NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Ruichao; de Hoop, Maarten V.; Petrovitch, Christopher L.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Wilcox, Lucas C.
2016-02-01
We develop an approach for simulating acousto-elastic wave phenomena, including scattering from fluid-solid boundaries, where the solid is allowed to be anisotropic, with the Discontinuous Galerkin method. We use a coupled first-order elastic strain-velocity, acoustic velocity-pressure formulation, and append penalty terms based on interior boundary continuity conditions to the numerical (central) flux so that the consistency condition holds for the discretized Discontinuous Galerkin weak formulation. We incorporate the fluid-solid boundaries through these penalty terms and obtain a stable algorithm. Our approach avoids the diagonalization into polarized wave constituents such as in the approach based on solving elementwise Riemann problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Ruichao; de Hoop, Maarten V.; Petrovitch, Christopher L.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Wilcox, Lucas C.
2016-05-01
We develop an approach for simulating acousto-elastic wave phenomena, including scattering from fluid-solid boundaries, where the solid is allowed to be anisotropic, with the discontinuous Galerkin method. We use a coupled first-order elastic strain-velocity, acoustic velocity-pressure formulation, and append penalty terms based on interior boundary continuity conditions to the numerical (central) flux so that the consistency condition holds for the discretized discontinuous Galerkin weak formulation. We incorporate the fluid-solid boundaries through these penalty terms and obtain a stable algorithm. Our approach avoids the diagonalization into polarized wave constituents such as in the approach based on solving elementwise Riemann problems.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation and Applications
Cockburn, B.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Shu, C-W
2000-12-31
This volume contains a survey article for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGM) by the editors as well as 16 papers by invited speakers and 32 papers by contributed speakers of the First International Symposium on Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. It covers theory, applications, and implementation aspects of DGM.
Parallel Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baggag, Abdalkader; Atkins, Harold; Keyes, David
1999-01-01
This paper describes a parallel implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method. Discontinuous Galerkin is a spatially compact method that retains its accuracy and robustness on non-smooth unstructured grids and is well suited for time dependent simulations. Several parallelization approaches are studied and evaluated. The most natural and symmetric of the approaches has been implemented in all object-oriented code used to simulate aeroacoustic scattering. The parallel implementation is MPI-based and has been tested on various parallel platforms such as the SGI Origin, IBM SP2, and clusters of SGI and Sun workstations. The scalability results presented for the SGI Origin show slightly superlinear speedup on a fixed-size problem due to cache effects.
Extrapolation discontinuous Galerkin method for ultraparabolic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcozzi, Michael D.
2009-02-01
Ultraparabolic equations arise from the characterization of the performance index of stochastic optimal control relative to ultradiffusion processes; they evidence multiple temporal variables and may be regarded as parabolic along characteristic directions. We consider theoretical and approximation aspects of a temporally order and step size adaptive extrapolation discontinuous Galerkin method coupled with a spatial Lagrange second-order finite element approximation for a prototype ultraparabolic problem. As an application, we value a so-called Asian option from mathematical finance.
General spline filters for discontinuous Galerkin solutions
Peters, Jörg
2015-01-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method outputs a sequence of polynomial pieces. Post-processing the sequence by Smoothness-Increasing Accuracy-Conserving (SIAC) convolution not only increases the smoothness of the sequence but can also improve its accuracy and yield superconvergence. SIAC convolution is considered optimal if the SIAC kernels, in the form of a linear combination of B-splines of degree d, reproduce polynomials of degree 2d. This paper derives simple formulas for computing the optimal SIAC spline coefficients for the general case including non-uniform knots. PMID:26594090
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Turbulence Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collis, S. Scott
2002-01-01
A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is formulated, implemented, and tested for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The method is applied to turbulent channel flow at low Reynolds number, where it is found to successfully predict low-order statistics with fewer degrees of freedom than traditional numerical methods. This reduction is achieved by utilizing local hp-refinement such that the computational grid is refined simultaneously in all three spatial coordinates with decreasing distance from the wall. Another advantage of DG is that Dirichlet boundary conditions can be enforced weakly through integrals of the numerical fluxes. Both for a model advection-diffusion problem and for turbulent channel flow, weak enforcement of wall boundaries is found to improve results at low resolution. Such weak boundary conditions may play a pivotal role in wall modeling for large-eddy simulation.
On cell entropy inequality for discontinuous Galerkin methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Guangshan; Shu, Chi-Wang
1993-01-01
We prove a cell entropy inequality for a class of high order discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods approximating conservation laws, which implies convergence for the one dimensional scalar convex case.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Neutrino Radiation Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2015-04-01
We are developing new computational methods for simulation of neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae, which is challenging since neutrinos evolve from being diffusive in the proto-neutron star to nearly free streaming in the critical neutrino heating region. To this end, we consider conservative formulations of the Boltzmann equation, and aim to develop robust, high-order accurate methods. Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, offer several attractive properties, including (i) high-order accuracy on a compact stencil and (ii) correct asymptotic behavior in the diffusion limit. We have recently developed a new DG method for the advection part for the transport solve, which is high-order accurate and strictly preserves the physical bounds of the distribution function; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . We summarize the main ingredients of our bound-preserving DG method and discuss ongoing work to include neutrino-matter interactions in the scheme. Research sponsored in part by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy
A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation
Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.
2015-07-31
Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical results obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.
A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation
Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.
2015-07-31
Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical resultsmore » obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.« less
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.
Garikipati, Krishna.; Ostien, Jakob T.
2010-10-01
In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.
Exploring the Use of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Numerical Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebert, Francois; Kidder, Lawrence; Teukolsky, Saul; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
The limited accuracy of relativistic hydrodynamic simulations constrains our insight into several important research problems, including among others our ability to generate accurate template waveforms for black hole-neutron star mergers, or our understanding of supernova explosion mechanisms. In many codes the algorithms used to evolve the matter, based on the finite volume method, struggle to reach the desired accuracy. We aim to show improved accuracy by using a discontinuous Galerkin method. This method's attractiveness comes from its combination of spectral convergence properties for smooth solutions and robust stability properties for shocks. We present the status of our work implementing a testbed GR-hydro code using discontinuous Galerkin.
A Discontinuous Galerkin Chimera Overset Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galbraith, Marshall Christopher
This work summarizes the development of an accurate, efficient, and flexible Computational Fluid Dynamics computer code that is an improvement relative to the state of the art. The improved accuracy and efficiency is obtained by using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization scheme. In order to maximize the computational efficiency, quadrature-free integration and numerical integration optimized as matrix-vector multiplications is employed and implemented through a pre-processor (PyDG). Using the PyDG pre-processor, a C++ polynomial library has been developed that uses overloaded operators to design an efficient Domain Specific Language (DSL) that allows expressions involving polynomials to be written as if they are scalars. The DSL, which makes the syntax of computer code legible and intuitive, promotes maintainability of the software and simplifies the development of additional capabilities. The flexibility of the code is achieved by combining the DG scheme with the Chimera overset method. The Chimera overset method produces solutions on a set of overlapping grids that communicate through an exchange of data on grid boundaries (known as artificial boundaries). Finite volume and finite difference discretizations use fringe points, which are layers of points on the artificial boundaries, to maintain the interior stencil on artificial boundaries. The fringe points receive solution values interpolated from overset grids. Proper interpolation requires fringe points to be contained in overset grids. Insufficient overlap must be corrected by modifying the grid system. The Chimera scheme can also exclude regions of grids that lie outside the computational domain; a process commonly known as hole cutting. The Chimera overset method has traditionally enabled the use of high-order finite difference and finite volume approaches such as WENO and compact differencing schemes, which require structured meshes, for modeling fluid flow associated with complex
An Application of the Quadrature-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.; Atkins, Harold L.
2000-01-01
The process of generating a block-structured mesh with the smoothness required for high-accuracy schemes is still a time-consuming process often measured in weeks or months. Unstructured grids about complex geometries are more easily generated, and for this reason, methods using unstructured grids have gained favor for aerodynamic analyses. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a compact finite-element projection method that provides a practical framework for the development of a high-order method using unstructured grids. Higher-order accuracy is obtained by representing the solution as a high-degree polynomial whose time evolution is governed by a local Galerkin projection. The traditional implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin uses quadrature for the evaluation of the integral projections and is prohibitively expensive. Atkins and Shu introduced the quadrature-free formulation in which the integrals are evaluated a-priori and exactly for a similarity element. The approach has been demonstrated to possess the accuracy required for acoustics even in cases where the grid is not smooth. Other issues such as boundary conditions and the treatment of non-linear fluxes have also been studied in earlier work This paper describes the application of the quadrature-free discontinuous Galerkin method to a two-dimensional shear layer problem. First, a brief description of the method is given. Next, the problem is described and the solution is presented. Finally, the resources required to perform the calculations are given.
Neutron star evolutions using the discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebert, Francois; SXS Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
Relativistic hydrodynamic simulations enable us, for instance, to generate templates used for gravitational-wave detections of black hole-neutron star mergers, or to understand supernova explosion mechanisms. But the limited accuracy of the simulation algorithms used, often based on the finite volume method, constrains the insight we can obtain into these problems. We aim to improve the accuracy of our simulations by using a discontinuous Galerkin method. This method's attractiveness arises from its combination of spectral convergence properties for smooth solutions with robust stability properties for shocks. We present our work implementing a testbed discontinuous Galerkin GR-hydro code, and show our results for test evolutions of an isolated neutron star.
A Streaming Language Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy; Knight, Timothy
2005-01-01
We present a Brook streaming language implementation of the 3-D discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible fluid flow on tetrahedral meshes. Efficient implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method using the streaming model of computation introduces several algorithmic design challenges. Using a cycle-accurate simulator, performance characteristics have been obtained for the Stanford Merrimac stream processor. The current Merrimac design achieves 128 Gflops per chip and the desktop board is populated with 16 chips yielding a peak performance of 2 Teraflops. Total parts cost for the desktop board is less than $20K. Current cycle-accurate simulations for discretizations of the 3-D compressible flow equations yield approximately 40-50% of the peak performance of the Merrimac streaming processor chip. Ongoing work includes the assessment of the performance of the same algorithm on the 2 Teraflop desktop board with a target goal of achieving 1 Teraflop performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.
2015-10-01
In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.
Analysis of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the European option pricing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hozman, J.
2013-12-01
In this paper we deal with a numerical solution of a one-dimensional Black-Scholes partial differential equation, an important scalar nonstationary linear convection-diffusion-reaction equation describing the pricing of European vanilla options. We present a derivation of the numerical scheme based on the space semidiscretization of the model problem by the discontinuous Galerkin method with nonsymmetric stabilization of diffusion terms and with the interior and boundary penalty. The main attention is paid to the investigation of a priori error estimates for the proposed scheme. The appended numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results and the potency of the method, consequently.
Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.
Limiters for high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivodonova, Lilia
2007-09-01
We describe a limiter for the discontinuous Galerkin method that retains as high an order as possible, and does not automatically reduce to first order. The limiter is a generalization of the limiter introduced in [R. Biswas, K. Devine, J.E. Flaherty, Parallel adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws, Applied Numerical Mathematics 14 (1994) 255-284]. We present the one-dimensional case and extend it to two-dimensional problems on tensor-product meshes. Computational results for examples with both smooth and discontinuous solutions are shown.
Entropy-bounded discontinuous Galerkin scheme for Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias
2015-08-01
An entropy-bounded Discontinuous Galerkin (EBDG) scheme is proposed in which the solution is regularized by constraining the entropy. The resulting scheme is able to stabilize the solution in the vicinity of discontinuities and retains the optimal accuracy for smooth solutions. The properties of the limiting operator according to the entropy-minimum principle are proofed, and an optimal CFL-criterion is derived. We provide a rigorous description for locally imposing entropy constraints to capture multiple discontinuities. Significant advantages of the EBDG-scheme are the general applicability to arbitrary high-order elements and its simple implementation for multi-dimensional configurations. Numerical tests confirm the properties of the scheme, and particular focus is attributed to the robustness in treating discontinuities on arbitrary meshes.
GPU-accelerated discontinuous Galerkin methods on hybrid meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Jesse; Wang, Zheng; Modave, Axel; Remacle, Jean-Francois; Warburton, T.
2016-08-01
We present a time-explicit discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver for the time-domain acoustic wave equation on hybrid meshes containing vertex-mapped hexahedral, wedge, pyramidal and tetrahedral elements. Discretely energy-stable formulations are presented for both Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto (Spectral Element) nodal bases for the hexahedron. Stable timestep restrictions for hybrid meshes are derived by bounding the spectral radius of the DG operator using order-dependent constants in trace and Markov inequalities. Computational efficiency is achieved under a combination of element-specific kernels (including new quadrature-free operators for the pyramid), multi-rate timestepping, and acceleration using Graphics Processing Units.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for Vlasov - like systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamba, I. M.; Cheng, Yingda; Morrison, P. J.
2011-10-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method developed by some of us for integrating the Vlasov-Poisson system is described and generalized. Higher order polynomials on basis elements are used and extensive error analyses, including recurrence properties, are discussed. The method is conservative and preserves positivity of the distribution function. Several linear and nonlinear examples are treated that elucidate the DG methods ability to resolve filamentation and obtain high resolution BGK states. PJM was upported by U.S. Dept. of Energy Contract # DE-FG05-80ET-53088.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for studying elasticity and variable viscosity Stokes problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnepp, Sascha M.; Charrier, Dominic; May, Dave
2015-04-01
Traditionally in the geodynamics community, staggered grid finite difference schemes and mixed Finite Elements (FE) have been utilised to discretise the variable viscosity (VV) Stokes problem. These methods have been demonstrated to be sufficiently robust and accurate for a wide range of variable viscosity problems involving both smooth viscosity structures possessing large spatial variations, and for discontinuous viscosity structures. One caveat of the aforementioned discretisations is that they tend to have inf-sup constants which are highly dependent on the cell aspect ratio. Whilst high order mixed FE approaches utilising spaces defined via Qk - Qk-2, k ≥ 3, alleviate this shortcoming, such elements are seldomly used as they are computationally expensive, the definition of multi-level preconditioners is complex, and spectral accuracy is often not obtained. Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods offer the advantage that spaces can be constructed which have both low order in velocity and pressure and inf-sup constants which are not sensitive to the element aspect ratio. To date, DG discretisations have not been extensively used within geodynamic applications associated with VV Stokes formulations. Here we rigorously evaluate the applicability of two Interior Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin methods, namely the Nonsymmetric and Symmetric Interior Penalty Galerkin methods (NIPG and SIPG) for compressible elasticity and incompressible, variable viscosity Stokes problems. Through a suite of numerical experiments, our evaluation considers the stability, order of accuracy and robustness of the NIPG and SIPG discretisations for cases with both smooth and discontinuous coefficients. Using manufactured solutions, we confirm that both DG formulations are stable and result in convergent solutions for displacement based elasticity formulations, even in the limit of Poisson ratio approaching 0.5. With regards to incompressible flow simulations, using the analytic solution Sol
Simplified Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Systems of Conservation Laws with Convex Extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.
1999-01-01
Simplified forms of the space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and discontinuous Galerkin least-squares (DGLS) finite element method are developed and analyzed. The new formulations exploit simplifying properties of entropy endowed conservation law systems while retaining the favorable energy properties associated with symmetric variable formulations.
Embedded discontinuous Galerkin transport schemes with localised limiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotter, C. J.; Kuzmin, D.
2016-04-01
Motivated by finite element spaces used for representation of temperature in the compatible finite element approach for numerical weather prediction, we introduce locally bounded transport schemes for (partially-)continuous finite element spaces. The underlying high-order transport scheme is constructed by injecting the partially-continuous field into an embedding discontinuous finite element space, applying a stable upwind discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme, and projecting back into the partially-continuous space; we call this an embedded DG transport scheme. We prove that this scheme is stable in L2 provided that the underlying upwind DG scheme is. We then provide a framework for applying limiters for embedded DG transport schemes. Standard DG limiters are applied during the underlying DG scheme. We introduce a new localised form of element-based flux-correction which we apply to limiting the projection back into the partially-continuous space, so that the whole transport scheme is bounded. We provide details in the specific case of tensor-product finite element spaces on wedge elements that are discontinuous P1/Q1 in the horizontal and continuous P2 in the vertical. The framework is illustrated with numerical tests.
Scalable parallel Newton-Krylov solvers for discontinuous Galerkin discretizations
Persson, P.-O.
2008-12-31
We present techniques for implicit solution of discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the Navier-Stokes equations on parallel computers. While a block-Jacobi method is simple and straight-forward to parallelize, its convergence properties are poor except for simple problems. Therefore, we consider Newton-GMRES methods preconditioned with block-incomplete LU factorizations, with optimized element orderings based on a minimum discarded fill (MDF) approach. We discuss the difficulties with the parallelization of these methods, but also show that with a simple domain decomposition approach, most of the advantages of the block-ILU over the block-Jacobi preconditioner are still retained. The convergence is further improved by incorporating the matrix connectivities into the mesh partitioning process, which aims at minimizing the errors introduced from separating the partitions. We demonstrate the performance of the schemes for realistic two- and three-dimensional flow problems.
Clearance gap flow: simulations by discontinuous Galerkin method and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prausová, Helena; Bublík, Ondřej; Vimmr, Jan; Luxa, Martin; Hála, Jindřich
2015-05-01
Compressible viscous fluid flow in a narrow gap formed by two parallel plates in distance of 2 mm is investigated numerically and experimentally. Pneumatic and optical methods were used to obtain distribution of static to stagnation pressure ratio along the channel axis and interferograms including the free outflow behind the channel. Modern developing discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is implemented for numerical simulation of the fluid flow. The goal to make progress in knowledge of compressible viscous fluid flow characteristic phenomena in minichannels is satisfied by finding a suitable approach to this problem. Laminar, turbulent and transitional flow regime is examined and a good agreement of experimental and numerical results is achieved using γ - Reθt transition model.
A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration
Zhao, Shan; Wei, G. W.
2013-01-01
We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge–Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge–Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge–Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. PMID:25382889
A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration.
Zhao, Shan; Wei, G W
2014-05-15
We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge-Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge-Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. PMID:25382889
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.
1997-01-01
The formulation and the implementation of boundary conditions within the context of the quadrature-free form of the discontinuous Galerkin method are presented for several types of boundary conditions for the Euler equations. An important feature of the discontinuous Galerkin method is that the interior point algorithm is well behaved in the neighborhood of the boundary and requires no modifications. This feature leads to a simple and accurate treatment for wall boundary conditions and simple inflow and outflow boundary conditions. Curved walls are accurately treated with only minor changes to the implementation described in earlier work. The 'perfectly matched layer' approach to nonreflecting boundary conditions is easily applied to the discontinuous Galerkin. The compactness of the discontinuous Galerkin method makes it better suited for buffer-zone-type methods than high-order finite-difference methods. Results are presented for wall, characteristic inflow and outflow, and nonreflecting boundary conditions.
Superconvergent discontinuous Galerkin methods for second-order elliptic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cockburn, Bernardo; Guzman, Johnny; Wang, Haiying
2009-03-01
We identify discontinuous Galerkin methods for second-order elliptic problems in several space dimensions having superconvergence properties similar to those of the Raviart-Thomas and the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini mixed methods. These methods use polynomials of degree kge0 for both the potential as well as the flux. We show that the approximate flux converges in L^2 with the optimal order of k+1 , and that the approximate potential and its numerical trace superconverge, in L^2 -like norms, to suitably chosen projections of the potential, with order k+2 . We also apply element-by-element postprocessing of the approximate solution to obtain new approximations of the flux and the potential. The new approximate flux is proven to have normal components continuous across inter-element boundaries, to converge in L^2 with order k+1 , and to have a divergence converging in L^2 also with order k+1 . The new approximate potential is proven to converge with order k+2 in L^2 . Numerical experiments validating these theoretical results are presented.
An Adaptive De-Aliasing Strategy for Discontinuous Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, Andrea; Flad, David; Frank, Hannes; Munz, Claus-Dieter
2015-11-01
Discontinuous Galerkin methods combine the accuracy of a local polynomial representation with the geometrical flexibility of an element-based discretization. In combination with their excellent parallel scalability, these methods are currently of great interest for DNS and LES. For high order schemes, the dissipation error approaches a cut-off behavior, which allows an efficient wave resolution per degree of freedom, but also reduces robustness against numerical errors. One important source of numerical error is the inconsistent discretization of the non-linear convective terms, which results in aliasing of kinetic energy and solver instability. Consistent evaluation of the inner products prevents this form of error, but is computationally very expensive. In this talk, we discuss the need for a consistent de-aliasing to achieve a neutrally stable scheme, and present a novel strategy for recovering a part of the incurred computational costs. By implementing the de-aliasing operation through a cell-local projection filter, we can perform adaptive de-aliasing in space and time, based on physically motivated indicators. We will present results for a homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the Taylor-Green vortex flow, and discuss implementation details, accuracy and efficiency.
An Investigation of Wave Propagations in Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.
2004-01-01
Analysis of the discontinuous Galerkin method has been carried out for one- and two-dimensional system of hyperbolic equations. Analytical, as well as numerical, properties of wave propagation in a DGM scheme are derived and verified with direct numerical simulations. In addition to a systematic examination of the dissipation and dispersion errors, behaviours of a DG scheme at an interface of two different grid topologies are also studied. Under the same framework, a quantitative discrete analysis of various artificial boundary conditions is also conducted. Progress has been made in numerical boundary condition treatment that is closely related to the application of DGM in aeroacoustics problems. Finally, Fourier analysis of DGM for the Convective diffusion equation has also be studied in connection with the application of DG schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations. This research has resulted in five(5) publications, plus one additional manuscript in preparation, four(4) conference presentations, and three(3) departmental seminars, as summarized in part II. Abstracts of papers are given in part 111 of this report.
Bound-preserving discontinuous Galerkin methods for relativistic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Tong; Shu, Chi-Wang; Yang, Yang
2016-06-01
In this paper, we develop a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve the ideal special relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and design a bound-preserving (BP) limiter for this scheme by extending the idea in X. Zhang and C.-W. Shu, (2010) [56]. For RHD, the density and pressure are positive and the velocity is bounded by the speed of light. One difficulty in numerically solving the RHD in its conservative form is that the failure of preserving these physical bounds will result in ill-posedness of the problem and blowup of the code, especially in extreme relativistic cases. The standard way in dealing with this difficulty is to add extra numerical dissipation, while in doing so there is no guarantee of maintaining the high order of accuracy. Our BP limiter has the following features. It can theoretically guarantee to preserve the physical bounds for the numerical solution and maintain its designed high order accuracy. The limiter is local to the cell and hence is very easy to implement. Moreover, it renders L1-stability to the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the good performance of this bound-preserving DG scheme. Even though we only discuss the BP limiter for DG schemes, it can be applied to high order finite volume schemes, such as weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume schemes as well.
A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.
A CLASS OF RECONSTRUCTED DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Hong Luo; Yidong Xia; Robert Nourgaliev
2011-05-01
A class of reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods is presented to solve compressible flow problems on arbitrary grids. The idea is to combine the efficiency of the reconstruction methods in finite volume methods and the accuracy of the DG methods to obtain a better numerical algorithm in computational fluid dynamics. The beauty of the resulting reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) methods is that they provide a unified formulation for both finite volume and DG methods, and contain both classical finite volume and standard DG methods as two special cases of the RDG methods, and thus allow for a direct efficiency comparison. Both Green-Gauss and least-squares reconstruction methods and a least-squares recovery method are presented to obtain a quadratic polynomial representation of the underlying linear discontinuous Galerkin solution on each cell via a so-called in-cell reconstruction process. The devised in-cell reconstruction is aimed to augment the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution. These three reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods are used to compute a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to assess their accuracy. The numerical experiments demonstrate that all three reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods can significantly improve the accuracy of the underlying second-order DG method, although the least-squares reconstructed DG method provides the best performance in terms of both accuracy, efficiency, and robustness.
Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-01-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi-Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Hong Luo; Yidong Xia; Robert Nourgaliev; Chunpei Cai
2011-06-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on unstructured grids. The preliminary results indicate that this RDG method is stable on unstructured tetrahedral grids, and provides a viable and attractive alternative for the discretization of the viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Zengrong; Gu, Chunwei; Song, Yin
2016-06-01
This study extends the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods to simulations of thermoelasticity. A thermoelastic formulation of interior penalty DG (IP-DG) method is presented and aspects of the numerical implementation are discussed in matrix form. The content related to thermal expansion effects is illustrated explicitly in the discretized equation system. The feasibility of the method for general thermoelastic simulations is validated through typical test cases, including tackling stress discontinuities caused by jumps of thermal expansive properties and controlling accompanied non-physical oscillations through adjusting the magnitude of IP term. The developed simulation platform upon the method is applied to the engineering analysis of thermoelastic performance for a turbine vane and a series of vanes with various types of simplified thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. This analysis demonstrates that while TBC properties on heat conduction are generally the major consideration for protecting the alloy base vanes, the mechanical properties may have more significant effects on protections of coatings themselves. Changing characteristics of normal tractions on TBC/base interface, closely related to the occurrence of coating failures, over diverse components distributions along TBC thickness of the functional graded materials are summarized and analysed, illustrating the opposite tendencies in situations with different thermal-stress-free temperatures for coatings.
Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-09-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier–Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi–Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier–Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations.
Sparse grid discontinuous Galerkin methods for high-dimensional elliptic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zixuan; Tang, Qi; Guo, Wei; Cheng, Yingda
2016-06-01
This paper constitutes our initial effort in developing sparse grid discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for high-dimensional partial differential equations (PDEs). Over the past few decades, DG methods have gained popularity in many applications due to their distinctive features. However, they are often deemed too costly because of the large degrees of freedom of the approximation space, which are the main bottleneck for simulations in high dimensions. In this paper, we develop sparse grid DG methods for elliptic equations with the aim of breaking the curse of dimensionality. Using a hierarchical basis representation, we construct a sparse finite element approximation space, reducing the degrees of freedom from the standard O (h-d) to O (h-1 |log2 h| d - 1) for d-dimensional problems, where h is the uniform mesh size in each dimension. Our method, based on the interior penalty (IP) DG framework, can achieve accuracy of O (hk |log2 h| d - 1) in the energy norm, where k is the degree of polynomials used. Error estimates are provided and confirmed by numerical tests in multi-dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisitsa, Vadim; Tcheverda, Vladimir; Botter, Charlotte
2016-04-01
We present an algorithm for the numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation in models with a complex near surface part and free surface topography. The approach is based on the combination of finite differences with the discontinuous Galerkin method. The discontinuous Galerkin method can be used on polyhedral meshes; thus, it is easy to handle the complex surfaces in the models. However, this approach is computationally intense in comparison with finite differences. Finite differences are computationally efficient, but in general, they require rectangular grids, leading to the stair-step approximation of the interfaces, which causes strong diffraction of the wavefield. In this research we present a hybrid algorithm where the discontinuous Galerkin method is used in a relatively small upper part of the model and finite differences are applied to the main part of the model.
White III, James B; Archibald, Richard K; Evans, Katherine J; Drake, John
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a new approach to increase the time-step size for an explicit discontinuous Galerkin numerical method. The attributes of this approach are demonstrated on standard tests for the shallow-water equations on the sphere. The addition of multiwavelets to discontinuous Galerkin method, which has the benefit of being scalable, flexible, and conservative, provides a hierarchical scale structure that can be exploited to improve computational efficiency in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. This paper explains how combining a multiwavelet discontinuous Galerkin method with exact linear part time-evolution schemes, which can remain stable for implicit-sized time steps, can help increase the time-step size for shallow water equations on the sphere.
Super-convergence of Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold L.
2009-01-01
The practical benefits of the hyper-accuracy properties of the discontinuous Galerkin method are examined. In particular, we demonstrate that some flow attributes exhibit super-convergence even in the absence of any post-processing technique. Theoretical analysis suggest that flow features that are dominated by global propagation speeds and decay or growth rates should be super-convergent. Several discrete forms of the discontinuous Galerkin method are applied to the simulation of unsteady viscous flow over a two-dimensional cylinder. Convergence of the period of the naturally occurring oscillation is examined and shown to converge at 2p+1, where p is the polynomial degree of the discontinuous Galerkin basis. Comparisons are made between the different discretizations and with theoretical analysis.
The Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Time-Dependent Convection-Diffusion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang
1997-01-01
In this paper, we study the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods for nonlinear, time-dependent convection-diffusion systems. These methods are an extension of the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin methods for purely hyperbolic systems to convection-diffusion systems and share with those methods their high parallelizability, their high-order formal accuracy, and their easy handling of complicated geometries, for convection dominated problems. It is proven that for scalar equations, the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods are L(sup 2)-stable in the nonlinear case. Moreover, in the linear case, it is shown that if polynomials of degree k are used, the methods are k-th order accurate for general triangulations; although this order of convergence is suboptimal, it is sharp for the LDG methods. Preliminary numerical examples displaying the performance of the method are shown.
A High Order Discontinuous Galerkin Method for 2D Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jia-Guo; Shu, Chi-Wang
1999-01-01
In this paper we introduce a high order discontinuous Galerkin method for two dimensional incompressible flow in vorticity streamfunction formulation. The momentum equation is treated explicitly, utilizing the efficiency of the discontinuous Galerkin method The streamfunction is obtained by a standard Poisson solver using continuous finite elements. There is a natural matching between these two finite element spaces, since the normal component of the velocity field is continuous across element boundaries. This allows for a correct upwinding gluing in the discontinuous Galerkin framework, while still maintaining total energy conservation with no numerical dissipation and total enstrophy stability The method is suitable for inviscid or high Reynolds number flows. Optimal error estimates are proven and verified by numerical experiments.
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q. M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy
2005-01-01
The role of involutions in energy stability of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of Maxwell and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems is examined. Important differences are identified in the symmetrization of the Maxwell and MHD systems that impact the construction of energy stable discretizations using the DG method. Specifically, general sufficient conditions to be imposed on the DG numerical flux and approximation space are given so that energy stability is retained These sufficient conditions reveal the favorable energy consequence of imposing continuity in the normal component of the magnetic induction field at interelement boundaries for MHD discretizations. Counterintuitively, this condition is not required for stability of Maxwell discretizations using the discontinuous Galerkin method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hempert, F.; Hoffmann, M.; Iben, U.; Munz, C.-D.
2016-06-01
In the present investigation, we demonstrate the capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method for high order accuracy computation of gas dynamics. The internal flow field of a natural gas injector for bivalent combustion engines is investigated under its operating conditions. The simulations of the flow field and the aeroacoustic noise emissions were in a good agreement with the experimental data. We tested several shock-capturing techniques for the discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Based on the validated framework, we analyzed the development of the supersonic jets during different opening procedures of a compressed natural gas injector. The results suggest that a more gradual injector opening decreases the noise emission.
A Parallel Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Flows on Aritrary Grids
Hong Luo; Amjad Ali; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-01-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. In this method, an in-cell reconstruction is used to obtain a higher-order polynomial representation of the underlying discontinuous Galerkin polynomial solution and an inter-cell reconstruction is used to obtain a continuous polynomial solution on the union of two neighboring, interface-sharing cells. The in-cell reconstruction is designed to enhance the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution. The inter-cell reconstruction is devised to remove an interface discontinuity of the solution and its derivatives and thus to provide a simple, accurate, consistent, and robust approximation to the viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations. A parallel strategy is also devised for the resulting reconstruction discontinuous Galerkin method, which is based on domain partitioning and Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model. The RDG method is used to compute a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results demonstrate that this RDG method is third-order accurate at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, at the same time providing a better performance than the third order DG method, in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements.
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin approach to solve reactive flows: The hyperbolic operator
Billet, G.; Ryan, J.
2011-02-20
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the hyperbolic part of reactive Navier-Stokes equations written in conservation form is presented. Complex thermodynamics laws are taken into account. Particular care has been taken to solve the stiff gaseous interfaces correctly with no restrictive hypothesis. 1D and 2D test cases are presented.
A Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Complex Modified KdV Equation
Li Wenting; Jiang Kun
2010-09-30
In this paper, we develop a local discontinuous Galerkin(LDG) method for solving complex modified KdV(CMKdV) equation. The LDG method has the flexibility for arbitrary h and p adaptivity. We prove the L{sup 2} stability for general solutions.
Solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sungwoo; Yoo, Jung Yul
2007-11-01
Discontinuous Galerkin method is a finite element method that allows discontinuities at inter-element boundaries. The discontinuities in the method are treated by approximate Riemann solvers. One important feature of the method is that it obtains high-order accuracy for unstructured mesh with no difficulty. Due to this feature, it can be useful for various practical applications to turbulence and aeroacoustics, but there are few problems to be solved before the method is applicable to practical flow problems. Due to discontinuous approximations in discontinuous Galerkin method, the treatments of viscous terms are complicated and expensive. Moreover, careful treatments of source terms in turbulence model equations are necessary for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to prevent blow-up of high-order-accurate simulations. In this study, we compare high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method with different viscous treatments and stabilization of source terms for compressible Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Spalart-Allmaras or k-φ model is used for turbulence model. To compare the implemented formulations, steady turbulent flow over a flat plate and unsteady turbulent flow over cavity are solved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki
2016-09-01
We propose arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes that are designed based on a first-order hyperbolic advection-diffusion formulation of the target governing equations. We present, in details, the efficient construction of the proposed high-order schemes (called DG-H), and show that these schemes have the same number of global degrees-of-freedom as comparable conventional high-order DG schemes, produce the same or higher order of accuracy solutions and solution gradients, are exact for exact polynomial functions, and do not need a second-derivative diffusion operator. We demonstrate that the constructed high-order schemes give excellent quality solution and solution gradients on irregular triangular elements. We also construct a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter for the proposed DG-H schemes and apply it to discontinuous problems. We also make some accuracy comparisons with conventional DG and interior penalty schemes. A relative qualitative cost analysis is also reported, which indicates that the high-order schemes produce orders of magnitude more accurate results than the low-order schemes for a given CPU time. Furthermore, we show that the proposed DG-H schemes are nearly as efficient as the DG and Interior-Penalty (IP) schemes as these schemes produce results that are relatively at the same error level for approximately a similar CPU time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, O.; Dumbser, M.; Fambri, F.
2016-05-01
We describe a new method for the solution of the ideal MHD equations in special relativity which adopts the following strategy: (i) the main scheme is based on Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, allowing for an arbitrary accuracy of order N+1, where N is the degree of the basis polynomials; (ii) in order to cope with oscillations at discontinuities, an ”a-posteriori” sub-cell limiter is activated, which scatters the DG polynomials of the previous time-step onto a set of 2N+1 sub-cells, over which the solution is recomputed by means of a robust finite volume scheme; (iii) a local spacetime Discontinuous-Galerkin predictor is applied both on the main grid of the DG scheme and on the sub-grid of the finite volume scheme; (iv) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with local time-stepping is used. We validate the new scheme and comment on its potential applications in high energy astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, Jue; Shu, Chi-Wang; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we review the existing and develop new continuous Galerkin methods for solving time dependent partial differential equations with higher order derivatives in one and multiple space dimensions. We review local discontinuous Galerkin methods for convection diffusion equations involving second derivatives and for KdV type equations involving third derivatives. We then develop new local discontinuous Galerkin methods for the time dependent bi-harmonic type equations involving fourth derivatives, and partial differential equations involving fifth derivatives. For these new methods we present correct interface numerical fluxes and prove L(exp 2) stability for general nonlinear problems. Preliminary numerical examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Finally, we present new results on a post-processing technique, originally designed for methods with good negative-order error estimates, on the local discontinuous Galerkin methods applied to equations with higher derivatives. Numerical experiments show that this technique works as well for the new higher derivative cases, in effectively doubling the rate of convergence with negligible additional computational cost, for linear as well as some nonlinear problems, with a local uniform mesh.
A Leap-Frog Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations in Metamaterials
Li, J., Waters, J. W., Machorro, E. A.
2012-06-01
Numerical simulation of metamaterials play a very important role in the design of invisibility cloak, and sub-wavelength imaging. In this paper, we propose a leap-frog discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the time-dependent Maxwell’s equations in metamaterials. Conditional stability and error estimates are proved for the scheme. The proposed algorithm is implemented and numerical results supporting the analysis are provided.
A toolbox for a class of discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods using trilinos.
Roberts, Nathaniel David; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Demkowicz, Leszek D.; Ridzal, Denis
2011-09-01
The class of discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods (DPG) proposed by L. Demkowicz and J. Gopalakrishnan guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm and produces a symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix, among other desirable properties. In this paper, we describe a toolbox, implemented atop Sandia's Trilinos library, for rapid development of solvers for DPG methods. We use this toolbox to develop solvers for the Poisson and Stokes problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Sydow, Lina
2013-10-01
The discontinuous Galerkin method for time integration of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation for option pricing problems is studied and compared with more standard time-integrators. In space an adaptive finite difference discretization is employed. The results show that the dG method are in most cases at least comparable to standard time-integrators and in some cases superior to them. Together with adaptive spatial grids the suggested pricing method shows great qualities.
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method applied to the 1-D spherical neutron transport equation
Machorro, Eric . E-mail: machorro@amath.washington.edu
2007-04-10
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods are used to estimate solutions to the non-scattering 1-D spherical neutron transport equation. Various trial and test spaces are compared in the context of a few sample problems whose exact solution is known. Certain trial spaces avoid unphysical behaviors that seem to plague other methods. Comparisons with diamond differencing and simple corner-balancing are presented to highlight these improvements.
Hydrodynamic Interaction Of Strong Shocks With Inhomogeneous Media:A Discontinuous Galerkin Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Rohit; Shelton, A.
2011-04-01
HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF STRONG SHOCKS WITH INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA: A DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN APPROACH Rohit Kulkarni, Andrew Shelton, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Auburn University, AL 36849 Many astrophysical flows, which have been observed, occur in inhomogeneous (clumpy) media. This numerical experiment comprises a model which will analyze the hydrodynamic interaction of strong shocks with inhomogeneous media neglecting any radiative losses, heat conduction, and gravitational forces. Formulation of this numerical study considers interaction of a steady, planar shock with embedded cylindrical clouds in the two-dimensional computational space. Hydrodynamic system of non-linear hyperbolic conservation equations for single fluid system is considered to govern the underlying physical phenomenon. Emphasis will be on the development of discontinuous Galerkin finite element based code towards discretizing and then solving the physical conservation laws for the defined numerical experiment. This higher-order accurate scheme in spatial and temporal domain uses the discontinuous Galerkin method and this scheme will be compared with the Godunov-type finite volume method for accuracy and computational expense. Then the results will be obtained for the defined numerical model using the discontinuous Galerkin method, to discuss and conduct a comparative study which will provide the insights about the time evolution of a shock wave interacting with a single cloud system studied in a described computational domain. Numerical code developed will use an adaptive mesh refinement tool provided by AMRCLAW code which will allow us to achieve sufficiently high resolution both at small and large scales of simulation. Rohit Kulkarni rak0008@tigermail.auburn.edu Department of Aerospace Engineering, Auburn University .
A Posteriori Error Estimation for Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations of Hyperbolic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, Mats G.; Barth, Timothy J.
1999-01-01
This article considers a posteriori error estimation of specified functionals for first-order systems of conservation laws discretized using the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method. Using duality techniques, we derive exact error representation formulas for both linear and nonlinear functionals given an associated bilinear or nonlinear variational form. Weighted residual approximations of the exact error representation formula are then proposed and numerically evaluated for Ringleb flow, an exact solution of the 2-D Euler equations.
A spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible flows.
Min, M.; Lee, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; City Univ. of New York
2011-01-01
We present a spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for solving nearly incompressible flows. Decoupling the collision step from the streaming step offers numerical stability at high Reynolds numbers. In the streaming step, we employ high-order spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin discretizations using a tensor product basis of one-dimensional Lagrange interpolation polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre grids. Our scheme is cost-effective with a fully diagonal mass matrix, advancing time integration with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We present a consistent treatment for imposing boundary conditions with a numerical flux in the discontinuous Galerkin approach. We show convergence studies for Couette flows and demonstrate two benchmark cases with lid-driven cavity flows for Re = 400-5000 and flows around an impulsively started cylinder for Re = 550-9500. Computational results are compared with those of other theoretical and computational work that used a multigrid method, a vortex method, and a spectral element model.
Hong Luo; Hanping Xiao; Robert Nourgaliev; Chunpei Cai
2011-06-01
A comparative study of different reconstruction schemes for a reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin, termed RDG(P1P2) method is performed for compressible flow problems on arbitrary grids. The RDG method is designed to enhance the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution via a reconstruction scheme commonly used in the finite volume method. Both Green-Gauss and least-squares reconstruction methods and a least-squares recovery method are implemented to obtain a quadratic polynomial representation of the underlying discontinuous Galerkin linear polynomial solution on each cell. These three reconstruction/recovery methods are compared for a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to access their accuracy and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that all three reconstruction methods can significantly improve the accuracy of the underlying second-order DG method, although the least-squares reconstruction method provides the best performance in terms of both accuracy and robustness.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional PDE models of Asian options
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hozman, J.; Tichý, T.; Cvejnová, D.
2016-06-01
In our previous research we have focused on the problem of plain vanilla option valuation using discontinuous Galerkin method for numerical PDE solution. Here we extend a simple one-dimensional problem into two-dimensional one and design a scheme for valuation of Asian options, i.e. options with payoff depending on the average of prices collected over prespecified horizon. The algorithm is based on the approach combining the advantages of the finite element methods together with the piecewise polynomial generally discontinuous approximations. Finally, an illustrative example using DAX option market data is provided.
A Hierarchical WENO Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Computing Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Y.; Frisbey, M.; Luo, H.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods[1] have recently become popular for the solution of systems of conservation laws because of their several attractive features such as easy extension to and compact stencil for higher-order (> 2nd) approximation, flexibility in handling arbitrary types of grids for complex geometries, and amenability to parallelization and hp-adaptation. However, the DG Methods have their own share weaknesses. In particular, how to effectively control spurious oscillations in the presence of strong discontinuities, and how to reduce the computing costs and storage requirements for the DGM remain the two most challenging and unresolved issues in the DGM.
de Almeida, V.F.
2004-01-28
A phase-space discontinuous Galerkin (PSDG) method is presented for the solution of stellar radiative transfer problems. It allows for greater adaptivity than competing methods without sacrificing generality. The method is extensively tested on a spherically symmetric, static, inverse-power-law scattering atmosphere. Results for different sizes of atmospheres and intensities of scattering agreed with asymptotic values. The exponentially decaying behavior of the radiative field in the diffusive-transparent transition region and the forward peaking behavior at the surface of extended atmospheres were accurately captured. The integrodifferential equation of radiation transfer is solved iteratively by alternating between the radiative pressure equation and the original equation with the integral term treated as an energy density source term. In each iteration, the equations are solved via an explicit, flux-conserving, discontinuous Galerkin method. Finite elements are ordered in wave fronts perpendicularly to the characteristic curves so that elemental linear algebraic systems are solved quickly by sweeping the phase space element by element. Two implementations of a diffusive boundary condition at the origin are demonstrated wherein the finite discontinuity in the radiative intensity is accurately captured by the proposed method. This allows for a consistent mechanism to preserve photon luminosity. The method was proved to be robust and fast, and a case is made for the adequacy of parallel processing. In addition to classical two-dimensional plots, results of normalized radiative intensity were mapped onto a log-polar surface exhibiting all distinguishing features of the problem studied.
Space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for two-fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sollie, W. E. H.; Bokhove, O.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2011-02-01
A novel numerical method for two-fluid flow computations is presented, which combines the space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element discretization with the level set method and cut-cell based interface tracking. The space-time discontinuous Galerkin (STDG) finite element method offers high accuracy, an inherent ability to handle discontinuities and a very local stencil, making it relatively easy to combine with local hp-refinement. The front tracking is incorporated via cut-cell mesh refinement to ensure a sharp interface between the fluids. To compute the interface dynamics the level set method (LSM) is used because of its ability to deal with merging and breakup. Also, the LSM is easy to extend to higher dimensions. Small cells arising from the cut-cell refinement are merged to improve the stability and performance. The interface conditions are incorporated in the numerical flux at the interface and the STDG discretization ensures that the scheme is conservative as long as the numerical fluxes are conservative. The numerical method is applied to one and two dimensional two-fluid test problems using the Euler equations.
An HP Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.
1994-01-01
This dissertation addresses various issues for model classes of hyperbolic conservation laws. The basic approach developed in this work employs a new family of adaptive, hp-version, finite element methods based on a special discontinuous Galerkin formulation for hyperbolic problems. The discontinuous Galerkin formulation admits high-order local approximations on domains of quite general geometry, while providing a natural framework for finite element approximations and for theoretical developments. The use of hp-versions of the finite element method makes possible exponentially convergent schemes with very high accuracies in certain cases; the use of adaptive hp-schemes allows h-refinement in regions of low regularity and p-enrichment to deliver high accuracy, while keeping problem sizes manageable and dramatically smaller than many conventional approaches. The use of discontinuous Galerkin methods is uncommon in applications, but the methods rest on a reasonable mathematical basis for low-order cases and has local approximation features that can be exploited to produce very efficient schemes, especially in a parallel, multiprocessor environment. The place of this work is to first and primarily focus on a model class of linear hyperbolic conservation laws for which concrete mathematical results, methodologies, error estimates, convergence criteria, and parallel adaptive strategies can be developed, and to then briefly explore some extensions to more general cases. Next, we provide preliminaries to the study and a review of some aspects of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. We also provide a review of relevant literature on this subject and on the numerical analysis of these types of problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistauer, Miloslav; Kučera, Václav; Prokopová, Jaroslav; Horáček, Jaromír
2010-09-01
The aim of this work is the simulation of viscous compressible flows in human vocal folds during phonation. The computational domain is a bounded subset of IR2, whose geometry mimics the shape of the human larynx. During phonation, parts of the solid impermeable walls are moving in a prescribed manner, thus simulating the opening and closing of the vocal chords. As the governing equations we take the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in ALE form. Space semidiscretization is carried out by the discontinuous Galerkin method combined with a linearized semi-implicit approach. Numerical experiments are performed with the resulting scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang
2001-01-01
The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are grouped into two or three regions that are invariant with order of the method. Local relaxation methods are constructed that rapidly damp high frequencies for arbitrarily large time step.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
The perfectly matched layer (PML) technique is developed in the context of a high- order spectral-element Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is applied to a range of test cases and is shown to be superior compared to other approaches, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers, for treating the inflow and outflow boundaries of computational domains. In general, the PML technique improves the quality of the numerical results for simulations of practical flow configurations, but it also exhibits some instabilities for large perturbations. A preliminary analysis that attempts to understand the source of these instabilities is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowicz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18,20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates-the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowiz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-15
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18, 20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates—the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
A New Approach for Imposing Artificial Viscosity for Explicit Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
See, Yee Chee; Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias
2014-11-01
The development of high-order numerical methods for unstructured meshes has been a significant area of research, and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has found considerable interest. However, the DG-method exhibits robustness issues in application to flows with discontinuities and shocks. To address this issue, an artificial viscosity method was proposed by Persson et al. for steady flows. Its extension to time-dependent flows introduces substantial time-step restrictions. By addressing this issue, a novel method, which is based on an entropy formulation, is proposed. The resulting scheme doesn't impose restrictions on the CFL-constraint. Following a description of the formulation and the evaluation of the stability, this newly developed artificial viscosity scheme is demonstrated in application to different test cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Česenek, Jan
2016-03-01
In this article we deal with numerical simulation of the non-stationary compressible turbulent flow. Compressible turbulent flow is described by the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This RANS system is equipped with two-equation k-omega turbulence model. These two systems of equations are solved separately. Discretization of the RANS system is carried out by the space-time discontinuous Galerkin method which is based on piecewise polynomial discontinuous approximation of the sought solution in space and in time. Discretization of the two-equation k-omega turbulence model is carried out by the implicit finite volume method, which is based on piecewise constant approximation of the sought solution. We present some numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability of the method using own-developed code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Bharat B.; Marchiano, Régis; Baskar, Sambandam; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-01
Propagation of acoustical shock waves in complex geometry is a topic of interest in the field of nonlinear acoustics. For instance, simulation of Buzz Saw Noice requires the treatment of shock waves generated by the turbofan through the engines of aeroplanes with complex geometries and wall liners. Nevertheless, from a numerical point of view it remains a challenge. The two main hurdles are to take into account the complex geometry of the domain and to deal with the spurious oscillations (Gibbs phenomenon) near the discontinuities. In this work, first we derive the conservative hyperbolic system of nonlinear acoustics (up to quadratic nonlinear terms) using the fundamental equations of fluid dynamics. Then, we propose to adapt the classical nodal discontinuous Galerkin method to develop a high fidelity solver for nonlinear acoustics. The discontinuous Galerkin method is a hybrid of finite element and finite volume method and is very versatile to handle complex geometry. In order to obtain better performance, the method is parallelized on Graphical Processing Units. Like other numerical methods, discontinuous Galerkin method suffers with the problem of Gibbs phenomenon near the shock, which is a numerical artifact. Among the various ways to manage these spurious oscillations, we choose the method of parabolic regularization. Although, the introduction of artificial viscosity into the system is a popular way of managing shocks, we propose a new approach of introducing smooth artificial viscosity locally in each element, wherever needed. Firstly, a shock sensor using the linear coefficients of the spectral solution is used to locate the position of the discontinuities. Then, a viscosity coefficient depending on the shock sensor is introduced into the hyperbolic system of equations, only in the elements near the shock. The viscosity is applied as a two-dimensional Gaussian patch with its shape parameters depending on the element dimensions, referred here as Element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelties, C.; Käser, M.
