not correlate with symptom severity. CPPS patients with any tenderness had significantly higher CPSI scores at baseline, and at 1 year (24.1 vs 21.2 and 20.2 vs 17.5, p<0.0001), compared to patients without tenderness. Conclusions Abdominal/pelvic tenderness is present in half of CPPS patients, but only 7% of controls. Extraprostatic tenderness may identify a cohort of patients with a neuromuscular source of pain. PMID:18082223

  16. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary What are pelvic support problems? The pelvic organs include the vagina , cervix , uterus , bladder , urethra , small intestines, and rectum . The pelvic ...

  17. Respiratory and limb muscle dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a role for exercise training?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory and limb muscle dysfunction is emerging as an important pathophysiological abnormality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Muscle abnormalities appear to occur frequently and promote dyspnea, fatigue, and exercise limitation in patients with PAH. Preliminary data suggest that targeted muscle training may be of benefit, although further evidence is required to consolidate these findings into specific recommendations for exercise training in patients with PAH. This article reviews the current evidence on prevalence, risk factors, and implications of respiratory and limb muscle dysfunction in patients with PAH. It also reviews the impact of exercise rehabilitation on morphologic, metabolic, and functional muscle profile and outcomes in PAH. Future research priorities are highlighted. PMID:26401245

  18. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Nan-soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 20 minutes, three times weekly, for 6 weeks. After each session, diaphragm thickness was measured using ultrasonography. The diaphragm asymmetry ratio and diaphragm thickening ratio were standardized using a formula. [Results] After intervention, the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly differed among the three groups, and the diaphragm asymmetry ratio significantly increased in the control group. A significant increase was identified in the diaphragm thickening ratio within the progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training groups. [Conclusion] Progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training decreased the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients; this effect, in turn, increased the diaphragm thickening ratio in stroke patients. The two interventions examined here should be selectively applied to individuals in the clinical field. PMID:26644689

  19. Resistance training alters cytokine gene expression in skeletal muscle of adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance training results in muscle hypertrophy and improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether resistance training modulates inflammation in muscles of diabetic patients remains unknown. We examined the expression of genes encoding the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-al...

  20. Stress Testing Recovery EMG for Evaluation of Biofeedback and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.; DeGood, Douglas E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess biofeedback (BF) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and placebo-control training by means of a post-training transfer test. The subjects for the research were 30 women. Initial tests consisted of measuring the electromyographic response of the frontalis muscle of the forehead to stress. After…

  1. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab)

    PubMed Central

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  2. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    PubMed

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output. PMID

  3. The effect of ankle joint muscle strengthening training and static muscle stretching training on stroke patients' C.o.p sway amplitude.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Joo Soo; Lee, Jin Hwan

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] This study implement ankle joint dorsiflexion training for ankle muscle the weakness that impairs stroke patients' gait performance, to examine the effect of the training on stroke patients' plantar pressure and gait ability. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 36 stroke patients diagnosed with stroke due to cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage performed the training. Static muscle stretching was performed four times a week for 20 minutes at a time for 6 weeks by the training group. Ankle dorsiflexor training was performed four times a week, two sets per time in the case of females and three sets per time in the case of males for 6 weeks, by another group. Center of pressure sway amplitude was measured using the F-scan system during gait. All subjects were assessed with the same measurements at a pre-study examination and reassessed at eight weeks. Data were analyzed statistically using the paired t-test and one-way ANOVA. [Results] Among the between ankle dorsiflexor training group, static muscle stretching group, and control group, the difference before and after the training were proven to be statistically significant. [Conclusion] Compared to other training groups, the ankle muscle strength training group showed statistically significant increases of forward thrust at stroke patients' toe-off which positively affected stroke patients' ability to perform gait. PMID:24409032

  4. In vitro differentiation of endometrial regenerative cells into smooth muscle cells: Α potential approach for the management of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuhui; Kong, Xianchao; Liu, Dongzhe; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Peiling; Liu, Meimei

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), is a common condition in parous women. Synthetic mesh was once considered to be the standard of care; however, the use of synthetic mesh is limited by severe complications, thus creating a need for novel approaches. The application of cell-based therapy with stem cells may be an ideal alternative, and specifically for vaginal prolapse. Abnormalities in vaginal smooth muscle (SM) play a role in the pathogenesis of POP, indicating that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) may be a potential therapeutic target. Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) are an easily accessible, readily available source of adult stem cells. In the present study, ERCs were obtained from human menstrual blood, and phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry were performed to characterize the morphology and phenotype of the ERCs. SMC differentiation was induced by a transforming growth factor β1-based medium, and the induction conditions were optimized. We defined the SMC characteristics of the induced cells with regard to morphology and marker expression using transmission electron microscopy, western blot analysis, immunocytofluorescence and RT-PCR. Examining the expression of the components of the Smad pathway and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 by western blot analysis, RT-PCR and quantitative PCR demonstrated that the 'TGFBR2/ALK5/Smad2 and Smad3' pathway is involved, and both Smad2 and Smad3 participated in SMC differentiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that ERCs may be a promising cell source for cellular therapy aimed at modulating SM function in the vagina wall and pelvic floor in order to treat POP. PMID:27221348

  5. In vitro differentiation of endometrial regenerative cells into smooth muscle cells: A potential approach for the management of pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XIUHUI; KONG, XIANCHAO; LIU, DONGZHE; GAO, PENG; ZHANG, YANHUA; LI, PEILING; LIU, MEIMEI

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), is a common condition in parous women. Synthetic mesh was once considered to be the standard of care; however, the use of synthetic mesh is limited by severe complications, thus creating a need for novel approaches. The application of cell-based therapy with stem cells may be an ideal alternative, and specifically for vaginal prolapse. Abnormalities in vaginal smooth muscle (SM) play a role in the pathogenesis of POP, indicating that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) may be a potential therapeutic target. Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) are an easily accessible, readily available source of adult stem cells. In the present study, ERCs were obtained from human menstrual blood, and phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry were performed to characterize the morphology and phenotype of the ERCs. SMC differentiation was induced by a transforming growth factor β1-based medium, and the induction conditions were optimized. We defined the SMC characteristics of the induced cells with regard to morphology and marker expression using transmission electron microscopy, western blot analysis, immunocytofluorescence and RT-PCR. Examining the expression of the components of the Smad pathway and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 by western blot analysis, RT-PCR and quantitative PCR demonstrated that the 'TGFBR2/ALK5/Smad2 and Smad3' pathway is involved, and both Smad2 and Smad3 participated in SMC differentiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that ERCs may be a promising cell source for cellular therapy aimed at modulating SM function in the vagina wall and pelvic floor in order to treat POP. PMID:27221348

  6. [Treatment of the dysfunction of the pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Pena Outeiriño, J M; Rodríguez Pérez, A J; Villodres Duarte, A; Mármol Navarro, S; Lozano Blasco, J M

    2007-01-01

    The perineum is formed by muscle-aponeurotic elements that are integrated under the control of the nervous system. Their alterations are responsible for urogynecological, coloproctologic and sexual pathologies. In order to obtain a successful treatment, it is obliged not to forget the role that plays the perineum in those pathologies. The treatment of the dysfunction of the pelvic floor groups conservative techniques and procedures like changes in life habits, behavioural therapy, biofeedback, electroestimulation (neuromodulation and peripheral electrical stimulation) and training with muscular exercises of the pelvic floor (perineal rehabilitation). The objective of all of them is to improve or to obtain the urinary continence, the strengthening of its musculature to be able to balance pelvic static, to improve the local vascularization and the anorrectal function besides securing a satisfactory sexuality. PMID:17902464

  7. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tatsushi; Shintaku, Hiroto; Kato, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiko; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) after game-simulated (80 min.) rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 %) volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10) or passive rest condition (n = 10) for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps) except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine) revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage. Key Points Cold water immersion study for the recovery of rugby players Muscle strength and muscle power were mainly evaluated as well as muscle enzymes of muscle break down Subjects were highly trained rugby players with control group PMID:25177190

  8. Effects of Exercise Training and Inspiratory Muscle Training in Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sheel, A. William; Reid, Wendy Darlene; Townson, Andrea F; Ayas, Najib T; Konnyu, Kristin J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To provide a systematic review of the studies assessing exercise training and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in individuals for the improved respiratory function of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Thirteen studies (5 exercise training, 8 IMT) were identified. Articles were scored for their methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scores and Downs and Black tools for randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Conclusions were based on the most rigorously executed studies using Sackett's levels of evidence. Results: Study comparison was compromised by diverse research designs; small sample sizes; and heterogeneity of studied populations, protocols, and outcome measures. Based on current literature, there is level 2 evidence supporting exercise training as an intervention to improve respiratory strength and endurance and level 4 evidence to support exercise training as an intervention that might improve resting and exercising respiratory function in people with SCI. There is level 4 evidence to support IMT as an intervention that might decrease dyspnea and improve respiratory function in people with SCI. Conclusions: There are insufficient data to strongly support the use of exercise training or IMT for improved respiratory function in people with SCI. There is some evidence of efficacy of both regimens; however, the evidence is not of the best possible quality. PMID:19086707

  9. Changes of general fitness and muscle properties following police cadet training.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Ning; Hallbourg, Keith W; Collins, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to examine the relationship between physical performance and muscle properties during police cadet training. The study's hypothesis was that improved physical performance brought about by training, would in turn cause a reduction in muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-nine police cadets were included in this study. Standard fitness tests and quantitative assessments of muscular biomechanical properties were conducted before, during and after the 20-week cadet training. [Results] General fitness had improved at the end of the police cadet training. There was no significant decrease in muscle flexibility as measured by the Sit-and-Reach test. However, muscle compliance of the non-dominant leg measured by the relaxation coefficient had decreased at the end of the police cadet training. [Conclusion] The increased sit-and-reach distance could be due in part to strengthening of the abdominal muscles. On the other hand, the biomechanical test, which was specific to muscle extensibility, showed a reduction in the relaxation coefficient of the non-dominant leg. Our data suggests that changes in muscle compliance as a result of lower extremity training should be considered. This data may be useful in the design of a training protocol that prevents the potential injuries caused by reduced muscle flexibility. PMID:26504293

  10. Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Brown, Sarah; McConnell, Alison K

    2010-02-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated. Similarly, it is not known whether any ergogenic influence of IMT upon swimming performance is confined to specific race distances. To determine the influence of IMT upon swimming performance over 3 competitive distances, 16 competitive club-level swimmers were assigned at random to either an experimental (pressure threshold IMT) or sham IMT placebo control group. Participants performed a series of physiological and performance tests, before and following 6 weeks of IMT, including (1) an incremental swim test to the limit of tolerance to determine lactate, heart rate and perceived exertion responses; (2) standard measures of lung function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP); and (3) 100, 200 and 400 m swim time trials. Training utilised a hand-held pressure threshold device and consisted of 30 repetitions, twice per day. Relative to control, the IMT group showed the following percentage changes in swim times: 100 m, -1.70% (90% confidence limits, +/-1.4%), 200 m, -1.5% (+/-1.0), and 400 m, 0.6% (+/-1.2). Large effects were observed for MIP and rates of perceived exertion. In conclusion, 6 weeks of IMT has a small positive effect on swimming performance in club-level trained swimmers in events shorter than 400 m. PMID:19841931

  11. Exercise training does not increase muscle FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Fain, John N.; Company, Joseph M.; Booth, Frank W.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Bahouth, Suleiman W.; Sacks, Harold S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise training elevates circulating irisin and induces the expression of the FNDC5 gene in skeletal muscles of mice. Our objective was to determine whether exercise training also increases FNDC5 protein or mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of pigs as well as plasma irisin. Methods Castrated male pigs of the Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (FHM) strain and normal (Yucatan miniature) pigs were sacrificed after 16–20 weeks of exercise training. Samples of cardiac muscle, deltoid and triceps brachii muscle, subcutaneous and epicardial fat were obtained and FNDC5 mRNA, along with that of 6 other genes, was measured in all tissues of FHM pigs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. FNDC protein in deltoid and triceps brachii was determined by Western blotting in both FHM and normal pigs. Citrate synthase activity was measured in the muscle samples of all pigs as an index of exercise training. Irisin was measured by an ELISA assay. Results There was no statistically significant effect of exercise training on FNDC5 gene expression in epicardial or subcutaneous fat, deltoid muscle, triceps brachii muscle or heart muscle. Exercise-training elevated circulating levels of irisin in the FHM pigs and citrate synthase activity in deltoid and triceps brachii muscle. A similar increase in citrate synthase activity was seen in muscle extracts of exercise-trained normal pigs but there was no alteration in circulating irisin. Conclusion Exercise training in pigs does not increase FNDC5 mRNA or protein in the deltoid or triceps brachii of FHM or normal pigs while increasing circulating irisin only in the FHM pigs. These data indicate that the response to exercise training in normal pigs is not comparable to that seen in mice. PMID:23831442

  12. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  13. Strength Training for the Intrinsic Flexor Muscles of the Foot: Effects on Muscle Strength, the Foot Arch, and Dynamic Parameters Before and After the Training

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of intrinsic foot flexor strength training. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy males without motor system disease. [Methods] A training method that involved flexion of all toe interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints against a 3-kg load was implemented and was performed for 200 repetitions once per day, three times per week, for a period of eight weeks. [Results] Significant changes were observed for intrinsic foot flexor strength scores, foot arches, vertical jumping, 1-legged long jumping, and 50-m dash time. [Conclusion] This muscle strength training method significantly improved muscle strength scores, foot arch shape, and movement performance. PMID:24707086

  14. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing approx. 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise ( SVI). Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training.

