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Sample records for penicillium corylophilum dierckx

  1. Biodegradation of glyceryl trinitrate by Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Z; Sundaram, S T; Sharma, A; Brodman, B W

    1997-01-01

    Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx, isolated from a contaminated water wet, double-base propellant, was able to completely degrade glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in a buffered medium (pH 7.0) containing glucose and ammonium nitrate. In the presence of 12 mg of initial fungal inoculum, GTN (48.5 to 61.6 mumol) was quantitatively transformed in a stepwise process to glyceryl dinitrate (GDN) and glyceryl mononitrate (GMN) within 48 h followed by a decrease in the GDN content with a concomitant increase in the GMN level. GDN was totally transformed to GMN within 168 h, and the complete degradation of GMN was achieved within 336 h. The presence of glucose and ammonium nitrate in the growth medium was essential for completion of the degradation of GTN and its metabolites. Complete degradation of GTN by a fungal culture has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:9143106

  2. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    PubMed

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species. PMID:24891425

  3. [Evaluation of cellular response in engorged females of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) inoculated with Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, Penicillium corylophilum or Fusarium oxysporum].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sandra B; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita E P

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Penicillium corylophilum or Fusarium oxysporum on the dynamic of hemocytes presented in the haemolymph of engorged females of Boophilus microplus was studied. The inoculation was carried out with conidia suspension of different fungi in the concentration of 10(8) conidia/ml. A negative control group was inoculated with 0.1% Tween 80 water solution and a testimony group was comprised of non inoculated ticks. The haemolymph samples were collected in 24, 48 and 72 hours post-challenge. In all the studied periods, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids were observed in the specimens inoculated with fungus and also in the controls groups (negative and testimony). Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and spherulocytes were the most cells in the haemolymph. The absence of hemocytes 72h post-challenging was observed prior to the death of the specimens inoculated with B. bassiana suggesting a failure in the cellular response. Hyphae and conidia growth was observed in the samples treated with entomopathogenic fungi (B. bassiana or M. anisopliae). The groups treated with non entomopathogenic fungi (P. corylophilum or F. oxysporum) did not shown significant differences in relation to the negative control and testimony groups. PMID:17196118

  4. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Spierenburg, H.; Seifert, K.A.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene. Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type strains and/or representative isolates of Talaromyces and related biverticillate anamorphic species. Extrolite profiles were compiled for all type strains and many supplementary cultures. All evidence supports our conclusions that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is distinct from other subgenera in Penicillium and should be taxonomically unified with the Talaromyces species that reside in the same clade. Following the concepts of nomenclatural priority and single name nomenclature, we transfer all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces. A holomorphic generic diagnosis for the expanded concept of Talaromyces, including teleomorph and anamorph characters, is provided. A list of accepted Talaromyces names and newly combined Penicillium names is given. Species of biotechnological and medical importance, such as P. funiculosum and P. marneffei, are now combined in Talaromyces. Excluded species and taxa that need further taxonomic study are discussed. An appendix lists other generic names, usually considered synonyms of Penicillium sensu lato that

  5. Biotransformation of β-hexachlorocyclohexane by the saprotrophic soil fungus Penicillium griseofulvum.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Andrea; Pierro, Lucia; Riccardi, Carmela; Pinzari, Flavia; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael; Petrangeli Papini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) of global concern with potentially toxic effects on humans and ecosystems. Fungal tolerance and biotransformation of toxic substances hold considerable promise in environmental remediation technologies as many fungi can tolerate extreme environmental conditions and possess efficient extracellular degradative enzymes with relatively non-specific activities. In this research, we have investigated the potential of a saprotrophic soil fungus, Penicillium griseofulvum Dierckx, isolated from soils with high concentrations of isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane, to biotransform β-HCH, the most recalcitrant isomer to microbial activity. The growth kinetics of the fungus were characterized after growth in stirred liquid Czapek-Dox medium. It was found that P. griseofulvum was able to grow in the presence of 1 mg L(-1) β-HCH and in stressful nutritional conditions at different concentrations of sucrose in the medium (0 and 5 g L(-1)). The effects of β-HCH and the toluene, used as a solvent for β-HCH addition, on P. griseofulvum were investigated by means of a Phenotype MicroArray™ technique, which suggested the activation of certain metabolic pathways as a response to oxidative stress due to the presence of the xenobiotics. Gas chromatographic analysis of β-HCH concentration confirmed biodegradation of the isomer with a minimum value of β-HCH residual concentration of 18.6%. The formation of benzoic acid derivatives as dead-end products of β-HCH biotransformation was observed and this could arise from a possible biodegradation pathway for β-HCH with important connections to fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:26071688

  6. Tremorgenic Mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Takumi; Morooka, Nobuichi; Sawada, Yuzuru; Udagawa, Shun-Ichi

    1976-01-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28°C. PMID:984820

  7. Tremorgenic mycotoxin from Penicillium paraherquei.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T; Morooka, N; Sawada, Y; Udagawa, S I

    1976-09-01

    A tremorgenic mycotoxin was isolated from Penicillium paraherquei Abe ex G. Smith and identified as verruculogen. It was produced at the rate of approximately 1 mg/g of the dried fungal mycelium cultured on peptone-enriched Czapek-Dox medium at 28 degrees C. PMID:984820

  8. Tremorgenic toxin from Penicillium veruculosum.

    PubMed

    Cole, R J; Kirksey, J W; Moore, J H; Blankenship, B R; Diener, U L; Davis, N D

    1972-08-01

    A new mycotoxin that produces severe tremors and acute toxicity when administered orally or intraperitoneally (ip) to mice and 1-day-old cockerels was obtained from a strain of Penicillium verruculosum Peyronel isolated from peanuts. The ip 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) of this tremorgen was 2.4 mg/kg in mice and 15.2 mg/kg in chickens. Orally administered LD(50) values for the toxin were 126.7 mg/kg in mice and 365.5 mg/kg in chickens. The trivial name "verruculogen" is proposed for this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Physical and chemical characteristics of the mycotoxin are described. PMID:4341967

  9. Tremorgenic Toxin from Penicillium verruculosum

    PubMed Central

    Cole, R. J.; Kirksey, J. W.; Moore, J. H.; Blankenship, B. R.; Diener, U. L.; Davis, N. D.

    1972-01-01

    A new mycotoxin that produces severe tremors and acute toxicity when administered orally or intraperitoneally (ip) to mice and 1-day-old cockerels was obtained from a strain of Penicillium verruculosum Peyronel isolated from peanuts. The ip 50% lethal dose (LD50) of this tremorgen was 2.4 mg/kg in mice and 15.2 mg/kg in chickens. Orally administered LD50 values for the toxin were 126.7 mg/kg in mice and 365.5 mg/kg in chickens. The trivial name „verruculogen” is proposed for this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Physical and chemical characteristics of the mycotoxin are described. PMID:4341967

  10. Screening and productivity of penicillin antibiotic from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Sivakumari, V; Dhinakaran, J; Rajendran, A

    2009-10-01

    This paper highlights the antagonism effect of Penicillium isolates, which were screened against the test organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Penicillium sp. Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum isolates were used for penicillin biosynthesis. The antibacterial activities of fermented crude penicillin extract were assayed by disc diffusion method. Maximum antibacterial activity was observed in Gram positive organisms (Staphylococcus aureus) when compared with Gram negative organisms. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum can be used for large-scale penicillin antibiotic production. PMID:21117415

  11. Penicillium species present in Uruguayan salami.

    PubMed

    Galvalisi, Umberto; Lupo, Sandra; Piccini, Juan; Bettucci, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The surface coverage of certain dry fermented sausages such as Italian salami by some species of Penicillium provides their characteristic flavor and other beneficial properties. One of them is the protective effect by means of a uniform film of white mold against undesirable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to identify and to isolate the fungal species present in mature Italian type of salami and to evaluate if it is possible to obtain some of them as starters. In addition, the effects of temperature (14 °C and 25 °C), water activity (a w) (0.90, 0.95 and 0.995) and 2.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) on fungal growth were determined. Similarly, the proteolytic and lipolytic activity and the ability to produce toxic secondary metabolites were evaluated in order to characterize some possible starter strain. All species found belong to the genus Penicillium, including a performing starter as Penicillium nalgiovense and some potentially toxicogenic species. All the strains showed a higher growth rate at 25 °C. The production of extracellular proteases and lipases was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 14 °C with and without sodium chloride. Only Penicillium expansum produced patulin. On the other hand, Penicillium griseofulvum was the only species that produced ciclopiazonic acid but none of the strains produced penicillin. The species present on salami, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium puberulum were unable to produce any of the evaluated toxins. These findings suggest that some fungal isolates from the surface of salami such as P. nalgiovense are potentially useful as starters in sausage manufacture. PMID:22610286

  12. Penicillium marneffei Infection in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephenie Y. N.; Wong, K. F.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus which is endemic in Southeast Asia. It is an opportunistic pathogen which has emerged to become an AIDS-defining illness in the endemic areas. Early diagnosis with prompt initiation of treatment is crucial for its management. Prompt diagnosis can often be established through careful cytological and histological examination of clinical specimens although microbiological culture remains the gold standard for its diagnosis. Standard antifungal treatment for AIDS patients with penicilliosis is well established. Highly active antiretroviral therapy should be started early together with the antifungal treatment. Special attention should be paid to potential drug interaction between antiretroviral and antifungal treatments. Secondary prophylaxis may be discontinued with a low risk of relapse of the infection once the immune dysfunction has improved. PMID:21331327