2010-12-01
We will present recent developments concerning the extensions of the ADER-DG method to solve three dimensional dynamic rupture problems on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The simulation of earthquake rupture dynamics and seismic wave propagation using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in 2D was recently presented by J. de la Puente et al. (2009). A considerable feature of this study regarding spontaneous rupture problems was the combination of the DG scheme and a time integration method using Arbitrarily high-order DERivatives (ADER) to provide high accuracy in space and time with the discretization on unstructured meshes. In the resulting discrete velocity-stress formulation of the elastic wave equations variables are naturally discontinuous at the interfaces between elements. The so-called Riemann problem can then be solved to obtain well defined values of the variables at the discontinuity itself. This is in particular valid for the fault at which a certain friction law has to be evaluated. Hence, the fault’s geometry is honored by the computational mesh. This way, complex fault planes can be modeled adequately with small elements while fast mesh coarsening is possible with increasing distance from the fault. Due to the strict locality of the scheme using only direct neighbor communication, excellent parallel behavior can be observed. A further advantage of the scheme is that it avoids spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping or filtering of synthetic seismograms. In order to test the accuracy of the ADER-DG method the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) benchmark for spontaneous rupture simulations was employed. Reference: J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, and M. Käser (2009), Dynamic rupture modeling on unstructured meshes using a discontinuous Galerkin method, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 114, B10302, doi:10.1029/2008JB006271
Hong Luo; Luquing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau
2009-06-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on arbitrary grids. By taking advantage of handily available and yet invaluable information, namely the derivatives, in the context of the discontinuous Galerkin methods, a solution polynomial of one degree higher is reconstructed using a least-squares method. The stencils used in the reconstruction involve only the van Neumann neighborhood (face-neighboring cells) and are compact and consistent with the underlying DG method. The resulting DG method can be regarded as an improvement of a recovery-based DG method in the sense that it shares the same nice features as the recovery-based DG method, such as high accuracy and efficiency, and yet overcomes some of its shortcomings such as a lack of flexibility, compactness, and robustness. The developed DG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. The numerical results indicate that this reconstructed DG method is able to obtain a third-order accurate solution at a slightly higher cost than its second-order DG method and provide an increase in performance over the third order DG method in terms of computing time and storage requirement.
Discontinuous Galerkin methods with plane waves for time-harmonic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabard, Gwénaël
2007-08-01
A general framework for discontinuous Galerkin methods in the frequency domain with numerical flux is presented. The main feature of the method is the use of plane waves instead of polynomials to approximate the solution in each element. The method is formulated for a general system of linear hyperbolic equations and is applied to problems of aeroacoustic propagation by solving the two-dimensional linearized Euler equations. It is found that the method requires only a small number of elements per wavelength to obtain accurate solutions and that it is more efficient than high-order DRP schemes. In addition, the conditioning of the method is found to be high but not critical in practice. It is shown that the Ultra-Weak Variational Formulation is in fact a subset of the present discontinuous Galerkin method. A special extension of the method is devised in order to deal with singular solutions generated by point sources like monopoles or dipoles. Aeroacoustic problems with non-uniform flows are also considered and results are presented for the sound radiated from a two-dimensional jet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, R. C.; Silva, A. F. C.; Bigarella, E. D. V.; Fazenda, A. L.; Ortega, M. A.
2016-08-01
This paper proposes two important improvements to shock-capturing strategies using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme, namely, accurate shock identification via finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) operators and efficient shock treatment through a point-implicit discretization of a PDE-based artificial viscosity technique. The advocated approach is based on the FTLE operator, originally developed in the context of dynamical systems theory to identify certain types of coherent structures in a flow. We propose the application of FTLEs in the detection of shock waves and demonstrate the operator's ability to identify strong and weak shocks equally well. The detection algorithm is coupled with a mesh refinement procedure and applied to transonic and supersonic flows. While the proposed strategy can be used potentially with any numerical method, a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver is used in this study. In this context, two artificial viscosity approaches are employed to regularize the solution near shocks: an element-wise constant viscosity technique and a PDE-based smooth viscosity model. As the latter approach is more sophisticated and preferable for complex problems, a point-implicit discretization in time is proposed to reduce the extra stiffness introduced by the PDE-based technique, making it more competitive in terms of computational cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaoquan; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Tiegang; Luo, Hong
2015-11-01
The direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method based on a traditional discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is extended and implemented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. Compared to the widely used second Bassi-Rebay (BR2) scheme for the discretization of diffusive fluxes, the DDG method has two attractive features: first, it is simple to implement as it is directly based on the weak form, and therefore there is no need for any local or global lifting operator; second, it can deliver comparable results, if not better than BR2 scheme, in a more efficient way with much less CPU time. Two approaches to perform the DDG flux for the Navier- Stokes equations are presented in this work, one is based on conservative variables, the other is based on primitive variables. In the implementation of the DDG method for arbitrary grid, the definition of mesh size plays a critical role as the formation of viscous flux explicitly depends on the geometry. A variety of test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DDG method for discretizing the viscous fluxes in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einkemmer, Lukas
2016-05-01
The recently developed semi-Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin approach is used to discretize hyperbolic partial differential equations (usually first order equations). Since these methods are conservative, local in space, and able to limit numerical diffusion, they are considered a promising alternative to more traditional semi-Lagrangian schemes (which are usually based on polynomial or spline interpolation). In this paper, we consider a parallel implementation of a semi-Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin method for distributed memory systems (so-called clusters). Both strong and weak scaling studies are performed on the Vienna Scientific Cluster 2 (VSC-2). In the case of weak scaling we observe a parallel efficiency above 0.8 for both two and four dimensional problems and up to 8192 cores. Strong scaling results show good scalability to at least 512 cores (we consider problems that can be run on a single processor in reasonable time). In addition, we study the scaling of a two dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver that is implemented using the framework provided. All of the simulations are conducted in the context of worst case communication overhead; i.e., in a setting where the CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) number increases linearly with the problem size. The framework introduced in this paper facilitates a dimension independent implementation of scientific codes (based on C++ templates) using both an MPI and a hybrid approach to parallelization. We describe the essential ingredients of our implementation.
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q.M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdi, Daniel S.; Giraldo, Francis X.
2016-09-01
A unified approach for the numerical solution of the 3D hyperbolic Euler equations using high order methods, namely continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, is presented. First, we examine how classical CG that uses a global storage scheme can be constructed within the DG framework using constraint imposition techniques commonly used in the finite element literature. Then, we implement and test a simplified version in the Non-hydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere (NUMA) for the case of explicit time integration and a diagonal mass matrix. Constructing CG within the DG framework allows CG to benefit from the desirable properties of DG such as, easier hp-refinement, better stability etc. Moreover, this representation allows for regional mixing of CG and DG depending on the flow regime in an area. The different flavors of CG and DG in the unified implementation are then tested for accuracy and performance using a suite of benchmark problems representative of cloud-resolving scale, meso-scale and global-scale atmospheric dynamics. The value of our unified approach is that we are able to show how to carry both CG and DG methods within the same code and also offer a simple recipe for modifying an existing CG code to DG and vice versa.
Error Analysis of p-Version Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Heat Transfer in Built-up Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide an error analysis for the p-version of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for heat transfer in built-up structures. As a special case of the results in this paper, a theoretical error estimate for the numerical experiments recently conducted by James Tomey is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric
2015-11-01
The Recovery discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a highly accurate approach to computing diffusion problems, which achieves up to 3p+2 convergence rates on Cartesian cells, where p is the order of the polynomial basis. Based on the construction of a unique and differentiable solution across cell interfaces, Recovery DG has mostly been investigated on periodic domains. However, whether such accuracy can be sustained for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions has not been thoroughly explored. We present boundary treatments for Recovery DG on 2D Cartesian geometry that exhibit up to 3p+2 convergence rates and are stable. We demonstrate the efficiency of Recovery DG in context with other commonly used approaches using scalar shear diffusion problems and apply it to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The extension of the method to perturbed quadrilateral cells, rather than Cartesian, will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseenko, A.; Josyula, E.
2012-11-01
We propose an approach for high order discretization of the Boltzmann equation in the velocity space using discontinuous Galerkin methods. Our approach employs a reformulation of the collision integral in the form of a bilinear operator with a time-independent kernel. In the fully non-linear case the complexity of the method is O(n8) operations per spatial cell where n is the number of degrees of freedom in one velocity direction. The new method is suitable for parallelization to a large number of processors. Techniques of automatic perturbation decomposition and linearisation are developed to achieve additional performance improvement. The number of operations per spatial cell in the linearised regime is O(n6). The method is applied to the solution of the spatially homogeneous relaxation problem. Mass momentum and energy is conserved to a good precision in the computed solutions.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for gravity-driven viscous fingering instabilities in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scovazzi, G.; Gerstenberger, A.; Collis, S. S.
2013-01-01
We present a new approach to the simulation of gravity-driven viscous fingering instabilities in porous media flow. These instabilities play a very important role during carbon sequestration processes in brine aquifers. Our approach is based on a nonlinear implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method, and possesses a number of key features. First, the method developed is inherently high order, and is therefore well suited to study unstable flow mechanisms. Secondly, it maintains high-order accuracy on completely unstructured meshes. The combination of these two features makes it a very appealing strategy in simulating the challenging flow patterns and very complex geometries of actual reservoirs and aquifers. This article includes an extensive set of verification studies on the stability and accuracy of the method, and also features a number of computations with unstructured grids and non-standard geometries.
A GPU-accelerated adaptive discontinuous Galerkin method for level set equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakus, A.; Warburton, T.; Aksel, M. H.; Sert, C.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a GPU-accelerated nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of two- and three-dimensional level set (LS) equation on unstructured adaptive meshes. Using adaptive mesh refinement, computations are localised mostly near the interface location to reduce the computational cost. Small global time step size resulting from the local adaptivity is avoided by local time-stepping based on a multi-rate Adams-Bashforth scheme. Platform independence of the solver is achieved with an extensible multi-threading programming API that allows runtime selection of different computing devices (GPU and CPU) and different threading interfaces (CUDA, OpenCL and OpenMP). Overall, a highly scalable, accurate and mass conservative numerical scheme that preserves the simplicity of LS formulation is obtained. Efficiency, performance and local high-order accuracy of the method are demonstrated through distinct numerical test cases.
A discontinuous Galerkin front tracking method for two-phase flows with surface tension
Nguyen, V.-T.; Peraire, J.; Cheong, K.B.; Persson, P.-O.
2008-12-28
A Discontinuous Galerkin method for solving hyperbolic systems of conservation laws involving interfaces is presented. The interfaces are represented by a collection of element boundaries and their position is updated using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The motion of the interfaces and the numerical fluxes are obtained by solving a Riemann problem. As the interface is propagated, a simple and effective remeshing technique based on distance functions regenerates the grid to preserve its quality. Compared to other interface capturing techniques, the proposed approach avoids smearing of the jumps across the interface which leads to an improvement in accuracy. Numerical results are presented for several typical two-dimensional interface problems, including flows with surface tension.
Causal-Path Local Time-Stepping in the discontinuous Galerkin method for Maxwell's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo, L. D.; Alvarez, J.; Teixeira, F. L.; Pantoja, M. F.; Garcia, S. G.
2014-01-01
We introduce a novel local time-stepping technique for marching-in-time algorithms. The technique is denoted as Causal-Path Local Time-Stepping (CPLTS) and it is applied for two time integration techniques: fourth-order low-storage explicit Runge-Kutta (LSERK4) and second-order Leap-Frog (LF2). The CPLTS method is applied to evolve Maxwell's curl equations using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the spatial discretization. Numerical results for LF2 and LSERK4 are compared with analytical solutions and the Montseny's LF2 technique. The results show that the CPLTS technique improves the dispersive and dissipative properties of LF2-LTS scheme.
DNS of Flows over Periodic Hills using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent compressible flows is performed using a higher-order space-time discontinuous-Galerkin finite-element method. The numerical scheme is validated by performing DNS of the evolution of the Taylor-Green vortex and turbulent flow in a channel. The higher-order method is shown to provide increased accuracy relative to low-order methods at a given number of degrees of freedom. The turbulent flow over a periodic array of hills in a channel is simulated at Reynolds number 10,595 using an 8th-order scheme in space and a 4th-order scheme in time. These results are validated against previous large eddy simulation (LES) results. A preliminary analysis provides insight into how these detailed simulations can be used to improve Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling
A Discrete Analysis of Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions for Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.; Atkins, Harold L.
2003-01-01
We present a discrete analysis of non-reflecting boundary conditions for the discontinuous Galerkin method. The boundary conditions considered in this paper include the recently proposed Perfectly Matched Layer absorbing boundary condition for the linearized Euler equation and two non-reflecting boundary conditions based on the characteristic decomposition of the flux on the boundary. The analyses for the three boundary conditions are carried out in a unifled way. In each case, eigensolutions of the discrete system are obtained and applied to compute the numerical reflection coefficients of a specified out-going wave. The dependencies of the reflections at the boundary on the out-going wave angle and frequency as well as the mesh sizes arc? studied. Comparisons with direct numerical simulation results are also presented.
A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2009-01-01
We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.
Giraldo, Francis X. . E-mail: giraldo@nrlmry.navy.mil
2006-05-20
High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere are presented. The DG method can be characterized as the fusion of finite elements with finite volumes. This DG formulation uses high-order Lagrange polynomials on the triangle using nodal sets up to 15th order. The finite element-type area integrals are evaluated using order 2N Gauss cubature rules. This leads to a full mass matrix which, unlike for continuous Galerkin (CG) methods such as the spectral element (SE) method presented in Giraldo and Warburton [A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 129-150], is small, local and efficient to invert. Two types of finite volume-type flux integrals are studied: a set based on Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points (order 2N - 1) and a set based on Gauss quadrature points (order 2N). Furthermore, we explore conservation and advection forms as well as strong and weak forms. Seven test cases are used to compare the different methods including some with scale contractions and shock waves. All three strong forms performed extremely well with the strong conservation form with 2N integration being the most accurate of the four DG methods studied. The strong advection form with 2N integration performed extremely well even for flows with shock waves. The strong conservation form with 2N - 1 integration yielded results almost as good as those with 2N while being less expensive. All the DG methods performed better than the SE method for almost all the test cases, especially for those with strong discontinuities. Finally, the DG methods required less computing time than the SE method due to the local nature of the mass matrix.
Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Numerical Roe Flux for Spherical Shallow Water Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, T.; Choi, S.; Kang, S.
2013-12-01
In developing the dynamic core of a numerical weather prediction model with discontinuous Galerkin method, a numerical flux at the boundaries of grid elements plays a vital role since it preserves the local conservation properties and has a significant impact on the accuracy and stability of numerical solutions. Due to these reasons, we developed the numerical Roe flux based on an approximate Riemann problem for spherical shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates [1] to find out its stability and accuracy. In order to compare the performance with its counterpart flux, we used the Lax-Friedrichs flux, which has been used in many dynamic cores such as NUMA [1], CAM-DG [2] and MCore [3] because of its simplicity. The Lax-Friedrichs flux is implemented by a flux difference between left and right states plus the maximum characteristic wave speed across the boundaries of elements. It has been shown that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with the finite volume method is more dissipative and unstable than other numerical fluxes such as HLLC, AUSM+ and Roe. The Roe flux implemented in this study is based on the decomposition of flux difference over the element boundaries where the nonlinear equations are linearized. It is rarely used in dynamic cores due to its complexity and thus computational expensiveness. To compare the stability and accuracy of the Roe flux with the Lax-Friedrichs, two- and three-dimensional test cases are performed on a plane and cubed-sphere, respectively, with various numbers of element and polynomial order. For the two-dimensional case, the Gaussian bell is simulated on the plane with two different numbers of elements at the fixed polynomial orders. In three-dimensional cases on the cubed-sphere, we performed the test cases of a zonal flow over an isolated mountain and a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, of which initial conditions are the same as those of Williamson [4]. This study presented that the Roe flux with the discontinuous Galerkin method is less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yang; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Hakim, Ammar
2015-11-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is employed in this work to study plasma instabilities using high-order accuracy. The DG method has the advantage of resolving shocks and sharp gradients that occur in neutral fluids and plasmas. Artificial viscosity, limiters and filters are explored along with the DG method to mitigate numerical instabilities in the region of discontinuities. Artificial viscosity works in a simultaneous sense by adding a viscous term to the system to damp higher modes. Limiters are expected to reduce the numerical order one by one in regions of sharp gradients so that smooth solutions can be obtained while a fairly good numerical accuracy is maintained. Filters work physically the same as artificial viscosity but mathematically in a sequential way which will only filter the solution at the end of each time-step or at intermediate stages of a time-step. Computational tests are performed in one and two dimensions. Results are presented for Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor unstable plasmas using the code Gkeyll.
Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface water waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagarina, E.; Ambati, V. R.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.; Bokhove, O.
2014-10-01
A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves using the potential flow approximation. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a finite element discretization that is continuous in space and discontinuous in time. One novel feature of this variational finite element approach is that the free surface evolution is variationally dependent on the mesh deformation vis-à-vis the mesh deformation being geometrically dependent on free surface evolution. Another key feature is the use of a variational (dis)continuous Galerkin finite element discretization in time. Moreover, in the absence of a wave maker, it is shown to be equivalent to the second order symplectic Störmer-Verlet time stepping scheme for the free-surface degrees of freedom. These key features add to the stability of the numerical method. Finally, the resulting numerical scheme is verified against nonlinear analytical solutions with long time simulations and validated against experimental measurements of driven wave solutions in a wave basin of the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pétri, J.
2015-03-01
The close vicinity of neutron stars remains poorly constrained by observations. Although plenty of data are available for the peculiar class of pulsars we are still unable to deduce the underlying plasma distribution in their magnetosphere. In the present paper, we try to unravel the magnetospheric structure starting from basic physics principles and reasonable assumptions about the magnetosphere. Beginning with the monopole force-free case, we compute accurate general relativistic solutions for the electromagnetic field around a slowly rotating magnetized neutron star. Moreover, here we address this problem by including the important effect of plasma screening. This is achieved by solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations in a curved space-time following the 3+1 formalism. We improved our previous numerical code based on pseudo-spectral methods in order to allow for possible discontinuities in the solution. Our algorithm based on a multidomain decomposition of the simulation box belongs to the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. We performed several sets of simulations to look for the general relativistic force-free monopole and split monopole solutions. Results show that our code is extremely powerful in handling extended domains of hundredth of light cylinder radii rL. The code has been validated against known exact analytical monopole solutions in flat space-time. We also present semi-analytical calculations for the general relativistic vacuum monopole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.
2012-10-01
A wide range of physics problems, including gyrokinetics, have an underlying Hamiltonian structure that can be expressed in terms of a Poisson bracket, which leads to two quadratic invariants, such as the energy and enstrophy invariants in 2-D hydrodynamics or Hasegawa-Mima equations. A type of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) algorithm has been developed in the literature that can preserve both invariants, by coupling the DG algorithm for the advection part of the problem with a continuous Finite Element Method for the elliptic field equations. This algorithm can preserve both invariants if centered fluxes are used, and still preserves energy conservation even if upwind fluxes are used. However, when applied to gyrokinetics, the weak form of the continuous finite-element part of the algorithm causes a coupling along the field line that would require a full 3-D elliptic solver. We show a new type of DG algorithm that allows the potential to be discontinuous along the field line, just as the particle distribution function can be, thus restoring the property that the fields in gyrokinetics can determined by a set of uncoupled 2-D elliptic problems. By accounting for the delta-function electric field as particles cross cell boundaries, energy can still be preserved.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for the shallow water equations in spherical triangular coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Läuter, Matthias; Giraldo, Francis X.; Handorf, Dörthe; Dethloff, Klaus
2008-12-01
A global model of the atmosphere is presented governed by the shallow water equations and discretized by a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method on an unstructured triangular grid. The shallow water equations on the sphere, a two-dimensional surface in R3, are locally represented in terms of spherical triangular coordinates, the appropriate local coordinate mappings on triangles. On every triangular grid element, this leads to a two-dimensional representation of tangential momentum and therefore only two discrete momentum equations. The discontinuous Galerkin method consists of an integral formulation which requires both area (elements) and line (element faces) integrals. Here, we use a Rusanov numerical flux to resolve the discontinuous fluxes at the element faces. A strong stability-preserving third-order Runge-Kutta method is applied for the time discretization. The polynomial space of order k on each curved triangle of the grid is characterized by a Lagrange basis and requires high-order quadature rules for the integration over elements and element faces. For the presented method no mass matrix inversion is necessary, except in a preprocessing step. The validation of the atmospheric model has been done considering standard tests from Williamson et al. [D.L. Williamson, J.B. Drake, J.J. Hack, R. Jakob, P.N. Swarztrauber, A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry, J. Comput. Phys. 102 (1992) 211-224], unsteady analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow water equations and a barotropic instability caused by an initial perturbation of a jet stream. A convergence rate of O(Δx) was observed in the model experiments. Furthermore, a numerical experiment is presented, for which the third-order time-integration method limits the model error. Thus, the time step Δt is restricted by both the CFL-condition and accuracy demands. Conservation of mass was shown up to machine precision and energy conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glinsky, Nathalie; Mercerat, Diego
2013-04-01
High-order numerical methods allow accurate simulations of ground motion using unstructured and relatively coarse meshes. In realistic media (sedimentary basins for example), we have to include strong variations of the material properties. For such configurations, the hypothesis that material properties are set constant in each element of the mesh can be a severe limitation since we need to use very fine meshes resulting in very small time steps for explicit time integration schemes. Moreover, smooth models are approximated by piecewise constant materials. For these reasons, we present an improvement of a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) allowing non constant material properties in the elements of the mesh for a better approximation of arbitrary heterogeneous media. We consider an isotropic, linearly elastic two-dimensional medium (characterized by ?, ? and μ) and solve the first-order velocity-stress system. As the stress tensor is symmetrical, let W? = (?V,?-?)t contain the velocity vector ?-V = (vx,vy)t and the stress components ?-? = (?xx,?yy,?xy)t, then, the system writes t ?-W + Ax (?,?,μ) ^xW?- + Ay(?,?,μ) ^yW ?- = 0, where Ax and Ay are 5x5 matrices depending of the material properties. We apply a discontinuous Galerkin method based on centered fluxes and a leap-frog time scheme to this system. We consider a bounded polyhedral domain discretized by triangles. The approximation of W?- is defined locally on each element by considering the Lagrange nodal interpolants. The system is multiplied by a test function t and integrated on each element Ti. To avoid computing extra terms, related to the variable properties within Ti, we introduce a change of variables on the stress components ( )t ?-? = (?xx,?yy,?xy)t ? ??? = 1(?xx + ?yy), 1 (?xx - ?yy),?xy 2 2 which allows writing the system in a pseudo-conservative form in the variable ?-W? = (?-V,???)t ? (?,?,μ) ^tW ?? + ?Ax x ??W + A?y y ??W = 0 , where the constant matrices Ãx and Ãy do not depend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian
2015-04-01
Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. Tinsley
1993-01-01
A priori error estimates are derived for hp-versions of the finite element method for discontinuous Galerkin approximations of a model class of linear, scalar, first-order hyperbolic conservation laws. These estimates are derived in a mesh dependent norm in which the coefficients depend upon both the local mesh size h(sub K) and a number p(sub k) which can be identified with the spectral order of the local approximations over each element.
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-10
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-01
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwanenburg, Philip; Nadarajah, Siva
2016-02-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the equivalence between filtered Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes and the Energy Stable Flux Reconstruction (ESFR) schemes, expanding on previous demonstrations in 1D [1] and for straight-sided elements in 3D [2]. We first derive the DG and ESFR schemes in strong form and compare the respective flux penalization terms while highlighting the implications of the fundamental assumptions for stability in the ESFR formulations, notably that all ESFR scheme correction fields can be interpreted as modally filtered DG correction fields. We present the result in the general context of all higher dimensional curvilinear element formulations. Through a demonstration that there exists a weak form of the ESFR schemes which is both discretely and analytically equivalent to the strong form, we then extend the results obtained for the strong formulations to demonstrate that ESFR schemes can be interpreted as a DG scheme in weak form where discontinuous edge flux is substituted for numerical edge flux correction. Theoretical derivations are then verified with numerical results obtained from a 2D Euler testcase with curved boundaries. Given the current choice of high-order DG-type schemes and the question as to which might be best to use for a specific application, the main significance of this work is the bridge that it provides between them. Clearly outlining the similarities between the schemes results in the important conclusion that it is always less efficient to use ESFR schemes, as opposed to the weak DG scheme, when solving problems implicitly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vater, Stefan; Behrens, Jörn
2016-04-01
We apply a tsunami simulation framework, which is based on depth-integrated hydrodynamic model equations, to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. While this model has been previously validated for analytic test cases and laboratory experiments, here it is applied to earthquake sources which are based on seismic inversion. Simulated wave heights and runup at the coast are compared to actual measurements. The discretization is based on a second-order Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme on triangular grids and features a robust wetting and drying scheme for the simulation of inundation events at the coast. Adaptive mesh refinement enables the efficient computation of large domains, while at the same time it allows for high local resolution and geometric accuracy. This work is part of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project, which aims at an improved understanding of the coupling between the earthquake and the generated tsunami event. In this course, a coupled simulation framework has been developed which couples physics-based rupture generation with the presented hydrodynamic tsunami propagation and inundation model.
Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows
HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll
2008-07-01
There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.
