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Sample records for penetration flat position

  1. Stability of Full Penetration, Flat Position Weld Pools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Coan, Al. B.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the dropthrough distance of a full penetration, flat position weld pool is described. Close to incipient root side penetration the dropthrough is metastable, so that a small drop in power can cause a loss of penetration if not followed soon enough by a compensating rise in power. The SPA (Soft Plasma Arc) process with higher pressure on top of the weld pool loses penetration more quickly than the GTA (Gas Tungsten Arc) process. 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy with a lower surface tension loses penetration more quickly than 2219 aluminum alloy. An instance of loss of penetration of a SPA weld in 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy is discussed in the light of the model.

  2. Weld Pool Stability in the Flat Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Coan, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Soft Plasma Arc (SPA) process was devised to avoid interactions between backshield and full penetration mode plasma jet in welding 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. Occasional sudden and mysterious losses in penetration were encountered in flat position SPA welding. To understand what was happening a model of the dynamics of the molten metal meniscus at the root of the weld was worked out. When the power input to the weld P(sub in) exceeds the power leakage P(sub out) the difference in power is absorbed by an increase in the molten weld pool volume V, Rho X L(SUB m) X (d(V)/dt)) = P(sub in) - P(sub out) where rho is the density and L(sub m) the specific heat of the weld metal.

  3. Oxygen penetration through invertebrate burrow walls in Korean tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Koh, Chul-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Macrofaunal burrows increase the surface area of the sediment-water interface, which has a great impact on the metabolism of aerobic microbes and the oscillation of reduced metabolites within the sediment. Given the importance of macrofauna in surficial sediments, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of burrow architectures on dissolved oxygen diffusion rates in comparison with unburrowed sediment, and thereby to evaluate the theoretical assumption used for modeling solute distribution in the burrow system using field samples. Employing microsensors, horizontal oxygen profiles were measured on a micrometer scale around burrows of seven invertebrates in tidal flats of the west coast of Korea. Oxygen diffusion distance through the burrow walls of seven invertebrates showed spatio-temporal variation with a range of 0.6 to 2.9 mm. Two groups of burrows were identified based on their oxygen diffusive properties relative to unburrowed sediments: 1) oxygen penetration similar to that of ambient sediments and 2) clearly enhanced oxygen penetration. Differences in the diffusive properties of the burrow wall were related to the burrow depth and diameter, existence of mucus lining on the wall, sediment grain size, and tidal phases. Also inhabitant activity was an important factor affecting oxygen penetration, which is discussed in the paper. These results further demonstrate that simplified assumptions (i.e. burrow structures are viewed as direct biogeochemical extensions of the sediment-water interface) may not be exact representation of the nature.

  4. The effect of aircraft speed on the penetration of sonic boom noise into a flat ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Victor W.

    1994-01-01

    As U.S. aircraft manufacturers now have focused their HSCT efforts on overwater supersonic flight, a great deal more must be known about sonic booms propagating overwater and interacting with the ocean. For example, it is thought that atmospheric turbulence effects are often much less severe over water than over land. Another important aspect of the overwater flight problems is the penetration of the sonic boom noise into the ocean, where there could be an environmental impact on sea life. This talk will present a brief review on the penetration of sonic boom noise into a large body of water with a flat surface. It has been determined recently that faster supersonic speeds imply greater penetration of sonic boom noise into the ocean. The new theory is derived from the original Sawyers paper and from the knowledge that for level flight a boom's duration is proportional to the quantity M/(M(exp 2)-1)(exp 3/8) where M is the Mach number. It is found that for depths of 10 m or less, the peak SPL varies less than 6 dB over a wide range of M. For greater depths, 100 m for example, increased Mach numbers may increase the SPL by 15 dB or more.

  5. Impact and Penetration of Thin Aluminum 2024 Flat Panels at Oblique Angles of Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are actively involved in improving the predictive capabilities of transient finite element computational methods for application to safety issues involving unintended impacts on aircraft and aircraft engine structures. One aspect of this work involves the development of an improved deformation and failure model for metallic materials, known as the Tabulated Johnson-Cook model, or MAT224, which has been implemented in the LS-DYNA commercial transient finite element analysis code (LSTC Corp., Livermore, CA) (Ref. 1). In this model the yield stress is a function of strain, strain rate and temperature and the plastic failure strain is a function of the state of stress, temperature and strain rate. The failure criterion is based on the accumulation of plastic strain in an element. The model also incorporates a regularization scheme to account for the dependency of plastic failure strain on mesh size. For a given material the model requires a significant amount of testing to determine the yield stress and failure strain as a function of the three-dimensional state of stress, strain rate and temperature. In addition, experiments are required to validate the model. Currently the model has been developed for Aluminum 2024 and validated against a series of ballistic impact tests on flat plates of various thicknesses (Refs. 1 to 3). Full development of the model for Titanium 6Al-4V is being completed, and mechanical testing for Inconel 718 has begun. The validation testing for the models involves ballistic impact tests using cylindrical projectiles impacting flat plates at a normal incidence (Ref. 2). By varying the thickness of the plates, different stress states and resulting failure modes are induced, providing a range of conditions over which the model can be validated. The objective of the study reported here was to provide experimental data to evaluate the model

  6. Positively charged micelles based on a triblock copolymer demonstrate enhanced corneal penetration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguo; Li, Zhanrong; Zhou, Tianyang; Zhang, Junjie; Xia, Huiyun; Li, Heng; He, Jijun; He, Siyu; Wang, Liya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cornea is a main barrier to drug penetration after topical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abilities of micelles generated from a positively charged triblock copolymer to penetrate the cornea after topical application. Methods The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-g-polyethyleneimine was synthesized, and the physicochemical properties of the self-assembled polymeric micelles were investigated, including hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, morphology, drug-loading content, drug-loading efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Using fluorescein diacetate as a model drug, the penetration capabilities of the polymeric micelles were monitored in vivo using a two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy on murine corneas after topical application. Results The polymer was successfully synthesized and confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared. The polymeric micelles had an average particle size of 28 nm, a zeta potential of approximately +12 mV, and a spherical morphology. The drug-loading efficiency and drug-loading content were 75.37% and 3.47%, respectively, which indicates that the polymeric micelles possess a high drug-loading capacity. The polymeric micelles also exhibited controlled-release behavior in vitro. Compared to the control, the positively charged polymeric micelles significantly penetrated through the cornea. Conclusion Positively charged micelles generated from a triblock copolymer are a promising vehicle for the topical delivery of hydrophobic agents in ocular applications. PMID:26451109

  7. Shelly cheniers on a modern macrotidal flat (Mont-Saint-Michel bay, France) — Internal architecture revealed by ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weill, Pierre; Tessier, Bernadette; Mouazé, Dominique; Bonnot-Courtois, Chantal; Norgeot, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between short-term morphodynamics and internal structure of shelly chenier ridges is investigated using ground-penetrating radar and core X-ray analysis, complemented with a comparison of aerial photographs. These cheniers are located on the uppermost part of a macrotidal flat in Mont-Saint-Michel bay (North-Western France). They actively migrate landward over the salt-marshes by washover processes when they are submerged during the coincidence of spring tides and enhanced wave activity. The architecture of the cheniers is imaged using high-frequency radar antennas (400 MHz to 2.6 GHz). Three types of cheniers are recognized, featuring differences in morphology and internal structure. The altitude of the banks on the tidal flat relative to the level of tidal flooding, as well as local sediment supply, seem to be important forcing parameters in chenier development and stages of evolution. On a multi-annual time scale, evolution of this chenier system is influenced by a combination of the 18-year and the 4-year tidal cycles, superimposed on wave activity. During minima of the 18-year cycle, spring tide level is globally lower on the tidal flat, allowing salt marsh progradation and chenier ridge development. During peak periods of the tidal cycle, former barriers are reworked by wave action and experience onshore migration associated with salt marsh erosion. The 4-year tidal cycle coupled with enhanced wave activity is probably responsible for the deposition of large washover units, observed in GPR reflection profiles.

  8. Dynamics of the reaction between the free end of a tethered self-avoiding polymer and a flat penetrable surface: A renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherayil, Binny J.; Bhattacharyya, Pinaki

    2014-06-01

    The average time τr for one end of a long, self-avoiding polymer to interact for the first time with a flat penetrable surface to which it is attached at the other end is shown here to scale essentially as the square of the chain's contour length N. This result is obtained within the framework of the Wilemski-Fixman approximation to diffusion-limited reactions, in which the reaction time is expressed as a time correlation function of a "sink" term. In the present work, this sink-sink correlation function is calculated using perturbation expansions in the excluded volume and the polymer-surface interactions, with renormalization group methods being used to resum the expansion into a power law form. The quadratic dependence of τr on N mirrors the behavior of the average time τc of a free random walk to cyclize, but contrasts with the cyclization time of a free self-avoiding walk (SAW), for which τr ˜ N2.2. A simulation study by Cheng and Makarov [J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 3321 (2010)] of the chain-end reaction time of an SAW on a flat impenetrable surface leads to the same N2.2 behavior, which is surprising given the reduced conformational space a tethered polymer has to explore in order to react.

  9. Subsurface object position and image correction for standoff Ground Penetrating Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    Present applications of standoff (airborne) Ground Penetrating SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) allows objects near the surface to be detected but only provides an approximation for the actual location and image. When single media models are employed the lack of correction for the phase velocity and refractive changes at the air/soil interface result in object distortions. Positional errors and image distortions comparable to the size of the object are possible. Correction is possible, if the media properties are known, by modeling the scene as a two-layer medium and accounting for the propagation effects. The propagation parameters for the lower media are estimated in the migration of observable responses for surface and subsurface objects. This approach allows for corrected images to subsurface objects to be produced after data collection. Surface objects will be distorted as a result of this process. The modeling process, simulations, and results with field data will be discussed. An improvement by a factor of two would enable standoff radar to detect objects at depths of on meter or more benefiting Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and hazardous waste site survey activities.

  10. An iterative method for flat-field correction of digital radiography when detector is at any position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung-Koo; Kim, Do-Il; Kim, Sung-Hyeon; Park, Dae-Sop; Choe, Bo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2005-04-01

    For non-uniformity correction a flat field x-ray image is needed, and to obtain it the center of detector is usually aligned with the focal spot of the x-ray tube, which is conserved when examining patients to preserve the flat field. In some of radiographic techniques, however, it is necessary to move the x-ray tube off the center position of detector or tilt the detector. We investigated the effect of X-ray tube positions with respect to detector on the non-uniformity correction, and propose a method to reduce the effect using a new algorithm with computer simulation. Gain images were taken in two SIDs. Pixel values at second SID was calculated using the pixel values at first SID, gain coefficient that represents pixels own unique radiation sensitivity characteristics and the formula based on the solid angle of each detector pixel facing to the x-ray source. Gain coefficient was adjusted using the difference between calculated and real pixel values. Calculation was repeated with new gain coefficient until the gain coefficient was converged into prescribed range. Non-uniformity of blank x-ray images taken with the detector tilted by 0 to 45 degrees was corrected and five ROIs across the image were defined and analyzed. When the proposed algorithm was used for the flat field correction standard deviations of pixel values in the ROIs were reduce to 10% of the cases of usual flat field correction.

  11. An Optical Sensor for Measuring the Position and Slanting Direction of Flat Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ta; Huang, Yen-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Automated optical inspection is a very important technique. For this reason, this study proposes an optical non-contact slanting surface measuring system. The essential features of the measurement system are obtained through simulations using the optical design software Zemax. The actual propagation of laser beams within the measurement system is traced by using a homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), the skew-ray tracing method, and a first-order Taylor series expansion. Additionally, a complete mathematical model that describes the variations in light spots on photoelectric sensors and the corresponding changes in the sample orientation and distance was established. Finally, a laboratory prototype system was constructed on an optical bench to verify experimentally the proposed system. This measurement system can simultaneously detect the slanting angles (x, z) in the x and z directions of the sample and the distance (y) between the biconvex lens and the flat sample surface. PMID:27409619

  12. An Optical Sensor for Measuring the Position and Slanting Direction of Flat Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ta; Huang, Yen-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Automated optical inspection is a very important technique. For this reason, this study proposes an optical non-contact slanting surface measuring system. The essential features of the measurement system are obtained through simulations using the optical design software Zemax. The actual propagation of laser beams within the measurement system is traced by using a homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), the skew-ray tracing method, and a first-order Taylor series expansion. Additionally, a complete mathematical model that describes the variations in light spots on photoelectric sensors and the corresponding changes in the sample orientation and distance was established. Finally, a laboratory prototype system was constructed on an optical bench to verify experimentally the proposed system. This measurement system can simultaneously detect the slanting angles (x, z) in the x and z directions of the sample and the distance (y) between the biconvex lens and the flat sample surface. PMID:27409619

  13. Underwater binocular imaging of aerial objects versus the position of eyes relative to the flat water surface.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor

    2003-12-01

    The apparent position, size, and shape of aerial objects viewed binocularly from water change as a result of the refraction of light at the water surface. Earlier studies of the refraction-distorted structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers were restricted to either vertically or horizontally oriented eyes. Here we calculate the position of the binocular image point of an aerial object point viewed by two arbitrarily positioned underwater eyes when the water surface is flat. Assuming that binocular image fusion is performed by appropriate vergent eye movements to bring the object's image onto the foveae, the structure of the aerial binocular visual field is computed and visualized as a function of the relative positions of the eyes. We also analyze two erroneous representations of the underwater imaging of aerial objects that have occurred in the literature. It is demonstrated that the structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers distorted by refraction is more complex than has been thought previously. PMID:14686517

  14. Ground-penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey, April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Bishop, James M.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, and students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa collected sediment cores, sediment surface grab samples, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data from within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge–Holgate Unit located on the southern end of Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in April 2015 (FAN 2015-611-FA). The study’s objective was to identify washover deposits in the stratigraphic record to aid in understanding barrier island evolution. This report is an archive of GPR and DGPS data collected from Long Beach Island in 2015. Data products, including raw GPR and processed DGPS data, elevation corrected GPR profiles, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  15. Connectivity Map Analysis of Nonsense-Mediated Decay–Positive BMPR2-Related Hereditary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Provides Insights into Disease Penetrance

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Charles; Zheng, Siyuan; Yan, Ling; Hedges, Lora; Womack, Bethany; Fessel, Josh; Cogan, Joy; Austin, Eric; Loyd, James; West, James; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced penetrance seen in the nonsense-mediated decay–positive (NMD+) BMPR2 mutation–associated hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) remain unknown. We reasoned that the cellular and genetic mechanisms behind this phenomenon could be uncovered by combining expression profiling with Connectivity Map (cMap) analysis. Cultured lymphocytes from 10 patients with HPAH and 10 matched familial control subjects, all with NMD+ BMPR2 mutations, were subjected to expression analysis. For each group, the expression data were combined before analysis. This generated a signature of 23 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated genes in patients with HPAH compared with control subjects (the “PAH penetrance signature”). Although gene set enrichment analysis of this signature was not uniquely informative, cMap analysis identified drugs with expression signatures similar to the PAH penetrance signature. Several of these drugs were predicted to influence reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. This hypothesis was tested and confirmed in the same cells initially subjected to the expression analysis using quantitative biochemical detection of ROS concentration. We conclude that expression of the PAH penetrance signature represents an increased risk of developing clinical HPAH and that ROS formation may play a role in pathogenesis of HPAH. These results provide the first molecular insights into NMD+ BMPR2 related HPAH penetrance and highlight the potential utility of cMap analyses in pulmonary research. PMID:22312021

  16. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-15

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c//sub 1/ is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model.

  17. The potent antimicrobial properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles with excellent selectivity for Gram-positive bacteria over erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lihong; Yang, Jun; Xie, Jianping; Luo, Zhentao; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Yi Yan; Liu, Shaomin

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects.Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34254a

  18. SU-C-16A-01: In Vivo Source Position Verification in High Dose Rate (HDR) Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Flat Panel Imager: Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Franich, R; Smith, R; Millar, J; Haworth, A; Taylor, M; McDermott, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We report our initial clinical experience with a novel position-sensitive source-tracking system based on a flat panel imager. The system has been trialled with 4 prostate HDR brachytherapy patients (8 treatment fractions) in this initial study. Methods: The flat panel imaging system was mounted under a customised carbon fibre couch top assembly (Figure 1). Three gold fiducial markers were implanted into the prostate of each patient at the time of catheter placement. X-ray dwell position markers were inserted into three catheters and a radiograph acquired to locate the implant relative to the imaging device. During treatment, as the HDR source dwells were delivered, images were acquired and processed to determine the position of the source in the patient. Source positions measured by the imaging device were compared to the treatment plan for verification of treatment delivery. Results: Measured dwell positions provided verification of relative dwell spacing within and between catheters, in the coronal plane. Measurements were typically within 2.0mm (0.2mm – 3.3mm, s.d. 0.8mm) of the planned positions over 60 dwells (Figure 2). Discrimination between larger dwell intervals and catheter differentiation were clear. This confirms important delivery attributes such as correct transfer tube connection, source step size, relative catheter positions and therefore overall correct plan selection and delivery. The fiducial markers, visible on the radiograph, provided verification of treatment delivery to the correct anatomical location. The absolute position of the dwells was determined by comparing the measured dwell positions with the x-ray markers from the radiograph, validating the programmed treatment indexer length. The total impact on procedure time was less than 5 minutes. Conclusion: The novel, noninvasive HDR brachytherapy treatment verification system was used clinically with minor impact on workflow. The system allows verification of correct treatment

  19. Evaluation for Basic Image Qualities Dependence on the Position in XYZ Directions and Acquisition Parameters of the Cone Beam CT for Angiography System with Flat Panel Detector.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Norisato; Mitsui, Kota; Oda, Shinichiro

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the position in XYZ directions and acquisition parameters on the basic image qualities of for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an angiography system with flat panel detector. The resolution property (modulation transfer function: MTF) and the noise property (Wiener spectrum: WS) of CBCT images in X-Y plane were measured with different acquisition parameters (scan matrix number and projection number) and the effect of the position in XYZ directions. The MTFs with 1024×1024 matrix were higher than those of 512×512 matrix and decreased in the peripheral areas due to the reduction of projection number. The highest and the lowest MTFs were measured at the X-ray tube side and on the detector side of the position in X-Y plane, respectively. The WS-doubled projection number showed about 50% lesser noise level. There were differences in the Wiener spectra (WS) at the position in XYZ directions. We conclude that the resolution and the noise property of CBCT image in X-Y plane showed dependences on the position in XYZ directions and acquisition parameters of the CBCT. PMID:27546079