  13. Fifteen new species of Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Renaud, J B; Burgess, K M N; Malloch, D W; Clark, D; Ketch, L; Urb, M; Louis-Seize, G; Assabgui, R; Sumarah, M W; Seifert, K A

    2016-06-01

    We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. The new species are classified in sections Aspergilloides (1), Canescentia (2), Charlesia (1), Exilicaulis (3), Lanata-Divaricata (7) and Stolkia (1). Each is characterised and described using classical morphology, LC-MS based extrolite analyses and multigene phylogenies based on ITS, BenA and CaM. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others. PMID:27616792

  14. Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Penicillium section Citrina have a worldwide distribution and occur commonly in soils. The section is here delimited using a combination of phenotypic characters and sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA (ITS) and partial RPB2 sequences. Species assigned to section Citrina share the production of symmetrically biverticillate conidiophores, flask shaped phialides (7.0–9.0 μm long) and relatively small conidia (2.0–3.0 μm diam). Some species can produce greyish-brown coloured cleistothecia containing flanged ascospores. In the present study, more than 250 isolates presumably belonging to section Citrina were examined using a combined analysis of phenotypic and physiological characters, extrolite profiles and ITS, β-tubulin and/or calmodulin sequences. Section Citrina includes 39 species, and 17 of those are described here as new. The most important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species are growth rates and colony reverse colours on the agar media CYA, MEA and YES; shape, size and ornamentation of conidia and the production of sclerotia or cleistothecia. Temperature-growth profiles were made for all examined species and are a valuable character characters for species identification. Species centered around P. citrinum generally have a higher maximum growth temperature (33–36 °C) than species related to P. westlingii (27–33 °C). Extrolite patterns and partial calmodulin and β-tubulin sequences can be used for sequence based identification and resolved all species. In contrast, ITS sequences were less variable and only 55 % of the species could be unambiguously identified with this locus. Taxonomic novelties: Penicillium argentinense Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. atrofulvum Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. aurantiacobrunneum Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. cairnsense Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson, P. christenseniae Houbraken, Frisvad & Samson

  15. Ochratoxin A production by Penicillium thymicola.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai D T; McMullin, David R; Ponomareva, Ekaterina; Riley, Robert; Pomraning, Kyle R; Baker, Scott E; Seifert, Keith A

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium species that grow on economically important agricultural crops and food products. OTA is classified as Group 2B carcinogen and is potently nephrotoxic, which is the basis for its regulation in some jurisdictions. Using high resolution mass spectroscopy, OTA and ochratoxin B (OTB) were detected in liquid culture extracts of Penicillium thymicola DAOMC 180753 isolated from Canadian cheddar cheese. The genome of this strain was sequenced, assembled and annotated to probe for putative genes involved in OTA biosynthesis. Known OTA biosynthetic genes from Penicillium verrucosum or Penicillium nordicum, two related Penicillium species that produce OTA, were not found in P. thymicola. However, a gene cluster containing a polyketide synthase (PKS) and PKS-nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) hybrid encoding genes were located in the P. thymicola genome that showed a high degree of similarity to OTA biosynthetic enzymes of Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus. This is the first report of ochratoxin from P. thymicola and a new record of the species in Canada. PMID:27521635

  16. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

  17. Postflood pseudofungemia due to Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Thongphubeth, Kanokporn; Yuekyen, Chananart; Damnin, Suwat; Mungkornkaew, Narissara; Mundy, Linda M

    2012-07-01

    We report an outbreak investigation of fungemia due to Penicillium species after prolonged flooding of a Thai hospital. Contaminated rubber diaphragms of blood culture bottles were identified, and the pseudo-outbreak was resolved after environmental cleaning, use of high-efficiency particulate air filtration, and strict compliance with basic infection control practices for blood culture procurement. PMID:22523267

  18. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  19. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hong, S.-B.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Perrone, G.; Seifert, K.A.; Varga, J.; Yaguchi, T.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus. PMID:25505353

  20. Complete denitration of nitroglycerin by bacteria isolated from a washwater soakaway.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S J; White, G F

    2001-06-01

    Four axenic bacterial species capable of biodegrading nitroglycerin (glycerol trinitrate [GTN]) were isolated from soil samples taken from a washwater soakaway at a disused GTN manufacturing plant. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence homology as Pseudomonas putida, an Arthrobacter species, a Klebsiella species, and a Rhodococcus species. Each of the isolates utilized GTN as its sole nitrogen source and removed nitro groups sequentially from GTN to produce glycerol dinitrates and mononitrates (GMN), with the exception of the Arthrobacter strain, which achieved removal of only the first nitro group within the time course of the experiment. The Klebsiella strain exhibited a distinct preference for removal of the central nitro group from GTN, while the other five strains exhibited no such regioselectivity. All strains which removed a second nitro group from glycerol 1,2-dinitrate showed regiospecific removal of the end nitro group, thereby producing glycerol 2-mononitrate. Most significant was the finding that the Rhodococcus species was capable of removing the final nitro group from GMN and thus achieved complete biodegradation of GTN. Such complete denitration of GTN has previously been shown only in mixed bacterial populations and in cultures of Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx supplemented with an additional carbon and nitrogen source. Hence, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a microorganism that can achieve complete denitration of GTN. PMID:11375172

  1. Steroids' transformations in Penicillium notatum culture.

    PubMed

    Bartmańska, Agnieszka; Dmochowska-Gładysz, Jadwiga; Huszcza, Ewa

    2005-03-01

    The application of Penicillium notatum genus for biotransformations of steroids has been investigated. The reactions observed include insertion of an oxygen atom into D-ring of steroids, 15alpha-hydroxylation of 17alpha-methyl testosterone derivatives, ester bond hydrolysis, and degradation of a testosterone derivatives side chain. Microbial production of testolactones, the biologically active compounds, was also achieved using this strain in up to 98% yield. PMID:15763598

  2. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-01-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies. PMID:7041819

  3. Biosynthesis of radiolabeled verruculogen by Penicillium simplicissimum.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G

    1982-03-01

    In surface culture of Penicillium simplicissimum, verruculogen was shown to be biosynthesized from the intact carbon skeletons of tryptophan and proline, isoprenoid derivatives of mevalonic acid, and a methyl group donated by methionine. Selected radiolabeled precursors (1 mCi) pulse-fed at the optimum stage of fermentation yielded verruculogen (specific activity, 5.89 X 10(2) microCi mmol-1) labeled in the prolyl and isoprenyl regions of the molecule and suitable for metabolic studies. PMID:7041819

  4. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of isolates genetically similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates...

  5. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled is...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Penicillium brasilianum MG11.

    PubMed

    Horn, Fabian; Linde, Jörg; Mattern, Derek J; Walther, Grit; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Valiante, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The genus Penicillium belongs to the phylum Ascomycota and includes a variety of fungal species important for food and drug production. We report the draft genome sequence of Penicillium brasilianum MG11. This strain was isolated from soil, and it was reported to produce different secondary metabolites. PMID:26337871

  7. Endophytic Penicillium citrinum Thom. from Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Annie J; Jayachandran, K; Mathew, Jyothis

    2010-10-01

    Scoparia dulcis of Scrophulariaceae is an annual herb distributed through out the tropics. Penicillium citrinum was obtained from apparently healthy roots, stem, leaves and fruits of this plant. Callus and multiple shoots produced during micropropagation from various explants were also symptomless but showed occurrence of Penicillium citrinum when cultured in Murashige & Skoog liquid medium for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22815580

  8. Ochratoxin A producing species in the genus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Cabañes, Francisco Javier; Bragulat, Maria Rosa; Castellá, Gemma

    2010-05-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) producing fungi are members of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Nowadays, there are about 20 species accepted as OTA producers, which are distributed in three phylogenetically related but distinct groups of aspergilli of the subgenus Circumdati and only in two species of the subgenus Penicillium. At the moment, P. verrucosum and P. nordicum are the only OTA producing species accepted in the genus Penicillium. However, during the last century, OTA producers in this genus were classified as P. viridicatum for many years. At present, only some OTA producing species are known to be a potential source of OTA contamination of cereals and certain common foods and beverages such as bread, beer, coffee, dried fruits, grape juice and wine among others. Penicillium verrucosum is the major producer of OTA in cereals such as wheat and barley in temperate and cold climates. Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum can be recovered from some dry-cured meat products and some cheeses. PMID:22069629

  9. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  10. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    SciTech Connect

    Loup, M.