Application of p-Multigrid to Discontinuous Galerkin Formulations of the Poisson Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helenbrook, B. T.; Atkins, H. L.
2006-01-01
We investigate p-multigrid as a solution method for several different discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulations of the Poisson equation. Different combinations of relaxation schemes and basis sets have been combined with the DG formulations to find the best performing combination. The damping factors of the schemes have been determined using Fourier analysis for both one and two-dimensional problems. One important finding is that when using DG formulations, the standard approach of forming the coarse p matrices separately for each level of multigrid is often unstable. To ensure stability the coarse p matrices must be constructed from the fine grid matrices using algebraic multigrid techniques. Of the relaxation schemes, we find that the combination of Jacobi relaxation with the spectral element basis is fairly effective. The results using this combination are p sensitive in both one and two dimensions, but reasonable convergence rates can still be achieved for moderate values of p and isotropic meshes. A competitive alternative is a block Gauss-Seidel relaxation. This actually out performs a more expensive line relaxation when the mesh is isotropic. When the mesh becomes highly anisotropic, the implicit line method and the Gauss-Seidel implicit line method are the only effective schemes. Adding the Gauss-Seidel terms to the implicit line method gives a significant improvement over the line relaxation method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian
2013-08-01
Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.
Discontinuous Galerkin methods for plasma physics in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks
Michoski, C.; Meyerson, D.; Isaac, T.; Waelbroeck, F.
2014-10-01
A new parallel discontinuous Galerkin solver, called ArcOn, is developed to describe the intermittent turbulent transport of filamentary blobs in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of fusion plasma. The model is comprised of an elliptic subsystem coupled to two convection-dominated reaction–diffusion–convection equations. Upwinding is used for a class of numerical fluxes developed to accommodate cross product driven convection, and the elliptic solver uses SIPG, NIPG, IIPG, Brezzi, and Bassi–Rebay fluxes to formulate the stiffness matrix. A novel entropy sensor is developed for this system, designed for a space–time varying artificial diffusion/viscosity regularization algorithm. Some numerical experiments are performed to show convergence order on manufactured solutions, regularization of blob/streamer dynamics in the SOL given unstable parameterizations, long-time stability of modon (or dipole drift vortex) solutions arising in simulations of drift-wave turbulence, and finally the formation of edge mode turbulence in the scrape-off layer under turbulent saturation conditions.
A nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for reverse-time migration on GPU clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modave, A.; St-Cyr, A.; Mulder, W. A.; Warburton, T.
2015-11-01
Improving both accuracy and computational performance of numerical tools is a major challenge for seismic imaging and generally requires specialized implementations to make full use of modern parallel architectures. We present a computational strategy for reverse-time migration (RTM) with accelerator-aided clusters. A new imaging condition computed from the pressure and velocity fields is introduced. The model solver is based on a high-order discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for the pressure-velocity system with unstructured meshes and multirate local time stepping. We adopted the MPI+X approach for distributed programming where X is a threaded programming model. In this work we chose OCCA, a unified framework that makes use of major multithreading languages (e.g. CUDA and OpenCL) and offers the flexibility to run on several hardware architectures. DGTD schemes are suitable for efficient computations with accelerators thanks to localized element-to-element coupling and the dense algebraic operations required for each element. Moreover, compared to high-order finite-difference schemes, the thin halo inherent to DGTD method reduces the amount of data to be exchanged between MPI processes and storage requirements for RTM procedures. The amount of data to be recorded during simulation is reduced by storing only boundary values in memory rather than on disk and recreating the forward wavefields. Computational results are presented that indicate that these methods are strong scalable up to at least 32 GPUs for a three-dimensional RTM case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spiegel, Seth C.; Huynh, H. T.; DeBonis, James R.
2015-01-01
High-order methods are quickly becoming popular for turbulent flows as the amount of computer processing power increases. The flux reconstruction (FR) method presents a unifying framework for a wide class of high-order methods including discontinuous Galerkin (DG), Spectral Difference (SD), and Spectral Volume (SV). It offers a simple, efficient, and easy way to implement nodal-based methods that are derived via the differential form of the governing equations. Whereas high-order methods have enjoyed recent success, they have been known to introduce numerical instabilities due to polynomial aliasing when applied to under-resolved nonlinear problems. Aliasing errors have been extensively studied in reference to DG methods; however, their study regarding FR methods has mostly been limited to the selection of the nodal points used within each cell. Here, we extend some of the de-aliasing techniques used for DG methods, primarily over-integration, to the FR framework. Our results show that over-integration does remove aliasing errors but may not remove all instabilities caused by insufficient resolution (for FR as well as DG).
On Formulations of Discontinuous Galerkin and Related Methods for Conservation Laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2014-01-01
A formulation for the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method that leads to solutions using the differential form of the equation (as opposed to the standard integral form) is presented. The formulation includes (a) a derivative calculation that involves only data within each cell with no data interaction among cells, and (b) for each cell, corrections to this derivative that deal with the jumps in fluxes at the cell boundaries and allow data across cells to interact. The derivative with no interaction is obtained by a projection, but for nodal-type methods, evaluating this derivative by interpolation at the nodal points is more economical. The corrections are derived using the approximate (Dirac) delta functions. The formulation results in a family of schemes: different approximate delta functions give rise to different methods. It is shown that the current formulation is essentially equivalent to the flux reconstruction (FR) formulation. Due to the use of approximate delta functions, an energy stability proof simpler than that of Vincent, Castonguay, and Jameson (2011) for a family of schemes is derived. Accuracy and stability of resulting schemes are discussed via Fourier analyses. Similar to FR, the current formulation provides a unifying framework for high-order methods by recovering the DG, spectral difference (SD), and spectral volume (SV) schemes. It also yields stable, accurate, and economical methods.
Seny, Bruno Lambrechts, Jonathan; Toulorge, Thomas; Legat, Vincent; Remacle, Jean-François
2014-01-01
Although explicit time integration schemes require small computational efforts per time step, their efficiency is severely restricted by their stability limits. Indeed, the multi-scale nature of some physical processes combined with highly unstructured meshes can lead some elements to impose a severely small stable time step for a global problem. Multirate methods offer a way to increase the global efficiency by gathering grid cells in appropriate groups under local stability conditions. These methods are well suited to the discontinuous Galerkin framework. The parallelization of the multirate strategy is challenging because grid cells have different workloads. The computational cost is different for each sub-time step depending on the elements involved and a classical partitioning strategy is not adequate any more. In this paper, we propose a solution that makes use of multi-constraint mesh partitioning. It tends to minimize the inter-processor communications, while ensuring that the workload is almost equally shared by every computer core at every stage of the algorithm. Particular attention is given to the simplicity of the parallel multirate algorithm while minimizing computational and communication overheads. Our implementation makes use of the MeTiS library for mesh partitioning and the Message Passing Interface for inter-processor communication. Performance analyses for two and three-dimensional practical applications confirm that multirate methods preserve important computational advantages of explicit methods up to a significant number of processors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellini, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Valerio; Bassi, Francesco
2013-05-01
In this paper the artificial compressibility flux Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been extended to deal with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. DG implementations of the RANS and SA equations for compressible flows have already been reported in the literature, including the description of limiting or stabilization techniques adopted in order to prevent the turbulent viscosity ν˜ from becoming negative. In this paper we introduce an SA model implementation that deals with negative ν˜ values by modifying the source and diffusion terms in the SA model equation only when the working variable or one of the model closure functions become negative. This results in an efficient high-order implementation where either stabilization terms or even additional equations are avoided. We remark that the proposed implementation is not DG specific and it is well suited for any numerical discretization of the RANS-SA governing equations. The reliability, robustness and accuracy of the proposed implementation have been assessed by computing several high Reynolds number turbulent test cases: the flow over a flat plate (Re=107), the flow past a backward-facing step (Re=37400) and the flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil at different angles of attack (α=0°, 10°, 15°) and Reynolds numbers (Re=2.88×106,6×106).
GPU performance analysis of a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for acoustic and elastic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modave, A.; St-Cyr, A.; Warburton, T.
2016-06-01
Finite element schemes based on discontinuous Galerkin methods possess features amenable to massively parallel computing accelerated with general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). However, the computational performance of such schemes strongly depends on their implementation. In the past, several implementation strategies have been proposed. They are based exclusively on specialized compute kernels tuned for each operation, or they can leverage BLAS libraries that provide optimized routines for basic linear algebra operations. In this paper, we present and analyze up-to-date performance results for different implementations, tested in a unified framework on a single NVIDIA GTX980 GPU. We show that specialized kernels written with a one-node-per-thread strategy are competitive for polynomial bases up to the fifth and seventh degrees for acoustic and elastic models, respectively. For higher degrees, a strategy that makes use of the NVIDIA cuBLAS library provides better results, able to reach a net arithmetic throughput 35.7% of the theoretical peak value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ruihan; Xu, Yan
2015-10-01
In this paper, we present an efficient and unconditionally energy stable fully-discrete local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for approximating the Cahn-Hilliard-Brinkman (CHB) system, which is comprised of a Cahn-Hilliard type equation and a generalized Brinkman equation modeling fluid flow. The semi-discrete energy stability of the LDG method is proved firstly. Due to the strict time step restriction (Δt = O (Δx4)) of explicit time discretization methods for stability, we introduce a semi-implicit scheme which consists of the implicit Euler method combined with a convex splitting of the discrete Cahn-Hilliard energy strategy for the temporal discretization. The unconditional energy stability of this fully-discrete convex splitting scheme is also proved. Obviously, the fully-discrete equations at the implicit time level are nonlinear, and to enhance the efficiency of the proposed approach, the nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid method has been employed to solve this system of algebraic equations. We also show the nearly optimal complexity numerically. Numerical experiments based on the overall solution method of combining the proposed LDG method, convex splitting scheme and the nonlinear multigrid solver are given to validate the theoretical results and to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the CHB system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, N. C.; Peraire, J.; Reitich, F.; Cockburn, B.
2015-06-01
We introduce a new hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation over a wide range of wave frequencies. Our approach combines the HDG methodology with geometrical optics in a fashion that allows us to take advantage of the strengths of these two methodologies. The phase-based HDG method is devised as follows. First, we enrich the local approximation spaces with precomputed phases which are solutions of the eikonal equation in geometrical optics. Second, we propose a novel scheme that combines the HDG method with ray tracing to compute multivalued solution of the eikonal equation. Third, we utilize the proper orthogonal decomposition to remove redundant modes and obtain locally orthogonal basis functions which are then used to construct the global approximation spaces of the phase-based HDG method. And fourth, we propose an appropriate choice of the stabilization parameter to guarantee stability and accuracy for the proposed method. Numerical experiments presented show that optimal orders of convergence are achieved, that the number of degrees of freedom to achieve a given accuracy is independent of the wave number, and that the number of unknowns required to achieve a given accuracy with the proposed method is orders of magnitude smaller than that with the standard finite element method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J.-P.
2016-01-01
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method's capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method's accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.
Discontinuous Galerkin solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on deformable domains
Persson, P.-O.; Bonet, J.; Peraire, J.
2009-01-13
We describe a method for computing time-dependent solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on variable geometries. We introduce a continuous mapping between a fixed reference configuration and the time varying domain, By writing the Navier-Stokes equations as a conservation law for the independent variables in the reference configuration, the complexity introduced by variable geometry is reduced to solving a transformed conservation law in a fixed reference configuration, The spatial discretization is carried out using the Discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured meshes of triangles, while the time integration is performed using an explicit Runge-Kutta method, For general domain changes, the standard scheme fails to preserve exactly the free-stream solution which leads to some accuracy degradation, especially for low order approximations. This situation is remedied by adding an additional equation for the time evolution of the transformation Jacobian to the original conservation law and correcting for the accumulated metric integration errors. A number of results are shown to illustrate the flexibility of the approach to handle high order approximations on complex geometries.
Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.
2015-11-11
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less
Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.
2015-11-11
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.
A discontinuous Galerkin conservative level set scheme for interface capturing in multiphase flows
Owkes, Mark Desjardins, Olivier
2013-09-15
The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. [O. Desjardins, V. Moureau, H. Pitsch, An accurate conservative level set/ghost fluid method for simulating turbulent atomization, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (18) (2008) 8395–8416] is extended by using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. DG allows for the scheme to have an arbitrarily high order of accuracy with the smallest possible computational stencil resulting in an accurate method with good parallel scaling. This work includes a DG implementation of the level set transport equation, which moves the level set with the flow field velocity, and a DG implementation of the reinitialization equation, which is used to maintain the shape of the level set profile to promote good mass conservation. A near second order converging interface curvature is obtained by following a height function methodology (common amongst volume of fluid schemes) in the context of the conservative level set. Various numerical experiments are conducted to test the properties of the method and show excellent results, even on coarse meshes. The tests include Zalesak’s disk, two-dimensional deformation of a circle, time evolution of a standing wave, and a study of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Finally, this novel methodology is employed to simulate the break-up of a turbulent liquid jet.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for the Two-Moment Model of Radiation Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory
2016-03-01
We are developing computational methods for simulation of radiation transport in astrophysical systems (e.g., neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae). Here we consider the two-moment model of radiation transport, where the energy density E and flux F - angular moments of a phase space distribution function - approximates the radiation field in a computationally tractable manner. We aim to develop multi-dimensional methods that are (i) high-order accurate for computational efficiency, and (ii) robust in the sense that the solution remains in the realizable set R = { (E , F) | E >= 0 and E - | F | >= 0 } (i.e., E and F are consistent with moments of an underlying distribution). Our approach is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, which has many attractive properties, including high-order accuracy on a compact stencil. We present the physical model and numerical method, and show results from a multi-dimensional implementation. Tests show that the method is high-order accurate and strictly preserves realizability of the moments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Held, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Stegmeir, A.
2016-02-01
We present and discuss three discontinuous Galerkin (dG) discretizations for the anisotropic heat conduction equation on non-aligned cylindrical grids. Our non-aligned scheme relies on a self-adjoint local dG (LDG) discretization of the elliptic operator. It conserves the energy exactly and converges with arbitrary order. The pollution by numerical perpendicular heat fluxes decreases with superconvergence rates. We compare this scheme with aligned schemes that are based on the flux-coordinate independent approach for the discretization of parallel derivatives. Here, the dG method provides the necessary interpolation. The first aligned discretization can be used in an explicit time-integrator. However, the scheme violates conservation of energy and shows up stagnating convergence rates for very high resolutions. We overcome this partly by using the adjoint of the parallel derivative operator to construct a second self-adjoint aligned scheme. This scheme preserves energy, but reveals unphysical oscillations in the numerical tests, which result in a decreased order of convergence. Both aligned schemes exhibit low numerical heat fluxes into the perpendicular direction and are superior for flute-modes with finite parallel gradients. We build our argumentation on various numerical experiments on all three schemes for a general axisymmetric magnetic field, which is closed by a comparison to the aligned finite difference (FD) schemes of Stegmeir et al. (2014) and Stegmeir et al. (submitted for publication).
DG-FTLE: Lagrangian coherent structures with high-order discontinuous-Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.
2015-08-01
We present an algorithm for the computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields using discontinuous-Galerkin (dG) methods in two dimensions. The algorithm is designed to compute FTLE fields simultaneously with the time integration of dG-based flow solvers of conservation laws. Fluid tracers are initialized at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature nodes within an element. The deformation gradient tensor, defined by the deformation of the Lagrangian flow map in finite time, is determined per element with high-order dG operators. Multiple flow maps are constructed from a particle trace that is released at a single initial time by mapping and interpolating the flow map formed by the locations of the fluid tracers after finite time integration to a unit square master element and to the quadrature nodes within the element, respectively. The interpolated flow maps are used to compute forward-time and backward-time FTLE fields at several times using dG operators. For a large finite integration time, the interpolation is increasingly poorly conditioned because of the excessive subdomain deformation. The conditioning can be used in addition to the FTLE to quantify the deformation of the flow field and identify subdomains with material lines that define Lagrangian coherent structures. The algorithm is tested on three benchmarks: an analytical spatially periodic gyre flow, a vortex advected by a uniform inviscid flow, and the viscous flow around a square cylinder. In these cases, the algorithm is shown to have spectral convergence.
Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao
2015-12-21
With the help of our recently developed massively parallel DGDFT (Discontinuous Galerkin Density Functional Theory) methodology, we perform large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations on phosphorene nanoribbons with armchair edges (ACPNRs) containing a few thousands to ten thousand atoms. The use of DGDFT allows us to systematically achieve a conventional plane wave basis set type of accuracy, but with a much smaller number (about 15) of adaptive local basis (ALB) functions per atom for this system. The relatively small number of degrees of freedom required to represent the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, together with the use of the pole expansion the selected inversion (PEXSI) technique that circumvents the need to diagonalize the Hamiltonian, results in a highly efficient and scalable computational scheme for analyzing the electronic structures of ACPNRs as well as their dynamics. The total wall clock time for calculating the electronic structures of large-scale ACPNRs containing 1080-10,800 atoms is only 10-25 s per self-consistent field (SCF) iteration, with accuracy fully comparable to that obtained from conventional planewave DFT calculations. For the ACPNR system, we observe that the DGDFT methodology can scale to 5000-50,000 processors. We use DGDFT based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations to study the thermodynamic stability of ACPNRs. Our calculations reveal that a 2 × 1 edge reconstruction appears in ACPNRs at room temperature. PMID:25698178
A curved boundary treatment for discontinuous Galerkin schemes solving time dependent problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangxiong
2016-03-01
For problems defined in a two-dimensional domain Ω with boundary conditions specified on a curve Γ, we consider discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes with high order polynomial basis functions on a geometry fitting triangular mesh. It is well known that directly imposing the given boundary conditions on a piecewise segment approximation boundary Γh will render any finite element method to be at most second order accurate. Unless the boundary conditions can be accurately transferred from Γ to Γh, in general curvilinear element method should be used to obtain high order accuracy. We discuss a simple boundary treatment which can be implemented as a modified DG scheme defined on triangles adjacent to Γh. Even though integration along the curve is still necessary, integrals over any curved element are avoided. If the domain Ω is convex, or if Ω is nonconvex and the true solutions can be smoothly extended to the exterior of Ω, the modified DG scheme is high order accurate. In these cases, numerical tests on first order and second order partial differential equations including hyperbolic systems and the scalar wave equation suggest that it is as accurate as the full curvilinear DG scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hála, Jindřich; Luxa, Martin; Bublík, Ondřej; Prausová, Helena; Vimmr, Jan
2016-03-01
In the present paper, new results of measurements of the compressible viscous fluid flow in narrow channels with parallel walls under the conditions of aerodynamic choking are presented. Investigation was carried out using the improved test section with enhanced capability to accurately set the parallelism of the channel walls. The measurements were performed for the channels of the dimensions: length 100 mm, width 100 mm and for various heights in the range from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. The results in the form of distribution of the static pressure along the channel axis including the detailed study of the influence of the deviation from parallelism of the channel walls are compared with previous measurements and with numerical simulations performed using an in-house code based on Favre averaged system of Navier-Stokes equations completed with turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras and a modification of production term according to Langtry and Sjolander. The spatial discretization of the governing equations is performed using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which ensures high order spatial accuracy of the numerical solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hailiang; Yi, Nianyu
2016-09-01
The invariant preserving property is one of the guiding principles for numerical algorithms in solving wave equations, in order to minimize phase and amplitude errors after long time simulation. In this paper, we design, analyze and numerically validate a Hamiltonian preserving discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. For the generalized KdV equation, the semi-discrete formulation is shown to preserve both the first and the third conserved integrals, and approximately preserve the second conserved integral; for the linearized KdV equation, all the first three conserved integrals are preserved, and optimal error estimates are obtained for polynomials of even degree. The preservation properties are also maintained by the fully discrete DG scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate both high accuracy of convergence and preservation of all three conserved integrals for the generalized KdV equation. We also show that the shape of the solution, after long time simulation, is well preserved due to the Hamiltonian preserving property.
Robust and Accurate Shock Capturing Method for High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold L.; Pampell, Alyssa
2011-01-01
A simple yet robust and accurate approach for capturing shock waves using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented. The method uses the physical viscous terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as suggested by others; however, the proposed formulation of the numerical viscosity is continuous and compact by construction, and does not require the solution of an auxiliary diffusion equation. This work also presents two analyses that guided the formulation of the numerical viscosity and certain aspects of the DG implementation. A local eigenvalue analysis of the DG discretization applied to a shock containing element is used to evaluate the robustness of several Riemann flux functions, and to evaluate algorithm choices that exist within the underlying DG discretization. A second analysis examines exact solutions to the DG discretization in a shock containing element, and identifies a "model" instability that will inevitably arise when solving the Euler equations using the DG method. This analysis identifies the minimum viscosity required for stability. The shock capturing method is demonstrated for high-speed flow over an inviscid cylinder and for an unsteady disturbance in a hypersonic boundary layer. Numerical tests are presented that evaluate several aspects of the shock detection terms. The sensitivity of the results to model parameters is examined with grid and order refinement studies.
An h-adaptive local discontinuous Galerkin method for the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lulu; Xu, Yan; Kuerten, J. G. M.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2016-08-01
In this article, we develop a mesh adaptation algorithm for a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) discretization of the (non)-isothermal Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations modeling liquid-vapor flows with phase change. This work is a continuation of our previous research, where we proposed LDG discretizations for the (non)-isothermal NSK equations with a time-implicit Runge-Kutta method. To save computing time and to capture the thin interfaces more accurately, we extend the LDG discretization with a mesh adaptation method. Given the current adapted mesh, a criterion for selecting candidate elements for refinement and coarsening is adopted based on the locally largest value of the density gradient. A strategy to refine and coarsen the candidate elements is then provided. We emphasize that the adaptive LDG discretization is relatively simple and does not require additional stabilization. The use of a locally refined mesh in combination with an implicit Runge-Kutta time method is, however, non-trivial, but results in an efficient time integration method for the NSK equations. Computations, including cases with solid wall boundaries, are provided to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and capabilities of the adaptive LDG discretizations.
Developing Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Solving Multiphysics Problems in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidder, Lawrence; Field, Scott; Teukolsky, Saul; Foucart, Francois; SXS Collaboration
2016-03-01
Multi-messenger observations of the merger of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, and of supernova explosions will probe fundamental physics inaccessible to terrestrial experiments. Modeling these systems requires a relativistic treatment of hydrodynamics, including magnetic fields, as well as neutrino transport and nuclear reactions. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of current codes that treat all of these problems is not sufficient to keep up with the observational needs. We are building a new numerical code that uses the Discontinuous Galerkin method with a task-based parallelization strategy, a promising combination that will allow multiphysics applications to be treated both accurately and efficiently on petascale and exascale machines. The code will scale to more than 100,000 cores for efficient exploration of the parameter space of potential sources and allowed physics, and the high-fidelity predictions needed to realize the promise of multi-messenger astronomy. I will discuss the current status of the development of this new code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Kesserwani, Georges
2015-12-01
Numerical modelling of wide ranges of different physical scales, which are involved in Shallow Water (SW) problems, has been a key challenge in computational hydraulics. Adaptive meshing techniques have been commonly coupled with numerical methods in an attempt to address this challenge. The combination of MultiWavelets (MW) with the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method offers a new philosophy to readily achieve mesh adaptivity driven by the local variability of the numerical solution, and without requiring more than one threshold value set by the user. However, the practical merits and implications of the MWRKDG, in terms of how far it contributes to address the key challenge above, are yet to be explored. This work systematically explores this, through the verification and validation of the MWRKDG for selected steady and transient benchmark tests, which involves the features of real SW problems. Our findings reveal a practical promise of the SW-MWRKDG solver, in terms of efficient and accurate mesh-adaptivity, but also suggest further improvement in the SW-RKDG reference scheme to better intertwine with, and harness the prowess of, the MW-based adaptivity.
Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method using a new type of WENO limiters on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jun; Zhong, Xinghui; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian
2013-09-01
In this paper we generalize a new type of limiters based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume methodology for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods solving nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, which were recently developed in [32] for structured meshes, to two-dimensional unstructured triangular meshes. The key idea of such limiters is to use the entire polynomials of the DG solutions from the troubled cell and its immediate neighboring cells, and then apply the classical WENO procedure to form a convex combination of these polynomials based on smoothness indicators and nonlinear weights, with suitable adjustments to guarantee conservation. The main advantage of this new limiter is its simplicity in implementation, especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, as only information from immediate neighbors is needed and the usage of complicated geometric information of the meshes is largely avoided. Numerical results for both scalar equations and Euler systems of compressible gas dynamics are provided to illustrate the good performance of this procedure.
Stereographic projection for three-dimensional global discontinuous Galerkin atmospheric modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaise, Sébastien; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Deleersnijder, Eric
2015-09-01
A method to solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere is suggested, based on a stereographic projection with a high-order mapping of the elements from the stereographic space to the sphere. The projection is slightly modified, in order to take into account the domain thickness without introducing any approximation about the aspect ratio (deep-atmosphere). In a discontinuous Galerkin framework, the elements alongside the equator are exactly represented using a nonpolynomial geometry, in order to avoid the numerical issues associated with the seam connecting the two hemispheres. This is an crucial point, necessary to avoid mass loss and spurious deviations of the velocity. The resulting model is validated on idealized three-dimensional atmospheric test cases on the sphere, demonstrating the good convergence properties of the scheme, its mass conservation, and its satisfactory behavior in terms of accuracy and low numerical dissipation. A simulation is performed on a variable resolution unstructured grid, producing accurate results despite a substantial reduction of the number of elements.