  15. Blood flow restricted and traditional resistance training performed to fatigue produce equal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Farup, J; de Paoli, F; Bjerg, K; Riis, S; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the hypertrophic potential of load-matched blood-flow restricted resistance training (BFR) vs free-flow traditional resistance training (low-load TRT) performed to fatigue. Ten healthy young subjects performed unilateral BFR and contralateral low-load TRT elbow flexor dumbbell curl with 40% of one repetition maximum until volitional concentric failure 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Prior to and at 3 (post-3) and 10 (post-10) days post-training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate elbow flexor muscle volume and muscle water content accumulation through training. Acute changes in muscle thickness following an early vs a late exercise bout were measured with ultrasound to determine muscle swelling during the immediate 0-48 h post-exercise. Total work was threefold lower for BFR compared with low-load TRT (P < 0.001). Both BRF and low-load TRT increased muscle volume by approximately 12% at post-3 and post-10 (P < 0.01) with no changes in MRI-determined water content. Training increased muscle thickness during the immediate 48 h post-exercise (P < 0.001) and to greater extent with BRF (P < 0.05) in the early training phase. In conclusion, BFR and low-load TRT, when performed to fatigue, produce equal muscle hypertrophy, which may partly rely on transient exercise-induced increases in muscle water content. PMID:25603897

  16. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine" and is a common problem in the female population with prevalence rates varying between 10% and 55% in 15- to 64-year-old women. The most frequent form of urinary incontinence in women is stress urinary incontinence, defined as "involuntary leakage on effort or exertion, or on sneezing or coughing". The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature on urinary incontinence and participation in sport and fitness activities with a special emphasis on prevalence and treatment in female elite athletes. Stress urinary incontinence is a barrier to women's participation in sport and fitness activities and, therefore, it may be a threat to women's health, self-esteem and well-being. The prevalence during sports among young, nulliparous elite athletes varies between 0% (golf) and 80% (trampolinists). The highest prevalence is found in sports involving high impact activities such as gymnastics, track and field, and some ball games. A 'stiff' and strong pelvic floor positioned at an optimal level inside the pelvis may be a crucial factor in counteracting the increases in abdominal pressure occurring during high-impact activities. There are no randomised controlled trials or reports on the effect of any treatment for stress urinary incontinence in female elite athletes. However, strength training of the pelvic floor muscles has been shown to be effective in treating stress urinary incontinence in parous females in the general population. In randomised controlled trials, reported cure rates, defined as <2g of leakage on pad tests, varied between 44% and 69%. Pelvic floor muscle training has no serious adverse effects and has been recommended as first-line treatment in the general population. Use of preventive devices such as vaginal tampons or pessaries can prevent leakage during high impact physical activity. The pelvic floor muscles need to be much stronger in elite athletes

  17. Shank Muscle Strength Training Changes Foot Behaviour during a Sudden Ankle Supination

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Marco; Lescher, Stephanie; Gerhardt, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias; Felber, Stephan; Hennig, Ewald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The peroneal muscles are the most effective lateral stabilisers whose tension braces the ankle joint complex against excessive supination. The purpose of this study was to identify the morphological and biomechanical effects of two machine-based shank muscle training methods. Methods Twenty-two healthy male recreationally active sports students performed ten weeks of single-set high resistance strength training with 3 training sessions per week. The subjects conducted subtalar pronator/supinator muscle training (ST) with the right leg by using a custom-made apparatus; the left foot muscles were exercised with machine-based talocrural plantar and dorsiflexor training (TT). Muscle strength (MVIC), muscle volume and foot biomechanics (rearfoot motion, ground reaction forces, muscle reaction times) during a sudden ankle supination were recorded before and after the intervention. Results Compared to TT, ST resulted in significantly higher pronator (14% vs. 8%, P<0.01) and supinator MVIC (25% vs. 12%, P<0.01). During sudden foot inversions, both ST and TT resulted in reduced supination velocity (-12%; P<0.01). The muscle reaction onset time was faster after the training in peroneus longus (PL) (P<0.01). Muscle volume of PL (P<0.01) and TA (P<0.01) increased significantly after both ST and TT. Conclusion After both ST and TT, the ankle joint complex is mechanically more stabilised against sudden supinations due to the muscle volume increase of PL and TA. As the reduced supination velocities indicate, the strength training effects are already present during free-fall. According to a sudden ankle supination in standing position, both machine-based dorsiflexor and pronator strength training is recommended for enhancing the mechanical stability of the ankle. PMID:26110847

  18. Resistance training with excessive training load and insufficient recovery alters skeletal muscle mass-related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Alves Souza, Rodrigo Wagner; Aguiar, Andreo F; Vechetti-Júnior, Ivan J; Piedade, Warlen Pereira; Rocha Campos, Gerson Eduardo; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program with excessive training load and insufficient recovery time between bouts on muscle hypertrophy- and atrophy-related protein expression. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a trained (TR, N = 9) or a sedentary (SE, N = 9) group. The TR group was subjected to a 12-week resistance training program with excessive training load and insufficient recovery between bouts that was designed to induce plantaris muscle atrophy. After the 12-week experiment, the plantaris muscle was collected to analyze the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscle fibers, and MAFbx, MyoD, myogenin, and IGF-I protein expression (Western blot). The CSA was reduced significantly (-17%, p ≤ 0.05) in the TR group compared with the SE group. Reciprocally, there was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) 20% increase in MAFbx protein expression, whereas the MyoD (-27%), myogenin (-29%), and IGF-I (-43%) protein levels decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in the TR group compared with the SE group. In conclusion, our data indicated that muscle atrophy induced by resistance training with excessive training load and insufficient recovery was associated with upregulation of the MAFbx catabolic protein and downregulation of the MyoD, myogenin, and IGF-I anabolic proteins. These findings suggest that quantitative analysis of these proteins can be important and complementary with other biochemical markers to confirm a possible overtraining diagnosis. PMID:24531430

  19. Inspiratory muscle training reduces blood lactate concentration during volitional hyperpnoea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter I; Sharpe, Graham R; Johnson, Michael A

    2008-09-01

    Although reduced blood lactate concentrations ([lac(-)](B)) have been observed during whole-body exercise following inspiratory muscle training (IMT), it remains unknown whether the inspiratory muscles are the source of at least part of this reduction. To investigate this, we tested the hypothesis that IMT would attenuate the increase in [lac(-)](B) caused by mimicking, at rest, the breathing pattern observed during high-intensity exercise. Twenty-two physically active males were matched for 85% maximal exercise minute ventilation (.V(E) max) and divided equally into an IMT or a control group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention, participants performed 10 min of volitional hyperpnoea at the breathing pattern commensurate with 85% .V(E) max. The IMT group performed 6 weeks of pressure-threshold IMT; the control group performed no IMT. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased (mean +/- SD) 31 +/- 22% following IMT and was unchanged in the control group. Prior to the intervention in the control group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.76 +/- 0.24 mmol L(-1) at rest to 1.50 +/- 0.60 mmol L(-1) (P < 0.05) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea. In the IMT group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.85 +/- 0.40 mmol L(-1) at rest to 2.02 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea (P < 0.05). After 6 weeks, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea were unchanged in the control group. Conversely, following IMT the increase in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea was reduced by 17 +/- 37% and 25 +/- 34% following 8 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea at 85% .V(E) max were attenuated following IMT. These findings suggest that the inspiratory muscles were the source of at least part of this reduction, and provide a possible explanation for some of the IMT-mediated reductions in [lac(-)](B), often observed during whole-body exercise. PMID:18560878

  20. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects. PMID:26782196

  1. Effects of isometric training at different knee angles on the muscle-tendon complex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kubo, K; Ohgo, K; Takeishi, R; Yoshinaga, K; Tsunoda, N; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of isometric training at different joint angles on the muscle size and function of the human muscle-tendon complex in vivo. Furthermore, we tried to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in angle specificity after isometric training from the aspect of neuromuscular adaptation and the changes in the properties of the muscle-tendon complex. Nine males completed 12-week unilateral training program (70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) x 15 s x six sets) on the knee extensors at 50 degrees (shorter muscle length: ST) and 100 degrees (longer muscle length: LT). The internal muscle force (mechanical stress) is higher at 100 degrees than at 50 degrees because of the difference in the moment arm length, although there were no difference in the relative torque level, contraction and relaxation times, and repetition between ST and LT. Before and after training, isometric strength at eight angles and muscle volume were determined. Tendon elongation of knee extensors was measured by ultrasonography. There was no significant difference in the rate of increment of muscle volume between the protocols. Tendon stiffness increased significantly for LT, but not for ST. Although significant gain was limited to angles at or near the training angle for ST, increases in MVC at all angles were found for LT. These results suggest that only mechanical stress (internal muscle force imposed on muscle and tendon) contributes to adaptation in the tendon stiffness, although metabolic (relative torque level, etc.) and mechanical stress relate to muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, increment of tendon stiffness for LT might contribute to increase torque output at smaller angles other than the training angle. PMID:16643193

  2. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p < 0.05). Additionally, their change rate abilities were substantially superior to those of the traditional resistance training (p < 0.05). The low-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p < 0.05). However, traditional resistance training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that jump performance, speed, and muscle power significantly improved after 10 weeks of PLP training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to

  3. Muscle reflex in heart failure: the role of exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han-Jun; Zucker, Irving H.; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Exercise evokes sympathetic activation and increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Two neural mechanisms that cause the exercise-induced increase in sympathetic discharge are central command and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). The former suggests that a volitional signal emanating from central motor areas leads to increased sympathetic activation during exercise. The latter is a reflex originating in skeletal muscle which contributes significantly to the regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. The afferent arm of this reflex is composed of metabolically sensitive (predominantly group IV, C-fibers) and mechanically sensitive (predominately group III, A-delta fibers) afferent fibers. Activation of these receptors and their associated afferent fibers reflexively adjusts sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity during exercise. In heart failure, the sympathetic activation during exercise is exaggerated, which potentially increases cardiovascular risk and contributes to exercise intolerance during physical activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A therapeutic strategy for preventing or slowing the progression of the exaggerated EPR may be of benefit in CHF patients. Long-term exercise training (ExT), as a non-pharmacological treatment for CHF increases exercise capacity, reduces sympatho-excitation and improves cardiovascular function in CHF animals and patients. In this review, we will discuss the effects of ExT and the mechanisms that contribute to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state. PMID:23060821

  4. Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low‐grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high‐fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow‐fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT‐PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow‐fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune‐metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity‐related muscle inflammation. PMID:24843075

  5. Transcriptional Pathways Associated with Skeletal Muscle Changes after Spinal Cord Injury and Treadmill Locomotor Training.

    PubMed

    Baligand, Celine; Chen, Yi-Wen; Ye, Fan; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Lai, San-Huei; Liu, Min; Vandenborne, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and molecular events associated with changes in muscle mass and function after SCI and after the implementation of candidate therapeutic approaches are still not completely known. The overall objective of this study was to identify key molecular pathways activated with muscle remodeling after SCI and locomotor training. We implemented treadmill training in a well-characterized rat model of moderate SCI and performed genome wide expression profiling on soleus muscles at multiple time points: 3, 8, and 14 days after SCI. We found that the activity of the protein ubiquitination and mitochondrial function related pathways was altered with SCI and corrected with treadmill training. The BMP pathway was differentially activated with early treadmill training as shown by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The expression of several muscle mass regulators was modulated by treadmill training, including Fst, Jun, Bmpr2, Actr2b, and Smad3. In addition, key players in fatty acids metabolism (Lpl and Fabp3) responded to both SCI induced inactivity and reloading with training. The decrease in Smad3 and Fst early after the initiation of treadmill training was confirmed by RT-PCR. Our data suggest that TGFβ/Smad3 signaling may be mainly involved in the decrease in muscle mass observed with SCI, while the BMP pathway was activated with treadmill training. PMID:26380273

  6. Transcriptional Pathways Associated with Skeletal Muscle Changes after Spinal Cord Injury and Treadmill Locomotor Training

    PubMed Central

    Baligand, Celine; Chen, Yi-Wen; Ye, Fan; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Lai, San-Huei; Liu, Min; Vandenborne, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and molecular events associated with changes in muscle mass and function after SCI and after the implementation of candidate therapeutic approaches are still not completely known. The overall objective of this study was to identify key molecular pathways activated with muscle remodeling after SCI and locomotor training. We implemented treadmill training in a well-characterized rat model of moderate SCI and performed genome wide expression profiling on soleus muscles at multiple time points: 3, 8, and 14 days after SCI. We found that the activity of the protein ubiquitination and mitochondrial function related pathways was altered with SCI and corrected with treadmill training. The BMP pathway was differentially activated with early treadmill training as shown by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The expression of several muscle mass regulators was modulated by treadmill training, including Fst, Jun, Bmpr2, Actr2b, and Smad3. In addition, key players in fatty acids metabolism (Lpl and Fabp3) responded to both SCI induced inactivity and reloading with training. The decrease in Smad3 and Fst early after the initiation of treadmill training was confirmed by RT-PCR. Our data suggest that TGFβ/Smad3 signaling may be mainly involved in the decrease in muscle mass observed with SCI, while the BMP pathway was activated with treadmill training. PMID:26380273

  7. Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in older Hispanics with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanics have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to their high prevalence of diabetes. Body composition, particularly skeletal muscle, plays an important role in glycemic control and lipid metabolism. Strength training is the most effective means to increase muscle mass but limited ...