    1995-09-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  11. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sumera Afzal; Hamayun, Muhammad; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kim, Ho-Youn; Suh, Seok-Jong; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Kim, Jong-Myeong; Lee, In-Jung; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kong, Won-Sik; Lee, Byung-Moo; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2008-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L.) A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively) along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900) through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting enzymes like cellulase and

  12. Comparison of glucose oxidases from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium Funiculosum and Aspergillus Niger in the design of amperometric glucose biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ramanavicius, Arunas; Voronovic, Jaroslav; Semashko, Tatiana; Mikhailova, Raisa; Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Asta; Ramanaviciene, Almira

    2014-01-01

    The properties of amperometric glucose biosensors based on three different glucose oxidases and various redox mediators were evaluated. Glucose oxidases (GOx) from Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus niger and artificial redox mediators, such as ferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde, α-methylferrocene methanol and ferrocenecarboxylic acid, were used for modifying the graphite rod electrode and amperometrical reagent-less glucose detection. The obtained results were compared using N-methylphenazonium methyl sulphate in the solution. Taking into account the experimental kinetic parameters and the stability of the tested enzymatic electrodes, GOx from Penicillium funiculosum proved to be more suitable for glucose biosensor design in comparison with other evaluated enzymes. PMID:25492463

  13. Ultraviolet Radiation Induction of Mutation in Penicillium Claviforme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, June; Jolley, Ray

    1986-01-01

    Cites reasons why Penicillium claviforme is an exceptionally good species for ultraviolet induced mutation experiments. Provides a set of laboratory instructions for teachers and students. Includes a discussion section. (ML)

  14. Contrasting Genomic Diversity in Two Closely Related Postharvest Pathogens: Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum

    PubMed Central

    Julca, Irene; Droby, Samir; Sela, Noa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Although host-specific Penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation at the intraspecific level. Here we assessed genome variation across four P. digitatum and seven P. expansum isolates from geographically distant regions. Our results show very high similarity (average 0.06 SNPs [single nucleotide polymorphism] per kb) between globally distributed isolates of P. digitatum pointing to a recent expansion of a single lineage. This low level of genetic variation found in our samples contrasts with the higher genetic variability observed in the similarly distributed P. expansum isolates (2.44 SNPs per kb). Patterns of polymorphism in P. expansum indicate that recombination exists between genetically diverged strains. Consistent with the existence of sexual recombination and heterothallism, which was unknown for this species, we identified the two alternative mating types in different P. expansum isolates. Patterns of polymorphism in P. digitatum indicate a recent clonal population expansion of a single lineage that has reached worldwide distribution. We suggest that the contrasting patterns of genomic variation between the two species reflect underlying differences in population dynamics related with host specificities and related agricultural practices. It should be noted, however, that this results should be confirmed with a larger sampling of strains, as new strains may broaden the diversity so far found in P. digitatum. PMID:26672008

  15. Contrasting Genomic Diversity in Two Closely Related Postharvest Pathogens: Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Julca, Irene; Droby, Samir; Sela, Noa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. The two species differ in their host specificity, being P. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and P. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. Although host-specific Penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation at the intraspecific level. Here we assessed genome variation across four P. digitatum and seven P. expansum isolates from geographically distant regions. Our results show very high similarity (average 0.06 SNPs [single nucleotide polymorphism] per kb) between globally distributed isolates of P. digitatum pointing to a recent expansion of a single lineage. This low level of genetic variation found in our samples contrasts with the higher genetic variability observed in the similarly distributed P. expansum isolates (2.44 SNPs per kb). Patterns of polymorphism in P. expansum indicate that recombination exists between genetically diverged strains. Consistent with the existence of sexual recombination and heterothallism, which was unknown for this species, we identified the two alternative mating types in different P. expansum isolates. Patterns of polymorphism in P. digitatum indicate a recent clonal population expansion of a single lineage that has reached worldwide distribution. We suggest that the contrasting patterns of genomic variation between the two species reflect underlying differences in population dynamics related with host specificities and related agricultural practices. It should be noted, however, that this results should be confirmed with a larger sampling of strains, as new strains may broaden the diversity so far found in P. digitatum. PMID:26672008

  16. Polyketides, Toxins and Pigments in Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus. PMID:26529013

  17. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe(3+), and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed. PMID:25391318

  18. Effect of Penicillium chrysogenum on Lignin Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, A.; Carnicero, A.; Perestelo, F.; de la Fuente, G.; Milstein, O.; Falcón, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Penicillium chrysogenum has been isolated from pine forest soils in Tenerife (Canary Islands). This strain was capable of utilizing hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated aromatic compounds, in particular cinnamic acid, as its sole carbon source. In an optimum medium with high levels of nitrogen (25.6 mM) and low levels of glucose (5.5 mM), it was able to decolorize Poly B-411 and to transform kraft, organosolv, and synthetic dehydrogenative polymerisate lignins. After 30 days of incubation, the amount of recovered kraft lignin was reduced to 83.5 and 91.3% of that estimated for uninoculated controls by spectrophotometry and klason lignin, respectively. At the same time, the pattern of molecular mass distribution of the lignin remaining in cultures was changed. The amount of organosolv lignin recovered from cultures was reduced to 90.1 and 94.6% of the initial amount as evaluated by spectrophotometry and klason lignin, respectively. About 6% of total applied radioactivity of O14CH3-organosolv lignin was recovered as 14CO2 after 30 days of incubation, and 18.5% of radioactivity from insoluble O14CH3-organosolv lignin was solubilized. After 26 days of incubation, 2.9% of 14C-β-dehydrogenative polymerisate and 4.1% of 14C-ring-dehydrogenative polymerisate evolved as 14CO2. PMID:16349361

  19. Reminiscence of phospholipase B in Penicillium notatum

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Since the phospholipase B (PLB) was reported as a deacylase of both lecithin and lysolecithin yielding fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), there was a question as to whether it is a single enzyme or a mixture of a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a lysophospholipase (LPL). We purified the PLB in Penicillium notatum and showed that it catalyzed deacylation of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acids of 1,2-diacylphospholipids and also sn-1 or sn-2 fatty acids of 1- or 2-monoacylphospholipids (lysophospholipids). Further, it also has a monoacyllipase activity. The purified PLB is a glycoprotein with m.w. of 91,300. The sugar moiety is M9 only and the protein moiety consists of 603 amino acids. PLB, different from PLA2, shows other enzymatic activities, such as transacylase, lipase and acylesterase. PLB activity is influenced by various substances, e.g. detergents, deoxycholate, diethylether, Fe3+, and endogenous protease. Therefore, PLB might have broader roles than PLA2 in vivo. The database shows an extensive sequence similarity between P. notatum PLB and fungal PLB, cPLA2 and patatin, suggesting a homologous relationship. The catalytic triad of cPLA2, Ser, Asp and Arg, is also present in P. notatum PLB. Other related PLBs, PLB/Lipases are discussed. PMID:25391318

  20. Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Tao, Nengguo; Jia, Lei; Zhou, Haien

    2014-06-15

    The chemical composition of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil was analysed using GC/MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (C10H16) constituted the majority (88.96%, w/w) of the total oil. The oils dose-dependently inhibited Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. The anti-fungal activity of the oils against P. italicum was attributed to citronellol, octanal, citral, decanal, nonanal, β-pinene, linalool, and γ-terpinene, whereas anti-fungal activity against P. digitatum is attributed to octanal, decanal, nonanal, limonene, citral, γ-terpinene, linalool, and α-terpineol. The oils altered the hyphal morphology of P. italicum and P. digitatum by causing loss of cytoplasm and distortion of the mycelia. The oils significantly altered extracellular conductivity, the release of cell constituents, and the total lipid content of P. italicum and P. digitatum. The results suggest that C. reticulata Blanco essential oils generate cytotoxicity in P. italicum and P. digitatum by disrupting cell membrane integrity and causing the leakage of cell components. PMID:24491729

  1. Effect of LED Blue Light on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum Strains.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, María T; Alférez, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Studies on the antimicrobial properties of light have considerably increased due in part to the development of resistance to actual control methods. This study investigates the potential of light-emitting diodes (LED) blue light for controlling Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. These fungi are the most devastating postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit and cause important losses due to contaminations and the development of resistant strains against fungicides. The effect of different periods and quantum fluxes, delaying light application on the growth and morphology of P. digitatum strains resistant and sensitive to fungicides, and P. italicum cultured at 20°C was examined. Results showed that blue light controls the growth of all strains and that its efficacy increases with the quantum flux. Spore germination was always avoided by exposing the cultures to high quantum flux (700 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ) for 18 h. Continuous light had an important impact on the fungus morphology and a fungicidal effect when applied at a lower quantum flux (120 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ) to a growing fungus. Sensitivity to light increased with mycelium age. Results show that blue light may be a tool for P. digitatum and P. italicum infection prevention during handling of citrus fruits. PMID:26288067

  2. Penicillium Mycelium Waste as Protein Supplement in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, V. M.; Kerur, L.

    1968-01-01

    Dried Penicillium mycelium served as a protein source in animal diet when it was supplemented at 7.5% protein level along with 7.5% protein level from peanut meal. Under these conditions, the food consumption was optimal, and the rat growth response was comparable with 15% casein diet. The role of peanut meal appears to be twofold; it makes the mycelium diet more palatable and it supplies protein. The amino acids, lysine and threonine, which are found to be limiting in peanut meal, are reported to be present in the Penicillium mycelium. This type of formulation affords considerable economic advantage because both the peanut meal and the Penicillium mycelium are by-products and, therefore, are inexpensive sources of protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16349822

  3. Acidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N

    2014-05-16

    New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications. PMID:24667317

  4. Sargassopenillines A–G, 6,6-Spiroketals from the Alga-Derived Fungi Penicillium thomii and Penicillium lividum

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravleva, Olesya I.; Sobolevskaya, Maria P.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Denisenko, Vladimir A.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Yurchenko, Ekaterina A.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2014-01-01

    Seven new 6,6-spiroketals, sargassopenillines A–G (1–7) were isolated from the alga-derived fungi Penicillium thomii KMM 4645 and Penicillium lividum KMM 4663. The structures of these metabolites were determined by HR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 5 and 6 were assigned by the modified Mosher’s method and by CD data. Sargassopenilline C (3) inhibited the transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factor AP-1 with an IC50 value of 15 µM. PMID:25501795

  5. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  6. Penicillium menonorum, a new species related to P. pimiteouiense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium menonorum is described as a new monoverticillate, non-vesiculate species that resembles P. restrictum and P. pimiteouiense. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from four loci, P. menorum occurs in a clade with P. pimiteouiense, P. vinaceum, P. guttulosum, E. rubidurum,...