  20. ANG4043, a novel brain-penetrant peptide-mAb conjugate, is efficacious against HER2-positive intracranial tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Regina, Anthony; Demeule, Michel; Tripathy, Sasmita; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Currie, Jean-Christophe; Iddir, Mustapha; Annabi, Borhane; Castaigne, Jean-Paul; Lachowicz, Jean E

    2015-01-01

    Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been shown to reduce tumor size and increase survival in patients with breast cancer, but they are ineffective against brain metastases due to poor brain penetration. In previous studies, we identified a peptide, known as Angiopep-2 (An2), which crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) efficiently via receptor-mediated transcytosis, and, when conjugated, endows small molecules and peptides with this property. Extending this strategy to higher molecular weight biologics, we now demonstrate that a conjugate between An2 and an anti-HER2 mAb results in a new chemical entity, ANG4043, which retains in vitro binding affinity for the HER2 receptor and antiproliferative potency against HER2-positive BT-474 breast ductal carcinoma cells. Unlike the native mAb, ANG4043 binds LRP1 clusters and is taken up by LRP1-expressing cells. Measuring brain exposure after intracarotid delivery, we demonstrate that the new An2-mAb conjugate penetrates the BBB with a rate of brain entry (Kin) of 1.6 × 10(-3) mL/g/s. Finally, in mice with intracranially implanted BT-474 xenografts, systemically administered ANG4043 increases survival. Overall, this study demonstrates that the incorporation of An2 to the anti-HER2 mAb confers properties of increased uptake in brain endothelial cells as well as BBB permeability. These characteristics of ANG4043 result in higher exposure levels in BT-474 brain tumors and prolonged survival following systemic treatment. Moreover, the data further validate the An2-drug conjugation strategy as a way to create brain-penetrant biologics for neuro-oncology and other CNS indications. PMID:25492620

  1. Earth Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Mack, J.; Hartig, G.; Sirianni, M.

    2005-10-01

    Since the last ISR 2003-02 on the use of Earth observations for a source of flat field illumination, several hundred more observations have been obtained with the full set of HRC standard filters and four narrow band WFC filters. While most of these observation show streaks or other nonuniform illumination, a significant subset are defect free and can be used to construct complete LP-flats. Many of the existing pipeline flats are confirmed to a precision of ~1%, which validates the stellar L-flat technique. Exceptions are the WFC, where a shutter light leak causes a systematic central contamination of a few percent and limits the verification accuracy to ~2%. Other exceptions are the four longest wavelength HRC filters, which show systematic differences with the pipeline flats. This discrepancy is apparently caused by stray light originating from the detector surface, where most of the longest wavelength photons are reflected and then scattered back from nearby focal plane structures. Because this complete set of HRC Earth flats is more appropriate than the pipeline flats for large diffuse objects such as the Moon, Jupiter, or the Orion Nebula, the set is now available on the STScI/ACS website. Earth flats also measure the small and intermediate scale P-flat structure. Due to slight deviations from OTA like illumination in the lab, the flat field corrections in the dust mote regions are 1-2% better with Earth flats. The trend found in ACS ISR 2005-09 for an increase toward the UV for more pixels with non-Poisson statistical distributions is confirmed for the F330W Earth flats, where up to 3% of the pixels are in error by >1%. Most of this newly discovered population of deviant pixels are dark with low responses; however, the effect of these erroneous P-flat values on stellar photometry is less than 0.1%.

  2. FLATs: Warming Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  3. FLATs: Warming Up - continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  4. Novel Approach for Positioning Sensor Lead Wires on SiC-Based Monolithic Ceramic and FRCMC Components/Subcomponents Having Flat and Curved Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Singh, Mrityunjay; Lei, Jin-Fen; Martin, Lisa C.

    1999-01-01

    A novel attachment approach for positioning sensor lead wires on silicon carbide-based monolithic ceramic and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite (FRCMC) components has been developed. This approach is based on an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology, named ARCJoinT, which was developed for the joining of silicon carbide-based ceramic and fiber reinforced composites. The ARCJoinT technique has previously been shown to produce joints with tailorable thickness and good high temperature strength. In this study, silicon carbide-based ceramic and FRCMC attachments of different shapes and sizes were joined onto silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/ SiC) composites having flat and curved surfaces. Based on results obtained in previous joining studies. the joined attachments should maintain their mechanical strength and integrity at temperatures up to 1350 C in air. Therefore they can be used to position and secure sensor lead wires on SiC/SiC components that are being tested in programs that are focused on developing FRCMCs for a number of demanding high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. This approach, which is suitable for installing attachments on large and complex shaped monolithic ceramic and composite components, should enhance the durability of minimally intrusive high temperature sensor systems. The technology could also be used to reinstall attachments on ceramic components that were damaged in service.

  5. Static penetration resistance of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgunoglu, H. T.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    Model test results were used to define the failure mechanism associated with the static penetration resistance of cohesionless and low-cohesion soils. Knowledge of this mechanism has permitted the development of a new analytical method for calculating the ultimate penetration resistance which explicitly accounts for penetrometer base apex angle and roughness, soil friction angle, and the ratio of penetration depth to base width. Curves relating the bearing capacity factors to the soil friction angle are presented for failure in general shear. Strength parameters and penetrometer interaction properties of a fine sand were determined and used as the basis for prediction of the penetration resistance encountered by wedge, cone, and flat-ended penetrometers of different surface roughness using the proposed analytical method. Because of the close agreement between predicted values and values measured in laboratory tests, it appears possible to deduce in-situ soil strength parameters and their variation with depth from the results of static penetration tests.

  6. Flat battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckler, S.A.; Cohen, F.S.; Kennedy, D.P.

    1980-12-30

    A description is given of the method of making a thin flat laminar battery comprising the steps of coating a substrate with a dispersion of zinc powder and water to produce an anode slurry, and thereafter diffusing electrolytes into said anode slurry; and electrical cells and batteries made by this process.

  7. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  8. Penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Dervelegas, Konstantinos; Porpodis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space. Currently there is increasing incidence of road traffic accidents, increasing awareness of healthcare leading to more advanced diagnostic procedures, and increasing number of admissions in intensive care units are responsible for traumatic (non iatrogenic and iatrogenic) pneumothorax. Pneumothorax has a clinical spectrum from asymptomatic patient to life-threatening situations. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical examination and imaging techniques. In our current work we focus on the treatment of penetrating trauma. PMID:25337403

  9. Penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Ivan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zaric, Bojan; Branislav, Perin; Dervelegas, Konstantinos; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Pneumothorax occurs when air enters the pleural space. Currently there is increasing incidence of road traffic accidents, increasing awareness of healthcare leading to more advanced diagnostic procedures, and increasing number of admissions in intensive care units are responsible for traumatic (non iatrogenic and iatrogenic) pneumothorax. Pneumothorax has a clinical spectrum from asymptomatic patient to life-threatening situations. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical examination and imaging techniques. In our current work we focus on the treatment of penetrating trauma. PMID:25337403

  10. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  11. Hydraulic well penetration apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Schellstede, H.J.; McQueen, R.W.; Peters, A.D.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a well penetrator. It comprises: housing means capable of being lowered down the interior of a well casing, a work fluid input means in the housing means,a movable punch member having an inner end and an outer end and being movable between a retracted position and an extended position. The outer end of the movable punch member including casing cutting means for cutting an opening in a casing when moved forcefully outwardly toward the extended position, punch support means supporting the punch member for movement relative to the housing means between the retracted position in which the outer end of the punch member is positioned substantially within the confines of the housing means and the extended position in which the outer end of the punch member is positioned outwardly of the housing means.

  12. New method of verificating optical flat flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Xueyuan; Han, Sen; Zhu, Jianrong; Guo, Zhenglai; Fu, Yuegang

    2014-11-01

    Optical flat is commonly used in optical testing instruments, flatness is the most important parameter of forming errors. As measurement criteria, optical flat flatness (OFF) index needs to have good precision. Current measurement in China is heavily dependent on the artificial visual interpretation, through discrete points to characterize the flatness. The efficiency and accuracy of this method can not meet the demand of industrial development. In order to improve the testing efficiency and accuracy of measurement, it is necessary to develop an optical flat verification system, which can obtain all surface information rapidly and efficiently, at the same time, in accordance with current national metrological verification procedures. This paper reviews current optical flat verification method and solves the problems existing in previous test, by using new method and its supporting software. Final results show that the new system can improve verification efficiency and accuracy, by comparing with JJG 28-2000 metrological verification procedures method.

  13. Optimizing the position of insulating materials in flat roofs exposed to sunshine to gain minimum heat into buildings under periodic heat transfer conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Saboor; Talanki, Ashok Babu Puttranga Setty

    2016-05-01

    Building roofs are responsible for the huge heat gain in buildings. In the present work, an analysis of the influence of insulation location inside a flat roof exposed directly to the sun's radiation was performed to reduce heat gain in buildings. The unsteady thermal response parameters of the building roof such as admittance, transmittance, decrement factor, and time lags have been investigated by solving a one-dimensional diffusion equation under convective periodic boundary conditions. Theoretical results of four types of walls were compared with the experimental results available in literature. The results reveal that the roof with insulation placed at the outer side and at the center plane of the roof is the most energy efficient from the lower decrement factor point of view and the roof with insulation placed at the center plane and the inner side of the roof is the best from the highest time lag point of view among the seven studied configurations. The composite roof with expanded polystyrene insulation located at the outer side and at the center plane of the roof is found to be the best roof from the lowest decrement factor (0.130) point of view, and the composite roof with resin-bonded mineral wool insulation located at the center plane and at the inner side of the roof is found to be energy efficient from the highest time lag point (9.33 h) of view among the seven configurations with five different insulation materials studied. The optimum fabric energy storage thicknesses of reinforced cement concrete, expanded polystyrene, foam glass, rock wool, rice husk, resin-bonded mineral wool, and cement plaster were computed. From the results, it is concluded that rock wool has the least optimum fabric energy storage thickness (0.114 m) among the seven studied building roof materials. PMID:26341337

  14. Impact of starting measurement voltage relative to flat-band voltage position on the capacitance-voltage hysteresis and on the defect characterization of InGaAs/high-k metal-oxide-semiconductor stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vais, Abhitosh; Franco, Jacopo; Lin, Han-Chung; Collaert, Nadine; Mocuta, Anda; De Meyer, Kristin; Thean, Aaron

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we discuss how the position of the flat band voltage with respect to the starting voltage of the C-V measurement sweep can influence the estimation of the hysteresis in high-k/InGaAs MOS devices. We show that, with the support of experimental data and conceptual oxide defect band calculations, the interpretation and subsequent parameter extraction from flat-band voltage shifts observed in III-V MOS devices is more complex as compared to Si gate stacks. It is demonstrated that such complication arises due to the wider distribution of defect levels in the dielectric band gap in the case of InGaAs/high-k stack as compared to standard Si/SiO2/HfO2 MOS. In particular, for Al2O3 deposited on InGaAs, two wide, partially overlapping oxide defect bands are identified, centered ˜1.5 eV and ˜0.5 eV above and below the channel conduction band, respectively. Such defect levels are expected to affect the device operation and reliability.

  15. Penetration of concrete targets

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Cargile, J.D.; Tzou, R.D.Y.

    1993-08-01

    We developed penetration equations for ogive-nosed projectiles that penetrated concrete targets after normal impact. Our penetration equations predict axial force on the projectile nose, rigid-body motion, and final penetration depth. For target constitutive models, we conducted triaxial material experiments to confining pressures of 600 MPa and curve-fit these data with a linear pressure-volumetric strain relation and with a linear Mohr-Coulomb, shear strength-pressure relation. To verify our penetration equations, we conducted eleven penetration experiments with 0.90 kg, 26.9-mm-diameter, ogive-nosed projectiles into 1.37-m-diameter concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths between 32-40 MPa. Predictions from our penetration equation are compared with final penetration depth measurements for striking velocities between 280--800 m/s.

  16. Water penetration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.

  17. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  18. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  19. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  20. Fluorescent penetrant inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with fluorescent penetrant inspection and to relate it to classification of various defects. The penetrant method of nondestructive testing is a method for finding discontinuities open to the surface in solids and essentially nonporous bodies. The method employs a penetrating liquid which is applied over the surface and enters the discontinuity or crack. After the excess of penetrant has been cleaned from the surface, the penetrant which exudes or is drawn back out of the crack indicates the presence and location of a discontinuity. The experimental procedure is described.

  1. FAA fluorescent penetrant activities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Larson, B.F.

    1997-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) and the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability (CASR) are currently working to develop a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) system evaluation capability that will support the needs of the penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the FAA. The main focus of this facility is to support the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials, penetrant systems and to apply resources to support industry needs. This paper discusses efforts to create such a facility and an initial project to produce fatigue crack specimens for evaluation of Type 1 penetrant sensitivities.

  2. The effect of welding parameters on penetration in GTA welds

    SciTech Connect

    Shirali, A.A. ); Mills, K.C. )

    1993-07-01

    The effect of various welding parameters on the penetration of GTA welds has been investigated. Increases in welding speed were found to reduce penetration; however, increases in welding current were observed to increase the penetration in high sulfur (HS) casts and decrease penetration in low sulfur (LS) steels. Plots of penetration as a function of increasing linear energy (the heat supplied per unit length of weld) revealed a similar trend with increased penetration in HS casts, but the penetration in LS casts was unaffected by increases in linear energy. These results support the Burgardt-Heiple proposition that changes in welding parameters on penetration can be explained in terms of their effect, sequentially, on the temperature gradient and the Marangoni forces operating in the weld pool. Increases in arc length were found to decrease weld penetration regardless of the sulfur concentration of the steel, and the effects of electrode geometry and welding position on weld penetration were also investigated.

  3. MAMA FUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining FUV-MAMA flat-field observations to create a new p-flats with a SNR of 100 per {low resolution} pixel. The flats are obtained with the Krypton-lamp and the MR grating G140M, similarly to the cycle 17 and 18 programs. However the exact instrument setup {slit width and central wavelength} might change depending on the desired count level {which will be close to the internally allowed global rate limit}.

  4. Sixth-grade Indonesian student explanations of directions on flat maps and globes, of the Earth's rotation to cause night and day, and of the relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun during an eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimyati, Surachman

    The purpose of the study was to elicit and analyze sixth grade students' explanations concerning concepts taught in the national Indonesian sixth grade science curriculum. In this study, students were asked to identify the cardinal directions on flat maps and a globe, to describe what causes night and day on the earth, to identify the direction of the earth's rotation, and to identify the relative positions of the earth, sun, and moon during either a solar or lunar eclipse. The findings in the study can be summarized as follows (1) Eighty out of 88 students (91%) were able to explain what causes night and day. (2) Approximately 50% could identify the direction the earth rotates to cause night and day. (3) Using a solar system model, about 64% of the students could describe the relative position of the earth, sun, and moon during an eclipse. (4) Cultural differences affect student thinking. One student thought that Mecca had to be west of everywhere, not just west of Indonesia. (5) The way teachers teach seems to influence student thinking. It is easy for students to form the misconception that up is north. Most maps in classrooms are hung vertically. (6) Some students were confused by the globe. Teachers need to explain why the globe is tilted. Also, they need to help students understand how to determine the cardinal directions on a globe. More research is needed to determine what is needed to help students truly understand these concepts and to determine whether these concepts are best taught at the elementary level.

  5. Simulation of laser penetration efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semak, V. V.; Miller, T. F.

    2013-09-01

    The results of numerical simulation of laser beam interaction with a hypothetical metallic material with properties similar to a steel alloy are reported. The numerical simulation was performed using a physical model that includes detailed consideration of surface evaporation, evaporative cooling of the surface and evaporation recoil induced melt ejection. The laser beam ‘penetration’ is considered in terms of melting through the sample or drilling through the sample due to both evaporation and recoil ejection of material. As a demonstration of the predictive capabilities of the model, the average velocity of penetration through a material with steel-like properties is numerically predicted for various laser interaction parameters such as, laser beam radius, laser pulse duration (including CW regime), laser pulse energy and pulse repetition. In particular, the average penetration velocities through a sample due to melting are compared for pulsed and CW lasers of the same power. For the sake of another demonstration of penetration simulation, the temporal dynamics of the position of melt front relative to the sample surface irradiated by a laser beam was computed for different laser pulse repetition rates and constant average laser power. An illustration of the penetration efficiency (W parameter) defined as the amount of energy per unit volume delivered into a target in order to achieve either melting of drilling through a target wall is shown in a wide range of laser pulse parameters covering regimes corresponding to domination of melting through and drilling through.

  6. Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.

  7. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  8. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  9. Penetration below a convective zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, Neal E.; Toomre, Juri; Massaguer, Josep M.; Zahn, Jean-Paul

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to investigate how fully compressible nonlinear convection penetrates into a stably stratified zone beneath a stellar convection zone. Estimates are obtained of the extent of penetration as the relative stability S of the stable to the unstable zone is varied over a broad range. The model deals with a perfect gas possessing a constant dynamic viscosity. The dynamics is dominated by downward-directed plumes which can extend far into the stable material and which can lead to the excitation of a broad spectrum of internal gravity waves in the lower stable zone. The convection is highly time dependent, with the close coupling between the lateral swaying of the plumes and the internal gravity waves they generate serving to modulate the strength of the convection. The depth of penetration delta, determined by the position where the time-averaged kinetic flux has its first zero in the stable layer, is controlled by a balance between the kinetic energy carried into the stable layer by the plumes and the buoyancy braking they experience there. A passive scalar is introduced into the unstable layer to evaluate the transport of chemical species downward. Such a tracer is effectively mixed within a few convective overturning times down to a depth of delta within the stable layer. Analytical estimates based on simple scaling laws are used to interpret the variation of delta with S, showing that it first involves an interval of adiabatic penetration if the local Peclet number of the convection exceeds unity, followed by a further thermal adjustment layer, the depths of each interval scaling in turn as S-1 and S-1/4. These estimates are in accord with the penetration results from the simulations.

  10. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  11. Flat conductor cable survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, C. R.; Walker, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Design handbook contains data and illustrations concerned with commercial and Government flat-conductor-cable connecting and terminating hardware. Material was obtained from a NASA-sponsored industry-wide survey of approximately 150 companies and Government agencies.