  8. The effect of strength training on muscle cellular stress in prostate cancer patients on ADT

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, L; Kirkegaard, C; Ugelstad, I; Fosså, S D; Raastad, T

    2016-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with several side effects, including loss of muscle mass. Muscle atrophy is associated with reduced mitochondrial function and increased muscle cellular stress that may be counteracted by strength training. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training on mitochondrial proteins and indicators of muscle cellular stress in PCa patients on ADT. Methods Men diagnosed with locally advanced PCa receiving ADT were randomised to a strength training group (STG) (n=16) or a control group (CG) (n=15) for 16 weeks. Muscle biopsies were collected pre- and post-intervention from the vastus lateralis muscle, and analysed for mitochondrial proteins (citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COXIV), HSP60) and indicators of muscle cellular stress (heat shock protein (HSP) 70, alpha B-crystallin, HSP27, free ubiquitin, and total ubiquitinated proteins) using Western blot and ELISA. Results No significant intervention effects were observed in any of the mitochondrial proteins or indicators of muscle cellular stress. However, within-group analysis revealed that the level of HSP70 was reduced in the STG and a tendency towards a reduction in citrate synthase levels was observed in the CG. Levels of total ubiquitinated proteins were unchanged in both groups. Conclusion Although reduced HSP70 levels indicated reduced muscle cellular stress in the STG, the lack of an intervention effect precluded any clear conclusions. PMID:27169606

  9. Exercise Training-Induced Adaptations Associated with Increases in Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S.C.; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young–Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4, or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. Compared to sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of RGL(GM), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1, GSK3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks and may function as a negative feedback to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and PP1activity. PMID:23206309

  10. Autophagy plays a role in skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in an endurance exercise-trained condition.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jeong-Sun; Jeon, Sei-Il; Park, Je-Young; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Seong-Cheol; Cho, Ki-Jung; Jeong, Jong-Moon

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial homeostasis is tightly regulated by two major processes: mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial degradation by autophagy (mitophagy). Research in mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training has been well established, while the mechanisms regulating mitophagy and the interplay between mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation following endurance exercise training are not yet well defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term inhibition of autophagy in response to acute endurance exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in an exercise-trained condition. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice performed five daily bouts of 1-h swimming per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure autophagy flux in mouse skeletal muscle, mice were treated with or without 2 days of 0.4 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal colchicine (blocking the degradation of autophagosomes) following swimming exercise training. The autophagic flux assay demonstrated that swimming training resulted in an increase in the autophagic flux (~100 % increase in LC3-II) in mouse skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial fusion proteins, Opa1 and MFN2, were significantly elevated, and mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, was also increased in trained mouse skeletal muscle, suggesting that endurance exercise training promotes both mitochondrial fusion and fission processes. A mitochondrial receptor, Bnip3, was further increased in exercised muscle when treated with colchicine while Pink/Parkin protein levels were unchanged. The endurance exercise training induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis marker proteins, SDH, COX IV, and a mitochondrial biogenesis promoting factor, PGC-1α but this effect was abolished in colchicine-treated mouse skeletal muscle. This suggests that autophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial biogenesis and this coordination between these opposing processes is involved in the cellular

  11. Effects of regular exercise training on skeletal muscle contractile function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function is critical to movement and one's ability to perform daily tasks, such as eating and walking. One objective of this article is to review the contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle and single fibers, with particular emphasis on the cellular events that control or rate limit the important mechanical properties. Another important goal of this article is to present the current understanding of how the contractile properties of limb skeletal muscle adapt to programs of regular exercise.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect.

    PubMed

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently. PMID:26932769

  13. Mitochondrial and performance adaptations to exercise training in mice lacking skeletal muscle LKB1

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Colby B.; Madsen, Steven R.; Hallowell, David M.; Goring, Darren M. J.; Moore, Timothy M.; Hardman, Shalene E.; Heninger, Megan R.; Atwood, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    LKB1 and its downstream targets of the AMP-activated protein kinase family are important regulators of many aspects of skeletal muscle cell function, including control of mitochondrial content and capillarity. LKB1 deficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle (mLKB1-KO) greatly impairs exercise capacity. However, cardiac dysfunction in that genetic model prevents a clear assessment of the role of skeletal muscle LKB1 in the observed effects. Our purposes here were to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1 (skmLKB1-KO) decreases exercise capacity and mitochondrial protein content, impairs accretion of mitochondrial proteins after exercise training, and attenuates improvement in running performance after exercise training. We found that treadmill and voluntary wheel running capacity was reduced in skmLKB1-KO vs. control (CON) mice. Citrate synthase activity, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase content were lower in KO vs. CON muscles. Three weeks of treadmill training resulted in significantly increased treadmill running performance in both CON and skmLKB1-KO mice. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with training in both genotypes, but protein content and activity for components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased only in CON mice. Capillarity and VEGF protein was lower in skmLKB1-KO vs. CON muscles, but VEGF increased with training only in skmLKB1-KO. Three hours after an acute bout of muscle contractions, PGC-1α, cytochrome c, and VEGF gene expression all increased in CON but not skmLKB1-KO muscles. Our findings indicate that skeletal muscle LKB1 is required for accretion of some mitochondrial proteins but not for early exercise capacity improvements with exercise training. PMID:23982155

  14. Cycle ergometer and inspiratory muscle training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Covey, M K; Wirtz, S E; Berry, J K; Alex, C G; Langbein, W E; Edwards, L

    1999-08-01

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the intensity of aerobic training is limited by dyspnea. Improving strength of the inspiratory muscles could enhance aerobic exercise training by reducing exercise-related dyspnea. We examined effects of home-based inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and cycle ergometry training (CET) in 53 patients with moderate to severe COPD (FEV(1)% pred, 50 +/- 17 [mean +/- SD]). Patients were randomly assigned to 4 mo of training in one of four groups: IMT, CET, CET + IMT, or health education (ED). Patients were encouraged to train to the limits of their dyspnea. Inspiratory muscle strength and endurance increased in IMT and CET + IMT groups compared with CET and ED groups (p < 0. 01). Peak oxygen uptake increased and heart rate, minute ventilation, dyspnea, and leg fatigue decreased at submaximal work rates in the CET and CET + IMT groups compared with the IMT and ED groups (p < 0. 01). There were no differences between the CET and CET + IMT groups. Home-based CET produced a physiological training effect and reduced exercise-related symptoms while IMT increased respiratory muscle strength and endurance. The combination of CET and IMT did not produce additional benefits in exercise performance and exercise-related symptoms. This is the first study to demonstrate a physiological training effect with home-based exercise training. PMID:10430720

  15. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low. PMID:27526151

  16. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reviewed: 04/12/2013 Related A-Z Topics Endometriosis Menstruation and Menstrual Problems Pelvic Floor Disorders All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights Endometriosis linked to increased risk for heart disease, NIH- ...

  17. Effect of endurance exercise training on muscle glycogen supercompensation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, A; Han, D H; Hansen, P A; Nolte, L A; Host, H H; Hickner, R C; Holloszy, J O

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate and extent of glycogen supercompensation in skeletal muscle are increased by endurance exercise training. Rats were trained by using a 5-wk-long swimming program in which the duration of swimming was gradually increased to 6 h/day over 3 wk and then maintained at 6 h/day for an additional 2 wk. Glycogen repletion was measured in trained and untrained rats after a glycogen-depleting bout of exercise. The rats were given a rodent chow diet plus 5% sucrose in their drinking water and libitum during the recovery period. There were remarkable differences in both the rates of glycogen accumulation and the glycogen concentrations attained in the two groups. The concentration of glycogen in epitrochlearis muscle averaged 13.1 +/- 0.9 mg/g wet wt in the untrained group and 31.7 +/- 2.7 mg/g in the trained group (P < 0.001) 24 h after the exercise. This difference could not be explained by a training effect on glycogen synthase. The training induced approximately 50% increases in muscle GLUT-4 glucose transporter protein and in hexokinase activity in epitrochlearis muscles. We conclude that endurance exercise training results in increases in both the rate and magnitude of muscle glycogen supercompensation in rats. PMID:9049757

  18. Basic models modeling resistance training: an update for basic scientists interested in study skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-09-01

    Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints. PMID:24375009

  19. Inspiratory muscle training to enhance recovery from mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Bissett, Bernie M; Leditschke, I Anne; Neeman, Teresa; Boots, Robert; Paratz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background In patients who have been mechanically ventilated, inspiratory muscles remain weak and fatigable following ventilatory weaning, which may contribute to dyspnoea and limited functional recovery. Inspiratory muscle training may improve inspiratory muscle strength and endurance following weaning, potentially improving dyspnoea and quality of life in this patient group. Methods We conducted a randomised trial with assessor-blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Following 48 hours of successful weaning, 70 participants (mechanically ventilated ≥7 days) were randomised to receive inspiratory muscle training once daily 5 days/week for 2 weeks in addition to usual care, or usual care (control). Primary endpoints were inspiratory muscle strength and fatigue resistance index (FRI) 2 weeks following enrolment. Secondary endpoints included dyspnoea, physical function and quality of life, post-intensive care length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Results 34 participants were randomly allocated to the training group and 36 to control. The training group demonstrated greater improvements in inspiratory strength (training: 17%, control: 6%, mean difference: 11%, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences in FRI (0.03 vs 0.02, p=0.81), physical function (0.25 vs 0.25, p=0.97) or dyspnoea (−0.5 vs 0.2, p=0.22). Improvement in quality of life was greater in the training group (14% vs 2%, mean difference 12%, p=0.03). In-hospital mortality was higher in the training group (4 vs 0, 12% vs 0%, p=0.051). Conclusions Inspiratory muscle training following successful weaning increases inspiratory muscle strength and quality of life, but we cannot confidently rule out an associated increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Trial registration number ACTRN12610001089022, results. PMID:27257003

  20. Prophylactic inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Weiner, P; Zeidan, F; Zamir, D; Pelled, B; Waizman, J; Beckerman, M; Weiner, M

    1998-05-01

    Pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery are a leading cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Respiratory muscle weakness may contribute to the postoperative pulmonary abnormalities. We hypothesized that: (1) there is a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength (PImax at residual volume) and endurance (Pmpeak/PImax) following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG); (2) this weakness is associated with reduced pulmonary function tests (PFTs), impaired gas exchange, and a higher rate of pulmonary complications; and (3) prophylactic inspiratory muscle training (IMT) can prevent those changes. Eighty-four candidates for CABG, with ages ranging from 33 to 82 years, were evaluated prior to operation and randomized into two groups: 42 patients underwent IMT using a threshold trainer for 30 min/day for 2 weeks, 1 month before operation (group A); 42 patients served as a control group and underwent sham training (group B). There was a significant decrease in respiratory muscle function, PFTs, and gas exchange in the control group following CABG, whereas these parameters remained similar to those before entering the study in the training group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. In addition 11 (26%) patients in the control group but only 2 (5%) in the training group needed postsurgical mechanical ventilation longer than 24 hours, CABGs have a significant deteriorating effect on inspiratory muscle function, PFTs, and arterial blood gases. The decrease in these parameters can be prevented by prophylactic inspiratory muscle training, which may also prevent postsurgical pulmonary complications. PMID:9564282

  1. Preoperative Ambulatory Inspiratory Muscle Training in Patients Undergoing Esophagectomy. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Agrelli, Taciana Freitas; de Carvalho Ramos, Marisa; Guglielminetti, Rachel; Silva, Alex Augusto; Crema, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A major decline in pulmonary function is observed on the first day after upper abdominal surgery. This decline can reduce vital and inspiratory capacity and can culminate in restrictive lung diseases that cause atelectasis, reduced diaphragm movement, and respiratory insufficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative ambulatory respiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. The sample consisted of 20 adult patients (14 men [70%] and 6 women [30%]) with a diagnosis of advanced chagasic megaesophagus. A significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure was observed after inspiratory muscle training when compared with baseline values (from −55.059 ± 18.359 to −76.286 ± 16.786). Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training was effective in increasing respiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing esophagectomy and contributed to the prevention of postoperative complications. PMID:23113846

  2. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  3. Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Taciana Freitas; de Carvalho Ramos, Marisa; Guglielminetti, Rachel; Silva, Alex Augusto; Crema, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A major decline in pulmonary function is observed on the first day after upper abdominal surgery. This decline can reduce vital and inspiratory capacity and can culminate in restrictive lung diseases that cause atelectasis, reduced diaphragm movement, and respiratory insufficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative ambulatory respiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. The sample consisted of 20 adult patients (14 men [70%] and 6 women [30%]) with a diagnosis of advanced chagasic megaesophagus. A significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure was observed after inspiratory muscle training when compared with baseline values (from -55.059 ± 18.359 to -76.286 ± 16.786). Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training was effective in increasing respiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing esophagectomy and contributed to the prevention of postoperative complications. PMID:23113846

  4. Changes in Muscle Activation after Reach Training with Gravity Compensation in Chronic Stroke Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prange, Gerdienke B.; Krabben, Thijs; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Ijzerman, Maarten J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; Jannink, Michiel J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of gravity compensation training on reaching and underlying changes in muscle activation. In this clinical trial, eight chronic stroke patients with limited arm function received 18 sessions (30 min) of gravity-compensated reach training (during 6 weeks) in combination with a rehabilitation…

  5. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... with questions about grants, contracts & research areas Training, Education & Career Development Support for Training at Universities & Other Institutions Extramural training, fellowships & career development opportunities Training at ...