  7. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated. PMID:25906789

  8. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  9. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. PMID:12453515

  10. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Indoor mold has been associated with development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and its viable conidia can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. The hypothesis o...

  11. HEMOLYSIN, CHRYSOLYSIN FROM PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM PROMOTES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some strains of Penicillium chrysogenum produce a proteinaceous hemolysin, chrysolysin, when incubated on sheep's blood agar at 37 �C but not at 23 �C. Chrysolysin is an aggregating protein composed of approximately 2 kDa monomers, contains one cysteine amino acid, and has an is...

  12. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. mplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at RH...

  13. Use of chemosensitization to overcome fludioxonil resistance in Penicillium expansum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum mutants (FR2 and FR3) resistant to fludioxonil, a phenylpyrrole fungicide, became susceptible through chemosensitization mediated by natural phenolics. Increased sensitivity of FR3 to oxidizing agents, compared to its parental strain (W2), indicated the oxidative stress respons...

  14. PENICILLIUM ASTROLABIUM AND PENICILLIUM NEOCRASSUM, TWO NEW SPECIES ISOLATED FROM GRAPES AND THEIR PHYLOGENETIC PLACEMENT IN THE P. OLSONII AND P. BREVICOMPACTUM CLADE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe two new terverticillate Penicillium species isolated from grapes on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic differences from known species. The strains were isolated in the course of a study to establish the mycobiota of grapes in Portugal. Penicillium astrolabium is phenotypically si...

  15. Patulin Accumulation In Apples During Storage by Penicillium Expansum and Penicillium Griseofulvum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Welke, Juliane Elisa; Hoeltz, Michele; Dottori, Horacio Alberto; Noll, Isa Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD). The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 °C) without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 °C during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin accumulation. PMID:24031618

  16. Purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a Penicillium expansum lipase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chuanbing; Yuan, Cai; Lin, Lin; Lin, Junhan; Shi, Xiaoli; Ye, Xiaoming; Huang, Zixiang; Huang, Mingdong

    2005-08-31

    PF898 is a strain of Penicillium expansum optimized for the high level production of Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL). This PEL is unique compared with other lipases in several aspects, For example, the PEL shows low sequence identities (<30%) to all other known lipases, and high percentage of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal region. The PEL was purified to homogeneity and shown to be 28 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained by the sitting-drop method of vapor diffusion with ammonia sulfate as the precipitating agent at 298 K. The crystals have tetragonal lattice and unit-cell parameters of a=b=88.09 A, c=126.54 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.08 A on an in-house rotating-anode generator. PMID:16112629

  17. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2012-10-09

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A)) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  18. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2008-11-11

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  19. Expanding the Species and Chemical Diversity of Penicillium Section Cinnamopurpurea

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Jurjević, Željko; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against human lung tumors. These isolates could provide leads in pharmaceutical research. PMID:25853891

  20. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, S; Houbraken, J; Samson, R A; Frisvad, J C; Christensen, M; Tuthill, D E; Koutaniemi, S; Hatakka, A; Lankinen, P

    2013-06-01

    Inulin is a reserve carbohydrate in about 15 % of the flowering plants and is accumulated in underground tubers of e.g. chicory, dahlia and Jerusalem artichoke. This carbohydrate consists of linear chains of β-(2,1)-linked fructose attached to a sucrose molecule. Inulinases hydrolyse inulin into fructose and glucose. To find efficient inulin degrading fungi, 126 fungal strains from the Fungal Biotechnology Culture Collection (FBCC) at University of Helsinki and 74 freshly isolated strains from soil around Jerusalem artichoke tubers were screened in liquid cultures with inulin as a sole source of carbon or ground Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which contains up to 19 % (fresh weight) inulin. Inulinase and invertase activities were assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and a freshly isolated Penicillium strain originating from agricultural soil (FBCC 1632) was the most efficient inulinase producer. When it was cultivated at pH 6 and 28 °C in 2 litre bioreactors using inulin and Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source, inulinase and invertase activities were on day 4 7.7 and 3.1 U mL(-1), respectively. The released sugars analysed by TLC and HPLC showed that considerable amounts of fructose were released while the levels of oligofructans were low, indicating an exoinulinase type of activity. Taxonomic study of the inulinase producing strain showed that this isolate represents a new species belonging in Penicillium section Lanata-divaricata. This new species produces a unique combination of extrolites and is phenotypically and phylogenetically closely related to Penicillium pulvillorum. We propose the name Penicillium subrubescens sp. nov. (CBS 132785(T) = FBCC 1632(T)) for this new species. PMID:23559042

  1. Genetic Diversity, Recombination, and Divergence in Animal Associated Penicillium dipodomyis

    PubMed Central

    Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium dipodomyis is thought to be an exclusively asexual fungus associated with Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys species, and is unique among Penicillium species in growing at 37°C but producing no known toxins. Lack of recombination within P. dipodomyis would result in limited adaptive flexibility but possibly enhance local adaptation and host selection via maintenance of favourable genotypes. Here, analysis of DNA sequence data from five protein-coding genes shows that recombination occurs within P. dipodomyis on a small spatial scale. Furthermore, detection of mating-type alleles supports outcrossing and a sexual cycle in P. dipodomyis. P. dipodomyis was a weaker competitor in in vitro assays with other Penicillium species found in association with Kanagaroo rats. Bayesian species level analysis suggests that the P. dipodomyis lineage diverged from closely related species also found in cheek pouches of Kangaroo Rats and their stored seeds about 11 million years ago, a similar divergence time as Dipodomys from its sister rodent taxa. PMID:21850241

  2. Genetic diversity, recombination, and divergence in animal associated Penicillium dipodomyis.

    PubMed

    Henk, Daniel A; Fisher, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium dipodomyis is thought to be an exclusively asexual fungus associated with Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys species, and is unique among Penicillium species in growing at 37°C but producing no known toxins. Lack of recombination within P. dipodomyis would result in limited adaptive flexibility but possibly enhance local adaptation and host selection via maintenance of favourable genotypes. Here, analysis of DNA sequence data from five protein-coding genes shows that recombination occurs within P. dipodomyis on a small spatial scale. Furthermore, detection of mating-type alleles supports outcrossing and a sexual cycle in P. dipodomyis. P. dipodomyis was a weaker competitor in in vitro assays with other Penicillium species found in association with Kanagaroo rats. Bayesian species level analysis suggests that the P. dipodomyis lineage diverged from closely related species also found in cheek pouches of Kangaroo Rats and their stored seeds about 11 million years ago, a similar divergence time as Dipodomys from its sister rodent taxa. PMID:21850241

  3. Production of multifunctional lipases by Penicillium verrucosum and Penicillium brevicompactum under solid state fermentation of babassu cake and castor meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marceli Fernandes; Freire, Denise M G; de Castro, Aline Machado; Di Luccio, Marco; Mazutti, Marcio A; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; Oliveira, Débora

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this work was to optimize lipase production, in terms of hydrolytic and esterification activities, by Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium verrucosum in solid state fermentation using agroindustrial residues as raw material. Maxima hydrolytic activities of 48.6 and 87.7 U/g were achieved when P. brevicompactum was cultured in babassu cake and castor meal, respectively. Higher esterification activities (around 244 U/g) were achieved when P. brevicompactum was used as microorganism and babassu cake as raw material. Different experimental conditions led to these promising values, clearly showing that no correlation can be attributed between hydrolytic and esterification activities. In spite of the several applications of lipases which are capable of catalyze synthesis reactions, only few works in this subject are presented in the literature, especially when low cost raw materials are used. PMID:20652598

  4. A high density COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array for identification and detection of species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Seifert, K A; Lévesque, C A

    2009-05-01

    We developed a COX1 barcode oligonucleotide array based on 358 sequences, including 58 known and two new species of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium, and 12 allied species. The array was robotically spotted at near microarray density on membranes. Species and clade-specific oligonucleotides were selected using the computer programs SigOli and Array Designer. Robotic spotting allowed 768 spots with duplicate sets of perfect match and the corresponding mismatch and positive control oligonucleotides, to be printed on 2 × 6 cm(2) nylon membranes. The array was validated with hybridizations between the array and digoxigenin (DIG)-labelled COX1 polymerase chain reaction amplicons from 70 pure DNA samples, and directly from environmental samples (cheese and plants) without culturing. DNA hybridization conditions were optimized, but undesired cross-reactions were detected frequently, reflecting the relatively high sequence similarity of the COX1 gene among Penicillium species. Approximately 60% of the perfect match oligonucleotides were rejected because of low specificity and 76 delivered useful group-specific or species-specific reactions and could be used for detecting certain species of Penicillium in environmental samples. In practice, the presence of weak signals on arrays exposed to amplicons from environmental samples, which could have represented weak detections or weak cross reactions, made interpretation difficult for over half of the oligonucleotides. DNA regions with very few single nucleotide polymorphisms or lacking insertions/deletions among closely related species are not ideal for oligonucleotide-based diagnostics, and supplementing the COX1-based array with oligonucleotides derived from additional genes would result in a more robust hierarchical identification system. PMID:21564971

  5. Augmenting antifungal activity of oxidizing agent with kojic acid: Control of Penicillium strains infecting crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative treatment is a strategy for preventing Penicillium contamination in foods or crops. Antifungal efficacy of oxidant [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], biotic effector [kojic acid (KA)] and abiotic stress (heat), alone or in combination, was investigated in Penicillium. The levels of antifungal int...