Xiaodong Liu; Lijun Xuan; Hong Luo; Yidong Xia
2001-01-01
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG(P1P2)) method, originally introduced for the compressible Euler equations, is developed for the solution of the compressible Navier- Stokes equations on 3D hybrid grids. In this method, a piecewise quadratic polynomial solution is obtained from the underlying piecewise linear DG solution using a hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction. The reconstructed quadratic polynomial solution is then used for the computation of the inviscid fluxes and the viscous fluxes using the second formulation of Bassi and Reay (Bassi-Rebay II). The developed rDG(P1P2) method is used to compute a variety of flow problems to assess its accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that the rDG(P1P2) method is able to achieve the designed third-order of accuracy at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, outperform the third order DG method in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements, and obtain reliable and accurate solutions to the large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible turbulent flows.
Adaptation strategies for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods based on Tau-estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kompenhans, Moritz; Rubio, Gonzalo; Ferrer, Esteban; Valero, Eusebio
2016-02-01
In this paper three p-adaptation strategies based on the minimization of the truncation error are presented for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. The truncation error is approximated by means of a τ-estimation procedure and enables the identification of mesh regions that require adaptation. Three adaptation strategies are developed and termed a posteriori, quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected. All strategies require fine solutions, which are obtained by enriching the polynomial order, but while the former needs time converged solutions, the last two rely on non-converged solutions, which lead to faster computations. In addition, the high order method permits the spatial decoupling for the estimated errors and enables anisotropic p-adaptation. These strategies are verified and compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost for the Euler and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the two quasi-a priori methods achieve a significant reduction in computational cost when compared to a uniform polynomial enrichment. Namely, for a viscous boundary layer flow, we obtain a speedup of 6.6 and 7.6 for the quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected approaches, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumbser, Michael; Zanotti, Olindo; Loubère, Raphaël; Diot, Steven
2014-12-01
The purpose of this work is to propose a novel a posteriori finite volume subcell limiter technique for the Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions that works well for arbitrary high order of accuracy in space and time and that does not destroy the natural subcell resolution properties of the DG method. High order time discretization is achieved via a one-step ADER approach that uses a local space-time discontinuous Galerkin predictor method to evolve the data locally in time within each cell. Our new limiting strategy is based on the so-called MOOD paradigm, which a posteriori verifies the validity of a discrete candidate solution against physical and numerical detection criteria after each time step. Here, we employ a relaxed discrete maximum principle in the sense of piecewise polynomials and the positivity of the numerical solution as detection criteria. Within the DG scheme on the main grid, the discrete solution is represented by piecewise polynomials of degree N. For those troubled cells that need limiting, our new limiter approach recomputes the discrete solution by scattering the DG polynomials at the previous time step onto a set of Ns=2N+1 finite volume subcells per space dimension. A robust but accurate ADER-WENO finite volume scheme then updates the subcell averages of the conservative variables within the detected troubled cells. The recomputed subcell averages are subsequently gathered back into high order cell-centered DG polynomials on the main grid via a subgrid reconstruction operator. The choice of Ns=2N+1 subcells is optimal since it allows to match the maximum admissible time step of the finite volume scheme on the subgrid with the maximum admissible time step of the DG scheme on the main grid, minimizing at the same time also the local truncation error of the subcell finite volume scheme. It furthermore provides an excellent subcell resolution of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Benjemaa, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.
2010-12-01
Simulating any realistic seismic scenario requires incorporating physical basis into the model. Considering both the dynamics of the rupture process and the anelastic attenuation of seismic waves is essential to this purpose and, therefore, we choose to extend the hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method to integrate these physical aspects. The 3D elastodynamic equations in an unstructured tetrahedral mesh are solved with a second-order time marching approach in a high-performance computing environment. The first extension incorporates the viscoelastic rheology so that the intrinsic attenuation of the medium is considered in terms of frequency dependent quality factors (Q). On the other hand, the extension related to dynamic rupture is integrated through explicit boundary conditions over the crack surface. For this visco-elastodynamic formulation, we introduce an original discrete scheme that preserves the optimal code performance of the elastodynamic equations. A set of relaxation mechanisms describes the behavior of a generalized Maxwell body. We approximate almost constant Q in a wide frequency range by selecting both suitable relaxation frequencies and anelastic coefficients characterizing these mechanisms. In order to do so, we solve an optimization problem which is critical to minimize the amount of relaxation mechanisms. Two strategies are explored: 1) a least squares method and 2) a genetic algorithm (GA). We found that the improvement provided by the heuristic GA method is negligible. Both optimization strategies yield Q values within the 5% of the target constant Q mechanism. Anelastic functions (i.e. memory variables) are introduced to efficiently evaluate the time convolution terms involved in the constitutive equations and thus to minimize the computational cost. The incorporation of anelastic functions implies new terms with ordinary differential equations in the mathematical formulation. We solve these equations using the same order
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Chi-Wang
2004-01-01
This project is about the investigation of the development of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, for general geometry and triangulations, for solving convection dominated problems, with applications to aeroacoustics. Other related issues in high order WENO finite difference and finite volume methods have also been investigated. methods are two classes of high order, high resolution methods suitable for convection dominated simulations with possible discontinuous or sharp gradient solutions. In [18], we first review these two classes of methods, pointing out their similarities and differences in algorithm formulation, theoretical properties, implementation issues, applicability, and relative advantages. We then present some quantitative comparisons of the third order finite volume WENO methods and discontinuous Galerkin methods for a series of test problems to assess their relative merits in accuracy and CPU timing. In [3], we review the development of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods for non-linear convection-dominated problems. These robust and accurate methods have made their way into the main stream of computational fluid dynamics and are quickly finding use in a wide variety of applications. They combine a special class of Runge-Kutta time discretizations, that allows the method to be non-linearly stable regardless of its accuracy, with a finite element space discretization by discontinuous approximations, that incorporates the ideas of numerical fluxes and slope limiters coined during the remarkable development of the high-resolution finite difference and finite volume schemes. The resulting RKDG methods are stable, high-order accurate, and highly parallelizable schemes that can easily handle complicated geometries and boundary conditions. We review the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of these methods and show several applications including nonlinear conservation laws, the compressible and incompressible Navier
Lazarov, R D; Pasciak, J E; Schoberl, J; Vassilevski, P S
2001-08-08
We consider an interior penalty discontinuous approximation for symmetric elliptic problems of second order on non-matching grids in this paper. The main result is an almost optimal error estimate for the interior penalty approximation of the original problem based on the partition of the domain into a finite number of subdomains. Further, an error analysis for the finite element approximation of the penalty formulation is given. Finally, numerical experiments on a series of model second order problems are presented.
Explicit filtering in large eddy simulation using a discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazell, Matthew J.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a formulation of the finite element method (FEM). DG provides the ability for a high order of accuracy in complex geometries, and allows for highly efficient parallelization algorithms. These attributes make the DG method attractive for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for large eddy simulation (LES). The main goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of adopting an explicit filter in the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with DG. Explicit filtering has been shown to increase the numerical stability of under-resolved simulations and is needed for LES with dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) models. The explicit filter takes advantage of DG's framework where the solution is approximated using a polyno- mial basis where the higher modes of the solution correspond to a higher order polynomial basis. By removing high order modes, the filtered solution contains low order frequency content much like an explicit low pass filter. The explicit filter implementation is tested on a simple 1-D solver with an initial condi- tion that has some similarity to turbulent flows. The explicit filter does restrict the resolution as well as remove accumulated energy in the higher modes from aliasing. However, the ex- plicit filter is unable to remove numerical errors causing numerical dissipation. A second test case solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of the Taylor-Green vortex flow (TGV). The TGV is useful for SGS model testing because it is initially laminar and transitions into a fully turbulent flow. The SGS models investigated include the constant coefficient Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model, and dynamic Heinz model. The constant coefficient Smagorinsky model is over dissipative, this is generally not desirable however it does add stability. The dynamic Smagorinsky model generally performs better, especially during the laminar-turbulent transition region as expected. The dynamic Heinz model which is
Fast discontinuous Galerkin lattice-Boltzmann simulations on GPUs via maximal kernel fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzeo, Marco D.
2013-03-01
A GPU implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin lattice-Boltzmann method with square spectral elements, and highly optimised for speed and precision of calculations is presented. An extensive analysis of the numerous variants of the fluid solver unveils that best performance is obtained by maximising CUDA kernel fusion and by arranging the resulting kernel tasks so as to trigger memory coherent and scattered loads in a specific manner, albeit at the cost of introducing cross-thread load unbalancing. Surprisingly, any attempt to vanish this, to maximise thread occupancy and to adopt conventional work tiling or distinct custom kernels highly tuned via ad hoc data and computation layouts invariably deteriorate performance. As such, this work sheds light into the possibility to hide fetch latencies of workloads involving heterogeneous loads in a way that is more effective than what is achieved with frequently suggested techniques. When simulating the lid-driven cavity on a NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 via a 5-stage 4th-order Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme, the first four digits of the obtained centreline velocity values, or more, converge to those of the state-of-the-art literature data at a simulation speed of 7.0G primitive variable updates per second during the collision stage and 4.4G ones during each RK step of the advection by employing double-precision arithmetic (DPA) and a computational grid of 642 4×4-point elements only. The new programming engine leads to about 2× performance w.r.t. the best programming guidelines in the field. The new fluid solver on the above GPU is also 20-30 times faster than a highly optimised version running on a single core of a Intel Xeon X5650 2.66 GHz.
High order asymptotic preserving nodal discontinuous Galerkin IMEX schemes for the BGK equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Tao; Jang, Juhi; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jing-Mei
2015-03-01
In this paper, we develop high-order asymptotic preserving (AP) schemes for the BGK equation in a hyperbolic scaling, which leads to the macroscopic models such as the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the asymptotic limit. Our approaches are based on the so-called micro-macro formulation of the kinetic equation which involves a natural decomposition of the problem to the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium parts. The proposed methods are formulated for the BGK equation with constant or spatially variant Knudsen number. The new ingredients for the proposed methods to achieve high order accuracy are the following: we introduce discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of arbitrary order of accuracy with nodal Lagrangian basis functions in space; we employ a high order globally stiffly accurate implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme as time discretization. Two versions of the schemes are proposed: Scheme I is a direct formulation based on the micro-macro decomposition of the BGK equation, while Scheme II, motivated by the asymptotic analysis for the continuous problem, utilizes certain properties of the projection operator. Compared with Scheme I, Scheme II not only has better computational efficiency (the computational cost is reduced by half roughly), but also allows the establishment of a formal asymptotic analysis. Specifically, it is demonstrated that when 0 < ε ≪ 1, Scheme II, up to O (ε2), becomes a local DG discretization with an explicit RK method for the macroscopic compressible Navier-Stokes equations, a method in a similar spirit to the ones in Bassi and Rebay (1997) [3], Cockburn and Shu (1998) [16]. Numerical results are presented for a wide range of Knudsen number to illustrate the effectiveness and high order accuracy of the methods.
A GPU Accelerated Discontinuous Galerkin Conservative Level Set Method for Simulating Atomization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jibben, Zechariah J.
This dissertation describes a process for interface capturing via an arbitrary-order, nearly quadrature free, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the conservative level set method (Olsson et al., 2005, 2008). The DG numerical method is utilized to solve both advection and reinitialization, and executed on a refined level set grid (Herrmann, 2008) for effective use of processing power. Computation is executed in parallel utilizing both CPU and GPU architectures to make the method feasible at high order. Finally, a sparse data structure is implemented to take full advantage of parallelism on the GPU, where performance relies on well-managed memory operations. With solution variables projected into a kth order polynomial basis, a k + 1 order convergence rate is found for both advection and reinitialization tests using the method of manufactured solutions. Other standard test cases, such as Zalesak's disk and deformation of columns and spheres in periodic vortices are also performed, showing several orders of magnitude improvement over traditional WENO level set methods. These tests also show the impact of reinitialization, which often increases shape and volume errors as a result of level set scalar trapping by normal vectors calculated from the local level set field. Accelerating advection via GPU hardware is found to provide a 30x speedup factor comparing a 2.0GHz Intel Xeon E5-2620 CPU in serial vs. a Nvidia Tesla K20 GPU, with speedup factors increasing with polynomial degree until shared memory is filled. A similar algorithm is implemented for reinitialization, which relies on heavier use of shared and global memory and as a result fills them more quickly and produces smaller speedups of 18x.
Hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin projection methods for Navier-Stokes and Boussinesq equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueckermann, M. P.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.
2016-02-01
Schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes and Boussinesq equations are formulated and derived combining the novel Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, a projection method, and Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta (IMEX-RK) time-integration schemes. We employ an incremental pressure correction and develop the corresponding HDG finite element discretization including consistent edge-space fluxes for the velocity predictor and pressure correction. We then derive the proper forms of the element-local and HDG edge-space final corrections for both velocity and pressure, including the HDG rotational correction. We also find and explain a consistency relation between the HDG stability parameters of the pressure correction and velocity predictor. We discuss and illustrate the effects of the time-splitting error. We then detail how to incorporate the HDG projection method time-split within standard IMEX-RK time-stepping schemes. Our high-order HDG projection schemes are implemented for arbitrary, mixed-element unstructured grids, with both straight-sided and curved meshes. In particular, we provide a quadrature-free integration method for a nodal basis that is consistent with the HDG method. To prevent numerical oscillations, we develop a selective nodal limiting approach. Its applications show that it can stabilize high-order schemes while retaining high-order accuracy in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. We perform spatial and temporal convergence studies to evaluate the properties of our integration and selective limiting schemes and to verify that our solvers are properly formulated and implemented. To complete these studies and to illustrate a range of properties for our new schemes, we employ an unsteady tracer advection benchmark, a manufactured solution for the steady diffusion and Stokes equations, and a standard lock-exchange Boussinesq problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaal, Kevin; Bauer, Andreas; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker
2015-11-01
Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed second-order finite-volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves angular momentum in regions where no limiting takes place, and it typically produces much smaller numerical diffusion and advection errors than an FV approach. A further advantage lies in a more natural handling of AMR refinement boundaries, where a fall-back to first order can be avoided. Finally, DG requires no wide stencils at high order, and offers an improved data locality and a focus on local computations, which is favourable for current and upcoming highly parallel supercomputers. We describe the formulation and implementation details of our new code, and demonstrate its performance and accuracy with a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems. The results confirm that DG schemes have a high potential for astrophysical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bui-Thanh, Tan
2015-08-01
By revisiting the basic Godunov approach for system of linear hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) we show that it is hybridizable. As such, it is a natural recipe for us to constructively and systematically establish a unified hybridized discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) framework for a large class of PDEs including those of Friedrichs' type. The unification is fourfold. First, it provides a single constructive procedure to devise HDG schemes for elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic, and mixed-type PDEs. The key that we exploit is the fact that, for many PDEs, irrespective of their type, the first order form is a hyperbolic system. Second, it reveals the nature of the trace unknowns as the upwind states. Third, it provides a parameter-free HDG framework, and hence eliminating the "usual complaint" that HDG is a parameter-dependent method. Fourth, it allows us to rediscover most existing HDG methods and furthermore discover new ones. We apply the proposed unified framework to three different PDEs: the convection-diffusion-reaction equation, the Maxwell equation in frequency domain, and the Stokes equation. The purpose is to present a step-by-step construction of various HDG methods, including the most economic ones with least trace unknowns, by exploiting the particular structure of the underlying PDEs. The well-posedness of the resulting HDG schemes, i.e. the existence and uniqueness of the HDG solutions, is proved. The well-posedness result is also extended and proved for abstract Friedrichs' systems. We also discuss variants of the proposed unified framework and extend them to the popular Lax-Friedrichs flux and to nonlinear PDEs. Numerical results for transport equation, convection-diffusion equation, compressible Euler equation, and shallow water equation are presented to support the unification framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franchina, N.; Savini, M.; Bassi, F.
2016-06-01
A new formulation of multicomponent gas flow computation, suited to a discontinuous Galerkin discretization, is here presented and discussed. The original key feature is the use of L2-projection form of the (perfect gas) equation of state that allows all thermodynamic variables to span the same functional space. This choice greatly mitigates problems encountered by the front-capturing schemes in computing discontinuous flow field, retaining at the same time their conservation properties at the discrete level and ease of use. This new approach, combined with an original residual-based artificial dissipation technique, shows itself capable, through a series of tests illustrated in the paper, to both control the spurious oscillations of flow variables occurring in high-order accurate computations and reduce them increasing the degree of the polynomial representation of the solution. This result is of great importance in computing reacting gaseous flows, where the local accuracy of temperature and species mass fractions is crucial to the correct evaluation of the chemical source terms contained in the equations, even if the presence of the physical diffusivities somewhat brings relief to these problems. The present work can therefore also be considered, among many others already presented in the literature, as the authors' first step toward the construction of a new discontinuous Galerkin scheme for reacting gas mixture flows.
Field, Scott E.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Lau, Stephen R.; Mroue, Abdul H.
2010-11-15
We present a high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method for evolving the spherically reduced Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) system expressed in terms of second-order spatial operators. Our multidomain method achieves global spectral accuracy and longtime stability on short computational domains. We discuss in detail both our scheme for the BSSN system and its implementation. After a theoretical and computational verification of the proposed scheme, we conclude with a brief discussion of issues likely to arise when one considers the full BSSN system.
Michoski, C. Evans, J.A.; Schmitz, P.G.; Vasseur, A.
2009-12-10
We present a solution to the conservation form (Eulerian form) of the quantum hydrodynamic equations which arise in chemical dynamics by implementing a mixed/discontinuous Galerkin (MDG) finite element numerical scheme. We show that this methodology is stable, showing good accuracy and a remarkable scale invariance in its solution space. In addition the MDG method is robust, adapting well to various initial-boundary value problems of particular significance in a range of physical and chemical applications. We further show explicitly how to recover the Lagrangian frame (or pathline) solutions.
High-Fidelity Lagrangian Coherent Structures Analysis and DNS with Discontinuous-Galerkin Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel Alan Wendell
High-fidelity numerical tools based on high-order Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods and Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) theory are developed and validated for the study of separated, vortex-dominated flows over complex geometry. The numerical framework couples prediction of separated turbulent flows using DG with time-dependent analysis of the flow through LCS and is intended for the development of separation control strategies for aerodynamic surfaces. The compressible viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil is solved with a DG based Navier-Stokes solver in two and three dimensions. A method is presented in which high-order polynomial element edges adjacent to curved boundaries are matched to boundaries defined by non-smooth splines. Artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation of straight-sided meshes results in the simulation of incorrect physics, including wake instabilities and spurious time-dependent modes. Spectral accuracy in the boundary approximation is not achieved for non-analytic boundary functions, particularly in high curvature regions. An algorithm is developed for the high-order computation of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields simultaneously and efficiently with two and three dimensional DG-based flow solvers. Fluid tracers are initialized at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature nodes within an element and form the high-order basis for a flow map at later time. Gradients of the flow map and FTLE are evaluated with DG operators. Multiple flow maps are determined from a single particle trace by remapping the flow map to the quadrature nodes on deformed mesh elements. For large integration times, excessive subdomain deformation deteriorates the interpolating conditioning. The conditioning provides information on the fluid deformation and identifies subdomains that contain LCS. An exponential filter smooths the flow map in highly deformed areas. The algorithm is tested on several benchmarks and is shown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, K.; Wang, Y.; Jaiswal, P.
2014-12-01
In a porous medium the seismic energy not only propagates through matrix but also through pore-fluids. The differential movement between sediment grains of the matrix and interstitial fluid generates a diffusive wave which is commonly referred to as the slow P-wave. A combined system of equation which includes both elastic and diffusive phases is known as the poroelasticity. Analyzing seismic data through poroelastic modeling results in accurate interpretation of amplitude and separation of wave modes, leading to more accurate estimation of geomehanical properties of rocks. Despite its obvious multi-scale application, from sedimentary reservoir characterization to deep-earth fractured crust, poroelasticity remains under-developed primarily due to the complex nature of its constituent equations. We present a detail formulation of poroleastic wave equations for isotropic media by combining the Biot's and Newtonian mechanics. System of poroelastic wave equation constitutes for eight time dependent hyperbolic PDEs in 2D whereas in case of 3D number goes up to thirteen. Eigen decomposition of Jacobian of these systems confirms the presence of an additional slow-P wave phase with velocity lower than shear wave, posing stability issues on numerical scheme. To circumvent the issue, we derived a numerical scheme using nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach by adopting the triangular meshes in 2D which is extended to tetrahedral for 3D problems. In our nodal DG approach the basis function over a triangular element is interpolated using Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) function leading to a more accurate local solutions than in the case of simple DG. We have tested the numerical scheme for poroelastic media in 1D and 2D case, and solution obtained for the systems offers high accuracy in results over other methods such as finite difference , finite volume and pseudo-spectral. The nodal nature of our approach makes it easy to convert the application into a multi-threaded algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Ankush
Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are high-order accurate, compact-stencil methods, proven to possess favorable properties for highly efficient parallel systems, complex geometries and unstructured meshes. Coding effort is significantly reduced for compact-stencil DG methods in comparison to main stream finite difference and finite volume methods. This work successfully introduces DG methods to thermal ablation and non-equilibrium hypersonic flows. In the state-of-the-art hypersonic flow codes, surface heating predictions are very sensitive to mesh resolution in the shock. A minor misalignment can cause major changes in the heating predictions. This is due to the lack of high-order accuracy in current streamline methods and numerical errors associated with the shock capturing approach. Shock capturing methods like slope limiter or artificial viscosity, being empirical have errors in the shock region. This work employs r-p adaptivity to accurately capture the shock with p = 0 elements (first order accuracy). Smooth flow regions are captured using p greater than 0. This method is stable. Implicit methods are developed for solution advancement with high CFL numbers. Error in the shock is reduced by redistributing the elements (outside of the shock) to within the shock (r adaptivity). Inviscid and viscous hypersonic flow problems, with same accuracy as in h-p adaptivity method, are simulated with one-third elements. This methodology requires no a priori knowledge of the shock's location, and is suitable for detached shock problems. r-p adaptivity method has allowed for successful prediction of surface heating rate for hypersonic flow over cylinder. Additionally, good comparisons are made, for non-equilibrium hypersonic flows, to the published results. This tool is also used to determine the effect of micro-second pulsed sinusoidal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators on the surface heating reduction for hypersonic flow over cylinder. A significant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Liang; Lanteri, Stéphane; Perrussel, Ronan
2014-01-01
A Schwarz-type domain decomposition method is presented for the solution of the system of 3d time-harmonic Maxwell's equations. We introduce a hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) scheme for the discretization of the problem based on a tetrahedrization of the computational domain. The discrete system of the HDG method on each subdomain is solved by an optimized sparse direct (LU factorization) solver. The solution of the interface system in the domain decomposition framework is accelerated by a Krylov subspace method. The formulation and the implementation of the resulting DD-HDG (Domain Decomposed-Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin) method are detailed. Numerical results show that the resulting DD-HDG solution strategy has an optimal convergence rate and can save both CPU time and memory cost compared to a classical upwind flux-based DD-DG (Domain Decomposed-Discontinuous Galerkin) approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.; Helenbrook, B. T.
2005-01-01
This paper describes numerical experiments with P-multigrid to corroborate analysis, validate the present implementation, and to examine issues that arise in the implementations of the various combinations of relaxation schemes, discretizations and P-multigrid methods. The two approaches to implement P-multigrid presented here are equivalent for most high-order discretization methods such as spectral element, SUPG, and discontinuous Galerkin applied to advection; however it is discovered that the approach that mimics the common geometric multigrid implementation is less robust, and frequently unstable when applied to discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of di usion. Gauss-Seidel relaxation converges 40% faster than block Jacobi, as predicted by analysis; however, the implementation of Gauss-Seidel is considerably more expensive that one would expect because gradients in most neighboring elements must be updated. A compromise quasi Gauss-Seidel relaxation method that evaluates the gradient in each element twice per iteration converges at rates similar to those predicted for true Gauss-Seidel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhalnin, R. V.; Ladonkina, M. E.; Masyagin, V. F.; Tishkin, V. F.