  6. Botulinum toxin type-A injection to treat patients with intractable anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhen-Ning; He, Lei; Gao, Ge; Zhai, Qing; Yin, Zhi-Tao; Zeng, Xian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injection to the puborectalis and external sphincter muscle in the treatment of patients with anismus unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. METHODS: This retrospective study included 31 patients suffering from anismus who were unresponsive to simple biofeedback training. Diagnosis was made by anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, surface electromyography of the pelvic floor muscle, and defecography. Patients were given botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection and pelvic floor biofeedback training. Follow-up was conducted before the paper was written. Improvement was evaluated using the chronic constipation scoring system. RESULTS: BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training achieved success in 24 patients, with 23 maintaining persistent satisfaction during a mean period of 8.4 mo. CONCLUSION: BTX-A injection combined with pelvic floor biofeedback training seems to be successful for intractable anismus. PMID:25253964

  7. Enzymatic capacities of skeletal muscle - Effects of different types of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Hugman, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term adaptation mechanisms to maintain homeostasis at increased levels of exertion such as those caused by regular exercise are described. Mitochondrial changes have been found to be a result of endurance exercises, while mitochondrial responses to other types of exercise are small. Further discussion is devoted to long-term changes in glucose transport, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and the increased sensitivity of an endurance trained muscle to insulin. Less lactate has been found to be produced by the skeletal muscles at the same work rate after adaptation to endurance exercise training, and the capacity for the flux of the two-carbon acetyl chain through the citric acid cycle increases in skeletal muscles in response to endurance training. Finally, endurance training is noted to result in glycogen sparing and an increase in the capacity to utilize fatty acids.

  8. Effects of ischaemic training on force development and fibre-type composition in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Eiken, O; Sundberg, C J; Esbjörnsson, M; Nygren, A; Kaijser, L

    1991-01-01

    Force (peak torque) of m. quadriceps femoris was measured during 60 repeated, voluntary dynamic knee extensions in 10 men before and after a 4-week training regimen of one-legged cycle exercise. Biopsies for histochemical analysis were obtained from the lateral vastus muscle after the training period. One leg was trained with the blood flow to the leg muscles reduced by local supra-atmospheric external pressure of 50 mmHg ('Ischaemic leg, I-leg'). Employing the same work-load profile the other leg was trained at normal atmospheric pressure ('Non-restricted-flow leg, N-leg'). In response to I-training, Maximum Peak Torqued (MPT; the highest torque produced in any contraction) and Initial Peak Torque (IPT; the average peak torque of the initial 12 contractions) decreased by 8% (P less than 0.01) and 9% (P less than 0.001), respectively. Final Peak Torque (FPT; the average peak torque of the final 12 contractions) increased by 13% (P less than 0.05) after I-training. No changes in MPT, IPT or FPT occurred following N-training. After training the proportion of slow-twitch fibres was higher (P less than 0.05) and the mean slow-twitch fibre area was larger (P less than 0.05) in the I-than in the N-trained leg. The results indicate that blood flow-restricted training, in contrast to non-restricted-flow training, decreases maximum voluntary dynamic force, possibly by inducing an increase in the share of the muscle cross-sectional area consisting of slow-twitch fibres. That flow-restricted training improves maintenance of force during short-term local exercise may reflect ischaemically induced changes in the metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle. PMID:2019077

  9. GLUT 4 and insulin receptor binding and kinase activity in trained human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dela, F; Handberg, A; Mikines, K J; Vinten, J; Galbo, H

    1993-01-01

    1. Physical training enhances sensitivity and responsiveness of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in human muscle. This study examines if this effect of physical training is due to increased insulin receptor function or increased total concentration of insulin-recruitable glucose transporter protein (GLUT 4). 2. Seven healthy young subjects carried out single leg bicycle training for 10 weeks at 70% of one leg maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max). Subsequently biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs. 3. Single leg VO2,max increased for the trained leg (46 +/- 3 to 52 +/- 2 ml min-1 kg-1 (means +/- S.E.M., P < 0.05), and cytochrome c oxidase activity was higher in this compared to the untrained leg (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.1 nmol s-1 (mg muscle)-1, P < 0.05). Insulin binding as well as basal- and insulin-stimulated receptor kinase activity did not differ between trained and untrained muscle. The concentration of GLUT 4 protein was higher in the former (14.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.0 arbitrary units (micrograms protein)-1 in crude membranes, P < 0.05). The training-induced increase in GLUT 4 (26 +/- 11%) matched a previously reported increase in maximum insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake (25 +/- 7%) in the same subjects, and individual values of the two variables correlated (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.84, P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, in human muscle training induces a local contraction-dependent increase in GLUT 4 protein, which enhances the effect of insulin on glucose uptake. On the other hand, insulin receptor function in muscle is unlikely to be affected by training. PMID:8271219

  10. Oxidative state and histological changes in muscles of mastication after conditioning training.

    PubMed

    Gedrange, T; Lupp, A; Walter, B; Harzer, W; Bauer, R

    2001-04-01

    Stress due to endurance training of striated muscles leads to adaptive changes in the distribution of muscle fiber types (i.e. ratio of type I and type II fibers). Moreover, severe training leads to tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress in muscles. In the current study, we examined the relationship between histological changes and oxidative state in muscles of mastication during the acute adaptation phase to a sustained muscle load. Six domestic pigs received build-ups on the molar teeth in order to induce a sustained load of the muscles of mastication for a duration of four weeks. Afterwards the masseter (M1, M2, M3), medial pterygoid (PM), temporal (TP1, TP2), and geniohyoid muscles (GH) were removed and the fiber type distribution was determined by enzyme histochemistry. Additionally, the tissue content of glutathione and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products were measured. The above treatment led to muscle fiber transformation of type II into type I (M1, M2, TP2, PM) and a decrease of the GSH content (M1, M2 and TP2). The changes in the GSH/GSSG ratio were in accordance with the changes in proportions of muscle fiber types, with the lowest GSH/GSSG ratios in the most stressed muscles of the treated animals. No significant changes in LPO products were found. The decrease of the GSH/GSSG ratio in the most stressed muscles indicates an increased intracellular oxidative stress, which may be caused by tissue hypoxia during the chronic phase of muscle adaptation. PMID:11370740

  11. Influence of exercise training with resveratrol supplementation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    PubMed

    Polley, Kristine R; Jenkins, Nathan; O'Connor, Patrick; McCully, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity reduces, and exercise training increases, mitochondrial capacity. In rodents, exercise training effects can be augmented by large doses of resveratrol supplementation but whether this can occur in humans with a smaller dose is unclear. This study sought to determine the effects of resveratrol supplementation in combination with exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity. Sixteen healthy young adults were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to consume either placebo or 500 mg of resveratrol plus 10 mg of piperine, a bioenhancer to increase bioavailibilty and bioefficacy of resveratrol. Participants ingested the pills daily for 4 weeks and completed 3 sessions per week of submaximal endurance training of the wrist flexor muscles of the nondominant arm. The contralateral arm served as an untrained control. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in mitochondrial capacity from baseline to post-testing indicated significant differences between the resveratrol+piperine-trained arm and the placebo-trained arm (p = 0.02), with the resveratrol+piperine group increasing about 40% from baseline (Δk = 0.58), while the placebo group increased about 10% from baseline (Δk = 0.13). Neither the placebo group nor the resveratrol+piperine group exhibited changes in mitochondrial capacity in the untrained arm. In conclusion, low-intensity exercise training can increase forearm skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity when combined with resveratrol and piperine supplementation. PMID:26638911

  12. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men. PMID:26605807

  13. Effects of 5 Weeks of Bench Press Training on Muscle Synergies: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A

    2016-07-01

    Kristiansen, M, Samani, A, Madeleine, P, and Hansen, EA. Effects of 5 weeks of bench press training on muscle synergies: A randomized controlled study. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1948-1959, 2016-The ability to perform forceful muscle contractions has important implications in sports performance and in activities of daily living. However, there is a lack of knowledge on adaptations in intermuscular coordination after strength training. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess muscle synergies before and after 5 weeks of bench press training. Thirty untrained male subjects were randomly allocated to a training group (TRA) or a control group (CON). After the pretest, TRA completed 5 weeks of bench press training, before completing a posttest, whereas subjects in CON continued their normal life. During test sessions, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 13 different muscles. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate differences between pretest and posttest, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the pretest session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the posttest session. Two muscle synergies accounted for 90% of the total variance and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. TRA significantly increased 3 repetition maximum in bench press with 19.0% (25th; 75th percentile, 10.3%; 21.7%) (p < 0.001), whereas no change occurred in CON. No significant differences were observed in synergy components between groups. However, decreases in correlation values for intragroup comparisons in TRA may suggest that the synergy components changed, whereas this was not the case in CON. Strength and conditioning professionals may consider monitoring changes in muscle synergies in training and rehabilitation programs as a way to benchmark changes in intermuscular coordination. PMID:26645673

  14. Effects of strength training on muscle cellular outcomes in prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, T S; Thorsen, L; Fosså, S D; Wiig, M; Kirkegaard, C; Skovlund, E; Benestad, H B; Raastad, T

    2016-09-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves life expectancy in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, but is associated with adverse effects on muscle mass. Here, we investigated the effects of strength training during ADT on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and regulators of muscle mass. PCa patients on ADT were randomized to 16 weeks of strength training (STG) (n = 12) or a control group (CG; n = 11). Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Muscle fiber CSA increased with strength training (898 μm(2) , P = 0.04), with the only significant increase observed in type II fibers (1076 μm(2) , P = 0.03). There was a trend toward a difference in mean change between groups myonuclei number (0.33 nuclei/fiber, P = 0.06), with the only significant increase observed in type I fibers, which decreased the myonuclear domain size of type I fibers (P = 0.05). Satellite cell numbers and the content of androgen receptor and myostatin remained unchanged. Sixteen weeks of strength training during ADT increased type II fiber CSA and reduced myonuclear domain in type I fibers in PCa patients. The increased number of satellite cells normally seen following strength training was not observed. PMID:26282343

  15. Inspiratory Muscle Training in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Suh-Jen; McElfresh, Jessica; Hall, Benjamin; Bloom, Rachel; Farrell, Kellie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of evidence on inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with heart failure and to provide an overview on subject selection, training protocols, and outcome achieved with IMT. Methods Literature search was first performed via the PubMed database, and additional references were identified from the Scopus citation index. Articles of the review type and of clinical trials published in English were included. Quality of the articles was assessed using Sackett's levels of evidence and rigor of methodology was assessed using PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) criteria for randomized controlled trials and the Downs & Black tool for cohort studies. Results Twelve articles of clinical trials were included. Typical training protocols involved daily training with intensity greater than 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), duration of 20 to 30 minutes (continuous or incremental) and using a pressure threshold muscle trainer. The effect sizes of PImax, walk test distance, and dyspnea were moderate to large across these studies. Effects on quality of life scores were inconsistent. Conclusion Inspiratory muscle training is beneficial for improving respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity, and dyspnea in patients with stable heart failure and respiratory muscle weakness. PMID:22993500

  16. Muscle energetics during explosive activities and potential effects of nutrition and training.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Kent

    2014-11-01

    The high-energy demand during high-intensity exercise (HIE) necessitates that anaerobic processes cover an extensive part of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) requirement. Anaerobic energy release results in depletion of phosphocreatine (PCr) and accumulation of lactic acid, which set an upper limit of anaerobic ATP production and thus HIE performance. This report focuses on the effects of training and ergogenic supplements on muscle energetics and HIE performance. Anaerobic capacity (i.e. the amount of ATP that can be produced) is determined by the muscle content of PCr, the buffer capacity and the volume of the contracting muscle mass. HIE training can increase buffer capacity and the contracting muscle mass but has no effect on the concentration of PCr. Dietary supplementation with creatine (Cr), bicarbonate, or beta-alanine has a documented ergogenic effect. Dietary supplementation with Cr increases muscle Cr and PCr and enhances performance, especially during repeated short periods of HIE. The ergogenic effect of Cr is related to an increase in temporal and spatial buffering of ATP and to increased muscle buffer capacity. Bicarbonate loading increases extracellular buffering and can improve performance during HIE by facilitating lactic acid removal from the contracting muscle. Supplementation with beta-alanine increases the content of muscle carnosine, which is an endogenous intracellular buffer. It is clear that performance during HIE can be improved by interventions that increase the capacity of anaerobic ATP production, suggesting that energetic constraints set a limit for performance during HIE. PMID:25355190