  6. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single isolates of four Penicillium species belonging to series Corymbifera (Penicillium allii, P. hirsutum, P. tulipae, P. venetum) plus an isolate of P. polonicum, all from North American sources, were inoculated individually into Crocus sativus, Allium sativum (garlic), A. cepa (onion), Iris holl...

  7. Genome Sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1, Which Causes Postharvest Apple Decay

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guangxi; Jurick, Wayne M.; Gaskins, Verneta L.; Yin, Yanbin; Bennett, Joan W.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium species cause postharvest decay, commonly known as blue mold, in pome fruits, such as apples and pears. To devise novel strategies to prevent and reduce economic losses during storage, the genome sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1 is reported here for the first time. PMID:27174276

  8. Blue mold to genomics and beyond: Insights into the biology and virulence of phytopathogenic Penicillium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomes, mainly apples and pears, are economically important fruits produced and consumed worldwide. The United States is the second largest producer of pome fruit in the world behind China. Penicillium expansum and other Penicillium spp. are the most common fungal plant pathogens that cause blue mold...

  9. Multilocus Sequence Identification of Penicillium Species in Cork Bark During the Manufacture of Wine Bottle Stoppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite several studies reporting Penicillium as one of the most frequent fungal genera in cork at all the stages of manufacturing stoppers, the isolates were rarely identified to species level. We conducted a detailed study to identify Penicillium species, from the field to the factory environment...

  10. Multi-Locus Analysis of a Citreoviridin-Producing Isolate Previously Identified as Penicillium NRRL 13013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cole et al (1981) reported a citreoviridin-producing isolate of Penicillium charlesii (NRRL 13013) from molded pecans. Wicklow later identified it as a variant of Penicillium citreoviride, noting that it produced sclerotia, although the species as a whole is not known to do so. We sequenced the IT...

  11. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis, sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections caused by Penicillium spp. are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resoluti...

  12. Genome, transcriptome, and functional analyses of Penicillium expansum provide new insights into secondary metabolism and pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between secondary metabolism and infection in pathogenic fungi has remained largely elusive. Penicillium comprises a group of plant pathogens with varying host specificities and with the ability to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. The genomes of three Penicillium exp...

  13. Genome Sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1, Which Causes Postharvest Apple Decay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiang; Wu, Guangxi; Jurick, Wayne M; Gaskins, Verneta L; Yin, Yanbin; Yin, Guohua; Bennett, Joan W; Shelton, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium species cause postharvest decay, commonly known as blue mold, in pome fruits, such as apples and pears. To devise novel strategies to prevent and reduce economic losses during storage, the genome sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1 is reported here for the first time. PMID:27174276

  14. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  15. Genetic and Morphological Diversity of the Genus Penicillium From Mazandaran and Tehran Provinces, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abastabar, Mahdi; Mirhendi, Hossein; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Shokohi, Tahereh; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Badali, Hamid; Moazeni, Maryam; Haghani, Iman; Ghojoghi, Aynaz; Akhtari, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The genus Penicillium contains a large number of ubiquitous environmental taxa, of which some species are clinically important. Identification of Penicillium down to the species level is currently based on polyphasic criteria, including phenotypic features and genetic markers. Biodiversity of the genus Penicillium from Mazandaran and Tehran provinces has not been described. Objectives: The current paper focused on the environmental biodiversity of Penicillium isolates within some areas of Mazandaran and Tehran provinces, based on morphological traits and the molecular data from partial sequence of the β-tubulin (BT2) gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 strains were isolated from the environment and investigated using morphological tests and sequencing of BT2, in order to characterize the spectrum of the Penicillium species. Results: Sequence analysis of BT2 and morphological criteria of 20 strains representative of 10 species showed that Penicillium chrysogenum was the most prevalent species (n = 6), followed by P. polonicum (n = 3), P. glabrum (n = 2), P. palitans (n = 2), P. melanoconidium (n = 2), and other species, including P. expansum, P. canescense, P. griseofulvum, P. italicum, and P. raistrickii with one case each. Conclusions: It was shown that partial β-tubulin sequence, as a reliable genetic target, supported specific morphological criteria for identification of the Penicillium species. Like other assessments throughout the world, P. chrysogenum remains the most frequent environmental Penicillium species in Mazandaran and Tehran Provinces. PMID:27099684

  16. Elucidation of the biochemical basis of specificity and pathogenicity of Penicillium digitatum on citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum is the most damaging postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. This Penicillium species is specific to citrus fruit and do not cause progressive decay in any other fresh fruit or vegetable crops. While the etiology of P. digitatum is well understood, the phys...

  17. A taxonomic and phylogenetic revision of the Penicillium sclerotiorum complex

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, K.G.; Seifert, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological concept of Penicillium sclerotiorum (subgenus Aspergilloides) includes strains with monoverticillate, vesiculate conidiophores, and vivid orange to red colony colours, with colourful sclerotia sometimes produced. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), β-tubulin (benA), translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α), and calmodulin (cmd), reveal that the P. sclerotiorum morphospecies is a complex of seven phylogenetically distinct species, three of which were recently described, namely P. guanacastense, P. mallochii, and P. viticola. Three previously unidentified species are described here as P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. johnkrugii. The phylogenetic species are morphologically similar, but differ in combinations of colony characters, sclerotium production, conidiophore stipe roughening and branching, and conidial shape. Ecological characters and differences in geographical distribution further characterise some of the species, but increased sampling is necessary to confirm these differences. The fungal DNA barcode, the ITS, and the animal DNA barcode, cox1, have lower species resolving ability in our phylogenetic analyses, but still allow identification of all the species. Tef1-α and cmd were superior in providing fully resolved, statistically well-supported phylogenetic trees for this species complex, whereas benA resolved all species but had some issues with paraphyly. Penicillium adametzioides and P. multicolor, considered synonyms of P. sclerotiorum by some previous authors, do not belong to the P. sclerotiorum complex. Taxonomic novelties: New species: Penicillium cainii K.G. Rivera, Malloch & Seifert, P. jacksonii K.G. Rivera, Houbraken & Seifert, P. johnkrugii K.G. Rivera, Houbraken & Seifert. PMID:22308047

  18. Mycotoxin-producing strains of Penicillium viridicatum: classification into subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ciegler, A; Fennell, D I; Sansing, G A; Detroy, R W; Bennett, G A

    1973-09-01

    Fifty-two isolates of Penicillium viridicatum Westling were divided into three groups based on ability to produce ochratoxin and/or citrinin, color, growth rate, type of growth, odor, and isolation source. Members of group I resemble one of the representative strains of P. viridicatum described in the literature; those belonging to group II differ from group I strains in several characteristics; group III is a heterogeneous series of highly variable isolates. Although three subgroupings can be recognized, retention of all isolates in the species P. viridicatum is deemed most appropriate at this time. Spore macerates of all isolates were examined for virus-like particles but none were detected. PMID:4751786

  19. Methylenolactocin, a novel antitumor antibiotic from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Park, B K; Nakagawa, M; Hirota, A; Nakayama, M

    1988-06-01

    A novel antitumor antibiotic, methylenolactocin, was isolated from the culture filtrate of a new isolate of fungus identified as Penicillium sp. The fermentation yield reached about 100 mg per liter of the broth. Methylenolactocin has the molecular formula of C11H16O4 and possess an exomethylene lactone structure. Its structure was determined to be 3-carboxy-2-methylene-4-nonanolide by spectroscopic data. It is active against some Gram-positive bacteria and it prolongs the life span of mice inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:3403369

  20. Penicillium discolor, a new species from cheese, nuts and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, J C; Samson, R A; Rassing, B R; van der Horst, M I; van Rijn, F T; Stark, J

    1997-08-01

    The new species Penicillium discolor, frequently isolated from nuts, vegetables and cheese is described. It is characterised by rough, dark green conidia, synnemateous growth on malt agar and the production of the secondary metabolites chaetoglobosins A, B and C, palitantin, cyclopenin, cyclopenol, cyclopeptin, dehydrocyclopeptin, viridicatin and viridicatol. It also produces the mouldy smelling compounds geosmin and 2-methyl-isoborneol, and a series of specific orange to red pigments on yeast extract sucrose agar, hence the epithet discolor. P. discolor resembles P. echinulatum morphologically but on basis of the secondary metabolites is also related to P. expansum, P. solitum and P. crustosum. PMID:9298190

  1. [Study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium dangeardii].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-ning; Ding, Guang-zhi; Liu, Yun-bao; Qu, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Endophytic fungi Penicillium dangeardii, isolated from Lysidice rhodostegia Hance root, was fermented and the secondary metabolites were studied. By means of Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, ODS column chromatography and PHPLC over the fermented culture, 5 compounds were isolated. By using ESI-MS and NMR, the structures of the compounds were determined as N-[9-(β- D-ribofuranosyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]-L-aspartic acid (1), 3-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 3-hydroxy-benzoic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). PMID:26323144

  2. Beak infection by Penicillium cyclopium in a macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Bengoa, A; Briones, V; López, M B; Payá, M J