  12. CESAR at Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsiev, D.; Slanger, T. G.; Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomic Research (CESAR) has been sited at Poker Flat Research Range since November 2013, collecting data over two seasons of the nightglow and the aurora. CESAR has operated with a field of view of seven degrees in the zenith direction, with a resolution of 5000, although a resolution three times greater is available. So far, data collection times have been in the range of 20 minutes, while the wavelength range used has been 500-1050 nm. Detailed studies of a number of optical features have been carried out. 1) It is demonstrated that the v = 2 level of the O2(b) state is best studied by using the weak b-X 2-1 band near 697 nm, it being free of auroral contamination. 2) Similarly, the best uncontaminated feature of the N2+ Meinel system is the complex A-X 0-1 band, which has been accurately simulated for the first time [Dubowsky and McCall, private communication, 2014]. 3) The N(2P-2D) quartet of lines near 1040 nm is an important auroral feature, being the N-atom equivalent of the oxygen green line. These lines are uncontaminated in many of our spectra. For lower altitude auroral excitation, there may be some overlap with the N2 First Positive 0-0 band [Pendleton et al, 1989]. 4) Time series on the O+(2P-2D) lines near 732-733 nm have been studied, showing variable background emission in this region depending on auroral type. Information on OH Meinel band lines is available throughout the region studied, and there is substantial evidence from sky spectra (Keck, VLT) that the attempt to extract kinetic temperatures from OH intensity distributions is strongly influenced by non-LTE effects [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al, 2014].

  13. Review and status of sonic boom penetration into the ocean.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Victor W

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1970 Sonic Boom Symposium, held at the ASA's 80th meeting in Houston, TX, substantial progress has been made in understanding the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean. The state of the art at that time was documented by J. C. Cook, T. Goforth, and R. K. Cook [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 729-741 (1972)]. Since then, additional experiments have been performed which corroborate Cook's and Sawyers' theory for sonic boom penetration into a flat ocean surface. In addition, computational simulations have validated that theory and extended the work to include arbitrarily shaped waveforms penetrating flat ocean surfaces. Further numerical studies have investigated realistic ocean surfaces including large-scale ocean swell. Research has also been performed on the effects of ocean inhomogeneities due to bubble plumes. This paper provides a brief overview of these developments. PMID:11837959

  14. Surfactant improves irrigant penetration into unoperated sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Joseph W.; Dion, Greg R.; Brenner, Pryor S.; Abadie, Wesley M.; McMains, Kevin C.; Thomas, Roy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Saline irrigations are proving to be a valuable intervention in the treatment of chronic sinusitis. The use of surfactants is a well established additive to topical treatments known to reduce surface tension and may prove to be a simple, nonoperative intervention to improve intrasinus douching penetration. Methods: Six 30-mL, flat-bottomed medicine cups with circular holes cut through the bottom center and varying in diameter from 1 to 6 mm were created with punch biopsies. Water, saline, saline/dye, and saline/dye/surfactant were compared for maximum holding pressure via these modeled ostia. Holding pressures also were determined for cups with septal mucosa fused to the bottom with holes ranging from 1 to 6 mm. In addition, analysis was carried out with blood and blood/surfactant. Finally, five thawed, fresh-frozen cadaver heads were evaluated before any sinus surgery with water/dye and water/dye/surfactant for intrasinus penetration. Results: Surfactant significantly improved the ability of all solutions to penetrate ostia in both the plastic cup and fused septal mucosa model. All nonsurfactant-containing solutions were not statistically different from one another, nor did surfactant change the ostial penetration of blood. Surfactant significantly improved the ability of sinus irrigant to penetrate unoperated sinus cavities (3.12 vs 3.5, p = .021). Conclusions: The addition of surfactant to saline irrigation improves ostial penetration in undissected and undiseased cadavers. This has practical implications for unoperated patients seeking care for sinus-related symptoms in that we have now described a method for improving topical treatment of target sinus mucosa prior to surgical intervention. PMID:22643945

  15. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  16. HRC and WFC Flat Fields: Dispersors, Anomalies, and Photometric Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Hartig, G.

    2002-03-01

    The ACS has a prism PR200L that covers the 2000-4000A region on HRC and a grism G800L that covers 5500-11000A on both HRC and WFC. The flat field for the UV prism is largely wavelength independent, while the strong wavelength dependence of the G800L Lflat structure requires a flat field correction scheme based on a data cube of monochromatic flats. Our suggested correction scheme reduces the L-flat residual structure below 1% rms over most of the wavelength range. Various anomalies in the UV polarizing flats and the F892N+POLV flats are described and solutions proposed. The repeatability of the LP-flats is quantified. Solutions are proposed for single step random variation in the filter wheel positions.

  17. Flat Top & rocky terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at lower right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. Flat Top has been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  18. Hydraulic well penetration apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Schellstede, H.J.; McQueen, R.W.; Peters, A.D.

    1988-12-13

    This patient describes a method of penetrating a well casing and surrounding earth strata comprising the steps of: positioning a punch member internally of the casing at a desired depth in alignment with strata desired to be penetrated; and forcing the punch member outwardly through the casing to an extended position to effect the provision of an aperture in the casing while simultaneously moving a jet nozzle means outwardly through the punch member while concurrently providing a high pressure liquid jet from the nozzle means to effect the application of force to the casing to weaken the casing and aid the operation of the punch in cutting the case and surrounding strata.

  19. Flat focusing mirror.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y C; Kicas, S; Trull, J; Peckus, M; Cojocaru, C; Vilaseca, R; Drazdys, R; Staliunas, K

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  20. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  1. Discovery of (S)-2-Cyclopentyl-N-((1-isopropylpyrrolidin2-yl)-9-methyl-1-oxo-2,9-dihydro-1H-pyrrido[3,4-b]indole-4-carboxamide (VU0453379): A Novel, CNS Penetrant Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor (GLP-1R) Positive Allosteric Modulator (PAM)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A duplexed, functional multiaddition high throughput screen and subsequent iterative parallel synthesis effort identified the first highly selective and CNS penetrant glucagon-like peptide-1R (GLP-1R) positive allosteric modulator (PAM). PAM (S)-9b potentiated low-dose exenatide to augment insulin secretion in primary mouse pancreatic islets, and (S)-9b alone was effective in potentiating endogenous GLP-1R to reverse haloperidol-induced catalepsy. PMID:25423411

  2. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  3. Flat conductor cable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

  4. Microbial keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Bates, A K; Kirkness, C M; Ficker, L A; Steele, A D; Rice, N S

    1990-01-01

    Thirty cases of microbial keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty were reviewed to examine the associated risk factors, the spectrum of pathogens and the prognosis for graft survival and visual outcome. The indications for keratoplasty in this group differed markedly from those for all corneal grafts performed with a much higher incidence of previous microbial keratitis and of herpes simplex keratitis. A positive culture was obtained in 93% of cases and in contrast to microbial keratitis overall, Gram positive organisms predominated particularly streptococcus pneumoniae and staphylococcus aureus. Risk factors identified were loose or broken sutures, graft decompensation and a poor ocular surface environment. There was a poor prognosis for graft survival with only 23% of cases retaining a clear graft. Overall 53% of cases were regrafted. PMID:2323481

  5. Soil penetrometers and penetrability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil penetrometers are useful tools that measure the penetrability, or strength, of a soil. They can be as simple as a rod or shaft with a blunt or sharp end, or complicated mechanically driven instruments with digital data collection systems. Regardless of their design, soil penetrometers measure s...

  6. Single wall penetration equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K. B.; Robinson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Five single plate penetration equations are compared for accuracy and effectiveness. These five equations are two well-known equations (Fish-Summers and Schmidt-Holsapple), two equations developed by the Apollo project (Rockwell and Johnson Space Center (JSC), and one recently revised from JSC (Cour-Palais). They were derived from test results, with velocities ranging up to 8 km/s. Microsoft Excel software was used to construct a spreadsheet to calculate the diameters and masses of projectiles for various velocities, varying the material properties of both projectile and target for the five single plate penetration equations. The results were plotted on diameter versus velocity graphs for ballistic and spallation limits using Cricket Graph software, for velocities ranging from 2 to 15 km/s defined for the orbital debris. First, these equations were compared to each other, then each equation was compared with various aluminum projectile densities. Finally, these equations were compared with test results performed at JSC for the Marshall Space Flight Center. These equations predict a wide variety of projectile diameters at a given velocity. Thus, it is very difficult to choose the 'right' prediction equation. The thickness of a single plate could have a large variation by choosing a different penetration equation. Even though all five equations are empirically developed with various materials, especially for aluminum alloys, one cannot be confident in the shield design with the predictions obtained by the penetration equations without verifying by tests.

  7. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  8. Jet penetration in glass

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.; Kusubov, A.

    1991-05-01

    We describe a phenomenological model which accounts for the mechanical response of glass to intense impulsive loading. An important aspect of this response is the dilatancy accompanying fracture. We have also conducted a number of experiments with 38.1-mm diameter precision shaped charges to establish the performance against various targets and to allow evaluation of our model. At 3 charge diameters standoff, the data indicate that both virgin and damaged glass offer better (Bernoulli-scaled) resistance to penetration than either of 4340 steel, or 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Time-resolved measurements indicate two distinct phases of jet penetration in glass: An initial hydrodynamic phase, and a second phase characterized by a slower penetration velocity. Our calculations show that at early time, a crater is formed around the jet and only the tip of the undisturbed jet interacts with the glass. At late time the glass has collapsed on the jet and degraded penetration continues via a disturbed and fragmented jet.

  9. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  10. Biomechanics of penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that injuries and deaths due to penetrating projectiles have become a national and an international epidemic in Western society. The application of biomedical engineering to solve day-to-day problems has produced considerable advances in safety and mitigation/prevention of trauma. The study of penetrating trauma has been largely in the military domain where war-time specific applications were advanced with the use of high-velocity weapons. With the velocity and weapon caliber in the civilian population at half or less compared with the military counterpart, wound ballistics is a largely different problem in today's trauma centers. The principal goal of the study of penetrating injuries in the civilian population is secondary prevention and optimized emergency care after occurrence. A thorough understanding of the dynamic biomechanics of penetrating injuries quantifies missile type, caliber, and velocity to hard and soft tissue damage. Such information leads to a comprehensive assessment of the acute and long-term treatment of patients with penetrating injuries. A review of the relevant military research applied to the civilian domain and presentation of new technology in the biomechanical study of these injuries offer foundation to this field. Relevant issues addressed in this review article include introduction of the military literature, the need for secondary prevention, environmental factors including projectile velocity and design, experimental studies with biological tissues and physical models, and mathematical simulations and analyses. Areas of advancement are identified that enables the pursuit of biomechanics research in order to arrive at better secondary prevention strategies. PMID:9719858

  11. Pitfalls in penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B

    2003-08-01

    In Western Europe the most frequent cause of multiple injuries is blunt trauma. Only few of us have experience with penetrating trauma, without exception far less than in the USA or South-Africa. In Rotterdam, the Erasmus Medical Centre is a level I trauma centre, situated directly in the town centre. All penetrating traumas are directly presented to our emergency department by a well organized ambulance service supported by a mobile medical team if necessary. The delay with scoop and run principles is very short for these cases, resulting in severely injured reaching the hospital alive in increasing frequency. Although the basic principles of trauma care according to the guidelines of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) (1-2) are the same for blunt and penetrating trauma with regard to priorities, diagnostics and primary therapy, there are some pitfalls in the strategy of management in penetrating trauma one should be aware of. Simple algorithms can be helpful, especially in case of limited experience (3). In case of life-saving procedures, the principles of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) must be followed (4-5). This approach is somewhat different from "traditional" surgical treatment. In the Ist phase prompt interventions by emergency thoracotomy and laparotomy are carried out, with only two goals to achieve: surgical control of haemorrhage and contamination. After temporary life-saving procedures, the 2nd phase is characterized by intensive care treatment, dealing with hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and clotting disturbances. Finally in the 3rd phase, within 6-24 hours, definitive surgical care takes place. In this overview, penetrating injuries of neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities will be outlined. Penetrating cranial injuries, as a neurosurgical emergency with poor prognosis, are not discussed. History and physical examination remain the corner stones of good medical praxis. In a work-up according to ATLS principles airway, breathing and circulation

  12. Ultrasonic scanner for radial and flat panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. L.; Hill, E. K. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ultrasonic scanning mechanism is described that scans panels of honeycomb construction or with welded seams. It incorporates a device which by simple adjustment is adapted to scan either a flat panel or a radial panel. The supporting structure takes the form of a pair of spaced rails. An immersion tank is positioned between the rails and below their level. A work holder is mounted in the tank and is adapted to hold the flat or radial panel. A traveling bridge is movable along the rails and a carriage is mounted on the bridge.

  13. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  14. Ground-penetrating rada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuma, W. R.

    The theory and applications of digital Ground-Penetrating Radar were discussed at a 5-day seminar held at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan, People's Republic of China, in April. Cohosted by the Department of Applied Geophysics and Canada-China Geoscience, more than 60 senior geophysicists, engineers, technical specialists, university professors and researchers attended.Focus of the meeting was the expanded uses of the new deep-penetrating fully digital PulseEKKO, which is gaining wide acceptance around the world. Attendees showed intense interest in this new and unique technology. Applications covered were groundwater and mineral exploration; engineering, construction and toxic waste site surveying; tunnel and underground mine probing for potential geological hazards, blind ore zones, karst cavities and solution pathways; and locating buried objects such as petroleum storage tanks, unexploded bombs and archeological remains.

  15. Penetrating extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Penetrating extremity trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts. PMID:25413177

  16. Penetrable wedge analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharstein, Robert W.; Davis, Anthony M.

    1994-07-01

    Two complementary analyses of the time-harmonic scattering by a penetrable wedge are presented. The distance from the apex (appropriately scaled by the wavenumber in the exterior region) of the exciting line source is the single length scale in this infinite-domain boundary value problem. The work summarized herein represents two mathematical approaches (among a series of candidates) to solve this important scattering problem and to visualize the wave physics.

  17. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  18. Penetrating cardiac injuries.

    PubMed

    Mittal, V; McAleese, P; Young, S; Cohen, M

    1999-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the influence of several clinical factors on the survival of patients with penetrating wounds to the heart. A retrospective review of 80 consecutive penetrating cardiac injuries treated in a Level II urban trauma center from 1980 through 1994 were examined. Thirty-six patients (45%) had gunshot wounds (including 1 shotgun wound), and 44 (55%) had stab wounds. Intervention consisted of emergency room (ER) or operating room thoracotomy. We measured the effect of several clinical factors on morbidity and patient survival. Survival rate was 17 of 36 (47%) in gunshot injuries and 35 of 44 (80%) in stab injuries, with an overall survival rate of 52 of 80 patients (65%). The average age was 24 years (range, 9-53), and there were 3 female patients. Twelve patients (15%) had multiple cardiac injuries, and 63 (79%) had other associated injuries. Fourteen patients (17%) presented with no blood pressure, and 55 (69%) were hypotensive on admission. ER thoracotomy was performed on 7 of 52 survivors (13%) and 24 of 28 nonsurvivors (86%). Survival after ER thoracotomy was 7 of 31 patients (22%). A selective approach is recommended, because ER thoracotomy has a limited role in penetrating cardiac injury. A high index of suspicion, prompt resuscitation, and immediate definitive surgical management resulted in a high survival rate for these frequently lethal injuries. PMID:10231214

  19. Prediction of alumina penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D A

    1993-02-01

    The MESA hydrocode was used to predict two-dimensional tests of L/D 10 and L/D 15 tungsten rods impacting AD 90 alumina with a steel backing. The residual penetration into the steel is the measured quantity in these experiments conducted at the Southwest Research Institute (SWR). The interface velocity as a function of time between an alumina target and a lithium fluoride window, impacted by an alumina disk at velocities between 544 m/s and 2329 m/s, was also predicted. These one-dimensional flyer plate experiments were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories using Coors AD 995 alumina. The material strength and fracture models are important in the prediction of ceramic experiments. The models used in these predictions are discussed. The penetrations in the two-dimensional tests were predicted to 11.4 percent or better. In five of the six experiments, the predicted penetration depth was deeper than the measured value. This trend is expected since the calculation is based on ideal conditions. The results show that good agreement between the 1-D flyer plate data and the MESA predictions exists at the lower impact velocities, but the maximum velocity is overpredicted as the flyer plate velocity increases. At a flyer plate velocity of 2329 m/s the code overpredicted the data by 12.3 percent.

  20. Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

  1. Forming Completely Penetrated Welded T-joints when Pulsed Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krampit, N. Yu; Krampit, M. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is focused on revealing the influence of welding parameters on weld formation when pulsed arc welding. As an experimental sample a T-joint over 10 mm was selected. Welding was carried out in flat position, which required no edge preparation but provided mono-directional guaranteed root penetration. The following parameters of welding were subjected to investigation: gap in the joint, wire feed rate and incline angles of the torch along and across the weld axis. Technological recommendations have been made with respect to pulsed arc welding; the cost price of product manufacturing can be reduced on their basis due to reduction of labor input required by machining, lowering consumption of welding materials and electric power.

  2. Spirit's View from 'Engineering Flats'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This 360-degree view from a site dubbed 'Engineering Flats' combines several frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's 182nd martian day, or sol (July 7, 2004). Spirit had driven to this spot in the 'Columbia Hills' for four sols of engineering work on its right front wheel and a recalibration of positioning accuracy for tools on its robotic arm. The wheel tracks just beyond the rover's shadow indicate where Spirit had spent the preceding three weeks examining rocks in and near 'Hank's Hollow.' The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  3. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  4. Thermal equivalency study for steel propulsion shafting and flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dikshit, V.A.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    The electroslag strip surfacing (ESS) process despite its advantage of high deposition rates, low base metal dilutions, and uniform penetrations, over unknown in the United States and has only recently started to gain acceptance as a feasible process for surfacing on large components, e.g., propulsion shafting. Electroslag strip surfacing was made on service scale shaft and on various flat plates using the same surfacing materials and parameters. Thermal history measurements were made by chromel-alumel thermocouples mounted on the shaft and the flat plates. The data were collected by a computer-controlled data acquisition system and subsequently postprocessed using commercial spreadsheet/graphics software programs. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and the flat plates showed a strong dependence on the interpass preheat temperature, but was independent of the maximum temperature. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and flat plate of the same thickness, and for the 76 and 127 mm thick flat plates were found to match very closely. This led to the conclusion that the thermal history results for 127 mm thick shaft and 127 to 67 mm thick flat plates made from similar steels show thermal equivalence for ESS and provide the justification for using 67 to 127 mm thick plates instead of 127 mm thick service scale shafting for process characterization.