2016-06-01
A numerical algorithm is proposed for solving the problem of non-stationary filtration of substance in anisotropic media by the Galerkin method with discontinuous basis functions on unstructured triangular grids. A characteristic feature of this method is that the flux variables are considered on the dual grid. The dual grid comprises median control volumes around the nodes of the original triangular grid. The flux values of the quantities on the boundary of an element are calculated with the help of stabilizing additions. For averaging the permeability tensor over the cells of the dual grid, the method of support operators is applied. The method is studied on the example of a two-dimensional boundary value problem. The convergence and approximation of the numerical method are analyzed, and results of mathematical modeling are presented. The numerical results demonstrate the applicability of this approach for solving problems of non-stationary filtration of substance in anisotropic media by the discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured triangular grids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carcano, Susanna; Bonaventura, Luca
2014-05-01
in the energy equations. As an alternative to existing finite volume methods, a p-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin space discretization is proposed for the multiphase conservation equations, following the method of lines. An operator splitting approach is adopted, coupled with explicit Runge-Kutta methods for advective terms and semi-implicit time averaging methods for interphase exchange terms. Discontinuous Galerkin methods can be interpreted as an extension of finite volume methods to arbitrary order of accuracy. As finite volume methods, discontinuous Galerkin methods provide discrete conservation laws that reproduce at the discrete level the fundamental physical balances characterizing the continuous problem. Moreover, both the methods represent a good choice for the approximation of problems whose solution presents discontinuities, i.e. explosive volcanic phenomena. However, with discontinuous Galerkin methods high order accuracy can be obtained without extending the computational stencil, thus allowing for a good scalability on parallel architectures. Limiting techniques are introduced on the advective terms of the system, in order to prevent the formation of spurious oscillations and avoid unphysical negative values in the numerical solution. An automatic criterion is introduced to adapt the local number of degrees of freedom and to improve the accuracy locally. The employed technique is simple and relies on the use of orthogonal hierarchical basis functions. The p-adaptivity algorithm allows to reduce the computational cost while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical approximation. The numerical model is applied and tested to several relevant test cases, with special focus on pyroclastic flows arising in volcanic eruptions, in order to assess its accuracy and stability properties. Moreover we analyse the efficiency of the p-adaptivity approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marras, Simone; Suckale, Jenny; Giraldo, Francis X.; Constantinescu, Emil
2016-04-01
We present the solution of the viscous shallow water equations where viscosity is built as a residual-based subgrid scale model originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible [1] and stratified flows [2]. The necessity of viscosity for a shallow water model not only finds motivation from mathematical analysis [3], but is supported by physical reasoning as can be seen by an analysis of the energetics of the solution. We simulated the flow of an idealized wave as it hits a set of obstacles. The kinetic energy spectrum of this flow shows that, although the inviscid Galerkin solutions -by spectral elements and discontinuous Galerkin [4]- preserve numerical stability in spite of the spurious oscillations in the proximity of the wave fronts, the slope of the energy cascade deviates from the theoretically expected values. We show that only a sufficiently small amount of dynamically adaptive viscosity removes the unwanted high-frequency modes while preserving the overall sharpness of the solution. In addition, it yields a physically plausible energy decay. This work is motivated by a larger interest in the application of a shallow water model to the solution of tsunami triggered coastal flows. In particular, coastal flows in regions around the world where coastal parks made of mitigation hills of different sizes and configurations are considered as a means to deviate the power of the incoming wave. References [1] M. Nazarov and J. Hoffman (2013) "Residual-based artificial viscosity for simulation of turbulent compressible flow using adaptive finite element methods" Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 71:339-357 [2] S. Marras, M. Nazarov, F. X. Giraldo (2015) "Stabilized high-order Galerkin methods based on a parameter-free dynamic SGS model for LES" J. Comput. Phys. 301:77-101 [3] J. F. Gerbeau and B. Perthame (2001) "Derivation of the viscous Saint-Venant system for laminar shallow water; numerical validation" Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 1:89?102 [4] F
Froehle, Bradley Persson, Per-Olof
2014-09-01
We present a high-order accurate scheme for coupled fluid–structure interaction problems. The fluid is discretized using a discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes, and the structure uses a high-order volumetric continuous Galerkin finite element method. Standard radial basis functions are used for the mesh deformation. The time integration is performed using a partitioned approach based on implicit–explicit Runge–Kutta methods. The resulting scheme fully decouples the implicit solution procedures for the fluid and the solid parts, which we perform using two separate efficient parallel solvers. We demonstrate up to fifth order accuracy in time on a non-trivial test problem, on which we also show that additional subiterations are not required. We solve a benchmark problem of a cantilever beam in a shedding flow, and show good agreement with other results in the literature. Finally, we solve for the flow around a thin membrane at a high angle of attack in both 2D and 3D, and compare with the results obtained with a rigid plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, N. T. P.; Xiao, H.; Myong, R. S.
2014-09-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has been popular as a numerical technique for solving the conservation laws of gas dynamics. In the present study, we develop an explicit modal DG scheme for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured triangular meshes in conjunction with non-Newtonian implicit nonlinear coupled constitutive relations (NCCR). Special attention is given to how to treat the complex non-Newtonian type constitutive relations arising from the high degree of thermal nonequilibrium in multi-dimensional gas flows within the Galerkin framework. The Langmuir velocity slip and temperature jump conditions are also implemented into the two-dimensional DG scheme for high Knudsen number flows. As a canonical scalar case, Newtonian and non-Newtonian convection-diffusion Burgers equations are studied to develop the basic building blocks for the scheme. In order to verify and validate the scheme, we applied the scheme to a stiff problem of the shock wave structure for all Mach numbers and to the two-dimensional hypersonic rarefied and low-speed microscale gas flows past a circular cylinder. The computational results show that the NCCR model yields the solutions in better agreement with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data than the Newtonian linear Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) results in all cases of the problem studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conroy, Colton J.; Kubatko, Ethan J.
2016-01-01
In this article, we present novel, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the vertical extent of the water column in coastal settings. We examine the shallow water equations (SWE) in the context of DG spatial discretizations coupled with explicit Runge-Kutta (RK) time stepping. All the primary variables, including the free surface elevation, are discretized using discontinuous polynomial spaces of arbitrary order. The difficulty of mismatched lateral boundary faces that accompanies the use of a discontinuous free surface is overcome through the use of a so-called sigma-coordinate system in the vertical, which transforms the bottom boundary and free surface into coordinate surfaces. We develop high-order methods for the SWE that exhibit optimal orders of convergence for all the primary variables via two distinct paths: the first involves the use of a convolution kernel made up of B-splines to filter out errors in the DG discretization of the surface elevation and the corresponding pressure flux. The second involves a method that evaluates the discrete depth-integrated velocity exactly, eliminating the need to solve the depth-integrated momentum equation altogether. The result is a simple and efficient high-order scheme that can be extended to the full three-dimensional SWE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ruihan; Xia, Yinhua; Xu, Yan
2014-05-01
In this paper, we develop an efficient and energy stable fully-discrete local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Hele-Shaw (CHHS) system. The semi-discrete energy stability of the LDG method is proved firstly. Due to the strict time step restriction (Δt=O(Δx4)) of explicit time discretization methods for stability, we introduce a semi-implicit time integration scheme which is based on a convex splitting of the discrete Cahn-Hilliard energy. The unconditional energy stability has been proved for this fully-discrete LDG scheme. The fully-discrete equations at the implicit time level are nonlinear. Thus, the nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid method has been applied to solve this system of algebraic equations, which has been shown the nearly optimal complexity numerically. Numerical results are also given to illustrate the accuracy and capability of the LDG method coupled with the multigrid solver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flad, David; Beck, Andrea; Munz, Claus-Dieter
2016-05-01
Scale-resolving simulations of turbulent flows in complex domains demand accurate and efficient numerical schemes, as well as geometrical flexibility. For underresolved situations, the avoidance of aliasing errors is a strong demand for stability. For continuous and discontinuous Galerkin schemes, an effective way to prevent aliasing errors is to increase the quadrature precision of the projection operator to account for the non-linearity of the operands (polynomial dealiasing, overintegration). But this increases the computational costs extensively. In this work, we present a novel spatially and temporally adaptive dealiasing strategy by projection filtering. We show this to be more efficient for underresolved turbulence than the classical overintegration strategy. For this novel approach, we discuss the implementation strategy and the indicator details, show its accuracy and efficiency for a decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the transitional Taylor-Green vortex and compare it to the original overintegration approach and a state of the art variational multi-scale eddy viscosity formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneev, B. A.; Levchenko, V. D.
2016-03-01
In this paper we present the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method (RKDG method) for the numerical solution of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. The method is being tested on a series of Riemann problems in the one-dimensional case. For the implementation of the method in the three-dimensional case, a DiamondTorre algorithm is proposed. It belongs to the class of the locally recursive non-locally asynchronous algorithms (LRnLA). With the help of this algorithm a significant increase of speed of calculations is achieved. As an example of the three-dimensional computing, a problem of the interaction of a bubble with a shock wave is considered.
DNS of Flow in a Low-Pressure Turbine Cascade Using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott; Madavan, Nateri
2015-01-01
A new computational capability under development for accurate and efficient high-fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of turbomachinery is described. This capability is based on an entropy-stable Discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element approach that extends to arbitrarily high orders of spatial and temporal accuracy and is implemented in a computationally efficient manner on a modern high performance computer architecture. A validation study using this method to perform DNS of flow in a low-pressure turbine airfoil cascade are presented. Preliminary results indicate that the method captures the main features of the flow. Discrepancies between the predicted results and the experiments are likely due to the effects of freestream turbulence not being included in the simulation and will be addressed in the final paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
used involves modeling the pressure fluctuations as acoustic waves propagating in the far-field relative to a single noise-source inside the buffer region. This approach treats vorticity-induced pressure fluctuations the same as acoustic waves. Another popular approach, often referred to as the "sponge layer," attempts to dampen the flow perturbations by introducing artificial dissipation in the buffer region. Although the artificial dissipation removes all perturbations inside the sponge layer, incoming waves are still reflected from the interface boundary between the computational domain and the sponge layer. The effect of these refkections can be somewhat mitigated by appropriately selecting the artificial dissipation strength and the extent of the sponge layer. One of the most promising variants on the buffer region approach is the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique. The PML technique mitigates spurious reflections from boundaries and interfaces by dampening the perturbation modes inside the buffer region such that their eigenfunctions remain unchanged. The technique was first developed by Berenger for application to problems involving electromagnetic wave propagation. It was later extended to the linearized Euler, Euler and Navier-Stokes equations by Hu and his coauthors. The PML technique ensures the no-reflection property for all waves, irrespective of incidence angle, wavelength, and propagation direction. Although the technique requires the solution of a set of auxiliary equations, the computational overhead is easily justified since it allows smaller domain sizes and can provide better accuracy, stability, and convergence of the numerical solution. In this paper, the PML technique is developed in the context of a high-order spectral-element Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is compared to other approaches to treating the in flow and out flow boundary, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers. The
Xu, Zhiliang; Chen, Xu-Yan; Liu, Yingjie
2014-12-01
We present a new formulation of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method [9, 8, 7, 6] for solving conservation Laws with increased CFL numbers. The new formulation requires the computed RKDG solution in a cell to satisfy additional conservation constraint in adjacent cells and does not increase the complexity or change the compactness of the RKDG method. Numerical computations for solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar and systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws are performed with approximate solutions represented by piecewise quadratic and cubic polynomials, respectively. The hierarchical reconstruction [17, 33] is applied as a limiter to eliminate spurious oscillations in discontinuous solutions. From both numerical experiments and the analytic estimate of the CFL number of the newly formulated method, we find that: 1) this new formulation improves the CFL number over the original RKDG formulation by at least three times or more and thus reduces the overall computational cost; and 2) the new formulation essentially does not compromise the resolution of the numerical solutions of shock wave problems compared with ones computed by the RKDG method. PMID:25414520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Patrick; Nourgaliev, Robert; Schofield, Sam
2015-11-01
A new sharp high-order interface tracking method for multi-material flow problems on unstructured meshes is presented. The method combines the marker-tracking algorithm with a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) level set method to implicitly track interfaces. DG projection is used to provide a mapping from the Lagrangian marker field to the Eulerian level set field. For the level set re-distancing, we developed a novel marching method that takes advantage of the unique features of the DG representation of the level set. The method efficiently marches outward from the zero level set with values in the new cells being computed solely from cell neighbors. Results are presented for a number of different interface geometries including ones with sharp corners and multiple hierarchical level sets. The method can robustly handle the level set discontinuities without explicit utilization of solution limiters. Results show that the expected high order (3rd and higher) of convergence for the DG representation of the level set is obtained for smooth solutions on unstructured meshes. High-order re-distancing on irregular meshes is a must for applications were the interfacial curvature is important for underlying physics, such as surface tension, wetting and detonation shock dynamics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Information management release number LLNL-ABS-675636.
Xu, Zhiliang; Chen, Xu-Yan; Liu, Yingjie
2014-01-01
We present a new formulation of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method [9, 8, 7, 6] for solving conservation Laws with increased CFL numbers. The new formulation requires the computed RKDG solution in a cell to satisfy additional conservation constraint in adjacent cells and does not increase the complexity or change the compactness of the RKDG method. Numerical computations for solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar and systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws are performed with approximate solutions represented by piecewise quadratic and cubic polynomials, respectively. The hierarchical reconstruction [17, 33] is applied as a limiter to eliminate spurious oscillations in discontinuous solutions. From both numerical experiments and the analytic estimate of the CFL number of the newly formulated method, we find that: 1) this new formulation improves the CFL number over the original RKDG formulation by at least three times or more and thus reduces the overall computational cost; and 2) the new formulation essentially does not compromise the resolution of the numerical solutions of shock wave problems compared with ones computed by the RKDG method. PMID:25414520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sébastien, T.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.; Mariotti, C.
2014-12-01
Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.; Giraldo, F. X.; Park, J.; Jun, S.; Yi, T.; Kang, S.; Oh, T.
2013-12-01
Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) as a non-profit foundation to develop Korea's own global NWP system including it's framework, data assimilation, coupler and so on. The final goal of KIAPS is to develop a global non-hydrostatic NWP system by 2019 for operational use at KMA. In the first stage (2011-2013), we have developed a dynamical core for the Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation as a initial effort. At the meeting, the progress and status of the core will be presented. The core is based on spectral element (SE; or continuous Galerkin method) and discontinuous Galerkin methods (DG). It is expected to take the advantages that the horizontal operators can be approximated by local high-order elements while scaling efficiently on multiprocessor computers with such high processor counts, since the properties of the methods are local in nature and have a small communication footprint. In order to overcome polar singularities and retain flexibility of the grid, we consider the hydrostatic primitive equations in 3D Cartesian space. This approach is used in Giraldo and Rosmond (MWR 2004). For the horizontal discretization, the cubed sphere grid is used for the sake of isotropy and due to the simplicity with which to use quadrilateral elements. For the vertical discretization, a Lorenz staggered grid is implemented with the terrain following σ-p coordinate. Currently, explicit time integrators, such as strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta (SSPRK) are implemented. In order to validate the developed core, some results are presented for test cases such as the Rossby-Haurwitz wavenumber 4 and the Jablonowski-Williamson balanced initial state and baroclinic instability test.
A 3D hp-Discontinuous Galerkin Method: Revisiting the M7.3 Landers Earthquake Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.; Etienne, V.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.
2011-12-01
Reliable dynamic source models should account of both fault geometry and heterogeneities in the surrounding medium. In this work we introduce a novel numerical method for modeling the dynamic rupture based on a 3D hp-Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Our method is derived from the scheme proposed by Benjemaa et al. (2009), which is based on a Finite Volume (FV) approach. Migrating from such approach to the hp-Discontinuous Galerkin philosophy is somehow straightforward since the FV method can be seen as the DG method with its lowest order or approximation (i.e. P0 element). We present a novel approach for treating dynamic rupture boundary conditions using an hp-Discontinuous Galerkin method for unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Although the theory we have developed holds for fault elements with arbitrary order, we show that second order (P2) elements yield a very good convergence. Since the DG method does not impose continuity between elements, our strategy consists in the way we compute the fluxes across the fault elements. During rupture propagation, the fluxes in the elements where the shear traction overcomes the fault strength are such that continuity of every wavefield is imposed except for the tangential fault velocities, while in the unbroken elements tangential continuity is also imposed. Because the fault nodes of a given element are coupled through the Mass and Flux matrices, when a fault node breaks we impose the shear traction on that node and need to recompute the values throughout the rest, to avoid any violation of the friction law throughout the element. This procedure repeats itself iteratively following a predictor-corrector scheme for a given time step until the element solutions stabilize. We point out that our scheme for the fault fluxes in the case of P0 elements is exactly the same as the one proposed by Benjemaa et al. who compute them through energy balance considerations. To verify our mathematical and computational model we have solved
Xia, Yidong; Lou, Jialin; Luo, Hong; Edwards, Jack; Mueller, Frank
2015-02-09
Here, an OpenACC directive-based graphics processing unit (GPU) parallel scheme is presented for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on 3D hybrid unstructured grids with a third-order reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method. The developed scheme requires the minimum code intrusion and algorithm alteration for upgrading a legacy solver with the GPU computing capability at very little extra effort in programming, which leads to a unified and portable code development strategy. A face coloring algorithm is adopted to eliminate the memory contention because of the threading of internal and boundary face integrals. A number of flow problems are presented to verify the implementationmore » of the developed scheme. Timing measurements were obtained by running the resulting GPU code on one Nvidia Tesla K20c GPU card (Nvidia Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and compared with those obtained by running the equivalent Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel CPU code on a compute node (consisting of two AMD Opteron 6128 eight-core CPUs (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA)). Speedup factors of up to 24× and 1.6× for the GPU code were achieved with respect to one and 16 CPU cores, respectively. The numerical results indicate that this OpenACC-based parallel scheme is an effective and extensible approach to port unstructured high-order CFD solvers to GPU computing.« less
Xia, Yidong; Lou, Jialin; Luo, Hong; Edwards, Jack; Mueller, Frank
2015-02-09
Here, an OpenACC directive-based graphics processing unit (GPU) parallel scheme is presented for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on 3D hybrid unstructured grids with a third-order reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method. The developed scheme requires the minimum code intrusion and algorithm alteration for upgrading a legacy solver with the GPU computing capability at very little extra effort in programming, which leads to a unified and portable code development strategy. A face coloring algorithm is adopted to eliminate the memory contention because of the threading of internal and boundary face integrals. A number of flow problems are presented to verify the implementation of the developed scheme. Timing measurements were obtained by running the resulting GPU code on one Nvidia Tesla K20c GPU card (Nvidia Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and compared with those obtained by running the equivalent Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel CPU code on a compute node (consisting of two AMD Opteron 6128 eight-core CPUs (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA)). Speedup factors of up to 24× and 1.6× for the GPU code were achieved with respect to one and 16 CPU cores, respectively. The numerical results indicate that this OpenACC-based parallel scheme is an effective and extensible approach to port unstructured high-order CFD solvers to GPU computing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peyrusse, Fabien; Glinsky, Nathalie; Gélis, Céline; Lanteri, Stéphane
2014-10-01
We present a discontinuous Galerkin method for site effects assessment. The P-SV seismic wave propagation is studied in 2-D space heterogeneous media. The first-order velocity-stress system is obtained by assuming that the medium is linear, isotropic and viscoelastic, thus considering intrinsic attenuation. The associated stress-strain relation in the time domain being a convolution, which is numerically intractable, we consider the rheology of a generalized Maxwell body replacing the convolution by a set of differential equations. This results in a velocity-stress system which contains additional equations for the anelastic functions expressing the strain history of the material. Our numerical method, suitable for complex triangular unstructured meshes, is based on centred numerical fluxes and a leap-frog time-discretization. The method is validated through numerical simulations including comparisons with a finite-difference scheme. We study the influence of the geological structures of the Nice basin on the surface ground motion through the comparison of 1-D and 2-D soil response in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil. At last, we compare numerical results with real recordings data. The computed multiple-sediment basin response allows to reproduce the shape of the recorded amplification in the basin. This highlights the importance of knowing the lithological structures of a basin, layers properties and interface geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.; Kopriva, David A.
2016-03-01
The effect of curved-boundary representation on the physics of the separated flow over a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil is thoroughly investigated. A method is presented to approximate curved boundaries with a high-order discontinuous-Galerkin spectral element method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiblock quadrilateral element meshes are constructed with the grid generation software GridPro. The boundary of a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil, defined by a cubic natural spline, is piecewise-approximated by isoparametric polynomial interpolants that represent the edges of boundary-fitted elements. Direct numerical simulation of the airfoil is performed on a coarse mesh and fine mesh with polynomial orders ranging from four to twelve. The accuracy of the curve fitting is investigated by comparing the flows computed on curved-sided meshes with those given by straight-sided meshes. Straight-sided meshes yield irregular wakes, whereas curved-sided meshes produce a regular Karman street wake. Straight-sided meshes also produce lower lift and higher viscous drag as compared with curved-sided meshes. When the mesh is refined by reducing the sizes of the elements, the lift decrease and viscous drag increase are less pronounced. The differences in the aerodynamic performance between the straight-sided meshes and the curved-sided meshes are concluded to be the result of artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation provided by the straight-sided meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang
2013-12-01
We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the three-dimensional isotropic elastic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to multiple Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of NVIDIA and Message Passing Interface (MPI) and obtained a speedup factor of about 28.3 for the single-precision version of our codes and a speedup factor of about 14.9 for the double-precision version. The GPU used in the comparisons is NVIDIA Tesla C2070 Fermi, and the CPU used is Intel Xeon W5660. To effectively overlap inter-process communication with computation, we separate the elements on each subdomain into inner and outer elements and complete the computation on outer elements and fill the MPI buffer first. While the MPI messages travel across the network, the GPU performs computation on inner elements, and all other calculations that do not use information of outer elements from neighboring subdomains. A significant portion of the speedup also comes from a customized matrix-matrix multiplication kernel, which is used extensively throughout our program. Preliminary performance analysis on our parallel GPU codes shows favorable strong and weak scalabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parmentier, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe; Hillewaert, Koen
2015-11-01
A hybrid approach, coupling a compressible vortex particle-mesh method (CVPM, also with efficient Poisson solver) and a high order compressible discontinuous Galerkin Eulerian solver, is being developed in order to efficiently simulate flows past bodies; also in the transonic regime. The Eulerian solver is dedicated to capturing the anisotropic flow structures in the near-wall region whereas the CVPM solver is exploited away from the body and in the wake. An overlapping domain decomposition approach is used. The Eulerian solver, which captures the near-body region, also corrects the CVPM solution in that region at every time step. The CVPM solver, which captures the region away from the body and the wake, also provides the outer boundary conditions to the Eulerian solver. Because of the coupling, a boundary element method is also required for consistency. The approach is assessed on typical 2D benchmark cases. Supported by the Fund for Research Training in Industry and Agriculture (F.R.I.A.).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.; Kopriva, David A.
2016-08-01
The effect of curved-boundary representation on the physics of the separated flow over a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil is thoroughly investigated. A method is presented to approximate curved boundaries with a high-order discontinuous-Galerkin spectral element method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiblock quadrilateral element meshes are constructed with the grid generation software GridPro. The boundary of a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil, defined by a cubic natural spline, is piecewise-approximated by isoparametric polynomial interpolants that represent the edges of boundary-fitted elements. Direct numerical simulation of the airfoil is performed on a coarse mesh and fine mesh with polynomial orders ranging from four to twelve. The accuracy of the curve fitting is investigated by comparing the flows computed on curved-sided meshes with those given by straight-sided meshes. Straight-sided meshes yield irregular wakes, whereas curved-sided meshes produce a regular Karman street wake. Straight-sided meshes also produce lower lift and higher viscous drag as compared with curved-sided meshes. When the mesh is refined by reducing the sizes of the elements, the lift decrease and viscous drag increase are less pronounced. The differences in the aerodynamic performance between the straight-sided meshes and the curved-sided meshes are concluded to be the result of artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation provided by the straight-sided meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Eric T.; Ciarlet, Patrick; Yu, Tang Fei
2013-02-01
In this paper, a new type of staggered discontinuous Galerkin methods for the three dimensional Maxwell’s equations is developed and analyzed. The spatial discretization is based on staggered Cartesian grids so that many good properties are obtained. First of all, our method has the advantages that the numerical solution preserves the electromagnetic energy and automatically fulfills a discrete version of the Gauss law. Moreover, the mass matrices are diagonal, thus time marching is explicit and is very efficient. Our method is high order accurate and the optimal order of convergence is rigorously proved. It is also very easy to implement due to its Cartesian structure and can be regarded as a generalization of the classical Yee’s scheme as well as the quadrilateral edge finite elements. Furthermore, a superconvergence result, that is the convergence rate is one order higher at interpolation nodes, is proved. Numerical results are shown to confirm our theoretical statements, and applications to problems in unbounded domains with the use of PML are presented. A comparison of our staggered method and non-staggered method is carried out and shows that our method has better accuracy and efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jingtao; Peng, Suping; Du, Wenfeng
2016-02-01
We consider sparsity-constraint inversion method for detecting seismic small-scale discontinuities, such as edges, faults and cavities, which provide rich information about petroleum reservoirs. However, where there is karstification and interference caused by macro-scale fault systems, these seismic small-scale discontinuities are hard to identify when using currently available discontinuity-detection methods. In the subsurface, these small-scale discontinuities are separately and sparsely distributed and their seismic responses occupy a very small part of seismic image. Considering these sparsity and non-smooth features, we propose an effective L 2-L 0 norm model for improvement of their resolution. First, we apply a low-order plane-wave destruction method to eliminate macro-scale smooth events. Then, based the residual data, we use a nonlinear structure-enhancing filter to build a L 2-L 0 norm model. In searching for its solution, an efficient and fast convergent penalty decomposition method is employed. The proposed method can achieve a significant improvement in enhancing seismic small-scale discontinuities. Numerical experiment and field data application demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in studying the relevant geology of these reservoirs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Y.; Billen, M. I.; Puckett, E. G.