    1994-01-01

    A case of localized beak infection by Penicillium cyclopium in a macaw (Ara ararauna) is described. A necrotic lesion, with destruction of the corneous layer, was localized in the upper zone of the beak. Diagnosis was carried out on samples of the affected zone by direct microscopic observation, routine fungal culturing techniques, and scanning electron microscopy. Results were consistent: P. cyclopium was the only microorganism associated with the lesion site. No previous reports concerning this type of beak pathology have been found in the literature. PMID:7702532

  3. Production of verruculogen by Penicillium estinogenum in stirred fermenters.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G; Shaw, B I

    1980-04-01

    A spectrofluorometric assay for the estimation of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen in crude mycelial extract has been devised and used to determine concentrations as low as 0.2 microgram ml-1. Verruculogen production by Penicillium estinogenum has been extended from surface culture to submerged culture in 60 1 stirred fermenters, in which the maximum cell-associated mycotoxin yield [5 mg (100 ml culture)-1] was obtained within 7 d. It was found necessary to supplement the medium (Czapek Dox broth plus 0.5% yeast extract) with calcium chloride (2%) to induce profuse sporulation (2 X 10(7) conidia ml-1). PMID:7420051

  4. Selective cytotoxic eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes from Penicillium citreonigrum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Hua; Goto, Masuo; Hsieh, Kan-Yen; Yuan, Bo; Zhao, Yu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    One new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene (1, citreopenin) was isolated from Penicillium citreonigrum (HQ738282), and the structure was elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation (CCDC 1030588). Compound 1 showed weak activity against KB-VIN (IC50 = 11.0 ± 0.156 μM), while the known compound 3 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (IC50 = 5.42 ± 0.167 μM). PMID:26666171

  5. New promoters for strain engineering of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Polli, Fabiola; Meijrink, Ben; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2016-04-01

    Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium are widely used as hosts for the industrial products such as proteins and secondary metabolites. Although filamentous fungi are versatile in recognizing transcriptional and translational elements present in genes from other filamentous fungal species, only few promoters have been applied and compared in performance so far in Penicillium chrysogenum. Therefore, a set of homologous and heterologous promoters were tested in a reporter system to obtain a set of potential different strengths. Through in vivo homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, twelve Aspergillus niger and P. chrysogenum promoter-reporter pathways were constructed that drive the expression of green fluorescent protein while concurrent expression of the red fluorescent protein was used as an internal standard and placed under control of the PcPAF promoter. The pathways were integrated into the genome of P. chrysogenum and tested using the BioLector system for fermentation. Reporter gene expression was monitored during growth and classified according to promoter strength and expression profile. A set of novel promoters was obtained that can be used to tune the expression of target genes in future strain engineering programs. PMID:26701309

  6. New sections in Penicillium containing novel species producing patulin, pyripyropens or other bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, J; Wang, L; Lee, H B; Frisvad, J C

    2016-06-01

    Subgenera and sections have traditionally been used in Penicillium classifications. In the past, this sectional classification was based on macro- and microscopic characters, and occasionally supplemented with physiological and/or extrolite data. Currently, 25 sections are accepted, largely based on phylogenetic data. Certain sections of subgenus Penicillium were never studied in detail using a multigene sequence approach combined with phenotypic, ecological and extrolite data. Based on a combined partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) multigene sequence dataset, we introduce two new sections (Osmophila and Robsamsonia) in subgenus Penicillium and synonymize section Digitata with section Penicillium. The phylogeny correlates well with phenotypic, physiological and ecological data, and some extrolites were diagnostic for certain Penicillium sections. Furthermore, four new species belonging to the newly introduced sections are described using a polyphasic approach, including BenA, CaM and RPB2 sequences, macro- and micromorphological data and extrolite profiles. The new section Robsamsonia and the new species Penicillium robsamsonii and Penicillium samsonianum were introduced to celebrate Dr. Robert A. Samson's 70th birthday. PMID:27616794

  7. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Mikušová, Petra; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Labuda, Roman; Srobárová, Antónia

    2014-11-01

    The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. Three Slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. Cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid. Chemotaxonomy was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Dried grape berries were also analyzed allowing to assess the presence of patulin, roquefortine C and penicillic acid; this last one has been identified in dried berries but not in vitro. PMID:25109845

  8. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium Funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Knoshaug, E. P.; Selig, M. J.; Baker, J. O.; Decker, S. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Adney, W. S.

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  9. The paf gene product modulates asexual development in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Sigl, Claudia; Zadra, Ivo; Pócsi, Istvan; Marx, Florentine

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum. PMID:21298690

  10. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  11. Mycotoxin production by Penicillium expansum on blackcurrant and cherry juice.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T O; Frisvad, J C; Ravn, G; Skaaning, T

    1998-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites by Penicillium expansum on blackcurrant and cherry juice has been studied at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C under storage imitated conditions. P. expansum was able to synthesize extracellular patulin under all conditions, and together with extracellular chaetoglobosin A when unlimited oxygen was available. Patulin, the chaetoglobosins A and C, the communesins A and B and the expansolides A and B could be detected intracellularly depending on the conditions. The metabolites were detected using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection by comparison to standards. A method to detect the expansolides A and B by TLC was developed. PMID:10209577

  12. Isolation and characterization of catalase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Chaga, G S; Medin, A S; Chaga, S G; Porath, J O

    1992-06-26

    Catalase from a crude preparation of Penicillium chrysogenum was isolated in a single chromatographic step by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) on Cu(II)-Chelating Sepharose Fast Flow. A chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme was obtained in 89% yield. IMAC was found to be superior to ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, size-exclusion and concanavalin A affinity chromatography. Analytical and preparative chromatography gave essentially the same chromatograms. Isoelectric point, molecular weight (by ultracentrifugation), amino acid composition, carbohydrate content and subunit organization were determined. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, KM, and the azide competitor constant, Ki, were calculated and found to be 59 microM and 6.1 microM, respectively. PMID:1639925

  13. Oxidation mechanism of Penicillium digitatum spores through neutral oxygen radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores through neutral oxygen species, the spores were treated with an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source and observed in-situ using a fluorescent confocal-laser microscope. The treated spores were stained with two fluorescent dyes, 1,1‧-dioctadecyl-3,3,Y,3‧-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). The intracellular organelles as well as the cell membranes in the spores treated with the oxygen radical source were stained with DiI without a major morphological change of the membranes. DPPP staining revealed that the organelles were oxidized by the oxygen radical treatment. These results suggest that neutral oxygen species, especially atomic oxygen, induce a minor structural change or functional inhibition of cell membranes, which leads to the oxidation of the intracellular organelles through the penetration of reactive oxygen species into the cell.

  14. Simulated microgravity inhibits cell wall regeneration of Penicillium decumbens protoplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Sun, Y.; Yi, Z. C.; Rong, L.; Zhuang, F. Y.; Fan, Y. B.

    2010-09-01

    This work compares cell wall regeneration from protoplasts of the fungus Penicillium decumbens under rotary culture (simulated microgravity) and stationary cultures. Using an optimized lytic enzyme mixture, protoplasts were successfully released with a yield of 5.3 × 10 5 cells/mL. Under simulated microgravity conditions, the protoplast regeneration efficiency was 33.8%, lower than 44.9% under stationary conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy gave direct evidence for reduced formation of polysaccharides under simulated conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed the delayed process of cell wall regeneration by simulated microgravity. The delayed regeneration of P. decumbens cell wall under simulated microgravity was likely caused by the inhibition of polysaccharide synthesis. This research contributes to the understanding of how gravitational loads affect morphological and physiological processes of fungi.

  15. Use of Penicillium chrysogenum Mycelium as Animal Food

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, S. G.; Seshadri, R.

    1965-01-01

    The mycelial cake of Penicillium chrysogenum, when dried and specially processed, has been found to serve as a source of protein in place of soybean meal in the diet of experimental mice. Animals were fed a control diet first, and an increase in weight proved the formulation to be satisfactory. The changeover from the control to the experimental diet was sudden, and initially caused a decrease in the weight of the experimental mice. However, at the end of a 29-day period, the experimental mice showed increases in weight comparable to those of the control animals. This supports the view that dried mycelium can be substituted as a protein source for soybean meal, provided it is made more palatable and less disagreeable in odor. PMID:14325891

  16. Penipyridones A-F, Pyridone Alkaloids from Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haibo; Li, Liyuan; Wu, Chongming; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Liu, Yankai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Guo, Peng; Li, Dehai

    2016-07-22

    Six new pyridone alkaloids, named penipyridones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an Antarctic moss-derived fungus, Penicillium funiculosum GWT2-24. Their structures were elucidated from extensive NMR and MS data. Although they possess the same major chromophore and some of them presented almost mirror ECD spectra, their absolute configurations were found to be uniformly S, as evidenced by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis, stereocontrolled total synthesis, and chemical conversions. TDDFT-ECD calculations of compounds 3 and 6 revealed that subtle conformational changes are responsible for the significantly different ECD curves. None of the compounds were cytotoxic (IC50 > 50 μM), while compounds 1, 2, 5, and 7 elicited lipid-lowering activity in HepG2 hepatocytes. PMID:27359163