  5. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  6. Wedge and Flat Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. The rock dubbed 'Wedge' is at left. The objects have been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. Penetration in GTA welding

    SciTech Connect

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The size and shape of the weld bead produced in GTA welding depends on the magnitude and distribution of the energy incident on the workpiece surfaces as well as the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece. The input energy is largely controllable through the welding parameters selected, however the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece is less subject to control. Changes in energy dissipation can produce large changes in weld shape or penetration. Heat transport away from the weld pool is almost entirely by conduction, but heat transport in the weld pool is more complicated. Heat conduction through the liquid is an important component, but heat transport by convection (mass transport) is often the dominant mechanism. Convective heat transport is directional and changes the weld pool shape from that produced by conduction alone. Surface tension gradients are often the dominant forces driving fluid flow in GTA weld pools. These gradients are sensitive functions of weld pool chemistry and the energy input distribution to the weld. Experimental and theoretical work conducted primarily in the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of weld pool fluid flow, the forces which drive it, and its effects on weld pool shape. This work is reviewed here. While less common, changes in energy dissipation through the unmelted portion of the workpiece can also affect fusion zone shape or penetration. These effects are also described. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  9. Skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Lane, Majella E

    2013-04-15

    The skin has evolved to prevent excessive water loss from the internal organs and to limit the ability of xenobiotics and hazardous substances to enter the body. Notwithstanding this barrier function, a number of strategies have been developed by scientists to deliver drugs to and through the skin. The aim of this review is to consider the various types of chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) which have been investigated in the scientific literature. Potential pathways for CPEs to exert their action are examined with reference to the physical chemistry of passive skin transport. The emphasis is on those studies which have focussed on human and porcine skin because of the limitations associated with skin permeation data collated from other species. Where known, the mechanisms of action of these compounds are also discussed. Examples of enhancers used in commercial topical and transdermal formulations are provided. It is proposed that overall the effects of CPEs on the skin barrier may best be explained by a Diffusion-Partition-Solubility theory. Finally, some of the limitations of studies in the literature are considered and the importance of monitoring the fate of the penetration enhancer as well as the active is highlighted. PMID:23462366

  10. TRACE Image Flat Field and Sensitivity Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, R. W.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wolfson, C. J.

    2003-05-01

    As of April 1, 2003, the TRACE instrument has been in orbit for 5 years. During this time the lumogen phosphor coating on the CCD has degraded due to the flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons. We have utilized flat field images obtained for the UV 1700 Å and broad-band white light (WL) channels, together with the synoptic disk center, and low-resolution ``dosimeter'' image data from throughout the mission, to correct for the degradation at all of the TRACE UV and EUV wavelengths. A set of time dependent power and multiplier parameters have been determined from fitting these flat fields to the mission synoptic data for the various UV wavelengths. By comparing the relative EUV sensitivity at different positions on the detector throughout the mission using images of the same active region at different pointings, we have calibrated the sensitivity changes and flat fields at the EUV wavelengths, including 171 Å and 195 Å. The WL flat field images have not changed within +/-1.5 % over the mission to date. The WL flat fields are also used in the corrections for all images, to remove small artifacts intrinsic to the CCD and dust shadows common to certain channels. All these corrections have now been implemented as an update into the SolarSoft (SSW) routine TRACE_PREP.PRO, and normally are automatically applied to the images after the dark pedestal and current corrections. Plots of the time dependence of the sensitivity and examples of the flat field corrections, along with their use in TRACE_PREP.PRO, will be presented. This work was supported by the TRACE project at LMSAL (contract NAS5-38099).

  11. Sky Flats: Generating Improved WFC3 IR Flat-fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzkal, N.; Mack, J.; Dahlen, T.; Sabbi, E.

    2011-05-01

    A significantly improved set of flat-fields are now available and are currently used as part of the WFC3 calibration pipeline. We describe the creation and testing of new in-orbit flat-field corrections for the WFC3 IR channel. While high signal to noise ground based flat-fields were generated prior to launch, photometry of dithered stellar fields showed that these flat-fields failed to fully flatten the large scale structure of the WFC3 IR flat-fields. In this ISR we show how we generated a correction to the ground based flat-fields using thousands of IR observations. This correction, or sky delta flat-field (SD-flat in this ISR), appears to be both wavelength and time independent and is stable down to better than 1% over most of the detector. Photometric accuracy using new corrected flat-fields is better than 0.5% (peak to peak variation of -1.5/+1.6%) if one avoid being within 128 pixels of the edge of the detector. For the "wagon-wheel" region and the edge of the detector, photometric accuracy is reduced to about 0.8% (peak to peak variation of -2.0/+1.9%).

  12. Pressure Measurement during Penetration Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Demming, J.; Flecht, T.; Heller, S.

    2014-04-01

    Penetration experiments are common tools for the investigation of physical surface properties. Additionally penetration experiments will find several applications in exploration missions in the near future. A penetration test stand has been flown for the investigation of penetration force reduction under reduced gravity in the 2nd Joint European Partial-G Parabolic Flight Campaign (JEPPF-2) of ESA, CNES and DLR [1]. The main contribution to the bearing resistance of a soil is combined of shaft and base resistance. During the penetration the grains of the granular material will be squeezed into the surrounding material. The penetration will cause a change in the pressure distribution inside the surrounding soil [2],[3]. An experimental setup has been designed and built for understanding and measurement of this induced pressure distribution. In the last year the parabolic flight test stand has been further developed for the measurement of pressure during the penetration process. The main part of the experiments stayed the same with a steel rod penetration into a sample cell measuring the penetration force and recording it in relation to the depth. The sample cell is equipped with a supporting sieving mechanism for sample preparation. The pressure sensors are mounted at the sample cell. During the last test campaigns the principle of measurement has been investigated and first measurements have been performed. In the presentation the measurement principle will be shown and its implementation into the parabolic flight setup. Pressure measurement results on ground tests of different penetrator and tip configurations will be presented.

  13. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  14. ACS Flat Field Corrections from Observations of 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, J.; Bohlin, R. C.; Gilliland, R. L.; van der Marel, R.; Blakeslee, J. P.; de Marchi, G.

    2002-12-01

    The uniformity of the WFC and HRC detector response has been assessed using multiple dithered pointings of 47 Tucanae. By placing the same stars over different portions of the detector and measuring relative changes in brightness, low frequency spatial variations in the response of each detector have been measured. The original WFC and HRC laboratory flat fields produce photometric errors of 5 to 18 percent from corner-to-corner. The required low-order correction (L-flat) has been applied to the lab flats, and new flat fields have been delivered for use in the calibration pipeline. Initial results suggest the photometric response for a given star is now the same to 1 for any position in the field of view. As a further test, the improved flat fields are compared with observations of the bright earth at UV wavelengths (F330W) and with skyflats from ERO data at long wavelengths (F775W).

  15. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-05-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, nontrivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces nonvanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The noncurvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asymptotic past. Interestingly, for an alternate loop quantization which does not share some of the fine features of the standard quantization, flat Kasner spacetime with expected classical features exists. In this case, even with nontrivial quantum geometric effects, the spacetime curvature vanishes. These examples show that the character of even a flat classical vacuum spacetime can alter in a fundamental way in quantum gravity and is sensitive to the quantization procedure.

  16. Exploratory loading techniques. [in holographic nondestructive testing of flat metal plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M., III

    1976-01-01

    Interferometric holographic nondestructive testing of aluminum, copper, and steel flat plates is reported. Structural weaknesses under positive pressure, negative pressure, heating, and cooling are discussed.

  17. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  18. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  19. WFC3 Low-Frequency Flat Field Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Multiple dithered observations of the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) have been used to measure inflight corrections to the WFC3 UVIS and IR ground flat fields for a subset of key filters. To obtain an adequate characterization of the flat field over the detector field of view (FOV), 9 pointings were obtained for each filter using a 3x3 box dither pattern with steps of approximately 25% of the FOV. By measuring relative changes in the brightness of a star over different portions of the detector, low-frequency spatial variations in the detector response (L-flats) have been used to correct the flat fields obtained during ground testing. The broad wavelength range covered by these observations allow an interpolation of the L-flat correction for the remaining wide, medium and narrow-band filters, assuming a simple linear dependence with pivot wavelength. Initial results indicate that the required L-flat corrections are ±1.5% (standard deviation) in the IR and ±1.0% in the UVIS, and that the photometric response for a given star after applying the L-flat correction is now stable to better than 1% for any position in the field of view. Followup observations of the same field at multiple orientations will be used to verify the accuracy of the L-flat solutions and to quantify any temporal changes in the detector response while in orbit.

  20. COS FUV Flat Fields and Signal-to-Noise Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, Thomas B.; Massa, D.; Beland, S.; France, K.; Penton, S. V.; Sahnow, D.; McPhate, J.

    2010-07-01

    The COS FUV channel employs a detector comprised of two microchannel plate (MCP) segments with cross delay line anodes. The detector shows several types of non-uniformities due to the hexagonal and moire patterns in the MCPs, dead spots, gain variations, and shadows from the wire grid installed in front of the MCPs to increase quantum efficiency. These features induce fixed-pattern noise in FUV spectra. The effects of these artifacts can be reduced by dividing the data by a flat field and combining exposures taken at different grating settings. A spectral iterative technique, similar to that used for GHRS and FOS, shows that S/N > 100 can be achieved in extracted spectra. Although flat field observations were obtained during SMOV using white dwarfs, a two dimensional flat field of sufficient quality for standard CALCOS processing was not achieved. Other methodologies are being explored for flat field correction and are expected to be installed in CALCOS to improve the S/N of data incrementally. As an initial step, CALCOS currently ignores grid wire regions when creating a summed spectrum from exposures taken at different FP-POS positions. Average one-dimensional flats generated through spectral iteration have been investigated to correct individual exposures and show promise as an alternate flat fielding methodology. These may require separate flat fields for different cross-dispersion locations. An important result is that the flat fields and flux calibrations used by CALCOS are dependent on each other and should be derived together.

  1. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  2. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  3. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  4. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  5. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  6. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  7. Endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guss, R B; Koenig, S; De La Pena, W; Marx, M; Kaufman, H E

    1983-05-01

    Of 445 eyes (305 of which were aphakic) that underwent penetrating keratoplasty, 11 developed endophthalmitis, three immediately after surgery, two after subsequent secondary surgery, and six after late ulceration of the transplanted cornea. The diagnosis was based clinically on the loss of the red reflex and vitreous opacification, and was confirmed by culture of vitreous aspirate. All patients who developed endophthalmitis were aphakic and had received corticosteroids at the time of infection; most had undergone previous ocular surgery. These patients differed from those previously described with this condition because neither the donor tissue nor the storage medium was the source of infection. Treatment included intracameral, systemic, and topical administration of antibiotics. When the endophthalmitis originated from a corneal ulcer in a graft, the infected tissue was replaced with a new transplant. Despite treatment, the final visual outcomes were not good. One eye had a final visual acuity of 20/200 and one eye had a final visual acuity of 20/400. Three eyes had light perception and six eyes had no light perception. One eye was eventually enucleated. PMID:6342401

  8. Ground-penetrating radar methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-penetrating radar geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use in agriculture. With the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method, an electromagnetic radio energy (radar) pulse is directed into the subsurface, followed by measurement of the elapsed time taken by the radar signal as it ...

  9. Sidewall penetrator for oil wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Penetrator bores horizontal holes in well casing to increase trapped oil drainage. Several penetrators operated by common drive are inserted into well at once. Shaft, made from spiraling cable, rotates and thrusts simultaneously through rigid curvilinear guide tube forcing bit through casing into strata. Device pierces more deeply than armor-piercing bullets and shaped explosive charges.

  10. Skin penetration of silica microparticles.

    PubMed

    Boonen, J; Baert, B; Lambert, J; De Spiegeleer, B

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge about skin penetration of nano- and microparticles is essential for the development of particle-core drug delivery systems and toxicology. A large number of studies have been devoted to metallic particle penetration. However, little work has been published about the importance of chemical material properties of the particles and the skin penetration effect of the applied formulation. Here, we investigated the penetration of 3 microm silica particles in water and in a 65% ethanolic plant extract on ex vivo human skin using scanning electron microscopy. Contrary to most other microsphere skin studies, we observed for the first time that 3 microm silica particles can penetrate the living epidermis. Moreover, when formulated in the ethanolic medium, particles even reach the dermis. The deviating chemical properties of silica compared to previously investigated microparticles (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide) and confounding effect of the formulation in which the silica microparticles are presented, is thus demonstrated. PMID:21699089

  11. An Earth Penetrating Modeling Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, E; Yarrington, P; Glenn, L

    2005-06-21

    Documentation of a study to assess the capability of computer codes to predict lateral loads on earth penetrating projectiles under conditions of non-normal impact. Calculations simulated a set of small scale penetration tests into concrete targets with oblique faces at angles of 15 and 30 degrees to the line-of-flight. Predictive codes used by the various calculational teams cover a wide range of modeling approaches from approximate techniques, such as cavity expansion, to numerical methods, such as finite element codes. The modeling assessment was performed under the auspices of the Phenomenology Integrated Product Team (PIPT) for the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator Program (RNEP). Funding for the penetration experiments and modeling was provided by multiple earth penetrator programs.

  12. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei; Wu, Puxun E-mail: wpx0227@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  13. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-01

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount. PMID:17770303

  14. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  15. Penetrating ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating corneoscleral wound associated with blank cartridge has been previously documented. This report describes the case of patient who sustained penetrating ocular injury with extraocular muscle injury by a close-distance blank cartridge that required surgical intervention. Case presentation A 20-year-old man sustained a penetrating globe injury in the right eye while cleaning a blank cartridge pistol. His uncorrected visual acuity at presentation was hand motion and he had a flame burn of his right upper and lower lid with multiple missile wounds. On slit-lamp examination, there was a 12-mm laceration of conjunctiva along the 9 o'clock position with two pinhole-like penetrating injuries of cornea and sclera. There was also a 3-mm corneal laceration between 9 o'clock and 12 o'clock and the exposed lateral rectus muscle was split. Severe Descemet's membrane folding with stromal edema was observed, and numerous yellow, powder-like foreign bodies were impacted in the cornea. Layered anterior chamber bleeding with traumatic cataract was also noted. Transverse view of ultrasonography showed hyperechoic foreign bodies with mild reduplication echoes and shadowing. However, a computed tomographic scan using thin section did not reveal a radiopaque foreign body within the right globe. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first case report of split extraocular muscle injury with traumatic cataract and penetrating ocular injury caused by blank cartridge

  16. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (<120m/s). The results of sphere penetration depth versus projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. PMID:24184862

  17. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  18. Fiber optic penetrator for offshore oil well exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.C.; Warner, C.P.; Henkener, J.A.; Glauser, R.

    1986-07-01

    A fiber optic penetrator arrangement is described for an undersea wall structure of offshore oil well production apparatus, comprising: a. a generally cylindrical housing; b. a cofferdam associated with the undersea production apparatus and defining a generally cylindrical entrance port into which the penetrator is designed to be inserted and mounted; c. a sealing means for sealing the penetrator relative to the entrance port after insertion of the penetrator therein; d. an external bulkhead; e. a second bulkhead positioned internally of the external bulkead; f. a compression spring normally retaining the second bulkhead in a sealed position with the penetrator, the compressing spring being compressed between the second bulkhead and the external bulkhead; g. a breakaway connection affixed to the external bulkhead for coupling an optical fiber transmission cable to the external bulkhead, such that if the transmission cable is snagged or pulled, the external bulkhead will sever along with the breakaway connection so that the penetrator is not pulled from the cofferdam entrance port, the second bulkhead being held in position by ambient water pressure to become the primary bulkhead after the external bulkhead is severed.

  19. Inspecting the reactor vessel penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bodson, F.; Fleming, K.W.

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibility of Alloy 600 to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) continues to plague nuclear power plants. Recently, the problem of PWSCC cracking has manifested itself in Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) head penetrations in nuclear plants in Europe. Framatome has been extensively involved in the performance of both inspections and repairs of CRDM head penetrations at Electricite de France (EdF) plants. B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT), building on Framatome technology, has developed a fully integrated service package and robotic manipulator to inspect and repair CRDM head penetrations for US utilities. Reactor vessel bottom penetration are also made of Alloy 600 and to tackle this potential PWSCC problem at EdF plants, Framatome has been performing specific inspections in order to detect the appearance of the phenomenon. This paper describes the overall range of inspection techniques and toolings developed to address these issues.

  20. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  1. Investigations into Monochloramine Biofilm Penetration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct b...

  2. Gravitational multisoliton solutions on flat space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that, for even n , the n -soliton solution on the Minkowski seed, constructed using the inverse-scattering method (ISM) of Belinski and Zakharov (BZ), is the multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We show that, for odd n , the natural seed to use is the Euclidean space with two manifest translational symmetries, and the n -soliton solution is the accelerating multi-Kerr-NUT solution. We thus define the n -soliton solution on flat space for any positive integer n . It admits both Lorentzian and Euclidean sections. In the latter section, we find that a number, say m , of solitons can be eliminated in a nontrivial way by appropriately fixing their corresponding so-called BZ parameters. The resulting solutions, which may split into separate classes, are collectively denoted as [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. We then carry out a systematic study of the n - and [n -m ]-soliton solutions on flat space. This includes, in particular, an explicit presentation of their ISM construction, an analysis of their local geometries, and a classification of all separate classes of solutions they form. We also show how even-soliton solutions on the seeds of the collinearly centered Gibbons-Hawking and Taub-NUT arise from these solutions.

  3. Cement penetration after patella venting.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

    2009-01-01

    There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

  4. Penetrant-Indication-Measuring Compass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd

    1991-01-01

    Modified drafting compass well suited to measurement of length of crack or width of area stained by penetrant-dye-inspection method. Equipped with any of variety of standard curved or straight pointed tips. Modification consists in coating tips with dye that fluoresces light pink under same ultraviolet inspection light causing penetrant dye to fluoresce yellow green. Used in locations inaccessible to conventional fluorescent comparator. Eliminates errors of optical distortion in comparator, also eliminates errors of interpolation.