  17. Weakness of the Pelvic Floor Muscle and Bladder Neck Is Predicted by a Slight Rise in Abdominal Pressure During Bladder Filling: A Video Urodynamic Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the significance of slowly rising abdominal pressure (SRAP), which is often observed in nonneurogenic children during bladder filling in video urodynamic studies (VUDSs). Methods: The records of patients who underwent VUDS from July 2011 to June 2013 were reviewed. SRAP was defined as a rising curve over 5 cm H2O from the baseline abdominal pressure during the filling phase in VUDS. Bladder descent was defined when the base of the bladder was below the upper line of the pubic symphysis. An open bladder neck was defined as the opening of the bladder neck during the filling phase. Results: Of the 488 patients, 285 were male patients. The mean age at VUDS was 3.7 years (range, 0.2–17.6 years). The VUDS findings were as follows: SRAP, 20.7% (101 of 488); descending bladder, 14.8% (72 of 488); and bladder neck opening, 4.3% (21 of 488). Of the 72 patients with a descending bladder, 84.7% had SRAP. A significant difference in the presence of SRAP was found between the descending bladder and the normal bladder (P<0.001). Of the 101 patients with SRAP, 40 (39.6%) did not have a descending bladder. Of the 40 patients, 14 (35.0%) had a bladder neck opening, which was a high incidence compared with the 4.3% in all subjects (P<0.001). Conclusions: SRAP was associated with a descending bladder or a bladder neck opening, suggesting that SRAP is a compensatory response to urinary incontinence. SRAP may also predict decreased function of the bladder neck or pelvic floor muscle. PMID:27032558

  18. [Fibrosis of the pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Beernaerts, A; Hirsch, F

    1984-01-01

    A pelvic pain is sometimes extremely difficult to define and to treat. The origin of this pain was said to be due to either neurological, psychosomatic, urological or orthopaedic factors. It was in fact an unilateral fibrosis of the perineal transverse muscle. A surgical section has definitively cured the patient. PMID:6539549

  19. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage. PMID:22588361

  20. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  1. Dietary protein and resistance training effects on muscle and body composition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Leidy, Heather J

    2007-12-01

    The regular performance of resistance exercises and the habitual ingestion of adequate amounts of dietary protein from high-quality sources are two important ways for older persons to slow the progression of and treat sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Resistance training can help older people gain muscle strength, hypertrophy muscle, and increase whole body fat-free mass. It can also help frail elderly people improve balance and physical functioning capabilities. Inadequate protein intake will cause adverse metabolic and physiological accommodation responses that include the loss of fat-free mass and muscle strength and size. Findings from controlled feeding studies show that older persons retain the capacity to metabolically adjust to lower protein intakes by increasing the efficiency of nitrogen retention and amino acid utilization. However, they also suggest that the recommended dietary allowance of 0.8 g protein x kg(-1) x d(-1) might not be sufficient to prevent subtle accommodations and blunt desired changes in body composition and muscle size with resistance training. Most of the limited research suggests that resistance training-induced improvements in body composition, muscle strength and size, and physical functioning are not enhanced when older people who habitually consume adequate protein (modestly above the RDA) increase their protein intake by either increasing the ingestion of higher-protein foods or consuming protein-enriched nutritional supplements. PMID:18187436

  2. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  3. Effects of training on lipid metabolism in swimming muscles of sea trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Anttila, Katja; Jäntti, Maria; Mänttäri, Satu

    2010-06-01

    We examined the effect of exercise intensity and endurance training on plasma free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics and lipid metabolism in swimming muscles of reared sea trout. In both training groups [water current velocities 1 and 2 body lengths per second (bl s(-1))] the plasma level of FFAs decreased significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the control group. Similar significant (P < 0.01) post-exercise decrease was observed also in the lipase-esterase activity in the red muscle, but not in white. Moreover, in the group swimming with higher intensity a significantly higher (P < 0.05) lipase-esterase activity in the red muscle was found compared with the group on moderate exercise. As with cytochrome c oxidase activity, a significant elevation in the enzyme activity was also observed after training in the 1 bl s(-1) group in red and white muscle (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). No changes were observed in beta hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity. The lipid content was on average nine times higher in red compared to white muscle being 16.7, 21.1, and 24.9% in the red muscle of the control, 1 and 2 bl s(-1) groups, respectively, with a significant (P < 0.05) increase after training. We conclude that (1) unlike in mammals, plasma FFA kinetics and oxidation are not linearly related to exercise intensity in reared sea trout, (2) training enhances the capacity to uptake FFA from plasma, and (3) high intensity training shifts the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation to carbohydrate-derived energy. PMID:20135129

  4. Exercise training in chronic heart failure: improving skeletal muscle O2 transport and utilization.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Daniel M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2015-11-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) impairs critical structural and functional components of the O2 transport pathway resulting in exercise intolerance and, consequently, reduced quality of life. In contrast, exercise training is capable of combating many of the CHF-induced impairments and enhancing the matching between skeletal muscle O2 delivery and utilization (Q̇mO2 and V̇mO2 , respectively). The Q̇mO2 /V̇mO2 ratio determines the microvascular O2 partial pressure (PmvO2 ), which represents the ultimate force driving blood-myocyte O2 flux (see Fig. 1). Improvements in perfusive and diffusive O2 conductances are essential to support faster rates of oxidative phosphorylation (reflected as faster V̇mO2 kinetics during transitions in metabolic demand) and reduce the reliance on anaerobic glycolysis and utilization of finite energy sources (thus lowering the magnitude of the O2 deficit) in trained CHF muscle. These adaptations contribute to attenuated muscle metabolic perturbations (e.g., changes in [PCr], [Cr], [ADP], and pH) and improved physical capacity (i.e., elevated critical power and maximal V̇mO2 ). Preservation of such plasticity in response to exercise training is crucial considering the dominant role of skeletal muscle dysfunction in the pathophysiology and increased morbidity/mortality of the CHF patient. This brief review focuses on the mechanistic bases for improved Q̇mO2 /V̇mO2 matching (and enhanced PmvO2 ) with exercise training in CHF with both preserved and reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively). Specifically, O2 convection within the skeletal muscle microcirculation, O2 diffusion from the red blood cell to the mitochondria, and muscle metabolic control are particularly susceptive to exercise training adaptations in CHF. Alternatives to traditional whole body endurance exercise training programs such as small muscle mass and inspiratory muscle training, pharmacological treatment (e.g., sildenafil and pentoxifylline), and dietary

  5. Aerobic exercise training improves whole muscle and single myofiber size and function in older women

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Douglass, Matthew D.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2009-01-01

    To comprehensively assess the influence of aerobic training on muscle size and function, we examined seven older women (71 ± 2 yr) before and after 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. The training program increased (P < 0.05) aerobic capacity by 30 ± 6%. Quadriceps muscle volume, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was 12 ± 2% greater (P < 0.05) after training and knee extensor power increased 55 ± 7% (P < 0.05). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of individual slow (MHC I) and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, myosin light chain (MLC) composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic training increased (P < 0.05) MHC I fiber size 16 ± 5%, while MHC IIa fiber size was unchanged. MHC I peak power was elevated 21 ± 8% (P < 0.05) after training, while MHC IIa peak power was unaltered. Peak force (Po) was unchanged in both fiber types, while normalized force (Po/cross-sectional area) was 10% lower (P < 0.05) for both MHC I and MHC IIa fibers after training. The decrease in normalized force was likely related to a reduction (P < 0.05) in myofibrillar protein concentration after training. In the absence of an increase in Po, the increase in MHC I peak power was mediated through an increased (P < 0.05) maximum contraction velocity (Vo) of MHC I fibers only. The relative proportion of MLC1s (Pre: 0.62 ± 0.01; Post: 0.58 ± 0.01) was lower (P < 0.05) in MHC I myofibers after training, while no differences were present for MLC2s and MLC3f isoforms. These data indicate that aerobic exercise training improves muscle function through remodeling the contractile properties at the myofiber level, in addition to pronounced muscle hypertrophy. Progressive aerobic exercise training should be considered a viable exercise modality to combat sarcopenia in the elderly population. PMID:19692660

  6. Inspiratory muscle training for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a practical guide for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kylie; Cecins, Nola M; Eastwood, Peter R; Jenkins, Sue C

    2010-09-01

    Reduced inspiratory muscle strength is common in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity. Most studies of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in COPD have demonstrated increased inspiratory muscle strength. Many have also shown improvements in dyspnea and exercise capacity. However, a persisting challenge when translating and applying the findings of these studies in clinical practice is the disparity in training loads, modalities, and outcomes measures used in the different studies. This commentary summarizes our clinical and research experience with a threshold IMT device with the aim of providing clinicians interested in prescribing IMT in this population with practical recommendations regarding patient selection, assessment, and implementation of training. We propose using an interval-based high-intensity threshold IMT program for people who are unable to participate fully in whole-body exercise training because of comorbidities such as severe musculoskeletal problems. Initial training loads equivalent to at least 30% of a person's maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) are required for all people undertaking IMT. Supervision, which includes monitoring of oxygen saturation throughout the first training session, is recommended, and patients are warned to expect transient delayed-onset muscle soreness, a consequence of muscle adaptation to an unaccustomed activity. We recommend training be undertaken 3 times a week for 8 weeks, with loads progressively increased as symptoms permit. It is prudent to exclude people at risk of pneumothorax or spontaneous rib fracture. Evaluation of IMT should include measures of PImax, dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise capacity. PMID:20801269

  7. Effect of inspiratory muscle training with an intermediate load on inspiratory power output in COPD.

    PubMed

    Villafranca, C; Borzone, G; Leiva, A; Lisboa, C

    1998-01-01

    There is very little information about the effect of inspiratory muscle training on inspiratory flow (V'I) and thus on power output (PO) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study we aimed to evaluate the changes induced by training on the determinants of PO. Thirty one patients with severe COPD were randomly divided into: Group 1, trained with 30% maximal inspiratory pressure (PI,max); Group 2, with 10% PI,max; and Group 3 also trained with 30% PI,max, but the breathing pattern was evaluated while performing the training manoeuvres along inspiratory muscle training (IMT). All groups used a threshold device for 10 weeks. The PO for each of the loads during an incremental threshold test was evaluated prior to and after training. Maximal PO (POmax) increased in all groups, but the increment was higher in groups trained with 30% PI,max (p<0.005), mainly due to an increase in V'I. Group 3 showed a progressive increase in V'I (p<0.001) during the training manoeuvres in spite of an increase in load along IMT. In addition, the load after IMT was overcome with a shorter inspiratory time (tI) (p<0.02), a smaller tI/total duration of the respiratory cycle (t(tot)), (p<0.001) with no change in tidal volume or t(tot). The increment in POmax in this group correlated with the V'I generated while training (r=0.85; p<0.0001). We conclude that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the use of an intermediate threshold load for training improves power output mainly by increasing inspiratory flow, an effect consistent with an increase in shortening velocity of inspiratory muscles. PMID:9543266

  8. Post partum pelvic floor changes.

    PubMed

    Fonti, Ylenia; Giordano, Rosalba; Cacciatore, Alessandra; Romano, Mattea; La Rosa, Beatrice

    2009-10-01

    Pelvic-perineal dysfunctions, are the most common diseases in women after pregnancy. Urinary incontinence and genital prolapsy, often associated, are the most important consequences of childbirth and are determined by specific alterations in the structure of neurological and musculo-fascial pelvic support.Causation is difficult to prove because symptom occur remote from delivery.Furthermore it is unclear whether changes are secondary to the method of childbirth or to the pregnancy itself.This controversy fuels the debate about whether or not women should be offered the choice of elective caesarean delivery to avoid the development of subsequent pelvic floor disfunction.But it has been demonstrated that pregnancy itself, by means of mechanical changes of pelvic statics and changes in hormones, can be a significant risk factor for these diseases. Especially is the first child to be decisive for the stability of the pelvic floor.During pregnancy, the progressive increase in volume of the uterus subject perineal structures to a major overload. During delivery, the parties present and passes through the urogenital hiatus leading to growing pressure on the tissues causing the stretching of the pelvic floor with possible muscle damage, connective tissue and / or nervous.In this article we aim to describe genitourinary post partum changes with particular attention to the impact of pregnancy or childbirth on these changes. PMID:22439048

  9. Pelvic floor ultrasonography: an update.

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Dietz, H-P

    2013-02-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of highly prevalent clinical conditions such as female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The etiology and pathophysiology of those conditions are, however, not well understood. Recent technological advances have seen a surge in the use of imaging, both in research and clinical practice. Among the techniques available such as sonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound is superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe with no radiation, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions. Translabial or perineal ultrasound is useful in determining residual urinary volume, detrusor wall thickness, bladder neck mobility and in assessing pelvic organ prolapse as well as levator function and anatomy. It is at least equivalent to other imaging techniques in diagnosing, such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method capable of visualizing modern slings and mesh implants and may help selecting patients for implant surgery. Delivery-related levator injury seems to be the most important etiological factor for pelvic organ prolapse and recurrence after prolapse surgery, and it is most conveniently diagnosed by pelvic floor ultrasound. This review gives an overview of the methodology. Its main current uses in clinical assessment and research will also be discussed. PMID:23412016

  10. Resistance exercise training attenuates wasting of the extensor digitorum longus muscle in mice bearing the colon-26 adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    al-Majid, S; McCarthy, D O

    2001-01-01

    Progressive wasting of skeletal muscle is a significant side effect of malignancy. Perturbations in protein metabolism contribute to this state of wasting. Resistance exercise increases protein synthesis and mass of healthy muscles and counteracts muscle wasting associated with several catabolic conditions. It is not known whether resistance exercise training can counteract cancer-induced muscle wasting. This study examined the effect of resistance exercise training on muscle mass and protein content in 9 mice bearing the colon-26 adenocarcinoma. The dorsiflexor (extensor digitorum longus [EDL] and tibialis anterior) and plantar flexor (soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius) muscles of 1 leg of the tumor-bearing and the control mice were stimulated to contract eccentrically and concentrically, respectively, using an electrical stimulation protocol consisting of 10 sets of 6 repetitions per session. The muscles were stimulated on alternate days for a total of 8 sessions. The weight and protein content of the stimulated EDL muscle in the tumor-bearing mice were significantly higher (62% and 25%, respectively) than those of the nonstimulated EDL. Training did not have significant effects on the weight or protein content of the other muscles of the tumor-bearing mice, nor did it have significant effects on the muscles of the controls. These findings demonstrated that resistance training attenuated cancer-induced muscle wasting and protein depletion in the EDL muscle. The lack of an effect of the same training protocol on the EDL muscle in the control mice suggests that the amount and intensity of exercise training that is adequate to attenuate muscle wasting may not be adequate to induce hypertrophy of healthy muscles. PMID:11547537