  17. [Study on secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium polonicum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ding, Guang-Zhi; Fang, Lei; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The PDB culture medium was selected to ferment the endophyte strain, and the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Penicillium polonicum were studied. Combined application of Sephadex LH-20, ODS and HPLC chromatographies over the ethyl acetate extract of the fermented culture led to the isolation of 6 compounds. By spectral methods, the structures were elucidated as [3, 5-dihydroxy-2-(7-hydroxy-octanoyl)]-ethylphenylacetate (1), (3, 5-dihydroxy-2- octanoyl)-ethyl phenylacetate (2), (5, 7-di- hydroxy-9-heptyl)-isobenzo pyran-3-one (3), 3-(hydroxymethyl) 4-(1E)-1- propen-1-yl-(1R, 2S, 5R, 6S)-7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0] hept-3-ene-2, 5-diol (4), (E)-2-methoxy-3-(prop-1-enyl) phenol (5) and p-hydroxylphenylethanol (6). PMID:25751949

  18. Penicillium marneffei infection in a lung transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Stathakis, A; Lim, K P; Boan, P; Lavender, M; Wrobel, J; Musk, M; Heath, C H

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus that can cause severe opportunistic infections in endemic regions of Southeast Asia, particularly in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1, but has rarely been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. Herein, we report the first case, to our knowledge, of P. marneffei infection in a lung transplant recipient, occurring in a 41-year-old woman 28 months post lung transplantation, after recent travel to Vietnam. We have reviewed the literature to derive some management principles for this rare infection in this clinical context. The number of P. marneffei infections in transplant recipients may increase, as a result of increasing rates of transplantation and travel to endemic areas. PMID:25809145

  19. The paf gene product modulates asexual development in Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Sigl, Claudia; Zadra, Ivo; Pócsi, Istvan; Marx, Florentine

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum. PMID:21298690

  20. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-06-20

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

  1. Biosynthesis of penitrems and roquefortine by Penicillium crustosum.

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, P G; Perera, K P; Maishman, N J; Mundy, G R

    1983-01-01

    Roquefortine and the penitrems were biosynthesised concurrently at an approximately equimolar rate by Penicillium crustosum after growth and sporulation. [14C]mevalonic acid was incorporated (15% efficiency) into the isoprenoid regions of the penitrem and roquefortine molecules to an extent consistent with their 6:1 molar ratio of isoprenoid components. [14C]penitrem A (specific activity, 3.4 X 10(2) mu Ci mmol-1) and 14C-penitrems B, C, and E readministered to young cultures were metabolically interconverted, indicating considerable metabolic flux, though generally directed towards penitrem A as the end product and suggesting a metabolic grid for the penitrem metabolites. Addition of bromide to the medium preferentially favored the production of bromo-analogs rather than the usual chloropenitrems. PMID:6870239

  2. Penicillium keratitis in a HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Anutarapongpan, Orapin; Thanathanee, Onsiri; Suwan-Apichon, Olan

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old HIV-positive man presented with symptoms of redness, blurred vision and foreign body sensation in his right eye for 3 months. The slit lamp examination revealed deep stromal infiltration with a feathery margin in an otherwise minimal anterior chamber reaction. A corneal scraping was negative. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an abnormal large hyper-reflective oval shape in the corneal stroma. Corneal infiltration did not show improvement after topical, intrastromal and intracameral antifungal treatment. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed to eradicate the infection. Corneal button culture and histopathological results confirmed the diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei keratitis. No recurrent infection occurred after corneal transplantation. This appears to be the first report of P. marneffei keratitis in an HIV-infected patient. Although it is an uncommon condition, it should be one of the differential diagnoses in an HIV-infected patient presenting with keratitis. PMID:27535731

  3. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth. PMID:26776019

  4. The janthitrems: fluorescent tremorgenic toxins produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolates from ryegrass pastures.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R T; Latch, G C; Keogh, R G

    1980-01-01

    New tremorgenic mycotoxins named janthitrem A, B, and C (molecular weights 601, 585, and 569, respectively) were produced by more than half of 21 Penicillium janthinellum isolates obtained from ryegrass pastures involved in ryegrass staggers outbreaks in sheep. PMID:7356319

  5. [Nitrogen-containing mycotoxins of fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species infesting grain and its products].

    PubMed

    Reshetilova, T A; Vinokurova, N G; L'vova, L S

    1993-01-01

    The review summarizes the literature data on distribution of nitrogen-containing mycotoxins (alkaloids) among Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi infesting grain and products of grain processing. Particular attention in given to clavins (ergotalkaloids) and tremorgens (roquefortine, verruculogen, penitrems). PMID:8295871

  6. High throughput de novo RNA sequencing elucidates novel responses in Penicillium chrysogenum under microgravity.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Krishnaraj, Chandran; Rajagopal, Kalyanaraman; Sen, Dwaipayan; Lee, Yang Soo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the transcriptional alterations in Penicillium chrysogenum under simulated microgravity conditions were analyzed for the first time using an RNA-Seq method. The increasing plethora of eukaryotic microbial flora inside the spaceship demands the basic understanding of fungal biology in the absence of gravity vector. Penicillium species are second most dominant fungal contaminant in International Space Station. Penicillium chrysogenum an industrially important organism also has the potential to emerge as an opportunistic pathogen for the astronauts during the long-term space missions. But till date, the cellular mechanisms underlying the survival and adaptation of Penicillium chrysogenum to microgravity conditions are not clearly elucidated. A reference genome for Penicillium chrysogenum is not yet available in the NCBI database. Hence, we performed comparative de novo transcriptome analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum grown under microgravity versus normal gravity. In addition, the changes due to microgravity are documented at the molecular level. Increased response to the environmental stimulus, changes in the cell wall component ABC transporter/MFS transporters are noteworthy. Interestingly, sustained increase in the expression of Acyl-coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase (Acyltransferase) under microgravity revealed the significance of gravity in the penicillin production which could be exploited industrially. PMID:26603994

  7. Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., Isolated from a Dog with Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Swenson, Cheryl L.; Bailey, Chris J.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Nelson, Nathan C.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Wickes, Brian L.; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. PMID:24789186

  8. Inactivation of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum under in vitro and in vivo conditions by using UV-C light.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Gülten Tıryakı; Pazir, Fikret

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-C on two of the main wound pathogens of citrus fruits, Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, were investigated with different inoculation methods in vitro and on oranges. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated onto the surface of potato dextrose agar or oranges using spread, spot, wound, and piercing inoculation methods. UV-C treatment for 1 min from a working distance of 8 cm reduced the numbers of P. italicum and P. digitatum by about 3.9 and 5.3 log units, respectively, following spread inoculation under in vitro conditions. Significant reductions were obtained after 1-min UV-C treatments of the tested fungi following inoculation using the spread and spot methods. With inoculation by the wound and piercing methods, the tested spores were not inactivated completely even after 10- and 20-min treatment times, respectively. The application of UV-C (7.92 kJ m(-2)) on oranges reduced the percentage of oranges infected at least threefold compared with the rate of infection in the untreated control samples. UV-C irradiation could effectively inactivate spores of P. italicum and P. digitatum inoculated by the spread plate and spot inoculation methods under in vitro and in vivo conditions. On the other hand, because of the low penetration ability of UV-C light, the tested fungi were not completely inactivated following inoculation with the wound and piercing methods. UV-C treatment has potential for use in surface decontamination of citrus fruits. PMID:24112577

  9. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions (“cryptic” gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic

  10. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces are among the most chemically inventive of all fungi, producing a wide array of secondary metabolites (exometabolites). The three genera are holophyletic in a cladistic sense and polythetic classes in an anagenetic or functional sense, and contain 344, 354, and 88 species, respectively. New developments in classification, cladification, and nomenclature have meant that the species, series, and sections suggested are natural groups that share many extrolites, including exometabolites, exoproteins, exocarbohydrates, and exolipids in addition to morphological features. The number of exometabolites reported from these species is very large, and genome sequencing projects have shown that a large number of additional exometabolites may be expressed, given the right conditions ("cryptic" gene clusters for exometabolites). The exometabolites are biosynthesized via shikimic acid, tricarboxylic acid cycle members, nucleotides, carbohydrates or as polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, or mixtures of those. The gene clusters coding for these compounds contain genes for the biosynthetic building blocks, the linking of these building blocks, tailoring enzymes, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Despite genome sequencing efforts, and the many breakthroughs these will give, it is obvious that epigenetic factors play a large role in evolution and function of chemodiversity, and better methods for characterizing the epigenome are needed. Most of the individual species of the three genera produce a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel mycovirus from Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingfu; Zhu, Ying; Yuan, Yongze; Wang, Shengqiang; Liu, Jing; Liu, Deli

    2016-07-01

    A novel double-stranded RNA virus designated Penicillium digitatum virus 1 (PdV1) was isolated from the citrus fruit rot pathogen P. digitatum (HS-RH1). The full-length cDNA sequence of the dsRNA/PdV1 (5211bp) possesses two partially overlapping open reading frames, which encode a coat protein (CP) and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of the RdRp and CP indicated that PdV1 tentatively belongs to the genus Victorivirus in the Totiviridae family. Electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles purified from the peak fraction of sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed spherical particles ~35nm in diameter. Transfection experiments with purified virions indicated that PdV1 could reduce the vegetative growth and virulence of P. digitatum strain HS-F6. In summary, we report the first isolation and characterization of a mycovirus from P. digitatum that contributes to the hypovirulence phenotypes of the host strain. PMID:27061053

  12. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  13. Maximizing production of Penicillium cyclopium partial acylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Vanot, G; Valérie, D; Guilhem, M-C; Phan Tan Luu, R; Comeau, L-C