  5. Penetration through the Skin Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates. During recent decades, the latter has received increased attention as a route for intentionally delivering drugs to patients. This has stimulated research in methods for sampling, measuring and predicting percutaneous penetration. Previous chapters have described how different endogenous, genetic and exogenous factors may affect barrier characteristics. The present chapter introduces the theory for barrier penetration (Fick's law), and describes and discusses different methods for measuring the kinetics of percutaneous penetration of chemicals, including in vitro methods (static and flow-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous penetration. Finally, a short discussion of the advantages and challenges of each method is provided, which will hopefully allow the reader to improve decision making and treatment planning, as well as the evaluation of experimental studies of percutaneous penetration of chemicals. PMID:26844902

  6. Demonstration of survivable space penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip; Huntington-Thresher, William; Bruce, Alan; Penny, Nick; Smith, Alan; Gowan, Rob

    2012-03-01

    This work was performed in support of MoonLITE which is a proposed UK space mission to the moon. The basic premise is to deploy 4 instrumented penetrators, one each on the near-side, farside and at the poles of the moon, with an impact velocity of approximately 300m/s. The primary science aims are to set up a passive seismometer network, investigate the presence of water and volatiles and determine thermal gradients in the lunar soil (i.e. regolith). A key requirement is that the penetrator shell survives the impact together with the instrument payload and supporting subsystems. The material chosen for the penetrator shell was 7075 aluminium alloy, which is a good compromise between high compressive strength and low mass. The baseline penetrator design was evaluated and refined using the DYNA3D hydrocode to determine the survivability of the penetrator in sand at an impact velocity of 300m/s and an attack angle of 8°. The simulations predicted that the penetrator design would survive this severe impact condition which was confirmed by experiments on the Pendine rocket test track.

  7. Trophic relationships in tidal flat areas: To what extent are tidal flats dependent on imported food?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild M.

    In four intertidal areas of 'Königshafen' (island of Sylt, FRG), biomass and production of macrozoobenthos were measured monthly in 1980 and 1984. The areas were characterized by different macrofauna assemblages ( Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed, Arenicola flat and mussel bed). Biomass and production of macrofauna were partitioned with regard to food preference of single species as well as to the food availability within their habitat. In the Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed and the Arenicola flat, most of the secondary production of the macrofauna was formed by grazing animals. Secondary production of mussel beds was nearly 10 times higher than in the other three assemblages. The suspension feeder assemblage depended on planktonic food imported from outside the bay. Considering the secondary production of the total tidal flat area, suspension feeders dominated the other trophic groups, indicating a key position of this group relative to the other macrofaunal assemblages. Mussel beds regulate the seston input to other communities situated further landward. Because of this dominance of the suspension feeder group, the energy and material flow of the total tidal flat is strongly dependent on the seston input from the coastal waters of the North Sea or from other parts of the Wadden Sea.

  8. Cosmic string scaling in flat space

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly; Olum, Ken; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the evolution of infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network in flat space. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. These results suggest that small-scale structure will also scale in an expanding universe, even in the absence of gravitational damping.

  9. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  10. Half-flat quantum hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  11. Flat structure cooled detector assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeb, Nathalie; Coutures, Bernard; Gerin, Nicolas; Reale, S.; Guille, B.

    1994-07-01

    Long wavelength IR detectors need to be cooled at cryogenic temperature to achieve high performances. This specific need makes it difficult to integrate the detector because of high cost of dewar and cooling device designed to fulfill severe vibration conditions. A new era for IR detection could begin with flat structures allowing intrinsic vibration resistance for detectors to be plugged on electronics board. Sofradir has carried out a study about feasibility of detector dewar assembly including a flat Joule-Thomson cooler with porous heat exchanger in cooperation with Air Liquide. The aim of this paper is to put forward the interest of such a product. The very good results achieved demonstrate a promising future for such flat structure detector assembly.

  12. Dual polarization flat plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.

    Rectangular waveguides with radiating slots are used in groups to form planar array microwave antennas with large apertures and small depth. Such flat plate antennas are widely used on spacecraft and aircraft. Typically, flat plate antennas provide fixed linear polarization. The present paper describes a new flat plate antenna which produces two coincident beams that are distinguished by their orthogonal linear polarizations. The antenna has two ports, one for each of the coicident beams. Completely external to the antenna, connecting a simple network to those terminal ports enables the antenna to provide right circular polarization from one port and left from the other. A different external network enables the antenna to have arbitrarily adjustable polarizations.

  13. Numerical Analysis on the Head-Shape Effect for Long-Rod Normally Penetrating Concrete Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhong-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zong-Sheng

    2009-06-01

    The deep penetration of long rods into thick target has been the focus for many decades in the terminal ballistic. Especially the study on long rods penetrating concrete targets arouses more and more attention. But the investigations of the head-shape effect to the high velocity penetration of long rod are few. In this paper, the penetration process of long rod with different head-shapes is analyzed through a series of numerical simulations. The impact velocity from subsonic velocity on the order of 10^2 m/s to hypervelocity on the order of 10^3 m/s is used. The penetration target is high strength concrete. Numerical model of concrete target adopts typical dynamic concrete damage model-RHT. The model has shown promising results for prediction of penetration depth. The projectile material is 4340 steel, Johnson-Cook model is chosen. In all the simulations presented here the material properties of projectiles and targets doesn't change. The flat-head and the ogive-head projectile are chosen. The effect of the CRH of ogive-head projectile on penetration depth is analyzed. Difference and similarity are described by the time history of penetrating velocity, acceleration and the head deformation.

  14. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  15. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2016-04-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity (NLG) in 2D spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein’s field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of NLG.

  16. The Challenge of Photometric Alignment: Proper Flat Fielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffeser, A.; Gössl, C. A.; Koppenhöfer, J.

    2007-10-01

    Photometric alignment is crucial for a precise comparison of imaging data obtained under varying conditions; there are several effects that make these data differ by multiplicative and additive terms: moon and sky light, atmospheric extinction, optics (e.g. filter, focus, field distortion), dust, reflections (concentration) and scattered light (telescope baffle). For the flat-field correction, twilight images and dome flats are used to correct for pixel-to-pixel variations and for the absorption of the instrument including all multiplicative effects. We present an algorithm to combine all flat-field calibration frames very efficiently. An inhomogeneous illumination for those flat-field calibration frames may lead to systematic zero-point offsets depending on the position on the CCD. We present a solution to correct science frames with an optimal flat-field calibration frame using a simple observational method to measure the true illumination. We also discuss the importance of distinguishing between spatially varying absorption in the instrument and field distortion resulting from a non-flat optical plane. We present our theoretical description and the practical implementation to correct for the additive sky and multiplicative photometric terms.

  17. Mars surface penetrator: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, L. A. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    A point design of a penetrator system for a Mars mission is described. A strawman payload which is to conduct measurements of geophysical and meteorological parameters is included in the design. The subsystems used in the point design are delineated in terms of power, mass, volume, data, and functional modes. The prospects for survival of the rigors of emplacement are described. Data handling and communications plans are presented to allow consideration of the requirements placed by the penetrator on the orbiter and ground operations. The point design is technically feasible and the payload selection scientifically desirable.

  18. Resuscitative thoracotomy in penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Lindsay M; Hsee, Li; Civil, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    The resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) is an important procedure in the management of penetrating trauma. As it is performed only in patients with peri-arrest physiology or overt cardiac arrest, survival is low. Experience is also quite variable depending on volume of penetrating trauma in a particular region. Survival ranges from 0% to as high as 89% depending on patient selection, available resources, and location of RT (operating or emergency rooms). In this article, published guidelines are reviewed as well as outcomes. Technical considerations of RT and well as proper training, personnel, and location are also discussed. PMID:25342073

  19. The Role of Subducting Ridges in the Formation of Flat Slabs: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, Sanja; Wagner, Lara; Kumar, Abhash; Beck, Susan; Long, Maureen; Zandt, George; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2015-04-01

    sink, causing the flattening of the slab. Development of the flat slab is further accommodated by the northward motion of the overriding plate and suction between two plates. However, once the flat slab becomes too far away from the buoyant support, it will become unstable in spite of the presence of other factors. The position of the ridge, in particular its orientation with respect to the convergence direction, will dictate the along-strike extent of the flat slab. We find that the inboard extent of the flat slab correlates with the position of the ~10 Ma old slab. We speculate that ~10 Ma represents the period necessary for the slab to be sufficiently eclogitized and become negatively buoyant. Thus, the delayed eclogitization of the overthickened oceanic crust in combination with convergence rate controls the inboard extent of the flat slab. Our findings provide important constraints on the formation and size of flat slabs both past and present.

  20. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Erinc; Kontis, Konstantinos; Saravanan, Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield. PMID:25494348

  1. Magnetically-Guided Penetrant Applicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, Orlando G.

    1990-01-01

    Small wheeled vehicle moved inside nonmagnetic enclosure. Miniature magnetically guided truck uses foam-rubber sponge pads to apply penetrant fluid for inspection of welds in hidden surfaces of nonmagnetic tubes. Risk of explosion less than if electric motor used to drive vehicle. Inexpensive to make and made in range of sizes.

  2. Percutaneous penetration--methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-07-01

    Studies on percutaneous penetration are needed to assess the hazards after unintended occupational skin exposures to industrial products as well as the efficacy after intended consumer exposure to topically applied medicinal or cosmetic products. During recent decades, a number of methods have been developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present MiniReview discusses some of the existing and well-known experimental in vitro and in vivo methods for studies of percutaneous penetration together with some more recent and promising methods. After this, some considerations and recommendations about advantages and limitations of the different methods and their relevance for the prediction of percutaneous penetration are given. Which method to prefer will depend on the product to be tested and the question asked. Regulatory guidelines exist for studies on percutaneous penetration, but researchers as well as regulatory bodies need to pay specific attention to the vehicles and solvents used in donor and sampling fluids so that it reflects in-use conditions as closely as possible. Based on available experimental data, mathematical models have been developed to aid predictions of skin penetration. The authors question the general use of the present mathematical models in hazard assessment, as they seem to ignore outliers among chemicals as well as the heterogeneity of skin barrier properties and skin conditions within the exposed populations. PMID:24373389

  3. Evaluation of percutaneous penetration of natural rubber latex proteins.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B B; Afshari, A; Millecchia, L; Willard, P A; Povoski, S P; Meade, B J

    2000-08-01

    Latex allergy is recognized worldwide as a serious health risk. To date, exposure assessment and intervention strategies have focused primarily on respiratory protection; this work evaluates the potential role of dermal protein penetration in the development of latex allergy. In vitro penetration models using flow-through diffusion cells and both human surgical specimens and hairless guinea pig skin (CrL: IAF/HA) demonstrated iodinated latex proteins (ammoniated and non-ammoniated) penetrating into and through both intact and abraded skin. Although less than 1% penetration was observed with intact skin, up to 23% of latex proteins applied to abraded skin were recovered from receptor fluid within 24 h of exposure. Phosphoimaging of the concentrated effluent revealed proteins ranging in size from 3 to 26 kDa. Using a (3)H(2)O penetration assay to evaluate barrier integrity, the amount of latex protein penetration was found to positively correlate with the degree of dermabrasion. Immunohistochemistry of the skin localized latex proteins in the Langerhans cell-rich epidermis and in the dermis. Both in vitro penetration studies and immunohistochemistry supported the use of hairless guinea pig skin as a surrogate for human skin in evaluating latex protein penetration. In studies performed in vivo, 35% of hairless guinea pigs topically exposed to latex proteins (100 microg) 5 days per week for 3 months demonstrated elevations in latex-specific IgG1. The implication for these data is that the skin is not only a plausible route for latex sensitization but can be a major exposure route when the integument has been compromised. PMID:10910983

  4. Use of the flat dilatometer (DMT) in landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades we have assisted at a considerable shift from laboratory testing to in situ testing to the point that, today, in situ testing often represent the major part of a geotechnical investigation. Recommendations given in recent State-of-the-Art papers indicate that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Seismic Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) and the Seismic Dilatometer Test (SDMT), are fast and very convenient tests for routine site investigations. The aim of this paper is to describe the use of the flat dilatometer test (DMT) in landslide diagnosis and monitoring. In particular, a method is presented for detecting slip surfaces in overconsolidated clay slopes based on the inspection of the profiles of the horizontal stress index KD from DMT, as developed by Totani et al. (1997). In addition, the relaxation of the in situ horizontal stress σh, estimated from DMT, helps to locate a landslide. The paper illustrates by using different examples the capability of SDMT to identify the shear zones left remoulded by the occurrence of a landslide. Keywords: flat dilatometer, horizontal stress index, in situ horizontal stress References Totani G., Calabrese M., Marchetti S., Monaco, P. (1997). Use of in situ flat dilatometer (DMT) for ground characterization in the stability analysis of slopes. Proceeding of 14th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Hamburg, September 1997, vol. 1, pp. 607-610.

  5. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  6. Metallic particle sizing on flat surfaces: Application to conducting substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.; Valle, P. J.; González, F.

    1996-05-01

    A fast and accurate microsizing method is introduced and analyzed for metallic protuberances on flat substrates. It is based on the measurement of the minima angular positions of the S-polarized far field scattering patterns at normal incidence. The proposed method has been theoretically and experimentally checked for both cylindrical and spherical metallic protuberances on conducting flat substrates. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment proves the efficiency of the method. We also comment on the application of this method for other protuberance geometries and different substrates other than metallic.

  7. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  8. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  9. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  10. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  11. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  12. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  13. Weld penetration and defect control

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, B.A.

    1992-05-15

    Highly engineered designs increasingly require the use of improved materials and sophisticated manufacturing techniques. To obtain optimal performance from these engineered products, improved weld properties and joint reliability are a necessarily. This requirement for improved weld performance and reliability has led to the development of high-performance welding systems in which pre-programmed parameters are specified before any welding takes place. These automated systems however lack the ability to compensate for perturbations which arise during the welding process. Hence the need for systems which monitor and control the in-process status of the welding process. This report discusses work carried out on weld penetration indicators and the feasibility of using these indicators for on-line penetration control.

  14. [Penetrating injuries to the pelvis].

    PubMed

    Doll, D; Lenz, S; Exadaktylos, A K; Stettbacher, A; Degiannis, E; Düsel, W; Siewert, J R

    2006-09-01

    As criminality and weapon use increase, general and military surgeons are increasingly confronted with penetrating pelvic injuries both at home and on peacekeeping missions. Penetrating injuries to the iliac vascular axis are associated with considerable mortality, and thus the majority of these emergency patients arrive in a state of deep hypovolemic shock. Concomitant bowel injuries are present in one of five cases, resulting in contamination of the damaged area. Surgical options are simple lateral repair, ligation of the veins, temporary shunt insertion, and prosthetic graft interposition in the injured artery. In extremis ligation of the common or external iliac artery may be the only option to save the patient's life. Surgeons must be aware that damage control surgery and related methods may be needed early on to enable patient survival. PMID:16906417

  15. Flat beams in the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Stanford Linear collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that ``flat`` beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow these beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to ``flat`` beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following we present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC.

  16. Jeeps Penetrating a Hostile Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herb

    2009-01-01

    Several jeeps are poised at base camp on the edge of a desert aiming to escort one of them as far as possible into the desert, while the others return to camp. They all have full tanks of gas and share their fuel to maximize penetration. In a friendly desert it is best to leave caches of fuel along the way to help returning jeeps. We solve the…

  17. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    PubMed

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons. PMID:10578588

  18. Numerical simulation of full-penetration laser beam welding of thick aluminium plates with inductive support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Marcel; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional laminar steady-state numerical model was developed to investigate the influence of an alternating current (ac) magnetic field during high-power full-penetration laser welding on the weld pool dynamics and weld cross section of a 20 mm thick aluminium plate in flat position. Three-dimensional heat transfer, fluid dynamics including phase transition and electromagnetic field partial differential equations were solved iteratively with the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics using temperature-dependent material properties up to evaporation temperature. Thermocapillary convection at the weld pool surfaces, natural convection and latent heat of solid-liquid phase transition were taken into account in this model. Solidification was modelled by the Carman-Kozeny equation for porous media morphology. The ac magnet was mounted on the root side of the weld specimen. The magnetic field was aligned perpendicular to the welding direction. The flow pattern in the melt and thus also the temperature distribution were significantly changed by the application of oscillating magnetic fields. It was shown that the application of an ac magnetic field to laser beam welding allows for a prevention of the gravity drop-out. The simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  20. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  1. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  2. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  3. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  4. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  5. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Bashforth, Michael B.; Gardner, Duane; Patrick, Douglas; Lewallen, Tricia A.; Nammath, Sharyn R.; Painter, Kelly D.; Vadnais, Kenneth G.

    1996-01-01

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  6. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  7. Prediction of cell penetrating peptides by support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Sanders, William S; Johnston, C Ian; Bridges, Susan M; Burgess, Shane C; Willeford, Kenneth O

    2011-07-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are those peptides that can transverse cell membranes to enter cells. Once inside the cell, different CPPs can localize to different cellular components and perform different roles. Some generate pore-forming complexes resulting in the destruction of cells while others localize to various organelles. Use of machine learning methods to predict potential new CPPs will enable more rapid screening for applications such as drug delivery. We have investigated the influence of the composition of training datasets on the ability to classify peptides as cell penetrating using support vector machines (SVMs). We identified 111 known CPPs and 34 known non-penetrating peptides from the literature and commercial vendors and used several approaches to build training data sets for the classifiers. Features were calculated from the datasets using a set of basic biochemical properties combined with features from the literature determined to be relevant in the prediction of CPPs. Our results using different training datasets confirm the importance of a balanced training set with approximately equal number of positive and negative examples. The SVM based classifiers have greater classification accuracy than previously reported methods for the prediction of CPPs, and because they use primary biochemical properties of the peptides as features, these classifiers provide insight into the properties needed for cell-penetration. To confirm our SVM classifications, a subset of peptides classified as either penetrating or non-penetrating was selected for synthesis and experimental validation. Of the synthesized peptides predicted to be CPPs, 100% of these peptides were shown to be penetrating. PMID:21779156

  8. A flat laser array aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, Stergios J.; Ricciardi, Gerald F.; Gross, Michael C.; Krill, Jerry A.

    2010-04-01

    We describe a design concept for a flat (or conformal) thin-plate laser phased-array aperture. The aperture consists of a substrate supporting a grid of single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from a linear electro-optic material. The waveguides are coupled to a single laser source or detector. An arrangement of electrodes provides for two-dimensional beam steering by controlling the phase of the light entering the grid. The electrodes can also be modulated to simultaneously provide atmospheric turbulence modulation for long-range free-space optical communication. An approach for fabrication is also outlined.

  9. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita

  10. Charlie Flats and El Capitan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This mosaic image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows two regions of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The region on the left, dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' was imaged because it contains an assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The region on the right, nicknamed 'El Capitan,' is where Opportunity is parked and is doing work as of Sol 33 of its mission (February 26, 2004).