2015-12-01
Flow in the Earth's mantle is driven by thermo-chemical convection in which the properties and geochemical signatures of rocks vary depending on their origin and composition. For example, tectonic plates are composed of compositionally-distinct layers of crust, residual lithosphere and fertile mantle, while in the lower-most mantle there are large compositionally distinct "piles" with thinner lenses of different material. Therefore, tracking of active or passive fields with distinct compositional, geochemical or rheologic properties is important for incorporating physical realism into mantle convection simulations, and for investigating the long term mixing properties of the mantle. The difficulty in numerically advecting fields arises because they are non-diffusive and have sharp boundaries, and therefore require different methods than usually used for temperature. Previous methods for tracking fields include the marker-chain, tracer particle, and field-correction (e.g., the Lenardic Filter) methods: each of these has different advantages or disadvantages, trading off computational speed with accuracy in tracking feature boundaries. Here we present a method for modeling active fields in mantle dynamics simulations using a new solver implemented in the deal.II package that underlies the ASPECT software. The new solver for the advection-diffusion equation uses a Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) algorithm, which combines features of both finite element and finite volume methods, and is particularly suitable for problems with a dominant first-order term and discontinuities. Furthermore, we have applied a post-processing technique to insure that the solution satisfies a global maximum/minimum. One potential drawback for the LDG method is that the total number of degrees of freedom is larger than the finite element method. To demonstrate the capabilities of this new method we present results for two benchmarks used previously: a falling cube with distinct buoyancy and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopera, M. A.; Maslowski, W.; Giraldo, F.
2015-12-01
One of the key outstanding challenges in modeling of climate change and sea-level rise is the ice-sheet/ocean interaction in narrow, elongated and geometrically complicated fjords around Greenland. To address this challenge we propose a new approach, a separate fjord model using discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, or FDG. The goal of this project is to build a separate, high-resolution module for use in Earth System Models (ESMs) to realistically represent the fjord bathymetry, coastlines, exchanges with the outside ocean, circulation and fine-scale processes occurring within the fjord and interactions at the ice shelf interface. FDG is currently at the first stage of development. The DG method provides FDG with high-order accuracy as well as geometrical flexibility, including the capacity to handle non-conforming adaptive mesh refinement to resolve the processes occurring near the ice-sheet/ocean interface without introducing prohibitive computational costs. Another benefit of this method is its excellent performance on multi- and many-core architectures, which allows for utilizing modern high performance computing systems for high-resolution simulations. The non-hydrostatic model of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation will account for the stationary ice-shelf with sub-shelf ocean interaction, basal melting and subglacial meltwater influx and with boundary conditions at the surface to account for floating sea ice. The boundary conditions will be provided to FDG via a flux coupler to emulate the integration with an ESM. Initially, FDG will be tested for the Sermilik Fjord settings, using real bathymetry, boundary and initial conditions, and evaluated against available observations and other model results for this fjord. The overarching goal of the project is to be able to resolve the ice-sheet/ocean interactions around the entire coast of Greenland and two-way coupling with regional and global climate models such as the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, F.; Lambrecht, L.; Friederich, W.
2015-12-01
In geophysics numerical simulations are a key tool to understand the processes of earth. For example, global simulations of seismic waves excited by earthquakes are essential to infer the velocity structure within the earth. Furthermore, numerical investigations can be helpful on local scales in order to find and characterize oil and gas reservoirs. Moreover, simulations enable a better understanding of wave propagation in borehole and tunnel seismic applications. Even on microscopic scales, numerical simulations of elastic waves can help to increase knowledge about the behaviour of materials, e.g. to understand the mechanism of crack propagation in rocks. To deal with highly complex heterogeneous models, here the Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method (NDG) is used to calculate synthetic seismograms. The advantage of this method is that complex mesh geometries can be computed by using triangular or tetrahedral elements for domain discretization together with a high order spatial approximation of the wave field. The simulation tool NEXD is presented which has the capability of simulating elastic and anelastic wave fields for seismic experiments for one-, two- and three- dimensional settings. The implementation of poroelasticity and simulation of slip interfaces are currently in progress and are working for the one dimensional part. External models provided by e.g. Trelis/Cubit can be used for parallelized computations on triangular or tetrahedral meshes. For absorbing boundary conditions either a fluxes based approach or a Nearly Perfectly Matched Layer (NPML) can be used. Examples are presented to validate the method and to show the capability of the software for complex models such as the simulation of a tunnel seismic experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoenawa, Stefan; Hartmann, Ralf
2014-04-01
In this article we consider the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the numerical approximation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) model by Menter. This turbulence model is based on a blending of the Wilcox k-ω model used near the wall and the k-ɛ model used in the rest of the domain where the blending functions depend on the distance to the nearest wall. For the computation of the distance of each quadrature point in the domain to the nearest of the curved, piecewise polynomial wall boundaries, we propose a stabilized continuous finite element (FE) discretization of the eikonal equation. Furthermore, we propose a new wall boundary condition for the dissipation rate ω based on the projection of the analytic near-wall behavior of ω onto the discrete ansatz space of the DG discretization. Finally, we introduce an artificial viscosity to the discretization of the turbulence kinetic energy (k-)equation to suppress oscillations of k near the underresolved boundary layer edge. The wall distance computation based on the continuous FE discretization of the eikonal equation is demonstrated for an internal and three external/aerodynamic flow geometries including a three-element high-lift configuration. The DG discretization of the RANS equations with the SST model is demonstrated for turbulent flows past a flat plate and the RAE2822 airfoil (Cases 9 and 10). The results are compared to the underlying k-ω model and experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Käser, Martin; Dumbser, Michael; de la Puente, Josep; Igel, Heiner
2007-01-01
We present a new numerical method to solve the heterogeneous anelastic, seismic wave equations with arbitrary high order accuracy in space and time on 3-D unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Using the velocity-stress formulation provides a linear hyperbolic system of equations with source terms that is completed by additional equations for the anelastic functions including the strain history of the material. These additional equations result from the rheological model of the generalized Maxwell body and permit the incorporation of realistic attenuation properties of viscoelastic material accounting for the behaviour of elastic solids and viscous fluids. The proposed method combines the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element (FE) method with the ADER approach using Arbitrary high order DERivatives for flux calculations. The DG approach, in contrast to classical FE methods, uses a piecewise polynomial approximation of the numerical solution which allows for discontinuities at element interfaces. Therefore, the well-established theory of numerical fluxes across element interfaces obtained by the solution of Riemann problems can be applied as in the finite volume framework. The main idea of the ADER time integration approach is a Taylor expansion in time in which all time derivatives are replaced by space derivatives using the so-called Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure which makes extensive use of the governing PDE. Due to the ADER time integration technique the same approximation order in space and time is achieved automatically and the method is a one-step scheme advancing the solution for one time step without intermediate stages. To this end, we introduce a new unrolled recursive algorithm for efficiently computing the Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure by making use of the sparsity of the system matrices. The numerical convergence analysis demonstrates that the new schemes provide very high order accuracy even on unstructured tetrahedral meshes while computational cost and
Foust, F. R.; Bell, T. F.; Spasojevic, M.; Inan, U. S.
2011-06-15
We present results showing the measured Landau damping rate using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin particle-in-cell (DG-PIC) [G. B. Jacobs and J. S. Hesthaven, J. Comput. Phys. 214, 96 (2006)] method. We show that typical damping rates measured in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations can differ significantly from the linearized Landau damping coefficient and propose a simple numerical method to solve the plasma dispersion function exactly for moderate to high damping rates. Simulation results show a high degree of agreement between the high-order PIC results and this calculated theoretical damping rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minatti, Lorenzo; De Cicco, Pina Nicoletta; Solari, Luca
2016-07-01
A new higher order 1D numerical scheme for the propagation of flood waves in compound channels with a movable bed is presented. The model equations are solved by means of an ADER Discontinuous Galerkin explicit scheme which can, in principle, reach any order of space-time accuracy. The higher order nature of the scheme allows the numerical coupling between flux and source terms appearing in the governing equations and, importantly, to handle moderately stiff and stiff source terms. Stiff source terms arise in the case of abrupt changes of river geometry such as in the case of hydraulic structures like bridges and weirs. Hydraulic interpretation of these conditions with 1D numerical modelling requires particular attention; for instance, a 1st order scheme might either lead to inaccurate solutions or impossibility to simulate these complex conditions. Validation is carried out with several test cases with the aim to check the scheme capability to deal with abrupt geometric changes and to capture the direction and celerity of propagation of bed and water surface disturbances. Validation is done also in a real case by using stage-discharge field measurements in the Ombrone river (Tuscany). The proposed scheme is further employed for the computation of flow rating curves in cross-sections just upstream of an abrupt narrowing, considering both fixed and movable bed conditions and different ratios of contraction for cross-section width. This problem is of particular relevance as, in common engineering practice, rating curves are derived from stage-measuring gauges installed on bridges with flow conditions that are likely to be influenced by local width narrowing. Results show that a higher order scheme is needed in order to deal with stiff source terms and reproduce realistic flow rating curves, unless a strong refinement of the computational grid is performed. This capability appears to be crucial for the computation of rating curves on coarse grids as it allows the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vater, Stefan; Beisiegel, Nicole; Behrens, Jörn
2015-11-01
An important part in the numerical simulation of tsunami and storm surge events is the accurate modeling of flooding and the appearance of dry areas when the water recedes. This paper proposes a new algorithm to model inundation events with piecewise linear Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin approximations applied to the shallow water equations. This study is restricted to the one-dimensional case and shows a detailed analysis and the corresponding numerical treatment of the inundation problem. The main feature is a velocity based "limiting" of the momentum distribution in each cell, which prevents instabilities in case of wetting or drying situations. Additional limiting of the fluid depth ensures its positivity while preserving local mass conservation. A special flux modification in cells located at the wet/dry interface leads to a well-balanced method, which maintains the steady state at rest. The discontinuous Galerkin scheme is formulated in a nodal form using a Lagrange basis. The proposed wetting and drying treatment is verified with several numerical simulations. These test cases demonstrate the well-balancing property of the method and its stability in case of rapid transition of the wet/dry interface. We also verify the conservation of mass and investigate the convergence characteristics of the scheme.
Archibald, Richard K; Gelb, Anne; Gottlieb, Sigal; Ryan, Jennifer
2006-01-01
In a previous paper by Ryan and Shu [Ryan, J. K., and Shu, C.-W. (2003). Methods Appl. Anal. 10(2), 295-307], a one-sided post-processing technique for the discontinuous Galerkin method was introduced for reconstructing solutions near computational boundaries and discontinuities in the boundaries, as well as for changes in mesh size. This technique requires prior knowledge of the discontinuity location in order to determine whether to use centered, partially one-sided, or one-sided post-processing. We now present two alternative stencil choosing schemes to automate the choice of post-processing stencil. The first is an ENO type stencil choosing procedure, which is designed to choose centered post-processing in smooth regions and one-sided or partially one-sided post-processing near a discontinuity, and the second method is based on the edge detection method designed by Archibald, Gelb, and Yoon [Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2005). SIAM J. Numeric. Anal. 43, 259-279; Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2006). Appl. Numeric. Math. (submitted)]. We compare these stencil choosing techniques and analyze their respective strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the automated stencil choices are applied in conjunction with the appropriate post-processing procedures and it is determine that the resulting numerical solutions are of the correct order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopera, Michal A.; Giraldo, Francis X.
2015-09-01
We perform a comparison of mass conservation properties of the continuous (CG) and discontinuous (DG) Galerkin methods on non-conforming, dynamically adaptive meshes for two atmospheric test cases. The two methods are implemented in a unified way which allows for a direct comparison of the non-conforming edge treatment. We outline the implementation details of the non-conforming direct stiffness summation algorithm for the CG method and show that the mass conservation error is similar to the DG method. Both methods conserve to machine precision, regardless of the presence of the non-conforming edges. For lower order polynomials the CG method requires additional stabilization to run for very long simulation times. We addressed this issue by using filters and/or additional artificial viscosity. The mathematical proof of mass conservation for CG with non-conforming meshes is presented in Appendix B.
Non-dissipative space-time hp-discontinuous Galerkin method for the time-dependent Maxwell equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilienthal, M.; Schnepp, S. M.; Weiland, T.
2014-10-01
A finite element method for the solution of the time-dependent Maxwell equations in mixed form is presented. The method allows for local hp-refinement in space and in time. To this end, a space-time Galerkin approach is employed. In contrast to the space-time DG method introduced in [1] test and trial spaces do not coincide. This allows for obtaining a non-dissipative method. To obtain an efficient implementation, a hierarchical tensor product basis in space and time is proposed. This allows to evaluate the local residual with a complexity of O(p4) and O(p5) for affine and non-affine elements, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavelli, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael
2016-08-01
In this paper we propose a novel arbitrary high order accurate semi-implicit space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured curved tetrahedral meshes. As is typical for space-time DG schemes, the discrete solution is represented in terms of space-time basis functions. This allows to achieve very high order of accuracy also in time, which is not easy to obtain for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Similarly to staggered finite difference schemes, in our approach the discrete pressure is defined on the primary tetrahedral grid, while the discrete velocity is defined on a face-based staggered dual grid. While staggered meshes are state of the art in classical finite difference schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, their use in high order DG schemes is still quite rare. A very simple and efficient Picard iteration is used in order to derive a space-time pressure correction algorithm that achieves also high order of accuracy in time and that avoids the direct solution of global nonlinear systems. Formal substitution of the discrete momentum equation on the dual grid into the discrete continuity equation on the primary grid yields a very sparse five-point block system for the scalar pressure, which is conveniently solved with a matrix-free GMRES algorithm. From numerical experiments we find that the linear system seems to be reasonably well conditioned, since all simulations shown in this paper could be run without the use of any preconditioner, even up to very high polynomial degrees. For a piecewise constant polynomial approximation in time and if pressure boundary conditions are specified at least in one point, the resulting system is, in addition, symmetric and positive definite. This allows us to use even faster iterative solvers, like the conjugate gradient method. The flexibility and accuracy of high order space-time DG methods on curved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang
2013-02-01
We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method for solving the three-dimensional elastic seismic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to an Nvidia Tesla C2075 GPU using the Nvidia CUDA programming model. On average our implementation obtained a speedup factor of about 24.3 for the single-precision version of our GPU code and a speedup factor of about 12.8 for the double-precision version of our GPU code when compared with the double precision serial CPU code running on one Intel Xeon W5880 core. When compared with the parallel CPU code running on two, four and eight cores, the speedup factor of our single-precision GPU code is around 12.9, 6.8 and 3.6, respectively. In this article, we give a brief summary of the ADER-DG method, a short introduction to the CUDA programming model and a description of our CUDA implementation and optimization of the ADER-DG method on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the potential of accelerating the ADER-DG method for seismic wave-propagation simulations using a GPU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alldredge, Graham; Schneider, Florian
2015-08-01
We implement a high-order numerical scheme for the entropy-based moment closure, the so-called MN model, for linear kinetic equations in slab geometry. A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme in space along with a strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integrator is a natural choice to achieve a third-order scheme, but so far, the challenge for such a scheme in this context is the implementation of a linear scaling limiter when the numerical solution leaves the set of realizable moments (that is, those moments associated with a positive underlying distribution). The difficulty for such a limiter lies in the computation of the intersection of a ray with the set of realizable moments. We avoid this computation by using quadrature to generate a convex polytope which approximates this set. The half-space representation of this polytope is used to compute an approximation of the required intersection straightforwardly, and with this limiter in hand, the rest of the DG scheme is constructed using standard techniques. We consider the resulting numerical scheme on a new manufactured solution and standard benchmark problems for both traditional MN models and the so-called mixed-moment models. The manufactured solution allows us to observe the expected convergence rates and explore the effects of the regularization in the optimization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.
2015-11-01
Second order buckling theory involves a one-way coupled coupled problem where the stress tensor from a plane stress problem appears in an eigenvalue problem for the fourth order Kirchhoff plate. In this paper we present an a posteriori error estimate for the critical buckling load and mode corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue and associated eigenvector. A particular feature of the analysis is that we take the effect of approximate computation of the stress tensor and also provide an error indicator for the plane stress problem. The Kirchhoff plate is discretized using a continuous/discontinuous finite element method based on standard continuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces. The same finite element spaces can be used to solve the plane stress problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Gene
2004-01-01
The focus of this research is on the development of analysis and sensitivity analysis equations for nonlinear, transient heat transfer problems modeled by p-version, time discontinuous finite element approximation. The resulting matrix equation of the state equation is simply in the form ofA(x)x = c, representing a single step, time marching scheme. The Newton-Raphson's method is used to solve the nonlinear equation. Examples are first provided to demonstrate the accuracy characteristics of the resultant finite element approximation. A direct differentiation approach is then used to compute the thermal sensitivities of a nonlinear heat transfer problem. The report shows that only minimal coding effort is required to enhance the analysis code with the sensitivity analysis capability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrana, S.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.
2015-12-01
New seismological monitoring networks combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna, providing complementary observation of source-radiated waves. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-media - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound - wave simulation methods, in order to improve our physical understanding of energy exchanges at material interfaces.We present here a new development of a high-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, for the simulation of coupled seismic and acoustic wave propagation, within a unified framework ([1],[2]) allowing for continuous and discontinuous Spectral Element Methods (SEM) to be used in the same simulation, with conforming and non-conforming meshes. The HDG-SEM approximation leads to differential - algebraic equations, which can be solved implicitly using energy-preserving time-schemes.The proposed HDG-SEM is computationally attractive, when compared with classical Discontinuous Galerkin methods, involving only the approximation of the single-valued traces of the velocity field along the element interfaces as globally coupled unknowns. The formulation is based on a variational approximation of the physical fluxes, which are shown to be the explicit solution of an exact Riemann problem at each element boundaries. This leads to a highly parallel and efficient unstructured and high-order accurate method, which can be space-and-time adaptive.A numerical study of the accuracy and convergence of the HDG-SEM is performed through a number of case studies involving elastic-acoustic (infrasound) coupling with geometries of increasing complexity. Finally, the performance of the method is illustrated through realistic case studies involving ground wave propagation associated to topography effects.In conclusion, we outline some on-going extensions of the method.References:[1] Cockburn, B., Gopalakrishnan, J., Lazarov, R., Unified hybridization of discontinuous Galerkin, mixed and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.
2015-10-01
We investigate the potential of linear dispersion-diffusion analysis in providing direct guidelines for turbulence simulations through the under-resolved DNS (sometimes called implicit LES) approach via spectral/hp methods. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is assessed in particular as a representative of these methods. We revisit the eigensolutions technique as applied to linear advection and suggest a new perspective to the role of multiple numerical modes, peculiar to spectral/hp methods. From this new perspective, "secondary" eigenmodes are seen to replicate the propagation behaviour of a "primary" mode, so that DG's propagation characteristics can be obtained directly from the dispersion-diffusion curves of the primary mode. Numerical dissipation is then appraised from these primary eigencurves and its effect over poorly-resolved scales is quantified. Within this scenario, a simple criterion is proposed to estimate DG's effective resolution in terms of the largest wavenumber it can accurately resolve in a given hp approximation space, also allowing us to present points per wavelength estimates typically used in spectral and finite difference methods. Although strictly valid for linear advection, the devised criterion is tested against (1D) Burgers turbulence and found to predict with good accuracy the beginning of the dissipation range on the energy spectra of under-resolved simulations. The analysis of these test cases through the proposed methodology clarifies why and how the DG formulation can be used for under-resolved turbulence simulations without explicit subgrid-scale modelling. In particular, when dealing with communication limited hardware which forces one to consider the performance for a fixed number of degrees of freedom, the use of higher polynomial orders along with moderately coarser meshes is shown to be the best way to translate available degrees of freedom into resolution power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumbser, Michael; Loubère, Raphaël
2016-08-01
In this paper we propose a simple, robust and accurate nonlinear a posteriori stabilization of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic PDE systems on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes in two and three space dimensions. This novel a posteriori limiter, which has been recently proposed for the simple Cartesian grid case in [62], is able to resolve discontinuities at a sub-grid scale and is substantially extended here to general unstructured simplex meshes in 2D and 3D. It can be summarized as follows: At the beginning of each time step, an approximation of the local minimum and maximum of the discrete solution is computed for each cell, taking into account also the vertex neighbors of an element. Then, an unlimited discontinuous Galerkin scheme of approximation degree N is run for one time step to produce a so-called candidate solution. Subsequently, an a posteriori detection step checks the unlimited candidate solution at time t n + 1 for positivity, absence of floating point errors and whether the discrete solution has remained within or at least very close to the bounds given by the local minimum and maximum computed in the first step. Elements that do not satisfy all the previously mentioned detection criteria are flagged as troubled cells. For these troubled cells, the candidate solution is discarded as inappropriate and consequently needs to be recomputed. Within these troubled cells the old discrete solution at the previous time tn is scattered onto small sub-cells (Ns = 2 N + 1 sub-cells per element edge), in order to obtain a set of sub-cell averages at time tn. Then, a more robust second order TVD finite volume scheme is applied to update the sub-cell averages within the troubled DG cells from time tn to time t n + 1. The new sub-grid data at time t n + 1 are finally gathered back into a valid cell-centered DG polynomial of degree N by using a classical conservative and higher order
Collocation and Galerkin Time-Stepping Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2011-01-01
We study the numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations by one-step methods where the solution at tn is known and that at t(sub n+1) is to be calculated. The approaches employed are collocation, continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG). Relations among these three approaches are established. A quadrature formula using s evaluation points is employed for the Galerkin formulations. We show that with such a quadrature, the CG method is identical to the collocation method using quadrature points as collocation points. Furthermore, if the quadrature formula is the right Radau one (including t(sub n+1)), then the DG and CG methods also become identical, and they reduce to the Radau IIA collocation method. In addition, we present a generalization of DG that yields a method identical to CG and collocation with arbitrary collocation points. Thus, the collocation, CG, and generalized DG methods are equivalent, and the latter two methods can be formulated using the differential instead of integral equation. Finally, all schemes discussed can be cast as s-stage implicit Runge-Kutta methods.
Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Bending Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.
2002-01-01
Recent literature shows extensive research work on meshless or element-free methods as alternatives to the versatile Finite Element Method. One such meshless method is the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method. In this report, the method is developed for bending of beams - C1 problems. A generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolation is used to construct the trial functions, and spline and power weight functions are used as the test functions. The method is applied to problems for which exact solutions are available to evaluate its effectiveness. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated for problems with load discontinuities and continuous beam problems. A Petrov-Galerkin implementation of the method is shown to greatly reduce computational time and effort and is thus preferable over the previously developed Galerkin approach. The MLPG method for beam problems yields very accurate deflections and slopes and continuous moment and shear forces without the need for elaborate post-processing techniques.
On Galerkin difference methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Hagstrom, T.
2016-05-01
Energy-stable difference methods for hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems are constructed using a Galerkin framework. The underlying basis functions are Lagrange functions associated with continuous piecewise polynomial approximation on a computational grid. Both theoretical and computational evidence shows that the resulting methods possess excellent dispersion properties. In the absence of boundaries the spectral radii of the operators for the first and second derivative matrices are bounded independent of discretization order. With boundaries the spectral radius of the first order derivative matrix appears to be bounded independent of discretization order, and grows only slowly with discretization order for problems in second-order form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, W. A.; Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.
2014-02-01
We analyse the time-stepping stability for the 3-D acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two types of methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method. Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog time-stepping scheme, which is second-order accurate and conditionally stable, leads to a fully explicit scheme. We provide estimates of its stability limit for simple cases, namely, the reference element with Neumann boundary conditions, its distorted version of arbitrary shape, the unit cube that can be partitioned into six tetrahedra with periodic boundary conditions and its distortions. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability limit contains an element diameter for which we considered different options. The one based on the sum of the eigenvalues of the spatial operator for the first-degree mass-lumped element gives the best results. It resembles the diameter of the inscribed sphere but is slightly easier to compute. The stability estimates show that the mass-lumped continuous and the discontinuous Galerkin finite elements of degree 2 have comparable stability conditions, whereas the mass-lumped elements of degree one and three allow for larger time steps.
MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.
Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-12-15
Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the
Software for the parallel adaptive solution of conservation laws by discontinous Galerkin methods.
Flaherty, J. E.; Loy, R. M.; Shephard, M. S.; Teresco, J. D.
1999-08-17
The authors develop software tools for the solution of conservation laws using parallel adaptive discontinuous Galerkin methods. In particular, the Rensselaer Partition Model (RPM) provides parallel mesh structures within an adaptive framework to solve the Euler equations of compressible flow by a discontinuous Galerkin method (LOCO). Results are presented for a Rayleigh-Taylor flow instability for computations performed on 128 processors of an IBM SP computer. In addition to managing the distributed data and maintaining a load balance, RPM provides information about the parallel environment that can be used to tailor partitions to a specific computational environment.