  11. Inspiratory muscle training in chronic airflow limitation: comparison of two different training loads with a threshold device.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, C; Muñoz, V; Beroiza, T; Leiva, A; Cruz, E

    1994-07-01

    The usefulness of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in chronic airflow limitation (CAL) patients is a controversial issue, mainly due to differences in the training load. To further evaluate this aspect, we studied the effect of the magnitude of the load using a threshold pressure trainer. Ten CAL patients (5 males, 5 females) 67 +/- 2 yrs (mean +/- SEM) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 36 +/- 2% pred, were trained for 30 min a day using a load of 30% of their maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) (Group 1). Another 10 CAL patients (5 males, 5 females), 73 +/- 2 yrs and FEV1 37 +/- 2% pred), were trained using only 12% of their PImax (Group 2). Training was assessed by PImax, inspiratory muscle power output (IMPO), sustainable inspiratory pressure (SIP), maximal inspiratory flow rate (VImax), pattern of breathing during loaded breathing, Mahler's dyspnoea score, and the 6 min walking distance (6MWD). After 5 weeks of training, Group 1 exhibited significant increments in: PImax (34 +/- 11%); IMPO (92 +/- 16%); SIP (36 +/- 9%); and VImax (34 +/- 13%). Dyspnoea was also reduced, and the 6MWD increased by 48 +/- 22 m. We observed no significant changes in Group 2. During loaded breathing, Group 1 showed a significant increment in tidal volume (VT) and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI), and a reduction in inspiratory time (TI). In Group 2, VT and VT/TI also increased significantly, but the breathing frequency increased with a reduction of expiratory time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7925905

  12. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  13. Carbohydrate supercompensation and muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, K; Pedersen, P K; Rose, P; Richter, E A

    1990-01-01

    Three female and three male highly trained endurance runners with mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 60.5 and 71.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively, ran to exhaustion at 75%-80% of VO2max on two occasions after an overnight fast. One experiment was performed after a normal diet and training regimen (Norm), the other after a diet and training programme intended to increase muscle glycogen levels (Carb). Muscle glycogen concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle increased by 25% (P less than 0.05) from 581 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 50 to 722 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 34 after Carb. Running time to exhaustion, however, was not significantly different in Carb and Norm, 77 min, SEM 13 vs 70 min, SEM 8, respectively. The average glycogen concentration following exhaustive running was 553 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 70 in Carb and 434 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 57 in Norm, indicating that in both tests muscle glycogen stores were decreased by about 25%. Periodic acid-Schiff staining for semi-quantitative glycogen determination in individual fibres confirmed that none of the fibres appeared to be glycogen-empty after exhaustive running. The steady-state respiratory exchange ratio was higher in Carb than in Norm (0.92, SEM 0.01 vs 0.89, SEM 0.01; P less than 0.05). Since muscle glycogen utilization was identical in the two tests, the indication of higher utilization of total carbohydrate appears to be related to a higher utilization of liver glycogen. We have concluded that glycogen depletion of the gastrocnemius muscle is unlikely to be the cause of fatigue during exhaustive running at 75%-80% of VO2max in highly trained endurance runners. Furthermore, diet- and training-induced carbohydrate super-compensation does not appear to improve endurance capacity in such individuals. PMID:2079068

  14. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P <0.001), the MET group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P <0.001); the MRCP increase in CST group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training. PMID:27310942

  15. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K.; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group—trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group—trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group—no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants’ elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P <0.001), the MET group also had significant strength gain (13.8%, P <0.001), which was not statistically different from that of the CST group even though the exercise intensity for the MET group was only at 30% MVC level. The CTRL group did not have significant strength changes. Surprisingly, only the MET group demonstrated a significant augmentation in the MRCP (29.3%, P <0.001); the MRCP increase in CST group was at boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training. PMID:27310942

  16. Resistance training and timed amino acid supplementation protects against the loss of muscle mass and strength with disuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Space flight and ground-based models of weightlessness result in loss of muscle mass and strength. Amino acid supplementation and resistance training reverse these losses but their optimal combination is not known. We examined the effect of an amino acid supplement and resistance training on muscl...

  17. Exercise training reverses aging-induced impairment of myogenic constriction in skeletal muscle arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Payal; Mora Solis, Fredy R.; Dominguez, James M.; Spier, Scott A.; Donato, Anthony J.; Delp, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether exercise training can reverse age-related impairment of myogenic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle arterioles, young (4 mo) and old (22 mo) male Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to either sedentary or exercise-trained groups. The roles of the endothelium and Kv1 channels in age- and exercise training-induced adaptations of myogenic responses were assessed through evaluation of pressure-induced constriction in endothelium-intact and denuded soleus muscle arterioles in the presence and absence of the Kv1 channel blocker, correolide. Exercise training enhanced myogenic constriction in arterioles from both old and young rats. In arterioles from old rats, exercise training restored myogenic constriction to a level similar to that of arterioles from young sedentary rats. Removal of the endothelium did not alter myogenic constriction of arterioles from young sedentary rats, but reduced myogenic constriction in arterioles from young exercise-trained rats. In contrast, endothelial removal had no effect on myogenic constriction of arterioles from old exercise-trained rats, but increased myogenic vasoconstriction in old sedentary rats. The effect of Kv1 channel blockade was also dependent on age and training status. In arterioles from young sedentary rats, Kv1 blockade had little effect on myogenic constriction, whereas in old sedentary rats Kv1 blockade increased myogenic constriction. After exercise training, Kv1 channel blockade increased myogenic constriction in arterioles from both young and old rats. Thus exercise training restores myogenic constriction of arterioles from old rats and enhances myogenic constriction from young rats through adaptations of the endothelium and smooth muscle Kv1 channels. PMID:25634999

  18. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Methods Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk-1 of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Results Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001). Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19); however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023). Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007). There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Conclusion Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy. PMID:24130904

  19. Low-intensity resistance training attenuates dexamethasone-induced atrophy in the flexor hallucis longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Anderson G; Krug, André L O; Herrera, Naiara A; Zago, Anderson S; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the potential protective effect of low-intensity resistance training (RT) against dexamethasone (DEX) treatment induced muscle atrophy. Rats underwent either an 8 week period of ladder climbing RT or remained sedentary. During the last 10 days of the exercise protocol, animals were submitted to a DEX treatment or a control saline injection. Muscle weights were assessed and levels of AKT, mTOR, FOXO3a, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 proteins were analyzed in flexor hallucis longus (FHL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus muscles. DEX induced blood glucose increase (+46%), body weight reduction (-19%) and atrophy in FHL (-28%) and TA (-21%) muscles, which was associated with a decrease in AKT and an increase in MuRF-1 proteins levels. Low-intensity RT prevented the blood glucose increase, attenuated the FHL atrophy effects of DEX, and was associated with increased mTOR and reductions in Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in FHL. In contrast, TA muscle atrophy and signaling proteins were not affected by RT. These are the first data to demonstrate that low-intensity ladder-climbing RT specifically mitigates the FHL atrophy, which is the main muscle recruited during the training activity, while not preventing atrophy in other limb muscle not as heavily recruited. The recruitment-dependent prevention of atrophy by low intensity RT likely occurs by a combination of attenuated muscle protein degradation signals and enhanced muscle protein synthesis signals including mTOR, Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. PMID:24861267

  20. Contributions of working muscle to whole body lipid metabolism are altered by exercise intensity and training.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Anne L; Jacobs, Kevin A; Fattor, Jill A; Horning, Michael A; Hagobian, Todd A; Bauer, Timothy A; Wolfel, Eugene E; Brooks, George A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of working muscle to whole body lipid oxidation, we examined the effects of exercise intensity and endurance training (9 wk, 5 days/wk, 1 h, 75% Vo(2 peak)) on whole body and leg free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics in eight male subjects (26 +/- 1 yr, means +/- SE). Two pretraining trials [45 and 65% Vo(2 max) (45UT, 65UT)] and two posttraining trials [65% of pretraining Vo(2 peak) (ABT), and 65% of posttraining Vo(2 peak) (RLT)] were performed using [1-(13)C]palmitate infusion and femoral arteriovenous sampling. Training increased Vo(2 peak) by 15% (45.2 +/- 1.2 to 52.0 +/- 1.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.05). Muscle FFA fractional extraction was lower during exercise (EX) compared with rest regardless of workload or training status ( approximately 20 vs. 48%, P < 0.05). Two-leg net FFA balance increased from net release at rest ( approximately -36 micromol/min) to net uptake during EX for 45UT (179 +/- 75), ABT (236 +/- 63), and RLT (136 +/- 110) (P < 0.05), but not 65UT (51 +/- 127). Leg FFA tracer measured uptake was higher during EX than rest for all trials and greater during posttraining in RLT (716 +/- 173 micromol/min) compared with pretraining (45UT 450 +/- 80, 65UT 461 +/- 72, P < 0.05). Leg muscle lipid oxidation increased with training in ABT (730 +/- 163 micromol/min) vs. 65UT (187 +/- 94, P < 0.05). Leg muscle lipid oxidation represented approximately 62 and 30% of whole body lipid oxidation at lower and higher relative intensities, respectively. In summary, training can increase working muscle tracer measured FFA uptake and lipid oxidation for a given power output, but both before and after training the association between whole body and leg lipid metabolism is reduced as exercise intensity increases. PMID:16896167

  1. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  2. The Effects of Exercise on Muscle Tension and Subsequent Muscle Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, Linda Farrah

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated effects of acute exercise: (1) on overall body relaxation, as measured by the reaction of the frontalis muscle; and (2) as an aid to biofeedback-induced relaxation. Exercise did not promote generalized relaxation in this study, nor did it affect the learning of biofeedback techniques. (Author/PP)

  3. Combination of exercise training and erythropoietin prevents cancer-induced muscle alterations

    PubMed Central

    Pin, Fabrizio; Busquets, Silvia; Toledo, Miriam; Camperi, Andrea; Lopez-Soriano, Francisco J.; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M.; Penna, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass, inflammation, anorexia and anemia, contributing to patient fatigue and reduced quality of life. In addition to nutritional approaches, exercise training (EX) has been proposed as a suitable tool to manage cachexia. In the present work the effect of mild exercise training, coupled to erythropoietin (EPO) administration to prevent anemia, has been tested in tumor-bearing mice. In the C26 hosts, acute exercise does not prevent and even worsens muscle wasting. Such pattern is prevented by EPO co-administration or by the adoption of a chronic exercise protocol. EX and EPO co-treatment spares oxidative myofibers from atrophy and counteracts the oxidative to glycolytic shift, inducing PGC-1α. LLC hosts are responsive to exercise and their treatment with the EX-EPO combination prevents the loss of muscle strength and the onset of mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations, while increases muscle oxidative capacity and intracellular ATP content, likely depending on PGC-1α induction and mitophagy promotion. Consistently, muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression prevents LLC-induced muscle atrophy and Atrogin-1 hyperexpression. Overall, the present data suggest that low intensisty exercise can be an effective tool to be included in combined therapeutic approaches against cancer cachexia, provided that anemia is coincidently treated in order to enhance the beneficial action of exercise. PMID:26636649

  4. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-01-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  5. Impact of a Behavioral-Based Intervention on Inspiratory Muscle Training Prescription by a Multidisciplinary Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Alanna M.; Li, Linda C.; Geddes, E. Lynne; Brooks, Dina; Hoens, Alison M.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Our goal was to compare behavioral- and information-based interventions aimed at increasing prescription of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by interdisciplinary teams during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods: Six hospital PR programs were randomly assigned to a…

  6. Efficacy of Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training: A Quantitative Review of Behavioral Medicine Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Charles R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted quantitative review of research in which abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation training (APRT) was used as intervention for psychophysiological and stress-related disorders. Calculated strength of association between APRT and outcome measures for 29 experiments published after 1980. APRT was most strongly associated with improvement…

  7. Effects of high intensity canoeing training on fibre area and fibre type in the latissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S J; Hardy, L

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity short duration exercise training programme was undertaken by nine subjects on three occasions each week for nine weeks. Muscle samples from the latissimus dorsi were taken by needle biopsy, at rest, before and after training. The results revealed that there was no change in either Type I or Type II muscle fibre distribution following training. Type I fibre area did not alter significantly as a result of the training stress. Mean cross-sectional area of Type II fibres was 82 per cent greater post-training than pre-training. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2730995