  11. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  12. Identification and characterization of a new family of cell-penetrating peptides: cyclic cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Laura; Henriques, Sónia T; Kerr, Markus C; Huang, Yen-Hua; Sweet, Matthew J; Daly, Norelle L; Craik, David J

    2011-10-21

    Cell-penetrating peptides can translocate across the plasma membrane of living cells and thus are potentially useful agents in drug delivery applications. Disulfide-rich cyclic peptides also have promise in drug design because of their exceptional stability, but to date only one cyclic peptide has been reported to penetrate cells, the Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor II (MCoTI-II). MCoTI-II belongs to the cyclotide family of plant-derived cyclic peptides that are characterized by a cyclic cystine knot motif. Previous studies in fixed cells showed that MCoTI-II could penetrate cells but kalata B1, a prototypic cyclotide from a separate subfamily of cyclotides, was bound to the plasma membrane and did not translocate into cells. Here, we show by live cell imaging that both MCoTI-II and kalata B1 can enter cells. Kalata B1 has the same cyclic cystine knot structural motif as MCoTI-II but differs significantly in sequence, and the mechanism by which these two peptides enter cells also differs. MCoTI-II appears to enter via macropinocytosis, presumably mediated by interaction of positively charged residues with phosphoinositides in the cell membrane, whereas kalata B1 interacts directly with the membrane by targeting phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipids, probably leading to membrane bending and vesicle formation. We also show that another plant-derived cyclic peptide, SFTI-1, can penetrate cells. SFTI-1 includes just 14 amino acids and, with the exception of its cyclic backbone, is structurally very different from the cyclotides, which are twice the size. Intriguingly, SFTI-1 does not interact with any of the phospholipids tested, and its mechanism of penetration appears to be distinct from MCoTI-II and kalata B1. The ability of diverse disulfide-rich cyclic peptides to penetrate cells enhances their potential in drug design, and we propose a new classification for them, i.e. cyclic cell-penetrating peptides. PMID:21873420

  13. Management of penetrating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair; Enam, Syed Ather; Waheed, Shahan

    2011-01-01

    Penetrating brain injury (PBI), though less prevalent than closed head trauma, carries a worse prognosis. The publication of Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury in 2001, attempted to standardize the management of PBI. This paper provides a precise and updated account of the medical and surgical management of these unique injuries which still present a significant challenge to practicing neurosurgeons worldwide. The management algorithms presented in this document are based on Guidelines for the Management of Penetrating Brain Injury and the recommendations are from literature published after 2001. Optimum management of PBI requires adequate comprehension of mechanism and pathophysiology of injury. Based on current evidence, we recommend computed tomography scanning as the neuroradiologic modality of choice for PBI patients. Cerebral angiography is recommended in patients with PBI, where there is a high suspicion of vascular injury. It is still debatable whether craniectomy or craniotomy is the best approach in PBI patients. The recent trend is toward a less aggressive debridement of deep-seated bone and missile fragments and a more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis in an effort to improve outcomes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are common in PBI patients and surgical correction is recommended for those which do not close spontaneously or are refractory to CSF diversion through a ventricular or lumbar drain. The risk of post-traumatic epilepsy after PBI is high, and therefore, the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants is recommended. Advanced age, suicide attempts, associated coagulopathy, Glasgow coma scale score of 3 with bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils, and high initial intracranial pressure have been correlated with worse outcomes in PBI patients. PMID:21887033

  14. Ratio of the spherical and flat detectors at tissue surfaces during pleural photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Dimofte, Andrea; Miles, Jeremy D.; Metz, James M.; Glatstein, Eli; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2002-06-01

    An isotropic-detector-based system was compared with a flat-photodiode-based system in patients undergoing Pleural photodynamic therapy. Isotropic and flat detectors were placed side by side in the chest cavity, for simultaneous in vivo dosimetry at surface locations for twelve patients. The treatment used 630nm laser to a total light irradiance of 30 J/cm2 (measured with the flat photodiodes) with photofrin IV as the photosensitizer. Since the flat detectors were calibrated at 532nm, wavelength correction factors (WCF) were used to convert the calibration to 630nm (WCF between 0.542 and 0.703). The mean ratio between isotropic and flat detectors for all sites was linear to the accumulated fluence and was 3.4+/- 0.6 or 2.1+/- 0.4, with or without the wavelength correction for the flat detectors, respectively. The micrometers eff of the tissues was estimated to vary between 0.5 to 4.3 cm-1 for four sites (Apex, Posterior Sulcus, Anterior Chest Wall, and Posterior Mediastinum) assuming microsecond(s) ' = 7 cm-1. Insufficient information was available to estimate micrometers eff directly for three other sites (Anterior Sulcus, Posterior Chest Wall, and Pericardium) primarily due to limited sample size, although one may assume the optical penetration in all sites to vary in the same range (0.5 to 4.3 cm-1).

  15. Influence of alignment error and random noise on interferometry flat sub-aperture stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wantao; Wang, Kaiwei; Zhang, Jinchun

    2012-10-01

    In the flat sub-aperture stitching test, the dominant e error comes from two dimensional translation stage that carries the flat under test, which contains tilt and position error i.e., the alignment error. In order to analyze the influence of alignment error on stitching precision, we use Zemax optical software to simulate a system to detect the phase of each sub-aperture of measured flat and add tilt and position errors and random noise to sub-apertures. The simulation model was utilized in this paper to evaluate the mechanical precision of the translation stage in order to meet a required stitching precision of 1/1000λ.

  16. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-02-26

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead.

  17. Jet penetration of high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P

    1999-08-11

    It is found that a transition between two flow patterns takes place in thick HE targets. In this case, the jet will initially propagate into the HE at the same rate as into an inert material of the same density. The part of the jet that has stagnated and is flowing nearly co-axially with the incoming jet (but at a much lower speed) is being forced toward the surface of the incoming jet by the pressure of the reaction products but has not as yet made contact. After it makes contact, both axial and perpendicular momentum transfer takes place between the two jet components. After this transition, a new steady state will develop for the propagating jet, with the unperturbed front of the jet propagating at a slower rate than previously. The perturbed front of the jet is still propagating at or near the original rate, having had relatively little axial momentum exchange. However, it has acquired radial momentum and is spreading out as it is propagating; it is therefore becoming less capable of penetrating downstream targets. It is the unperturbed part of the jet that is capable of penetrating downstream targets. A calculational method for predicting this case is presented in this report.

  18. Aerial optimization and canopy penetration study of Dibrom 14 Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Brown, James R; Reynolds, W H; Palmisano, C; Taylor, V

    2005-03-01

    This document describes the results of collaborative trials between St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Control, ADAPCO, Inc., and the Navy Disease Vector Ecology and Control Center, Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, FL. These tests provide data on the aerial optimization testing of Dibrom 14 Concentrate adulticide. During the week of June 17, 2002, 1 canopy penetration and 3 optimization studies were conducted in St. Tammany Parish, LA, using a Britton Norman twin turbine Islander equipped with 10-800067 flat fan nozzles. Dibrom 14 Concentrate (AMVAC Chemical Corp., Los Angeles, CA) was applied at 3.12 liter per min from a release height of 60.96 m above ground level (agl) at 140 kts indicated airspeed. This resulted in an application rate of 0.65 oz/acre. PMID:15825773

  19. Stochastic approach to flat direction during inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takesako, Tomohiro E-mail: takesako@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-08-01

    We revisit the time evolution of a flat and non-flat direction system during inflation. In order to take into account quantum noises in the analysis, we base on stochastic formalism and solve coupled Langevin equations numerically. We focus on a class of models in which tree-level Hubble-induced mass is not generated. Although the non-flat directions can block the growth of the flat direction's variance in principle, the blocking effects are suppressed by the effective masses of the non-flat directions. We find that the fate of the flat direction during inflation is determined by one-loop radiative corrections and non-renormalizable terms as usually considered, if we remove the zero-point fluctuation from the noise terms.

  20. The mechanism of penetration increase in A-TIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; Pan, Ji-Luan; Katayama, Seiji

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of the increasing of A-TIG welding penetration is studied by using the activating flux we developed for stainless steel. The effect of flux on the flow and temperature fields of weld pool is simulated by the PHOENICS software. It shows that without flux, the fluid flow will be outward along the surface of the weld pool and then down, resulting in a flatter weld pool shape. With the flux, the oxygen, which changes the temperature dependence of surface tension grads from a negative value to a positive value, can cause significant changes on the weld penetration. Fluid flow will be inward along the surface of the weld pool toward the center and then down. This fluid flow pattern efficiently transfers heat to the weld root and produces a relatively deep and narrow weld. This change is the main cause of penetration increase. Moreover, arc construction can cause the weld width to become narrower and the penetration to become deeper, but this is not the main cause of penetration increase. The effects of flux on fluid flow of the weld pool surface and arc profiles were observed in conventional TIG welding and in A-TIG welding by using high-speed video camera. The fluid flow behavior was visualized in realtime scale by micro focused X-ray transmission video observation system. The result indicated that stronger inward fluid flow patterns leading to weld beads with narrower width and deeper penetration could be apparently identified in the case of A-TIG welding. The flux could change the direction of fluid flow in welding pool. It has a good agreement with the simulation results.

  1. Flat disc, radially nonhomogeneous, lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornbleet, S.

    1980-12-01

    A plane surfaced lens can be constructed through the use of a radially nonhomogenous medium, with axial symmetry. The rays from an axial source are incident on the plane front surface, perpendicular to the axis, where the assumption is made that the rays obey Snell's laws locally as for an infinite uniform medium. The curved ray paths are then given by the standard ray integral and are taken up to the point where each ray becomes horizontal. For certain polynomial functions describing the refractive index, the ray integral is an incomplete elliptic integral of the first kind, and trial functions can be inserted, such that the rays have become horizontal all at a second plane surface, thus creating a flat disk lens. The total symmetry of the design provides for many advantageous properties.

  2. MEASURING THE JET POWER OF FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shabala, S. S.; Santoso, J. S.; Godfrey, L. E. H.

    2012-09-10

    We use frequency-dependent position shifts of flat-spectrum radio cores to estimate the kinetic power of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. We find a correlation between the derived jet powers and AGN narrow-line luminosity, consistent with the well-known relation for radio galaxies and steep spectrum quasars. This technique can be applied to intrinsically weak jets even at high redshift.

  3. Summary of SLAC's SEY Measurement On Flat Accelerator Wall Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen /SLAC

    2007-06-08

    The electron cloud effect (ECE) causes beam instabilities in accelerator structures with intense positively charged bunched beams. Reduction of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the beam pipe inner wall is effective in controlling cloud formation. We summarize SEY results obtained from flat TiN, TiZrV and Al surfaces carried out in a laboratory environment. SEY was measured after thermal conditioning, as well as after low energy, less than 300 eV, particle exposure.

  4. Accurate wavelength calibration method for flat-field grating spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Du, Xuewei; Li, Chaoyang; Xu, Zhe; Wang, Qiuping

    2011-09-01

    A portable spectrometer prototype is built to study wavelength calibration for flat-field grating spectrometers. An accurate calibration method called parameter fitting is presented. Both optical and structural parameters of the spectrometer are included in the wavelength calibration model, which accurately describes the relationship between wavelength and pixel position. Along with higher calibration accuracy, the proposed calibration method can provide information about errors in the installation of the optical components, which will be helpful for spectrometer alignment. PMID:21929865

  5. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  6. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

  8. A lightweight ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S.K.; Allen, C.M.; Gardner, D.; Wong, H.R.

    1998-12-31

    The detection of buried objects, particularly unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the US in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing humanitarian concern. The application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. Bechtel Nevada, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) has developed several frequency modulated, continuous wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units for the US Department of Energy since 1984. To meet these new technical requirements for high resolution data and UXO detection, STL is moving forward with advances to GPR technology, signal processing, and imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery operated unit that does not require surface contact and can be operated by a novice user.

  9. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry K.; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  10. Flat-band engineering of mobility edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Carlo; Bodyfelt, Joshua D.; Flach, Sergej

    2015-06-01

    Properly modulated flat-band lattices have a divergent density of states at the flat-band energy. Quasiperiodic modulations are known to host a metal-insulator transition already in one space dimension. Their embedding into flat-band geometries consequently allows for a precise engineering and fine tuning of mobility edges. We obtain analytic expressions for singular mobility edges for two flat-band lattice examples. In particular, we engineer cases with arbitrarily small energy separations of mobility edge, zeroes, and divergencies.

  11. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  12. Field measurements of sonic boom penetration into the ocean

    PubMed

    Sohn; Vernon; Hildebrand; Webb

    2000-06-01

    Six sonic booms, generated by F-4 aircraft under steady flight at a range of altitudes (610-6100 m) and Mach numbers (1.07-1.26), were measured just above the air/sea interface, and at five depths in the water column. The measurements were made with a vertical hydrophone array suspended from a small spar buoy at the sea surface, and telemetered to a nearby research vessel. The sonic boom pressure amplitude decays exponentially with depth, and the signal fades into the ambient noise field by 30-50 m, depending on the strength of the boom at the sea surface. Low-frequency components of the boom waveform penetrate significantly deeper than high frequencies. Frequencies greater than 20 Hz are difficult to observe at depths greater than about 10 m. Underwater sonic boom pressure measurements exhibit excellent agreement with predictions from analytical theory, despite the assumption of a flat air/sea interface. Significant scattering of the sonic boom signal by the rough ocean surface is not detected. Real ocean conditions appear to exert a negligible effect on the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean unless steady vehicle speeds exceed Mach 3, when the boom incidence angle is sufficient to cause scattering on realistic open ocean surfaces. PMID:10875353

  13. Field Measurements of Sonic Boom Penetration Into the Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. A.; Vernon, F.; Hildebrand, J. A.; Webb, S. C.; Shepherd, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Six sonic booms, generated by F-4 aircraft under steady fight at a range of altitudes (610-6100 m) and Mach numbers (1.07-1.26), were measured just above the air/sea interface, and at five depths in the water column. The measurements were made with a vertical hydrophone array suspended from a small spar buoy at the sea surface, and telemetered to a nearby research vessel. The sonic boom pressure amplitude decays exponentially with depth, and the signal fades into the ambient noise field by 30-50 in, depending on the strength of the boom at the sea surface. Low-frequency components of the boom waveform penetrate significantly deeper than high frequencies. Frequencies greater than 20 Hz are difficult to observe at depths greater than about 10 m. Underwater sonic boom pressure measurements exhibit excellent agreement with predictions from analytical theory, despite the assumption of a flat air/sea interface. Significant scattering of the sonic boom signal by the rough ocean surface is not detected. Real ocean conditions appear to exert a negligible effect on the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean unless steady vehicle speeds exceed Mach 3, when the boom incidence angle is sufficient to cause scattering on realistic open ocean surfaces.

  14. Characterization of Pressure Distribution in Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Severe impacts to the head commonly lead to localized brain damage. Such impacts may also give rise to temporary pressure changes that produce secondary injuries in brain volumes distal to the impact site. Monitoring pressure changes in a clinical setting is difficult; detailed studies into the effect of pressure changes in the brain call for the development and use of animal models. The aim of this study is to characterize the pressure distribution in an animal model of penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI). This data may be used to validate mathematical models of the animal model and to facilitate correlation studies between pressure changes and pathology. Pressure changes were measured in rat brains while subjected to pTBI for a variety of different probe velocities and shapes; pointy, blunt, and flat. Experiments on ballistic gel samples were carried out to study the formation of any temporary cavities. In addition, pressure recordings from the gel experiments were compared to values recorded in the animal experiments. The pTBI generated short lasting pressure changes in the brain tissue; the pressure in the contralateral ventricle (CLV) increased to 8 bar followed by a drop to 0.4 bar when applying flat probes. The pressure changes in the periphery of the probe, in the Cisterna Magna, and the spinal canal, were significantly less than those recorded in the CLV or the vicinity of the skull base. High-speed videos of the gel samples revealed the formation of spherically shaped cavities when flat and spherical probes were applied. Pressure changes in the gel were similar to those recorded in the animals, although amplitudes were lower in the gel samples. We concluded cavity expansion rate rather than cavity size correlated with pressure changes in the gel or brain secondary to probe impact. The new data can serve as validation data for finite element models of the trauma model and the animal and to correlate physical measurements with secondary injuries

  15. Characterization of pressure distribution in penetrating traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Johan; Risling, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Severe impacts to the head commonly lead to localized brain damage. Such impacts may also give rise to temporary pressure changes that produce secondary injuries in brain volumes distal to the impact site. Monitoring pressure changes in a clinical setting is difficult; detailed studies into the effect of pressure changes in the brain call for the development and use of animal models. The aim of this study is to characterize the pressure distribution in an animal model of penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI). This data may be used to validate mathematical models of the animal model and to facilitate correlation studies between pressure changes and pathology. Pressure changes were measured in rat brains while subjected to pTBI for a variety of different probe velocities and shapes; pointy, blunt, and flat. Experiments on ballistic gel samples were carried out to study the formation of any temporary cavities. In addition, pressure recordings from the gel experiments were compared to values recorded in the animal experiments. The pTBI generated short lasting pressure changes in the brain tissue; the pressure in the contralateral ventricle (CLV) increased to 8 bar followed by a drop to 0.4 bar when applying flat probes. The pressure changes in the periphery of the probe, in the Cisterna Magna, and the spinal canal, were significantly less than those recorded in the CLV or the vicinity of the skull base. High-speed videos of the gel samples revealed the formation of spherically shaped cavities when flat and spherical probes were applied. Pressure changes in the gel were similar to those recorded in the animals, although amplitudes were lower in the gel samples. We concluded cavity expansion rate rather than cavity size correlated with pressure changes in the gel or brain secondary to probe impact. The new data can serve as validation data for finite element models of the trauma model and the animal and to correlate physical measurements with secondary injuries

  16. A rheological mechanism of penetrative wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, T. R., Jr.; Ludema, K. C.; Brainard, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A model is proposed which explains the penetrative wear of a soft material by a harder one. Three distinct modes of penetration are present depending on the applied load. During the most severe penetration plate-like wear debris is ejected at the leading edge of the slider. A series of slip line fields is presented to approximate this debris formation process. Plastic constraint is seen to be an important factor in wear particle formation.

  17. Lithology and stratigraphy of drill holes completed during 1984 in LANL use areas of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, volume 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, J. L.; Drellack, S. L., Jr.; Davies, W. J.