Formulation of discontinuous Galerkin methods for relativistic astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-05-01
The DG algorithm is a powerful method for solving pdes, especially for evolution equations in conservation form. Since the algorithm involves integration over volume elements, it is not immediately obvious that it will generalize easily to arbitrary time-dependent curved spacetimes. We show how to formulate the algorithm in such spacetimes for applications in relativistic astrophysics. We also show how to formulate the algorithm for equations in non-conservative form, such as Einstein's field equations themselves. We find two computationally distinct formulations in both cases, one of which has seldom been used before for flat space in curvilinear coordinates but which may be more efficient. We also give a new derivation of the ALE algorithm (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) using 4-vector methods that is much simpler than the usual derivation and explains why the method preserves the conservation form of the equations. The various formulations are explored with some simple numerical experiments that also investigate the effect of the metric identities on the results. The results of this paper may also be of interest to practitioners of DG working with curvilinear elements in flat space.
Galerkin Method for Nonlinear Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Bernd R.; Schlegel, Michael; Morzynski, Marek; Tadmor, Gilead
A Galerkin method is presented for control-oriented reduced-order models (ROM). This method generalizes linear approaches elaborated by M. Morzyński et al. for the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation. These ROM are used as plants for control design in the chapters by G. Tadmor et al., S. Siegel, and R. King in this volume. Focus is placed on empirical ROM which compress flow data in the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The chapter shall provide a complete description for construction of straight-forward ROM as well as the physical understanding and teste
Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.
2004-01-01
A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. A discussion on the Discontinuous Spectral Difference (SD) Method, locations of the unknowns and flux points and numerical results are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, D. M.; Liew, K. M.; Cheng, Y. M.
2014-06-01
Using the complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS) approximation, a complex variable element-free Galerkin (CVEFG) method for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems is presented. This meshless method has higher computational precision and efficiency because in the CVMLS approximation, the trial function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with a one-dimensional basis function. For two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems, the Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain its equation system. The penalty method is used to impose essential boundary conditions. Then the corresponding formulae of the CVEFG method for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems are derived. In comparison with the conventional EFG method, our study shows that the CVEFG method has higher precision and efficiency. For illustration purpose, a few selected numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the CVEFG method.
A high-order element-based Galerkin Method for the global shallow water equations.
Nair, Ramachandran D.; Tufo, Henry M.; Levy, Michael Nathan
2010-08-01
The shallow water equations are used as a test for many atmospheric models because the solution mimics the horizontal aspects of atmospheric dynamics while the simplicity of the equations make them useful for numerical experiments. This study describes a high-order element-based Galerkin method for the global shallow water equations using absolute vorticity, divergence, and fluid depth (atmospheric thickness) as the prognostic variables, while the wind field is a diagnostic variable that can be calculated from the stream function and velocity potential (the Laplacians of which are the vorticity and divergence, respectively). The numerical method employed to solve the shallow water system is based on the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods. The discontinuous Galerkin method, which is inherently conservative, is used to solve the equations governing two conservative variables - absolute vorticity and atmospheric thickness (mass). The spectral element method is used to solve the divergence equation and the Poisson equations for the velocity potential and the stream function. Time integration is done with an explicit strong stability-preserving second-order Runge-Kutta scheme and the wind field is updated directly from the vorticity and divergence at each stage, and the computational domain is the cubed sphere. A stable steady-state test is run and convergence results are provided, showing that the method is high-order accurate. Additionally, two tests without analytic solutions are run with comparable results to previous high-resolution runs found in the literature.
A superconvergent LDG-hybridizable Galerkin method for second-order elliptic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cockburn, Bernardo; Dong, Bo; Guzman, Johnny
2008-12-01
We identify and study an LDG-hybridizable Galerkin method, which is not an LDG method, for second-order elliptic problems in several space dimensions with remarkable convergence properties. Unlike all other known discontinuous Galerkin methods using polynomials of degree kge0 for both the potential as well as the flux, the order of convergence in L^2 of both unknowns is k+1 . Moreover, both the approximate potential as well as its numerical trace superconverge in L^2 -like norms, to suitably chosen projections of the potential, with order k+2 . This allows the application of element-by-element postprocessing of the approximate solution which provides an approximation of the potential converging with order k+2 in L^2 . The method can be thought to be in between the hybridized version of the Raviart-Thomas and that of the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini mixed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadopoulos, Vissarion; Kalogeris, Ioannis
2016-05-01
The present paper proposes a Galerkin finite element projection scheme for the solution of the partial differential equations (pde's) involved in the probability density evolution method, for the linear and nonlinear static analysis of stochastic systems. According to the principle of preservation of probability, the probability density evolution of a stochastic system is expressed by its corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) stochastic partial differential equation. Direct integration of the FP equation is feasible only for simple systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, due to analytical and/or numerical intractability. However, rewriting the FP equation conditioned to the random event description, a generalized density evolution equation (GDEE) can be obtained, which can be reduced to a one dimensional pde. Two Galerkin finite element method schemes are proposed for the numerical solution of the resulting pde's, namely a time-marching discontinuous Galerkin scheme and the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. In addition, a reformulation of the classical GDEE is proposed, which implements the principle of probability preservation in space instead of time, making this approach suitable for the stochastic analysis of finite element systems. The advantages of the FE Galerkin methods and in particular the SUPG over finite difference schemes, like the modified Lax-Wendroff, which is the most frequently used method for the solution of the GDEE, are illustrated with numerical examples and explored further.
Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.
1993-01-01
Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.
Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efendiev, Y.; Galvis, J.; Lazarov, R.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, M.
2013-12-01
Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the “mass” matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples.
WEAK GALERKIN METHODS FOR SECOND ORDER ELLIPTIC INTERFACE PROBLEMS.
Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Wei, Guowei; Ye, Xiu; Zhao, Shan
2013-10-01
Weak Galerkin methods refer to general finite element methods for partial differential equations (PDEs) in which differential operators are approximated by their weak forms as distributions. Such weak forms give rise to desirable flexibilities in enforcing boundary and interface conditions. A weak Galerkin finite element method (WG-FEM) is developed in this paper for solving elliptic PDEs with discontinuous coefficients and interfaces. Theoretically, it is proved that high order numerical schemes can be designed by using the WG-FEM with polynomials of high order on each element. Extensive numerical experiments have been carried to validate the WG-FEM for solving second order elliptic interface problems. High order of convergence is numerically confirmed in both L 2 and L ∞ norms for the piecewise linear WG-FEM. Special attention is paid to solve many interface problems, in which the solution possesses a certain singularity due to the nonsmoothness of the interface. A challenge in research is to design nearly second order numerical methods that work well for problems with low regularity in the solution. The best known numerical scheme in the literature is of order [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for the solution itself in L ∞ norm. It is demonstrated that the WG-FEM of the lowest order, i.e., the piecewise constant WG-FEM, is capable of delivering numerical approximations that are of order [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] in the L ∞ norm for C (1) or Lipschitz continuous interfaces associated with a C (1) or H (2) continuous solution. PMID:24072935
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franca, Leopoldo P.; Loula, Abimael F. D.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Miranda, Isidoro
1989-01-01
Adding to the classical Hellinger-Reissner formulation, a residual form of the equilibrium equation, a new Galerkin/least-squares finite element method is derived. It fits within the framework of a mixed finite element method and is stable for rather general combinations of stress and velocity interpolations, including equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations which are unstable within the Galerkin approach. Error estimates are presented based on a generalization of the Babuska-Brezzi theory. Numerical results (not presented herein) have confirmed these estimates as well as the good accuracy and stability of the method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dueck, Myron
2014-01-01
Imposing a penalty for late or incomplete homework assignments, Dueck says, neither inspires learning nor provides accurate grades. Dueck lists four rules that a teacher must follow if penalties for inadequate homework are to be efficient in prodding students to do that work. The usual homework penalty structures violate each of these four rules.…
Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogbu, John U.
1982-01-01
Attempts to define the cultural discontinuity (between schools and students) hypothesis by distinguishing between universal, primary, and secondary discontinuities. Suggests that each of these is associated with a distinct type of school problem, and that secondary cultural discontinuities commonly affect minority students in the United States.…
A Reconstructed Discontiuous Galerkin Method for the Magnetohydrodynamics on Arbitrary Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halashi, Behrouz Karami
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method based on a Hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction using a Taylor basis, designed not only to enhance the accuracy of discontinuous Galerkin methods but also to ensure the nonlinear stability of the RDG method, is developed for the solution of the magnetohydro dynamics (MHD) on arbitrary grids. In this method, a quadratic polynomial solution (P2) is first reconstructed using a Hermite WENO (HWENO) reconstruction from the underlying linear polynomial (P 1) discontinuous Galerkin solution to ensure the linear stability of the RDG method and to improve the efficiency of the underlying DG method. By taking advantage of handily available and yet invaluable information, namely the derivatives in the DG formulation, the stencils used in the reconstruction involve only Von Neumann neighborhood (adjacent face-neighboring cells) and thus are compact and consistent with the underlying DG method. The gradients (first moments) of the quadratic polynomial solution are then reconstructed using a WENO reconstruction in order to eliminate spurious oscillations in the vicinity of strong discontinuities, thus ensuring the nonlinear stability of the RDG method. Temporal discretization is done using a 4th order explicit Runge-Kutta method. The HLLD Riemann solver, introduced in the literature for one dimensional MHD problems, is extended to three dimensional problems on unstructured grids and used to compute the flux functions at interfaces in the present work. Divergence free constraint is satisfied using the so-called Locally Divergence Free (LDF) approach. The LDF formulation is especially attractive in the context of DG methods, where the gradients of independent variables are handily available and only one of the computed gradients needs simply to be modified by the divergence-free constraint at the end of each time step. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of fluid dynamics and
Weak Galerkin finite element methods for Darcy flow: Anisotropy and heterogeneity
Lin, Guang; Liu, Jiangguo; Mu, Lin; Ye, Xiu
2014-10-11
This paper presents a family of weak Galerkin finite element methods (WGFEMs) for Darcy flow computation. The WGFEMs are new numerical methods that rely on the novel concept of discrete weak gradients. The WGFEMs solve for pressure unknowns both in element interiors and on the mesh skeleton. The numerical velocity is then obtained from the discrete weak gradient of the numerical pressure. The new methods are quite different than many existing numerical methods in that they are locally conservative by design, the resulting discrete linear systems are symmetric and positive-definite, and there is no need for tuning problem-dependent penalty factors. We test the WGFEMs on benchmark problems to demonstrate the strong potential of these new methods in handling strong anisotropy and heterogeneity in Darcy flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavarise, Giorgio
2015-07-01
The method presented here is a variation of the classical penalty one, suited to reduce penetration of the contacting surfaces. The slight but crucial modification concerns the introduction of a shift parameter that moves the minimum point of the constrained potential toward the exact value, without any penalty increase. With respect to the classical augmentation procedures, the solution improvement is embedded within the original penalty contribution. The problem is almost consistently linearized, and the shift is updated before each Newton's iteration. However, adding few iterations, with respect to the original penalty method, a reduction of the penetration of several orders of magnitude can be achieved. The numerical tests have shown very attractive characteristics and very stable solution paths. This permits to foresee a wide area of applications, not only in contact mechanics, but for any problem, like e.g. incompressible materials, where a penalty contribution is required.
A Galerkin formulation of the MIB method for three dimensional elliptic interface problems.
Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-10-01
We develop a three dimensional (3D) Galerkin formulation of the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method for solving elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients, i.e., the elliptic interface problem. The present approach builds up two sets of elements respectively on two extended subdomains which both include the interface. As a result, two sets of elements overlap each other near the interface. Fictitious solutions are defined on the overlapping part of the elements, so that the differentiation operations of the original PDEs can be discretized as if there was no interface. The extra coefficients of polynomial basis functions, which furnish the overlapping elements and solve the fictitious solutions, are determined by interface jump conditions. Consequently, the interface jump conditions are rigorously enforced on the interface. The present method utilizes Cartesian meshes to avoid the mesh generation in conventional finite element methods (FEMs). We implement the proposed MIB Galerkin method with three different elements, namely, rectangular prism element, five-tetrahedron element and six-tetrahedron element, which tile the Cartesian mesh without introducing any new node. The accuracy, stability and robustness of the proposed 3D MIB Galerkin are extensively validated over three types of elliptic interface problems. In the first type, interfaces are analytically defined by level set functions. These interfaces are relatively simple but admit geometric singularities. In the second type, interfaces are defined by protein surfaces, which are truly arbitrarily complex. The last type of interfaces originates from multiprotein complexes, such as molecular motors. Near second order accuracy has been confirmed for all of these problems. To our knowledge, it is the first time for an FEM to show a near second order convergence in solving the Poisson equation with realistic protein surfaces. Additionally, the present work offers the
A Galerkin formulation of the MIB method for three dimensional elliptic interface problems
Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-01
We develop a three dimensional (3D) Galerkin formulation of the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method for solving elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients, i.e., the elliptic interface problem. The present approach builds up two sets of elements respectively on two extended subdomains which both include the interface. As a result, two sets of elements overlap each other near the interface. Fictitious solutions are defined on the overlapping part of the elements, so that the differentiation operations of the original PDEs can be discretized as if there was no interface. The extra coefficients of polynomial basis functions, which furnish the overlapping elements and solve the fictitious solutions, are determined by interface jump conditions. Consequently, the interface jump conditions are rigorously enforced on the interface. The present method utilizes Cartesian meshes to avoid the mesh generation in conventional finite element methods (FEMs). We implement the proposed MIB Galerkin method with three different elements, namely, rectangular prism element, five-tetrahedron element and six-tetrahedron element, which tile the Cartesian mesh without introducing any new node. The accuracy, stability and robustness of the proposed 3D MIB Galerkin are extensively validated over three types of elliptic interface problems. In the first type, interfaces are analytically defined by level set functions. These interfaces are relatively simple but admit geometric singularities. In the second type, interfaces are defined by protein surfaces, which are truly arbitrarily complex. The last type of interfaces originates from multiprotein complexes, such as molecular motors. Near second order accuracy has been confirmed for all of these problems. To our knowledge, it is the first time for an FEM to show a near second order convergence in solving the Poisson equation with realistic protein surfaces. Additionally, the present work offers the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive provably stable, polynomial-based spectral collocation methods of arbitrary order. The new methods are closely related to discontinuous Galerkin spectral collocation methods commonly known as DGFEM, but exhibit a more general entropy stability property. Although the new schemes are applicable to a broad class of linear and nonlinear conservation laws, emphasis herein is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite elements for elliptic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bottasso, Carlo L.; Micheletti, Stefano; Sacco, Riccardo
2000-01-01
We propose a novel discontinuous mixed finite element formulation for the solution of second-order elliptic problems. Fully discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces are used for the trial and test functions. The discontinuous nature of the test functions at the element interfaces allows to introduce new boundary unknowns that, on the one hand enforce the weak continuity of the trial functions, and on the other avoid the need to define a priori algorithmic fluxes as in standard discontinuous Galerkin methods. Static condensation is performed at the element level, leading to a solution procedure based on the sole interface unknowns. The resulting family of discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite element methods is presented in the one and two-dimensional cases. In the one-dimensional case, we show the equivalence of the method with implicit Runge-Kutta schemes of the collocation type exhibiting optimal behavior. Numerical experiments in one and two dimensions demonstrate the order accuracy of the new method, confirming the results of the analysis.
Numerically Tracking Contact Discontinuities with an Introduction for GPU Programming
Davis, Sean L
2012-08-17
We review some of the classic numerical techniques used to analyze contact discontinuities and compare their effectiveness. Several finite difference methods (the Lax-Wendroff method, a Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) method and a Monotone Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) scheme with an Artificial Compression Method (ACM)) as well as the finite element Streamlined Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method were considered. These methods were applied to solve the 2D advection equation. Based on our results we concluded that the MUSCL scheme produces the sharpest interfaces but can inappropriately steepen the solution. The SUPG method seems to represent a good balance between stability and interface sharpness without any inappropriate steepening. However, for solutions with discontinuities, the MUSCL scheme is superior. In addition, a preliminary implementation in a GPU program is discussed.
Finite element or Galerkin type semidiscrete schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durgun, K.
1983-01-01
A finite element of Galerkin type semidiscrete method is proposed for numerical solution of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. The question of stability is reduced to the stability of a system of ordinary differential equations for which Dahlquist theory applied. Results of separating the part of numerical solution which causes the spurious oscillation near shock-like response of semidiscrete scheme to a step function initial condition are presented. In general all methods produce such oscillatory overshoots on either side of shocks. This overshoot pathology, which displays a behavior similar to Gibb's phenomena of Fourier series, is explained on the basis of dispersion of separated Fourier components which relies on linearized theory to be satisfactory. Expository results represented.
Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Euler-Bernoulli Beam Problems: A Radial Basis Function Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.; Krishnamurthy, T.
2003-01-01
A radial basis function implementation of the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is presented to study Euler-Bernoulli beam problems. Radial basis functions, rather than generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolations, are used to develop the trial functions. This choice yields a computationally simpler method as fewer matrix inversions and multiplications are required than when GMLS interpolations are used. Test functions are chosen as simple weight functions as in the conventional MLPG method. Compactly and noncompactly supported radial basis functions are considered. The non-compactly supported cubic radial basis function is found to perform very well. Results obtained from the radial basis MLPG method are comparable to those obtained using the conventional MLPG method for mixed boundary value problems and problems with discontinuous loading conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
A recent paper is generalized to a case where the spatial region is taken in R(sup 3). The region is assumed to be a thin body, such as a panel on the wing or fuselage of an aerospace vehicle. The traditional h- as well as hp-finite element methods are applied to the surface defined in the x - y variables, while, through the thickness, the technique of the p-element is employed. Time and spatial discretization scheme based upon an assumption of certain weak singularity of double vertical line u(sub t) double vertical line 2, is used to derive an optimal a priori error estimate for the current method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laboure, Vincent M.; McClarren, Ryan G.; Hauck, Cory D.
2016-09-01
In this work, we provide a fully-implicit implementation of the time-dependent, filtered spherical harmonics (FPN) equations for non-linear, thermal radiative transfer. We investigate local filtering strategies and analyze the effect of the filter on the conditioning of the system, showing in particular that the filter improves the convergence properties of the iterative solver. We also investigate numerically the rigorous error estimates derived in the linear setting, to determine whether they hold also for the non-linear case. Finally, we simulate a standard test problem on an unstructured mesh and make comparisons with implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculations.
Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.
1987-01-01
Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)
Wight, J
1993-06-01
Ethical issues relating to the withdrawal of dialysis are discussed, comparing dialysis with other life-support systems, particularly artificial ventilation. It is argued that there is no ethical difference between discontinuing treatment in each case. One practical difference between the two is that patients with chronic renal failure are less likely to have reduced autonomy, and so can engage in discussions with their doctors regarding the situations in which their life-supporting treatment might be discontinued. It is argued that doctors caring for patients on dialysis have an ethical duty to discuss with these patients the circumstances in which they may wish to discontinue dialysis. PMID:8331641
Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.
2016-06-27
In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act PMID:27373014
Comparison of continuous and discontinuous discretizations for the Stokes flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, Ragnar; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, Maria
2013-04-01
Finite element methods (FEM) of various types are widely used to solve incompressible flow problems in general and Stokes flow in particular. We present first results of a study comparing two numerical methods: the continuous Galerkin and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. For this purpose a Matlab code was developed employing 2D Stokes flow in a model setup with known analytical solution. [2] Nonlinearities of, e.g., the viscosity can lead to discontinuities in the velocity-pressure solution. Hence, using continuous approximations may result in avoidable inaccuracies. In contrast to the FEM, the DG method allows for discontinuities of velocity and pressure across interior mesh edges. This increases the number of degrees of freedom by a constant factor depending on the chosen element. A parameter is introduced to penalize the jumps in the velocity. The DG method provides the capability to locally adapt the polynomial degree of the shape functions. Moreover, it only needs communication between directly adjacent mesh cells, which makes it highly flexible and easy to parallelize. The velocity and pressure errors of the methods are measured in the L1-norm [1]. Orders of convergence are determined and compared. [1] Duretz, T., May, D.A., Garya, T.V. and Tackley, P.J., 2011. Discretization errors and free surface stabilization in the finite difference and marker-in-cell method for applied geodynamics: A numerical Study, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q07004, doi:10.1029/2011GC003567. [2] Zhong, S., 1996. Analytic solution for Stokes' flow with lateral variations in viscosity, Geophys. J. Int., 124, 18-128, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb06349.x.
Hierarchical Galerkin and non-linear Galerkin models for laminar and turbulent wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xia
2001-08-01
In this thesis we present a hierarchy of differential models for simulating unsteady laminar and turbulent flows in complex-geometry domains. They include high- resolution spectral methods (DNS), large-eddy simulations (LES), and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) based on Galerkin and nonlinear Galerkin projections. While the approach we develop is general, here we focus on the flow past a circular cylinder as a prototype problem. This flow exhibits many interesting fluid phenomena both in laminar and turbulent state and is subject to many bifurcations within a relatively small range in Reynolds number. The main focus of the thesis is on extracting the most energetic eigenmodes (the POD modes) of a flow state (in the L2 sense), and subsequently construct low-dimensional models that employ these POD modes as trial basis. To this end, we project the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations into the POD modes using a standard Galerkin projection and also a nonlinear Galerkin projection. The latter assumes an a priori separation of scales so that the most energetic (low) modes govern the flow dynamics (the so-called ``master modes'') while the high modes are assumed to lie on an approximate inertial manifold and their dynamics is neglected; these are the so-called ``slave modes''. The main contributions of this work are the following: (1) The first high-resolution DNS of turbulent wakes. (2) The construction of asymptotically stable two- and three- dimensional POD models consisting of a few degrees of freedom. (3) The successful simulation of a three- dimensional limit cycle representing the onset of three- dimensionality in the cylinder wake. (4) The simultaneous simulation of flow and heat transfer in cylinder wakes both in two- and three-dimensions. (5) The stabilizing effect of nonlinear Galerkin projections for severely truncated POD expansions. (6) The use of DPIV-based experimental data to extract POD modes, and the corresponding POD simulation based on such
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-02-02
...) entitled ``Civil Penalties'' which proposed the adjustment of certain civil penalties for inflation. 74 FR... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477, 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jessica Lang, Office of Chief... 4, 1997. 62 FR 5167. At that time, we codified the penalties under statutes administered by...
Explosive synchronization is discontinuous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasov, Vladimir; Zou, Yong; Pereira, Tiago
2015-07-01
Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated with the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out of) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite-size graphs are well described by our predictions.
Discontinuing benzodiazepines: best practices.
Guaiana, G; Barbui, C
2016-06-01
In July 2015, the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) released a Rapid Response report summary, with a critical appraisal, on discontinuation strategies for patients with long-term benzodiazepines (BDZ) use. The CADTH document is a review of the literature. It includes studies whose intervention is BDZ discontinuation. Also, clinical guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses are included. What emerges from the CADTH guidelines is that the best strategy remains gradual tapering of BDZ with little evidence for the use of adjunctive medications. The results show that simple interventions such as discontinuation letters from clinicians, self-help information and support in general, added to gradual tapering may be associated with a two- to three-fold higher chance of successful withdrawal, compared with treatment as usual. We suggest possible implications for day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:26818890
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Fei; Deng, Weibing; Wu, Haijun
2016-01-01
In this paper, we construct a combined finite element and oversampling multiscale Petrov-Galerkin method (FE-OMsPGM) to solve the multiscale problems which may have singularities in some special portions of the computational domain. For example, in the simulation of subsurface flow, singularities lie in the porous media with channelized features, or in near-well regions since the solution behaves like the Green function. The basic idea of FE-OMsPGM is to utilize the traditional finite element method (FEM) directly on a fine mesh of the problematic part of the domain and using the Petrov-Galerkin version of oversampling multiscale finite element method (OMsPGM) on a coarse mesh of the other part. The transmission condition across the FE-OMsPG interface is treated by the penalty technique. The FE-OMsPGM takes advantages of the FEM and OMsPGM, which uses much less DOFs than the standard FEM and may be more accurate than the OMsPGM for problems with singularities. Although the error analysis is carried out under the assumption that the oscillating coefficients are periodic, our method is not restrict to the periodic case. Numerical examples with periodic and random highly oscillating coefficients, as well as the multiscale problems on the L-shaped domain, and multiscale problems with high contrast channels or well-singularities are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
A stochastic Galerkin method for the Boltzmann equation with uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jingwei; Jin, Shi
2016-06-01
We develop a stochastic Galerkin method for the Boltzmann equation with uncertainty. The method is based on the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) approximation in the stochastic Galerkin framework, and can handle random inputs from collision kernel, initial data or boundary data. We show that a simple singular value decomposition of gPC related coefficients combined with the fast Fourier-spectral method (in velocity space) allows one to compute the high-dimensional collision operator very efficiently. In the spatially homogeneous case, we first prove that the analytical solution preserves the regularity of the initial data in the random space, and then use it to establish the spectral accuracy of the proposed stochastic Galerkin method. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the proposed scheme.