  8. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers. PMID:23347012

  9. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women. PMID:27009295

  10. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Robert W.; McGlory, Chris; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). In healthy humans, MPS is more sensitive (varying 4–5 times more than MPB) to changes in protein feeding and loading rendering it the primary locus determining gains in muscle mass. Performing resistance exercise (RE) followed by the consumption of protein results in an augmentation of MPS and, over time, can lead to muscle hypertrophy. The magnitude of the RE-induced increase in MPS is dictated by a variety of factors including: the dose of protein, source of protein, and possibly the distribution and timing of post-exercise protein ingestion. In addition, RE variables such as frequency of sessions, time under tension, volume, and training status play roles in regulating MPS. This review provides a brief overview of our current understanding of how RE and protein ingestion can influence gains in skeletal muscle mass in young, healthy individuals. It is the goal of this review to provide nutritional recommendations for optimal skeletal muscle adaptation. Specifically, we will focus on how the manipulation of protein intake during the recovery period following RE augments the adaptive response. PMID:26388782

  11. Resistance exercise training modulates acute gene expression during human skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Nader, G A; von Walden, F; Liu, C; Lindvall, J; Gutmann, L; Pistilli, E E; Gordon, P M

    2014-03-15

    We sought to determine whether acute resistance exercise (RE)-induced gene expression is modified by RE training. We studied the expression patterns of a select group of genes following an acute bout of RE in naïve and hypertrophying muscle. Thirteen untrained subjects underwent supervised RE training for 12 wk of the nondominant arm and performed an acute bout of RE 1 wk after the last bout of the training program (training+acute). The dominant arm was either unexercised (control) or subjected to the same acute exercise bout as the trained arm (acute RE). Following training, men (14.8 ± 2.8%; P < 0.05) and women (12.6 ± 2.4%; P < 0.05) underwent muscle hypertrophy with increases in dynamic strength in the trained arm (48.2 ± 5.4% and 72.1 ± 9.1%, respectively; P < 0.01). RE training resulted in attenuated anabolic signaling as reflected by a reduction in rpS6 phosphorylation following acute RE. Changes in mRNA levels of genes involved in hypertrophic growth, protein degradation, angiogenesis, and metabolism commonly expressed in both men and women was determined 4 h following acute RE. We show that RE training can modify acute RE-induced gene expression in a divergent and gene-specific manner even in genes belonging to the same ontology. Changes in gene expression following acute RE are multidimensional, and may not necessarily reflect the actual adaptive response taking place during the training process. Thus RE training can selectively modify the acute response to RE, thereby challenging the use of gene expression as a marker of exercise-induced adaptations. PMID:24458751

  12. Effect of exercise training on respiration and reactive oxygen species metabolism in eel red muscle.

    PubMed

    Mortelette, Hélène; Amérand, Aline; Sébert, Philippe; Belhomme, Marc; Calvès, Patrick; Moisan, Christine

    2010-07-31

    This paper deals with the effects of exercise training on oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and ROS metabolism in the red muscle of trained and untrained female silver eels. Their critical swimming speed (U(crit)) was determined before and after a 4-day training (10h of swimming at 70% of U(crit) and 14 h at 50%, every day). The U(crit) of trained eels increased significantly (by about 7%). The in vitro MO(2) and ROS production by the red fibres were higher (not significant) in trained than in untrained eels, but the ROS production/MO(2) ratio was alike in both groups. The antioxidant-enzyme activities and lipoperoxidation index in trained eels were both lower than those of the untrained ones. These biochemical changes related to the increase in U(crit) suggest that such a training session could maintained or even increased aerobic power of the red muscle without deleterious impact by ROS. These regulations could play a role in the eel's swimming performance efficiency. PMID:20566309

  13. Effect of Resistance Training on Capillary Density Around Slow and Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers in Diabetic and Normal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimian, Jahangir; Khazaei, Majid; Shekarchizadeh, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is well accepted that skeletal muscle conforms to exercise stimulus by increasing capillary density and angiogenesis, but there is less evidence regarding the effect of resistance training on capillary density in flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and soleus muscle. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the effect of resistance training on capillary density around soleus and FHL muscles in type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male rats were divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) diabetic; (3) diabetic trained and (4) control trained (n = 9 each). A Single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg was used for induction of diabetes. The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day for 3 days/week. Training was done with the use of a 1 meter high ladder inclined at 80°. After 4 weeks, the plasma nitrite concentrations were measured. Capillary/fiber ratio was determined around soleus and FHL muscles by immunohistochemistry. Results: Plasma Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration was increased after resistance training in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). Capillary/fiber ratio around the soleus muscle of diabetic group was more than control rats. Resistance training did not alter capillary/fiber ratio in diabetic animals (1.00 ± 0.6 vs. 1.07 ± 0.07, respectively). Capillary/fiber ratio around FHL muscle was significantly different between diabetic and control and did not alter after exercise (diabetes: 1.1702 ± 0.09; diabetic trained: 1.1714 ± 0.08; control: 0.79 ± 0.08; control trained: 0.73 ± 0.03). There was a positive correlation between plasma NO concentration and capillary density in the soleus muscle (R2 = 0.65). Conclusions: Resistance training could not improve capillary/fiber ratio in soleus and FHL muscle of diabetic animals in spite of increase in some angiogenic factors including NO. PMID:26715966

  14. Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle strength following major abdominal surgery – a randomised pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, SR; Fletcher, E; McConnell, AK; Poskitt, KR; Whyman, MR

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of pre-operative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory variables in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] mouth pressure) and pulmonary functions were measured at least 2 weeks before surgery in 80 patients awaiting major abdominal surgery. Patients were then allocated randomly to one of four groups (Group A, control; Group B, deep breathing exercises; Group C, incentive spirometry; Group D, specific IMT). Patients in groups B, C and D were asked to train twice daily, each session lasting 15 min, for at least 2 weeks up to the day before surgery. Outcome measurements were made immediately pre-operatively and postop-eratively. RESULTS In groups A, B and C, MIP did not increase from baseline to pre-operative assessments. In group D, MIP increased from 51.5 cmH2O (median) pre-training to 68.5 cmH2O (median) post-training pre-operatively (P < 0.01). Postoperatively, groups A, B and C showed a fall in MIP from baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and P = 0.06, respectively). No such significant reduction in postoperative MIP was seen in group D (P = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS Pre-operative specific IMT improves MIP pre-operatively and preserves it postoperatively. Further studies are required to establish if this is associated with reduced pulmonary complications. PMID:20663275

  15. [Exercise training in hypoxia prevents hypoxia induced mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Bo, Hai; Li, Ling; Duan, Fu-Qiang; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-10-25

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exercise training on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidative damage and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) expression in skeletal muscle of rats under continuous exposure to hypoxia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8): normoxia control group (NC), normoxia training group (NT), hypoxia control group (HC), and hypoxia training group (HT). The hypoxia-treated animals were housed in normobaric hypoxic tent containing 11.3% oxygen for consecutive 4 weeks. The exercise-trained animals were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill at a speed of 15 m/min, 5% grade for 60 min/day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The results showed that, compared with NC group, hypoxia attenuated complex I, II, IV and ATP synthase activities of the electron transport chain, and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential in HC group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, hypoxia decreased mitochondrial OGG1, MnSOD, and GPx activities (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), whereas elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the level of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in mtDNA (P < 0.01). Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated muscle and mitochondrial [NAD⁺]/ [NADH] ratio, and SIRT3 protein expression (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with HC group, exercise training in hypoxia elevated complex I, II, IV and ATP synthase activities, and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential in HT group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, exercise training in hypoxia increased MnSOD and GPx activities and mitochondrial OGG1 level (P < 0.01), whereas decreased ROS generation and the level of 8-oxodG in mtDNA (P < 0.01). Furthermore, exercise training in hypoxia increased muscle and mitochondrial [NAD⁺]/[NADH] ratio, as well as SIRT3 protein expression (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These findings suggest that exercise training in hypoxia can decrease hypoxia-induced mtDNA oxidative damage in the skeletal muscle through up

  16. Exercise training and muscle microvascular oxygenation: functional role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Behnke, Bradley J.; Musch, Timothy I.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training induces multiple adaptations within skeletal muscle that may improve local O2 delivery-utilization matching (i.e., Po2mv). We tested the hypothesis that increased nitric oxide (NO) function is intrinsic to improved muscle Po2mv kinetics from rest to contractions after exercise training. Healthy young Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary (n = 18) or progressive treadmill exercise training (n = 10; 5 days/wk, 6–8 wk, final workload of 60 min/day at 35 m/min, −14% grade) groups. Po2mv was measured via phosphorescence quenching in the spinotrapezius muscle at rest and during 1-Hz twitch contractions under control (Krebs-Henseleit solution), sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor; 300 μM), and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, nonspecific NO synthase blockade; 1.5 mM) superfusion conditions. Exercise-trained rats had greater peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak) than their sedentary counterparts (81 ± 1 vs. 72 ± 2 ml·kg−1·min−1, respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise-trained rats had significantly slower Po2mv fall throughout contractions (τ1; time constant for the first component) during control (sedentary: 8.1 ± 0.6; trained: 15.2 ± 2.8 s). Compared with control, SNP slowed τ1 to a greater extent in sedentary rats (sedentary: 38.7 ± 5.6; trained: 26.8 ± 4.1 s; P > 0.05) whereas l-NAME abolished the differences in τ1 between sedentary and trained rats (sedentary: 12.0 ± 1.7; trained: 11.2 ± 1.4 s; P < 0.05). Our results indicate that endurance exercise training leads to greater muscle microvascular oxygenation across the metabolic transient following the onset of contractions (i.e., slower Po2mv kinetics) partly via increased NO-mediated function, which likely constitutes an important mechanism for training-induced metabolic adaptations. PMID:22678970

  17. Effects of depletion exercise and light training on muscle glycogen supercompensation in men

    PubMed Central

    Goforth, Harold W.; Laurent, Didier; Prusaczyk, William K.; Schneider, Kevin E.; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2010-01-01

    Supercompensated muscle glycogen can be achieved by using several carbohydrate (CHO)-loading protocols. This study compared the effectiveness of two “modified” CHO-loading protocols. Additionally, we determined the effect of light cycle training on muscle glycogen. Subjects completed a depletion (D, n = 15) or nondepletion (ND, n = 10) CHO-loading protocol. After a 2-day adaptation period in a metabolic ward, the D group performed a 120-min cycle exercise at 65% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak) followed by 1-min sprints at 120% V̇O2 peak to exhaustion. The ND group performed only 20-min cycle exercise at 65% V̇O2 peak. For the next 6 days, both groups ate the same high-CHO diets and performed 20-min daily cycle exercise at 65% V̇O2 peak followed by a CHO beverage (105 g of CHO). Muscle glycogen concentrations of the vastus lateralis were measured daily with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the morning of day 5, muscle glycogen concentrations had increased 1.45 (D) and 1.24 (ND) times baseline (P < 0.001) but did not differ significantly between groups. However, on day 7, muscle glycogen of the D group was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that of the ND group (130 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 5 mmol/l). Daily cycle exercise decreased muscle glycogen by 10 ± 2 (D) and 14 ± 5 mmol/l (ND), but muscle glycogen was equal to or greater than preexercise values 24 h later. In conclusion, a CHO-loading protocol that begins with a glycogen-depleting exercise results in significantly greater muscle glycogen that persists longer than a CHO-loading protocol using only an exercise taper. Daily exercise at 65% V̇O2 peak for 20 min can be performed throughout the CHO-loading protocol without negatively affecting muscle glycogen supercompensation. PMID:12902321

  18. Effects of depletion exercise and light training on muscle glycogen supercompensation in men.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Laurent, Didier; Prusaczyk, William K; Schneider, Kevin E; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2003-12-01

    Supercompensated muscle glycogen can be achieved by using several carbohydrate (CHO)-loading protocols. This study compared the effectiveness of two "modified" CHO-loading protocols. Additionally, we determined the effect of light cycle training on muscle glycogen. Subjects completed a depletion (D, n = 15) or nondepletion (ND, n = 10) CHO-loading protocol. After a 2-day adaptation period in a metabolic ward, the D group performed a 120-min cycle exercise at 65% peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) followed by 1-min sprints at 120% VO2 peak to exhaustion. The ND group performed only 20-min cycle exercise at 65% VO2 peak. For the next 6 days, both groups ate the same high-CHO diets and performed 20-min daily cycle exercise at 65% VO2 peak followed by a CHO beverage (105 g of CHO). Muscle glycogen concentrations of the vastus lateralis were measured daily with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the morning of day 5, muscle glycogen concentrations had increased 1.45 (D) and 1.24 (ND) times baseline (P < 0.001) but did not differ significantly between groups. However, on day 7, muscle glycogen of the D group was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that of the ND group (130 +/- 7 vs. 104 +/- 5 mmol/l). Daily cycle exercise decreased muscle glycogen by 10 +/- 2 (D) and 14 +/- 5 mmol/l (ND), but muscle glycogen was equal to or greater than preexercise values 24 h later. In conclusion, a CHO-loading protocol that begins with a glycogen-depleting exercise results in significantly greater muscle glycogen that persists longer than a CHO-loading protocol using only an exercise taper. Daily exercise at 65% VO2 peak for 20 min can be performed throughout the CHO-loading protocol without negatively affecting muscle glycogen supercompensation. PMID:12902321

  19. Changes in muscle architecture induced by low load blood flow restricted training.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Marín, P J; Menéndez, H; Loenneke, J P; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; García-López, D; Herrero, A J