    1985-08-01

    This report is a compilation of data from drill holes completed during the calendar year 1984 in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. Data presented in this report includes hole locations, drilling statistics, a supplemental data sheet, stratigraphy and lithology penetrated, and selected geophysical logs including a log of drilling penetration rate. Lithologic description and stratigraphic identification of the Tertiary volcanic rocks are emphasized.

  18. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-15

    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by the soil

  20. Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Stark, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic impacting penetrators (USIPs) are recent additions to the series of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). A USIP enables a rod probe to penetrate packed soil or another substance of similar consistency, without need to apply a large axial force that could result in buckling of the probe or in damage to some buried objects. USIPs were conceived for use in probing and analyzing soil to depths of tens of centimeters in the vicinity of buried barrels containing toxic waste, without causing rupture of the barrels. USIPs could also be used for other purposes, including, for example, searching for pipes, barrels, or other hard objects buried in soil; and detecting land mines. USDCs and other apparatuses based on USDCs have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The ones reported previously were designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. As shown in the figure, a basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, a backing and a horn connected to the stack, a free mass (free in the sense that it can slide axially a short distance between the horn and the shoulder of tool bit), and a tool bit, i.e., probe for USIP. The piezoelectric stack is driven at the resonance frequency of the stack/horn/backing assembly to create ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. To prevent fracture during operation, the piezoelectric stack is held in compression by a bolt. The bouncing of the free mass between the horn and the tool bit at sonic frequencies generates hammering actions to the bit that are more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations in ordinary ultrasonic drills. The hammering actions

  1. Surface keratopathy after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Feiz, V; Mannis, M J; Kandavel, G; McCarthy, M; Izquierdo, L; Eckert, M; Schwab, I R; Torabian, S; Wang, J L; Wang, W

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the type and prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in the intermediate postoperative period after penetrating keratoplasty and to define the donor and recipient variables that influence the status of the graft epithelium. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We prospectively followed the clinical course of 80 patients after penetrating keratoplasty. We monitored the status of the corneal epithelium for 3 months after surgery using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and fluorescein staining of the epithelium. Donor characteristics, recipient preoperative and postoperative variables, and postoperative medications were recorded. Epithelial abnormalities were analyzed against these variables by using univariate and combined statistical models to determine the impact of each variable on postoperative epithelial pathology. Main outcome measures included punctate keratopathy, macro-epithelial defects, hurricane keratopathy, rim defects, and filamentary keratopathy. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of all patient visits demonstrated punctate epithelial keratopathy (PEK). Hurricane keratopathy (51%) and filamentary keratopathy (14%) constituted the next most commonly observed abnormalities. Older recipient age and the use of topical antibiotics were associated with a higher prevalence of punctate epithelial keratopathy. The odds ratio (OR) for a 1-year increase in age is 1.0276 (95% CI, 1.1013-1.0442), and the OR for using topical antibiotics is 6.9028 (95% CI, 3.1506-15.1239). Use of topical ofloxacin and increased time after surgery were associated with lower prevalence of punctate keratopathy; ORs were 0.9806 (95% CI, 0.9736-0.9876) and 0.3662 (95% CI, 0.1688-0.7943), respectively. Decreased corneal sensation and the presence of anterior blepharitis preoperatively were associated with an increase in hurricane keratopathy; ORs were 8.8265 (CI, 2.3837-32.6835) and 3.2815 (CI, 1.7388-6.1931), respectively. Total storage time for the donor material was also

  2. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same...

  3. How is WFPC flat field made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, J.-C.; Ritchie, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm developed by the WFPC IDT to generate flat fields from Earth streak exposures is now implemented in STSDAS. We explain in detail how this algorithm works and possible deficiencies. We also present two associated tools which can be used to modify the flat field obtained from the standard procedure.

  4. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud...

  5. Nonperturbative decay of supersymmetric flat directions

    SciTech Connect

    Guemruekcueoglu, A. Emir; Peloso, Marco; Sexton, Matthew; Olive, Keith A.

    2008-09-15

    We compute the nonperturbative decay of supersymmetric flat directions due to their D-term potential. Flat directions can develop large vacuum expectation values during inflation, and, if they are long-lived, this can strongly affect the reheating and thermalization stages after the inflation. We study a generic system of two U(1) or SU(2) flat directions which are cosmologically evolving after inflation. After proper gauge fixing, we show that the excitations of the fields around this background can undergo exponential amplification, at the expense of the energy density of the flat directions. We compute this effect for several values of the masses and the initial vacuum expectation values of the two flat directions, through a combination of analytical methods and extensive numerical simulations.

  6. Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Stange, A W; Furman, F J; Hilmas, D E

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. PMID:8933045

  7. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M.; Lee, Y. C.

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W-1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W-1. With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid-vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions.

  8. Flat optics with designer metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanfang; Capasso, Federico

    2014-02-01

    Conventional optical components such as lenses, waveplates and holograms rely on light propagation over distances much larger than the wavelength to shape wavefronts. In this way substantial changes of the amplitude, phase or polarization of light waves are gradually accumulated along the optical path. This Review focuses on recent developments on flat, ultrathin optical components dubbed 'metasurfaces' that produce abrupt changes over the scale of the free-space wavelength in the phase, amplitude and/or polarization of a light beam. Metasurfaces are generally created by assembling arrays of miniature, anisotropic light scatterers (that is, resonators such as optical antennas). The spacing between antennas and their dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. As a result the metasurfaces, on account of Huygens principle, are able to mould optical wavefronts into arbitrary shapes with subwavelength resolution by introducing spatial variations in the optical response of the light scatterers. Such gradient metasurfaces go beyond the well-established technology of frequency selective surfaces made of periodic structures and are extending to new spectral regions the functionalities of conventional microwave and millimetre-wave transmit-arrays and reflect-arrays. Metasurfaces can also be created by using ultrathin films of materials with large optical losses. By using the controllable abrupt phase shifts associated with reflection or transmission of light waves at the interface between lossy materials, such metasurfaces operate like optically thin cavities that strongly modify the light spectrum. Technology opportunities in various spectral regions and their potential advantages in replacing existing optical components are discussed.

  9. Rocky Flats beryllium health surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, A.W.; Furman, F.J.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP), initiated in June 1991, was designed to provide medical surveillance for current and former employees exposed to beryllium. The BHSP identifies individuals who have developed beryllium sensitivity using the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). A detailed medical evaluation to determine the prevalence of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is offered to individuals identified as beryllium sensitized or to those who have chest X-ray changes suggestive of CBD. The BHSP has identified 27 cases of CBD and another 74 cases of beryllium sensitization out of 4268 individuals tested. The distribution of BeLPT values for normal, sensitized, and CBD-identified individuals is described. Based on the information collected during the first 3 1/3 years of the BHSP, the BeLPT is the most effective means for the early identification of beryllium-sensitized individuals and to identify individuals who may have CBD. The need for BeLPT retesting is demonstrated through the identification of beryllium sensitization in individuals who previously tested normal. Posterior/anterior chest X-rays were not effective in the identification of CBD. 12 refs., 8 tabs.

  10. Instability of a penetrating blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigoni, D.; Bosi, F.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.

    2014-03-01

    Application of a dead compressive load at the free end of an elastic rod (the ‘blade') induces its penetration into a sliding sleeve ending with a linear elastic spring. Bifurcation and stability analysis of this simple elastic system shows a variety of unexpected behaviors: (i) an increase of buckling load at decreasing of elastic stiffness; (ii) a finite number of buckling loads for a system with infinite degrees of freedom (leading to a non-standard Sturm-Liouville problem); (iii) more than one bifurcation load associated to each bifurcation mode; (iv) a restabilization of the straight configuration after the second bifurcation load associated to the first instability mode; (v) the presence of an Eshelby-like (or configurational) force, deeply influencing stability. Only the first of these behaviors was previously known, the second and third ones disprove common beliefs, the fourth highlights a sort of ‘island of instability', and the last one shows surprising phenomena and effects on stability.

  11. Foliage penetrating radar imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Christopher J.; Gatesman, Andrew J.; Giles, Robert H.; Waldman, Jerry; Testorf, Markus E.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Nixon, William E.

    2002-12-01

    A far-field radar range has been constructed at the University of Massachusetts Lowell Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory to investigate electromagnetic scattering and imagery of threat military targets located in forested terrain. The radar system, operating at X-band, uses 1/35th scale targets and scenes to acquire VHF/UHF signature data. The trees and ground planes included in the measurement scenes have been dielectrically scaled in order to properly model the target/clutter interaction. The signature libraries acquired by the system could be used to help develop automatic target recognition algorithms. The difficulty in target recognition in forested areas is due to the fact that trees can have a signature larger than that of the target. The rather long wavelengths required to penetrate the foliage canopy also complicate target recognition by limiting image resolution. The measurement system and imaging algorithm will be presented as well as a validation of the measurements obtained by comparing measured signatures with analytical predictions. Preliminary linear co-polarization (HH,VV) and cross-polarization (HV,VH) data will be presented on an M1 tank in both forested and open-field scenarios.

  12. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  13. Penetrating Wounds of Great Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Symbas, P. N.; Kourias, E.; Tyras, D. H.; Hatcher, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with penetrating wounds of the great vessels treated at Grady Memorial Hospital during a 7-year period were reviewed. In more than 50% of the cases, diagnosis of the injury was made at the time of emergency thoracotomy for massive bleeding. In the remaining patients the diagnosis was suspected: 1) when the pulse distal to the vascular injury was absent or weak; 2) when the patient had symptoms and signs of impaired central nervous system perfusion; 3) when the missile had traversed the mediastinum and there was roentgenographic evidence of widening of the mediastinal shadow; or, 4) when a new murmur appeared. In all suspected cases with great vessel injury, the diagnosis was confirmed arteriographically. Arteriography in such patients should be performed to define the type and site of vascular injury so that its repair can be properly planned. Twenty-nine patients recovered from their injury, 6 succumbed as a result of it and 1 required midforearm amputation following repair of a subclavian artery and vein injury. Most of these patients underwent autotransfusion which greatly contributed to their successful outcome. Local temporary shunt was used for protection of the spinal cord and/or brain when impairment of their perfusion was required for the repair of the vascular wounds. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:17859862

  14. Transnasal, intracranial penetrating injury treated endoscopically.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Erdem Atalay; Okan, Cinemre; Pelin, Kesapli

    2006-04-01

    Intracranial penetrating injury through the nose is uncommon. We present the case of a four-year-old girl who sustained a transnasal, intracranial penetrating injury with a sharp wooden object. We performed endoscopic removal of the foreign body and repair of the associated cerebrospinal fluid fistula. PMID:16623978

  15. Social Penetration: A Description, Research, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Nicole J.

    Social penetration has been described by S.W. Littlejohn (1992) as "the process of increasing disclosure and intimacy in a relationship." The phrase "social penetration" originated with I. Altman and D. Taylor, the foremost researchers in this area. From other theories, Altman and Taylor developed a unified theory which provided a stable base from…

  16. FRACTIONAL PENETRATION OF PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of fractional penetration curves for liquid droplet penetration of overspray arrestors for discrete droplet diameters from 0.3 to 10 micrometers. (NOTE: Fine particulates are particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less.) These data poin...

  17. Fluorescent penetration enhancers for transdermal applications.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jennifer E; Polat, Baris E; VanVeller, Brett; Lopez, Renata F V; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2012-02-28

    Chemical penetration enhancers are often used to enhance transdermal drug delivery. However, the fundamental mechanisms that govern the interactions between penetration enhancers and skin are not fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this work was to identify naturally fluorescent penetration enhancers (FPEs) in order to utilize well-established fluorescence techniques to directly study the behavior of FPEs within skin. In this study, 12 fluorescent molecules with amphiphilic characteristics were evaluated as skin penetration enhancers. Eight of the molecules exhibited significant activity as skin penetration enhancers, determined using skin current enhancement ratios. In addition, to illustrate the novel, direct, and non-invasive visualization of the behavior of FPEs within skin, three case studies involving the use of two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) are presented, including visualizing glycerol-mitigated and ultrasound-enhanced FPE skin penetration. Previous TPM studies have indirectly visualized the effect of penetration enhancers on the skin by using a fluorescent dye to probe the transdermal pathways of the enhancer. These effects can now be directly visualized and investigated using FPEs. Finally, future studies are proposed for generating FPE design principles. The combination of FPEs with fluorescence techniques represents a useful novel approach for obtaining physical insights on the behavior of penetration enhancers within the skin. PMID:22062691

  18. Time constants of flat superconducting cables

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, S.; Yamamoto, J.

    1997-06-01

    The frequency dependence of coupling losses is calculated for flat superconducting cables, including the electromagnetic coupling between different current loops on the cable. It is shown that there are two characteristic time constants for both parallel and transverse coupling losses. The values of these time constants {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1} are calculated by introducing effective inductances for the current loops. In both cases, {tau}{sub 1} is considerably smaller than {tau}{sub 0}. As the most important methods of determining {tau}{sub 0} from AC losses - namely, the limiting slope of loss/cycle at zero frequency and the position of the maximum loss/cycle vs. frequency - estimate {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1}, respectively, the results are important for practical measurements and evaluation of time constants from AC losses. At larger frequencies, the losses are more likely to those in normal conductors (skin effect). The calculation schemes can be applied to cables with closely wound strands (like the cable-in-conduit conductors), too. However, several other effects should be considered being different and/or more important with respect to other cable types (demagnetization factor of strands and cables, larger regions near the cable edges, smaller number of strands and subcables, etc.).

  19. USDC based rapid penetrator of packed soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    Environment protection requires more testing and analysis tools. To detect buried chemical containers or other objects embedded in soil and avoid possible damages of them, a penetrator of packed soil operated using low pushing force was developed. The design was based on a novel driving mechanism of the ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) device developed in the NDEAA lab at JPL [Bar-Cohen et al 2001, Bao et al 2003]. In the penetrator, a small free-flying mass is energized by a piezoelectric transducer and impacts a rod probe on its shoulder at frequencies of hundreds times per second. The impacts help the probe to penetrate the packed soil rapidly. A great reduction of the needed pushing force for penetration was achieved. The details of the design of the prototype penetrator and the results of performance tests are presented.

  20. Universal framework for unmanned system penetration testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobezak, Philip; Abbot-McCune, Sam; Tront, Joseph; Marchany, Randy; Wicks, Alfred

    2013-05-01

    Multiple industries, from defense to medical, are increasing their use of unmanned systems. Today, many of these systems are rapidly designed, tested, and deployed without adequate security testing. To aid the quick turnaround, commercially available subsystems and embedded components are often used. These components may introduce security vulnerabilities particularly if the designers do not fully understand their functionality and limitations. There is a need for thorough testing of unmanned systems for security vulnerabilities, which includes all subsystems. Using a penetration testing framework would help find these vulnerabilities across different unmanned systems applications. The framework should encompass all of the commonly implemented subsystems including, but not limited to, wireless networks, CAN buses, passive and active sensors, positioning receivers, and data storage devices. Potential attacks and vulnerabilities can be identified by looking at the unique characteristics of these subsystems. The framework will clearly outline the attack vectors as they relate to each subsystem. If any vulnerabilities exist, a mitigation plan can be developed prior to the completion of the design phase. Additionally, if the vulnerabilities are known in advance of deployment, monitoring can be added to the design to alert operators of any attempted or successful attacks. This proposed framework will help evaluate security risks quickly and consistently to ensure new unmanned systems are ready for deployment. Verifying that a new unmanned system has passed a comprehensive security evaluation will ensure greater confidence in its operational effectiveness.

  1. Fiber optic microneedles for transdermal light delivery: ex vivo porcine skin penetration experiments.

    PubMed

    Kosoglu, Mehmet A; Hood, Robert L; Chen, Ye; Xu, Yong; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Rylander, Christopher G

    2010-09-01

    Shallow light penetration in tissue has been a technical barrier to the development of light-based methods for in vivo diagnosis and treatment of epithelial carcinomas. This problem can potentially be solved by utilizing minimally invasive probes to deliver light directly to target areas. To develop this solution, fiber optic microneedles capable of delivering light for either imaging or therapy were manufactured by tapering step-index silica-based optical fibers employing a melt-drawing process. Some of the microneedles were manufactured to have sharper tips by changing the heat source during the melt-drawing process. All of the microneedles were individually inserted into ex vivo pig skin samples to demonstrate the feasibility of their application in human tissues. The force on each microneedle was measured during insertion in order to determine the effects of sharper tips on the peak force and the steadiness of the increase in force. Skin penetration experiments showed that sharp fiber optic microneedles that are 3 mm long penetrate through 2 mm of ex vivo pig skin specimens. These sharp microneedles had a minimum average diameter of 73 mum and a maximum tip diameter of 8 mum. Flat microneedles, which had larger tip diameters, required a minimum average diameter of 125 mum in order to penetrate through pig skin samples. Force versus displacement plots showed that a sharp tip on a fiber optic microneedle decreased the skin's resistance during insertion. Also, the force acting on a sharp microneedle increased more steadily compared with a microneedle with a flat tip. However, many of the sharp microneedles sustained damage during skin penetration. Two designs that did not accrue damage were identified and will provide a basis of more robust microneedles. Developing resilient microneedles with smaller diameters will lead to transformative, novel modes of transdermal imaging and treatment that are less invasive and less painful for the patient. PMID:20815648

  2. Effects of laser beam shapes on depths of penetration in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghafi, S.; Withford, M.; Farhadi, M.; Ghaderi, R.; Granmayeh, A.; Ghoranneviss, Z.; Moravej, F.

    2006-04-01

    For many medical laser applications, a particular beam shape is required. The output beam of a laser can be approximated by a Gaussian, higher-order Gaussian, annular or a flat-top (uniform) distribution. Here, we investigate, analytically and experimentally, the effects of laser beam shapes on the depths of penetration in treatments of any types of vascular malformation. In order to do this, the physical and optical parameters of the skin must be known and measured correctly. Using the Monte-Carlo method for seven layers of skin, a software predicting the beam propagation and intensity distribution inside of tissue has been developed in our centre. In this paper, a 15 watts copper vapour laser producing (511nm and 578 nm) for treatments of patients having PWS (Port Wine Stains) of different sizes is employed. The output beam of this laser was Gaussian. We have designed a beam homogenizer converting a Gaussian beam into flat-top distribution. Therefore, the effects of the laser irradiance beam shape (before and after beam shaping) on the depth of penetration have been investigated before people's treatments. Initially, two laser beams having Gaussian output distribution of the same power are considered. The diameter of one beam is 5mm and the other one is 10 mm. The intensity distribution of these beam inside of similar tissues are predicted and it is concluded that for deep but small size PWS the Gaussian beam having smaller beam diameter is more suitable than the larger spot size. Then, the beam intensity distribution inside of the same tissue (similar parameters) for two flat-top beams of the same power but different diameters (one is 5mm and the other is 10 mm) is calculated. It can be seen that the flat top beam of bigger spot-size has smaller penetration depth but it illuminates a larger area uniformly (suitable for large but not deep area). The depth of penetration of flat-top beam with smaller spot size is deeper but it illuminates a smaller area uniformly

  3. The gravitational field of an infinite flat slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulling, S. A.; Bouas, J. D.; Carter, H. B.

    2015-08-01

    We study Einstein's equations with a localized plane-symmetric source, with close attention to gauge freedom/fixing and to listing all physically distinct solutions. In the vacuum regions there are only two qualitatively different solutions, one curved and one flat; in addition, on each of the two sides there is a free parameter describing how the slab is embedded into the vacuum region. Surprisingly, for a generic slab source the solution must be curved on one side and flat on the other. We treat infinitely thin slabs in full detail and indicate how thick slabs can increase the variety of external geometry pairs. Positive energy density seems to force external geometries with curvature singularities at some distance from the slab; we speculate that such singularities occur in regions where the solution cannot be physically relevant anyway.

  4. Development of the flatness standard equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengxia

    2012-10-01

    Flatness is an important parameter of independent transmission in geometric metrology. The flatness standard is by interferometer and optical flats to implement transmission. Main parts of the flatness standard equipment are composed of a laser point diffraction interference system, one phase shifts system and one image acquisition system. The equipment is three PZTs to drive the Φ 300mm reference optical flat to move, only one CCD to adjust attitudes of the optical flats by reflecting spots and capture a series of interference pictures. The whole equipment is placed on a one 1200mm×800mm optical platform, and the optical platform is placed on a Φ1800mm vibration-free base. The optical system of the flatness standard equipment is very simple, which only needs a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser and a space filter to construct a point source, one reflecting mirror, one beam splitter, one Φ 300mm transparent collimating system, one needle-hole stop, one CCD and its lens.

  5. Age-related penetrance of hereditary atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maren; Rybicki, Lisa A; Winter, Aurelia; Hoffmann, Michael M; Reiermann, Stefanie; Linke, Hannah; Arbeiter, Klaus; Patzer, Ludwig; Budde, Klemens; Hoppe, Bernd; Zeier, Martin; Lhotta, Karl; Bock, Andreas; Wiech, Thorsten; Gaspert, Ariana; Fehr, Thomas; Woznowski, Magdalena; Berisha, Gani; Malinoc, Angelica; Goek, Oemer-Necmi; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P H

    2011-11-01

    Hereditary atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), a dramatic disease frequently leading to dialysis, is associated with germline mutations of the CFH, CD46, or CFI genes. After identification of the mutation in an affected aHUS patient, single-site gene testing of relatives is the preventive care perspective. However, clinical data for family counselling are scarce. From the German-Speaking-Countries-aHUS-Registry, 33 index patients with mutations were approached for permission to offer relatives screening for their family-specific mutations and to obtain demographic and clinical data. Mutation screening was performed using direct sequencing. Age-adjusted penetrance of aHUS was calculated for each gene in index cases and in mutation-positive relatives. Sixty-one relatives comprising 41 parents and 20 other relatives were enrolled and mutations detected in 31/61. In total, 40 research participants had germline mutations in CFH, 19 in CD46 and in 6 CFI. Penetrance at age 40 was markedly reduced in mutation-positive relatives compared to index patients overall with 10% versus 67% (P < 0.001); 6% vs. 67% (P < 0.001) in CFH mutation carriers and 21% vs. 70% (P= 0.003) in CD46 mutation carriers. Age-adjusted penetrance for hereditary aHUS is important to understand the disease, and if replicated in the future, for genetic counselling. PMID:21906045

  6. Incomplete penetrance: The role of stochasticity in developmental cell colonization.

    PubMed

    Binder, Benjamin J; Landman, Kerry A; Newgreen, Donald F; Ross, Joshua V

    2015-09-01

    Cell colonization during embryonic development involves cells migrating and proliferating over growing tissues. Unsuccessful colonization, resulting from genetic causes, can result in various birth defects. However not all individuals with the same mutation show the disease. This is termed incomplete penetrance, and it even extends to discordancy in monozygotic (identical) twins. A one-dimensional agent-based model of cell migration and proliferation within a growing tissue is presented, where the position of every cell is recorded at any time. We develop a new model that approximates this agent-based process - rather than requiring the precise configuration of cells within the tissue, the new model records the total number of cells, the position of the most advanced cell, and then invokes an approximation for how the cells are distributed. The probability mass function (PMF) for the most advanced cell is obtained for both the agent-based model and its approximation. The two PMFs compare extremely well, but using the approximation is computationally faster. Success or failure of colonization is probabilistic. For example for sufficiently high proliferation rate the colonization is assured. However, if the proliferation rate is sufficiently low, there will be a lower, say 50%, chance of success. These results provide insights into the puzzle of incomplete penetrance of a disease phenotype, especially in monozygotic twins. Indeed, stochastic cell behavior (amplified by disease-causing mutations) within the colonization process may play a key role in incomplete penetrance, rather than differences in genes, their expression or environmental conditions. PMID:26047851

  7. EFFECT OF NOSE SHAPE ON LONG ROD PENETRATION INTO DRY SAND

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Adam; Addiss, John; Proud, William

    2009-12-28

    Flat, hemispherical and ogive-2 nosed mild steel projectiles (10 mm diameter, 100 mm length) were fired at 200 m s{sup -1} into the end face of cylindrically confined dry sand (100 mm diameter, 150 mm length). Projectiles were tracked through the sand using flash radiography and high speed photography. By seeding a horizontal plane of randomly dispersed lead shot (<1.5 mm diameter) across the centre of the cylinder, the displacement field induced by the impact was mapped using Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR). By imaging at successive time intervals, a temporal history of the penetration was generated. DSR reveals a cone of displacement emanating from the impact point in all cases, leaving areas unmoved during the early stages of penetration. The magnitude and extent of the displacement cone is observed to be greatest in the flat nosed case. Initial rapid deceleration is seen in all nose cases, relaxing to an approximately steady velocity as the projectile reaches the end of the target. Ogive nosed projectiles suffer the least initial deceleration, and perforate the target with greatest speed. This combined behaviour is attributed to the blunt projectiles transferring more energy into movement of sand in the early stages of penetration, and hence experiencing more effective drag. Following this, the projectile moves through a moving body of sand at approximately constant velocity.

  8. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  9. Cycle 6 FOS Spectral Flat Field Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Jennifer

    1996-07-01

    Some FOS detector/disperser combinations have shown temporal variations in their flat field structure during previous cycles. This set of observations will produce additional flat field calibrations appropriate to the Cycle 6 time period. At one epoch during Cycle 6, high S/N spectra are obtained for G191B2B, which has a relatively feature- less spectrum and which has been the primary target for earlier flat field observations. Observations are made through the 1.0 aperture with all usable detector /disperser combinations. This epoch doubles as an IVS measurement. On three other occasions three RED side spectral elements will be monitored with 1.0 aperture.

  10. Compact programmable ground-penetrating radar system for roadway and bridge deck characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioc, Dan; Xia, Tian; Venkatachalam, Anbu; Huston, Dryver; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

    2011-04-01

    A compact, high-performance, programmable Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system is described based on an impulse generator transmitter, a full waveform sampling single shot receiver, and high directivity antennas. The digital programmable pulse generator is developed for the transmitter circuit and both the pulse width and pulse shape are tunable to adjust for different modes of operation. It utilizes a step-recovery diode (SRD) and short-circuited microstrip lines to produce sub-nanosecond wide ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses. Sharp step signals are generated by periodic clock signals that are connected to the SRD's input node. Up to four variable width pulses (0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.1 ns) are generated through a number of PIN switches controlling the selection of different microstrip lengths. A schottky diode is used as a rectifier at the output of the SRD in order to pass only the positive part of the Gaussian pulses while another group of short-circuit microstrips are used to generate amplitude-reversed Gaussian pulses. The addition of the two pulses results in a Gaussian monocycle pulse which is more energy efficient for emission. The pulse generator is connected to a number of UWB antennas. Primarily, a UWB Vivaldi antenna (500 MHz to 5 GHz) is used, but a number of other high-performance GPR-oriented antennas are investigated as well. All have linear phase characteristic, constant phase center, constant polarization and flat gain. A number of methods including resistive loading are used to decrease any resonances due to the antenna structure and unwanted reflections from the ground. The antennas exhibit good gain characteristics in the design bandwidth.

  11. Modeling pollutant penetration across building envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, De-Ling; Nazaroff, William W.

    2001-04-01

    As air infiltrates through unintentional openings in building envelopes, pollutants may interact with adjacent surfaces. Such interactions can alter human exposure to air pollutants of outdoor origin. We present modeling explorations of the proportion of particles and reactive gases (e.g., ozone) that penetrate building envelopes as air enters through cracks and wall cavities. Calculations were performed for idealized rectangular cracks, assuming regular geometry, smooth inner crack surface and steady airflow. Particles of 0.1-1.0 {micro}m diameter are predicted to have the highest penetration efficiency, nearly unity for crack heights of 0.25 mm or larger, assuming a pressure difference of 4 Pa or greater and a flow path length of 3 cm or less. Supermicron and ultrafine particles are significantly removed by means of gravitational settling and Brownian diffusion, respectively. In addition to crack geometry, ozone penetration depends on its reactivity with crack surfaces, as parameterized by the reaction probability. For reaction probabilities less than {approx}10{sup -5}, penetration is complete for cracks heights greater than 1 mm. However, penetration through mm scale cracks is small if the reaction probability is {approx}10{sup -4} or greater. For wall cavities, fiberglass insulation is an efficient particle filter, but particles would penetrate efficiently through uninsulated wall cavities or through insulated cavities with significant airflow bypass. The ozone reaction probability on fiberglass fibers was measured to be 10{sup -7} for fibers previously exposed to high ozone levels and 6 x 10{sup -6} for unexposed fibers. Over this range, ozone penetration through fiberglass insulation would vary from >90% to {approx}10-40%. Thus, under many conditions penetration is high; however, there are realistic circumstances in which building envelopes can provide substantial pollutant removal. Not enough is yet known about the detailed nature of pollutant penetration

  12. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. Determination of the absolute contours of optical flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primak, W.

    1969-01-01

    Emersons procedure is used to determine true absolute contours of optical flats. Absolute contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.

  15. Mechanisms of imiquimod skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Nicoli, Sara

    2016-09-10

    Imiquimod (IMQ) ia an immunostimulating drug used for the treatment of neoplastic skin diseases, such as actinic keratosis (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and as adjuvant for vaccination. Imiquimod formulation and skin delivery is highly challenging because of its very low solubility in most pharmaceutical excipients and poor penetration properties. Objectives of the work were: (1) to evaluate IMQ solubility in different solvents and pharmaceutical excipients; (2) to evaluate IMQ skin retention after the application of simple saturated solutions; (3) to evaluate the role of stratum corneum and solvent uptake on IMQ skin retention and (4) to formulate IMQ in microemulsions - prepared using previously investigated components - and compare them with the commercial formulation. The results show that IMQ solubility is not related to the solubility parameter of the solvents considered. The highest solubility was found with oleic acid (74mg/ml); in the case of PEGs, the solubility increased linearly with MW (PEG 200: 1.9mg/ml; PEG 400 7.3mg/ml, PEG 600 12.8mg/ml). Imiquimod skin retention from saturated solutions (Tween 80, oleic acid, propylene glycol, PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, Transcutol, 2-pyrrolidone, DMSO) resulted relatively similar, being 1.6μg/cm(2) in case of oleic acid (solubility 74mg/ml) and 0.18μg/cm(2) in case of propylene glycol (solubility 0.60mg/ml). Permeation experiments on stripped skin (no stratum corneum) and isolated dermis as well as uptake experiments on isolated stratum corneum sheets demonstrated that IMQ accumulation is related to skin solvent uptake. Finally, microemulsions (MEs) prepared with the above-studied components demonstrated a very good performance. In particular, a ME composed of 10% oleic acid, 35% Transcutol, 35% Tween 80 and 20% water is able to accumulate the same amount of drug as the commercial formulation but with far more efficiency, since its concentration was 12 times lower. PMID:27452419

  16. GNOME: an earth-penetrator code

    SciTech Connect

    Davie, N.T.; Richgels, M.A.

    1983-05-01

    The earth penetrator code GNOME is described, and its capabilities are illustrated by comparisons of computed results with actual field test data. GNOME uses decoupled approximate solution techniques to calculate the rigid body response of an earth penetrator. A modular structured programming method is employed, which allows a variety of pressure generating algorithms to be used without altering the basic program modules which consist of a time integrator and output routines. GNOME calculates axial and lateral loading on a cylindrical penetrator with an ogival or conical nose, but other geometrical shapes may be easily substituted for these by utilizing the modular program structure.

  17. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  18. Earthquakes induced by deep penetrating bombing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassanian, Serguei Y.

    2005-11-01

    The data of M≥5 earthquakes occurred in one year before and after 4 deep penetrating bombs in the region within 500 km and 1 000 km from the shooting site are presented. The 4 bombs are those happened in 1999 Kosovo of Yugoslavia, the 1991 Baghdad of Iraq, the 2001 Tora Bora of Afghanistan, and the 2003 Kirkuk of Iraq, respectively. The data indicate that the deep penetrating bombs may have remotely triggered some earthquakes. The deep penetrating bombs in seismically active regions should be forbidden.

  19. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  20. Ensuring flat cuts in longwall mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Currie, J. R.; Deaton, E. T.; Kissel, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Minicomputer-controlled towed vehicle automatically determines flatness of wall of coal or other mineral as it is being cut by mining machine and allows machine operator to correct cut as necessary. Vehicle is used for longwall mining.

  1. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  2. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  3. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  4. The manufacture of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The major techniques are described for fabricating flat conductor cable (FCC). Various types of FCC, including unshielded, shielded, power, and signal, in both existing and conceptual constructions, are covered.

  5. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate. The substrate of mud flats contains organic material and particles smaller in size than sand. They...

  6. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, S.E.; Orvis, W.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1996-04-16

    A device is disclosed which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density. 6 figs.

  7. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOEpatents

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Orvis, William J.; Caporaso, George J.; Wieskamp, Ted F.

    1996-01-01

    A device which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density.

  8. A flat-field correction method for photon-counting-detector-based micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, So E.; Kim, Jae G.; Hegazy, M. A. A.; Cho, Min H.; Lee, Soo Y.

    2014-03-01

    As low-dose computed tomography becomes a hot issue in the field of clinical x-ray imaging, photon counting detectors have drawn great attention as alternative x-ray image sensors. Even though photon-counting image sensors have several advantages over the integration-type sensors, such as low noise and high DQE, they are known to be more sensitive to the various experimental conditions like temperature and electric drift. Particularly, time-varying detector response during the CT scan is troublesome in photon-counting-detector-based CTs. To overcome the time-varying behavior of the image sensor during the CT scan, we developed a flat-field correction method together with an automated scanning mechanism. We acquired the flat-field images and projection data every view alternatively. When we took the flat-field image, we moved down the imaging sample away from the field-of-view with aid of computer controlled linear positioning stage. Then, we corrected the flat-field effects view-by-view with the flat-field image taken at given view. With a CdTe photon-counting image sensor (XRI-UNO, IMATEK), we took CT images of small bugs. The CT images reconstructed with the proposed flat-field correction method were much superior to the ones reconstructed with the conventional flat-field correction method.

  9. Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F; Larson, Maureen K; Plant, Thomas K; Sundholm-Tepper, Andrea; Payton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure penetration efficiencies of low-level laser light energy through equine skin and to determine the fraction of laser energy absorbed by equine digital flexor tendons (superficial [SDFT] and deep [DDFT]). SAMPLE Samples of skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs from 1 metacarpal area of each of 19 equine cadavers. PROCEDURES A therapeutic laser with wavelength capabilities of 800 and 970 nm was used. The percentage of energy penetration for each wavelength was determined through skin before and after clipping and then shaving of hair, through shaved skin over SDFTs, and through shaved skin, SDFTs, and DDFTs (positioned in anatomically correct orientation). Influence of hair color; skin preparation, color, and thickness; and wavelength on energy penetration were assessed. RESULTS For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving of skin improved energy penetration. Light-colored skin allowed greatest energy penetration, followed by medium-colored skin and dark-colored skin. Greatest penetration of light-colored skin occurred with the 800-nm wavelength, whereas greatest penetration of medium- and dark-colored skin occurred with the 970-nm wavelength. As skin thickness increased, energy penetration of samples decreased. Only 1% to 20% and 0.1% to 4% of energy were absorbed by SDFTs and DDFTs, respectively, depending on skin color, skin thickness, and applied wavelength. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that most laser energy directed through equine skin was absorbed or scattered by the skin. To achieve delivery of energy doses known to positively affect cells in vitro to equine SDFTs and DDFTs, skin preparation, color, and thickness and applied wavelength must be considered. PMID:27580111

  10. Topological properties of flat electroencephalography's state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken, Tan Lit; Ahmad, Tahir bin; Mohd, Mohd Sham bin; Ngien, Su Kong; Suwa, Tohru; Meng, Ong Sie

    2016-02-01

    Neuroinverse problem are often associated with complex neuronal activity. It involves locating problematic cell which is highly challenging. While epileptic foci localization is possible with the aid of EEG signals, it relies greatly on the ability to extract hidden information or pattern within EEG signals. Flat EEG being an enhancement of EEG is a way of viewing electroencephalograph on the real plane. In the perspective of dynamical systems, Flat EEG is equivalent to epileptic seizure hence, making it a great platform to study epileptic seizure. Throughout the years, various mathematical tools have been applied on Flat EEG to extract hidden information that is hardly noticeable by traditional visual inspection. While these tools have given worthy results, the journey towards understanding seizure process completely is yet to be succeeded. Since the underlying structure of Flat EEG is dynamic and is deemed to contain wealthy information regarding brainstorm, it would certainly be appealing to explore in depth its structures. To better understand the complex seizure process, this paper studies the event of epileptic seizure via Flat EEG in a more general framework by means of topology, particularly, on the state space where the event of Flat EEG lies.