    2013-12-01

    In order to ascertain whether differing structural mechanisms could underlie blood flow restricted training (BFRT) and high intensity training (HIT), this study had two aims: (i) to gain an insight into the acute variations of muscle architecture following a single bout of two different volumes of BFRT, and (ii) to compare these variations with those observed after HIT. Thirty-five young men volunteered for the study and were randomly divided into three groups: BFRT low volume (BFRT LV), BFRT high volume (BFRT HV) and traditional high intensity resistance training (HIT). All subjects performed a bilateral leg extension exercise session with a load of 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM) in the BFRT groups, whereas the load of the HIT group was equivalent to an 85% of their 1RM. Before and immediately after the exercise bout, ultrasound images were taken from the rectus femoris (RF) and the vastus lateralis (VL). All groups increased their RF (p < 0.001) and VL (p < 0.001) muscle thickness, while the increases in pennation angle were larger in HIT as compared to BFRT LV (p = 0.013) and BFRT HV (p = 0.037). These results support the hypothesis that acute muscle cell swelling may be involved in the processes underlying BFRT induced muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, our data indicate differing structural responses to exercise between BFRT and HIT. PMID:24013941

  20. The effect of training during treatment with chemotherapy on muscle strength and endurance capacity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Moll, Christel C A; Schep, Goof; Vreugdenhil, Art; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Husson, Olga

    2016-05-01

    Background Treatment of cancer with chemotherapy decreases endurance capacity and muscle strength. Training during chemotherapy might prevent this. There are no clear guidelines concerning which type of training and which training dose are effective. This review aims to gain insight into the different training modalities during chemotherapy and the effects of such training to improve endurance capacity and muscle strength in order to obtain the knowledge to compose a future training program which trains cancer patients in the most effective way. Material and methods A systematic search of PubMed was carried out. In total, 809 studies of randomized controlled trials studying the effects of training during chemotherapy on endurance capacity and muscle strength were considered. Only 14 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The studies were assessed on methodological quality by using Cochrane criteria for randomized controlled trials. Results The quality of the studies was generally poor and the study populations varied considerably as the training programs were very heterogeneous. Variables of endurance capacity reported beneficial effects in 10 groups (59%). Increases due to training ranged from 8% to 31%. Endurance capacity decreased in nine of 13 control groups (69%), which ranged from 1% to 32%. Muscle strength improved significantly in 17 of 18 intervention groups (94%), ranging from 2% to 38%. Muscle strength also improved in 11 of 14 control groups (79%), but this increase was only minimal, ranging from 1.3% to 6.5%. Conclusions This review indicates that training during chemotherapy may help in preventing the decrease in muscle strength and endurance capacity. It is important to know which training intensity and duration is the most effective in training cancer patients, to provide a training program suitable for every cancer patient. Training should be based on good research and should be implemented into international guidelines and daily practice. More

  1. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Milanovic, Dragan; Metikos, Dusan

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sprint training on muscle function and dynamic athletic performance and to compare them with the training effects induced by standard plyometric training. Male physical education students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: sprint group (SG; n = 30), plyometric group (PG; n = 30), or control group (CG; n = 33). Maximal isometric squat strength, squat- and countermovement jump (SJ and CMJ) height and power, drop jump performance from 30-cm height, and 3 athletic performance tests (standing long jump, 20-m sprint, and 20-yard shuttle run) were measured prior to and after 10 weeks of training. Both experimental groups trained 3 days a week; SG performed maximal sprints over distances of 10-50 m, whereas PG performed bounce-type hurdle jumps and drop jumps. Participants in the CG group maintained their daily physical activities for the duration of the study. Both SG and PG significantly improved drop jump performance (15.6 and 14.2%), SJ and CMJ height ( approximately 10 and 6%), and standing long jump distance (3.2 and 2.8%), whereas the respective effect sizes (ES) were moderate to high and ranged between 0.4 and 1.1. In addition, SG also improved isometric squat strength (10%; ES = 0.4) and SJ and CMJ power (4%; ES = 0.4, and 7%; ES = 0.4), as well as sprint (3.1%; ES = 0.9) and agility (4.3%; ES = 1.1) performance. We conclude that short-term sprint training produces similar or even greater training effects in muscle function and athletic performance than does conventional plyometric training. This study provides support for the use of sprint training as an applicable training method of improving explosive performance of athletes in general. PMID:17530960

  2. Ischemic preconditioning increases muscle perfusion, oxygen uptake, and force in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Paradis-Deschênes, Pénélope; Joanisse, Denis R; Billaut, François

    2016-09-01

    Muscle ischemia and reperfusion induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve performance in various activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IPC on muscle hemodynamics and oxygen (O2) uptake during repeated maximal contractions. In a cross-over, randomized, single-blind study, 10 strength-trained men performed 5 sets of 5 maximal voluntary knee extensions of the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, preceded by either IPC of the right lower limb (3×5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 200 mm Hg) or sham (20 mm Hg). Changes in deoxyhemoglobin, expressed as a percentage of arterial occlusion, and total hemoglobin ([THb]) concentrations of the vastus lateralis muscle were monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between IPC and sham were analyzed using Cohen's effect size (ES) ± 90% confidence limits, and magnitude-based inferences. Compared with sham, IPC likely increased muscle blood volume at rest (↑[THb], 46.5%; ES, 0.56; 90% confidence limits for ES, -0.21, 1.32). During exercise, peak force was almost certainly higher (11.8%; ES, 0.37; 0.27, 0.47), average force was very likely higher (12.6%; ES, 0.47; 0.29, 0.66), and average muscle O2 uptake was possibly increased (15.8%; ES, 0.36; -0.07, 0.79) after IPC. In the recovery periods between contractions, IPC also increased blood volume after sets 1 (23.6%; ES, 0.30; -0.05, 0.65) and 5 (25.1%; ES, 0.32; 0.09, 0.55). Three cycles of IPC immediately increased muscle perfusion and O2 uptake, conducive to higher repeated force capacity in strength-trained athletes. This maneuver therefore appears relevant to enhancing exercise training stimulus. PMID:27574913

  3. Inter-individual variability in adaptation of the leg muscles following a standardised endurance training programme in young women.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Williams, Alun G; Degens, Hans; Jones, David A

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable inter-individual variability in adaptations to endurance training. We hypothesised that those individuals with a low local leg-muscle peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) relative to their whole-body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) would experience greater muscle training adaptations compared to those with a relatively high VO2peak. 53 untrained young women completed one-leg cycling to measure VO2peak and two-leg cycling to measure VO2max. The one-leg VO2peak was expressed as a ratio of the two-leg VO2max (Ratio(1:2)). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to indicate quadriceps muscle volume. Measurements were taken before and after completion of 6 weeks of supervised endurance training. There was large inter-individual variability in the pre-training Ratio(1:2) and large variability in the magnitude of training adaptations. The pre-training Ratio(1:2) was not related to training-induced changes in VO2max (P = 0.441) but was inversely correlated with changes in one-leg VO2peak and muscle volume (P < 0.05). No relationship was found between the training-induced changes in two-leg VO2max and one-leg VO2peak (r = 0.21; P = 0.129). It is concluded that the local leg-muscle aerobic capacity and Ratio(1:2) vary from person to person and this influences the extent of muscle adaptations following standardised endurance training. These results help to explain why muscle adaptations vary between people and suggest that setting the training stimulus at a fixed percentage of VO2max might not be a good way to standardise the training stimulus to the leg muscles of different people. PMID:20369366

  4. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology. PMID:25128327

  5. Side-Alternating Vibration Training for Balance and Ankle Muscle Strength in Untrained Women

    PubMed Central

    Spiliopoulou, Styliani I.; Amiridis, Ioannis G.; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. Objective: To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. Intervention(s): The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91–16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. Results: After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater

  6. Effect of training intensity on muscle lactate transporters and lactate threshold of cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Evertsen, F; Medbø, J I; Bonen, A

    2001-10-01

    The training intensity may affect the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in skeletal muscle. Therefore, 20 elite cross-country skiers (11 men and nine women) trained hard for 5 months at either moderate (MIG, 60-70% of VO2max) or high intensity (HIG, 80-90%). The lactate threshold, several performance parameters, and the blood lactate concentration (cLa) after exhausting treadmill running were also determined. Muscle biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the training period were analysed for the two MCTs and for muscle fibre types and six enzymes. The concentration of MCT1 did not change for HIG (P=0.3) but fell for MIG (-12 +/- 3%, P=0.01); the training response differed between the two groups (P=0.05). The concentration of MCT4 did not change during the training period (P > 0.10). The concentration of the two MCTs did not differ between the two sexes (P=0.9). The running speed at the lactate threshold rose for HIG (+3.2 +/- 0.9%, P=0.003), while no change was seen for MIG (P=0.54); the training response differed between the two groups (P=0.04). The cLa after long-lasting exhausting treadmill running correlated with the concentration of MCT1 (rs=0.69, P=0.002), but not with that of MCT4 (rs=0.2, P=0.2). There were no other significant correlations between the concentrations of the two MCTs and the performance parameters, muscle fibre types, or enzymes (r < or = 0.36, P > 0.10). Thus, the training response differed between MIG and HIG both in terms of performance and of the effect on MCT1. Training at high intensity may be more effective for cross-country skiers. Finally, MCT1 may be important for releasing lactate to the blood during long-lasting exercise. PMID:11683677

  7. Expression of Monocarboxylate Transporter Isoforms in Rat Skeletal Muscle Under Hypoxic Preconditioning and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju

    2016-03-01

    Previously, we have reported the regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT)1 and MCT4 by physiological stimuli such as hypoxia and exercise. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of hypoxic preconditioning and training on expression of different MCT isoforms in muscles. We found the increased mRNA expression of MCT1, MCT11, and MCT12 after hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt chloride and training. However, the expression of other MCT isoforms increased marginally or even reduced after hypoxic preconditioning. Only the protein expression of MCT1 increased after hypoxia preconditioning. MCT2 protein expression increased after training only and MCT4 protein expression decreased both in preconditioning and hypoxic training. Furthermore, we found decreased plasma lactate level during hypoxia preconditioning (0.74-fold), exercise (0.78-fold), and hypoxia preconditioning along with exercise (0.67-fold), which indicates increased lactate uptake by skeletal muscle. The protein-protein interactions with hypoxia inducible factor-1 and MCT isoforms were also evaluated, but no interaction was found. In conclusion, we say that almost all MCTs are expressed in red gastrocnemius muscle at the mRNA level and their expression is regulated differently under hypoxia preconditioning and exercise condition. PMID:26716978

  8. A DIGE proteomic analysis for high-intensity exercise-trained rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Wataru; Fujimoto, Eri; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Tabata, Izumi

    2010-09-01

    Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming exercise bouts carrying a weight (14% of the body weight), and 10-s pause between bouts. The 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted on epitrochlearis muscles excised 18 h after the final training exercise. Proteomic profiling revealed that out of 800 detected and matched spots, 13 proteins exhibited changed expression by HIT compared with sedentary rats. All proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. Furthermore, using western immunoblot analyses, significantly changed expressions of NDUFS1 and parvalbumin (PV) were validated in relation to HIT. In conclusion, the proteomic 2D-DIGE analysis following HIT-identified expressions of NDUFS1 and PV, previously unknown to have functions related to exercise-training adaptations. PMID:20634418

  9. Changes in Muscle Activity and Kinematics of Highly Trained Cyclists During Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Dingwell, Jonathan B.; Joubert, Jason E.; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Trinity, Joel D.

    2010-01-01

    Muscle fatigue may alter kinematics and contribute to repetitive strain injuries. This study quantified how both localized muscle fatigue and movement kinematics change over time during exhaustive cycling. Seven highly trained cyclists rode a stationary bicycle ergometer at 100% of their VO2max until voluntary exhaustion. Cycling kinematics and EMG activity from select lower extremity muscles were recorded. Cross-correlations were computed to quantify how EMG median frequencies (MDF) changed with changes in movement kinematics. All athletes maintained both cadence and power output for ~90% of the trial duration. Significant sustained muscle fatigue occurred in 18 of 28 muscles tested, most prominently in the biceps femoris (p = 0.020) and gastrocnemius (p = 0.018). Kinematics and MDF both fluctuated non-monotonically as subjects fatigued. Changes in MDF significantly preceded changes in mean trunk lean (p = 0.009) and hip angles (p = 0.025), and trunk lean range of motion (p = 0.029). Fluctuations in MDF were positively correlated with fluctuations in mean trunk lean (p = 0.009) and knee splay angles (p = 0.011), and with trunk lean (p = 0.002) and ankle (p = 0.001) range of motion. These results therefore establish a direct link between changes in muscle fatigue state and subsequent changes in movement kinematics during cycling.. PMID:18990638

  10. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse; Biensø, Rasmus; Schmidt, Jakob; Hellsten, Ylva; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Healthy, physically inactive men (60–72 years old) were randomized to either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250 mg resveratrol or placebo or to 8 weeks of high-intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α mRNA ∼1.5-fold, cytochrome c protein ∼1.3-fold, cytochrome c oxidase I protein ∼1.5-fold, citrate synthase activity ∼1.3-fold, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity ∼1.3-fold, inhibitor of κB-α and inhibitor of κB-β protein content ∼1.3-fold and time to exhaustion in the one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test by ∼1.2-fold, with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ∼25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably, however, resveratrol blunted an exercise training-induced decrease (∼20%) in protein carbonylation and decrease (∼40%) in tumour necrosis factor α mRNA content in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, resveratrol did not elicit metabolic improvements in healthy aged subjects; in fact, resveratrol even impaired the observed exercise training-induced improvements in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle. Collectively, this highlights the metabolic efficacy of exercise training in aged subjects and does not support the contention that resveratrol is a potential exercise mimetic in healthy aged subjects. PMID:24514907