    2002-12-01

    Penicillium cyclopium partial acylglycerol lipase production was maximized in shaken batch culture. The effect of inoculum size and substrate concentration on the lipase activity released in the culture medium was visualized using a surface response methodology based on a Doehlert experimental design. The main advantage of this approach is the low number of experiments required to construct a predictive model of the experimental domain. Substrate percentage (corn steep, w/v) ranged from 0.1% to 1.9% and inoculum from 100 spores/ml to 3,200 spores/ml. We determined that an optimal set of experimental conditions for high lipase production was 1.0% substrate and 3,200 spores/ml, with initial pH 5.0, temperature 25 degrees C and shaking speed 120 rpm. Between the conditions giving the minimum and the maximum lipase production, we observed a three-fold increase in both the predicted and the measured values. PMID:12466881

  14. Potential pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of an endophytic Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mahiti; Saxena, Sanjai; Goyal, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic lipase (PL) is considered as one of the safest target for diet-induced anti-obesity drug development. Orlistat is the only PL inhibitor approved for anti-obesity treatment till date. In the process of exploration of new PL inhibitors, we have screened culture filtrates of 70 endophytic fungi of medicinal plants using qualitative as well as quantitative in-vitro PL assays. The qualitative assays indicated potential PL inhibition in only three isolates, namely #57 TBBALM, #33 TBBALM and #1 CSSTOT. Only ethyl acetate extracts of the culture filtrates of these isolates exhibited the PL inhibition. #57 TBBLAM ethyl acetate extract of culture filtrate exhibited potential PL inhibition with an IC50 of 3.69 µg/ml which was comparable to the positive control, i.e. Orlistat exhibiting IC50 value of 2.73 µg/ml. Further molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify the isolate #57 TBBALM as Penicillium species. PMID:24417211

  15. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  16. Production of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Moniliformin by Penicillium melanoconidium.

    PubMed

    Hallas-Møller, Magnus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-06-01

    Moniliformin is a mycotoxin produced by several cereal associated Fusaria. Here, we show for the first time that moniliformin can be produced by the cereal fungus, Penicillium melanoconidium (4 out of 4 strains), but not in the related species in the Viridicata series. Moniliformin was detected in 10 out of 11 media: two agars and several cereal and bean types. Moniliformin was identified by a novel mixed-mode anionic exchange reversed phase chromatographic method which was coupled to both tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and high resolution MS. Mixed-mode chromatography showed superior peak shape compared to that of HILIC and less matrix interference compared to that of reversed phase chromatography, but during a large series of analyses, the column was fouled by matrix interferences. Wheat and beans were artificially infected by P. melanoconidium containing up to 64 and 11 mg/kg moniliformin, respectively, while penicillic acid, roquefortine C, and penitrem A levels in wheat were up to 1095, 38, and 119 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:27195914

  17. Potential of Penicillium Species in the Bioremediation Field

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    The effects on the environment of pollution, particularly that caused by various industrial activities, have been responsible for the accelerated fluxes of organic and inorganic matter in the ecosphere. Xenobiotics such as phenol, phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals, even at low concentrations, can be toxic to humans and other forms of life. Many of the remediation technologies currently being used for contaminated soil and water involve not only physical and chemical treatment, but also biological processes, where microbial activity is the responsible for pollutant removal and/or recovery. Fungi are present in aquatic sediments, terrestrial habitats and water surfaces and play a significant part in natural remediation of metal and aromatic compounds. Fungi also have advantages over bacteria since fungal hyphae can penetrate contaminated soil, reaching not only heavy metals but also xenobiotic compounds. Despite of the abundance of such fungi in wastes, penicillia in particular have received little attention in bioremediation and biodegradation studies. Additionally, several studies conducted with different strains of imperfecti fungi, Penicillium spp. have demonstrated their ability to degrade different xenobiotic compounds with low co-substrate requirements, and could be potentially interesting for the development of economically feasible processes for pollutant transformation. PMID:19440525

  18. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  19. Structural Variation among Wild and Industrial Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Michael B.; Pachter, Lior; Brem, Rachel B.

    2014-01-01

    Strain selection and strain improvement are the first, and arguably most important, steps in the industrial production of biological compounds by microorganisms. While traditional methods of mutagenesis and selection have been effective in improving production of compounds at a commercial scale, the genetic changes underpinning the altered phenotypes have remained largely unclear. We utilized high-throughput Illumina short read sequencing of a wild Penicillium chrysogenum strain in order to make whole genome comparisons to a sequenced improved strain (WIS 54–1255). We developed an assembly-free method of identifying chromosomal rearrangements and validated the in silico predictions with a PCR-based assay and Sanger sequencing. Despite many rounds of mutagen treatment and artificial selection, WIS 54–1255 differs from its wild progenitor at only one of the identified rearrangements. We suggest that natural variants predisposed for high penicillin production were instrumental in the success of WIS 54–1255 as an industrial strain. In addition to finding a previously published inversion in the penicillin biosynthesis cluster, we located several genes related to penicillin production associated with these rearrangements. By comparing the configuration of rearrangement events among several historically important strains known to be high penicillin producers to a collection of recently isolated wild strains, we suggest that wild strains with rearrangements similar to those in known high penicillin producers may be viable candidates for further improvement efforts. PMID:24824901

  20. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  1. Antifungal, phytotoxic and toxic metabolites produced by Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Wei, Jing; Pan, Shi-Yin; Gao, Jin-Ming; Tian, Jun-Mian

    2014-01-01

    Nine known metabolites, 6,8,1'-tri-O-methyl averantin (1), 6,8-di-O-methyl averufnin (2), 6,8-di-O-methyl averufanin (3), aversin (4), 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-9,10-anthraquinone (5), 6,8-di-O-methylnidurufin (6), 6,8-di-O-methyl versiconol (7), 5-methyoxysterigmatocystin (8) and (S)-ornidazole (9), were isolated from the extracts of Penicillium purpurogenum, and their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. The brine shrimp toxicity, anti-phytopathogenic and phytotoxic effects of these compounds were evaluated. Among them, compounds 1 and 8 exhibited the strongest toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina), with lethality rates of 100% at a low concentration of 10 μM, comparable to the positive control toosendanin. Compounds 1, 4 and 7 moderately inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, 4 displayed moderate antifungal effects on Gibberella saubinettii. In addition, compounds 6, 7 and 9 produced the phytotoxic effects on radish seedlings at 100 μM. This is the first report on the isolation of these metabolites from this organism. PMID:25103412

  2. Antimicrobial and allelopathic metabolites produced by Penicillium brasilianum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Li, He; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Six known compounds, isoroquefortine C (1), griseofulvin (2), ergosterol peroxide (3), 3β-hydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-5,8,22-trien-7-one (4), cerevisterol (5) and (22E,24R)-6β-methoxyergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α-diol (6), were produced by the fungus Penicillium brasilianum, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on isoroquefortine C as naturally occurring compound. Their bioactivities against five phytopathogenic fungi (Gibeberalla saubinetti, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria solani) and four pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus cereus), as well as allelopathic activities on Raphanus sativus were tested. Compound 1 exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μM against C. gloeosporioides, in comparison with positive control hymexazol (MIC 25 μM). Compound 2 displayed strong inhibitory effects on the growth of A. solani and S. aureus with MIC of 3.13 μM for each. Compounds 2 and 3 displayed a significant growth-inhibition activity on R. sativus. PMID:25103127

  3. Safety evaluation of nuclease P1 from Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Okado, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazushige; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Lynch, Barry S; Vo, Trung D; Roberts, Ashley S

    2016-02-01

    Nuclease P1 has been widely used in the food industry to enhance or create flavor. One commercial source of this enzyme is Penicillium citrinum, an anamorphic mesophilic fungus with a long history of safe use in Europe and Asia as a fermentation organism used in the production of ribonucleases. Given the intended use in food for human consumption, and noting its potential presence at trace levels in finished products, a series of safety studies including an in vitro Ames and chromosome aberration assay, an in vivo rat erythrocyte micronucleus assay and a 90-day oral toxicity study in rats were conducted. No mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames assay. Equivocal activity in the chromosome aberration assay was not replicated in the micronucleus assay at doses of up to 1007 mg total organic solids (TOS)/kg body weight (bw)/day. Following oral administration of nuclease P1 at dosages of 10.1, 101 or 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day to Sprague-Dawley rats, no adverse effects on any study parameter were observed. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 1007 mg TOS/kg bw/day. The results of the genotoxicity studies and subchronic rat study support the safe use in food production of nuclease P1 produced from P. citrinum. PMID:26686996

  4. A taxonomic and phylogenetic revision of Penicillium section Aspergilloides

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Visagie, C.M.; Meijer, M.; Frisvad, J.C.; Busby, P.E.; Pitt, J.I.; Seifert, K.A.; Louis-Seize, G.; Demirel, R.; Yilmaz, N.; Jacobs, K.; Christensen, M.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Species belonging to Penicillium section Aspergilloides have a world-wide distribution with P. glabrum, P. spinulosum and P. thomii the most well-known species of this section. These species occur commonly and can be isolated from many substrates including soil, food, bark and indoor environments. The taxonomy of these species has been investigated several times using various techniques, but species delimitation remains difficult. In the present study, 349 strains belonging to section Aspergilloides were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) sequences. Section Aspergilloides is subdivided into 12 clades and 51 species. Twenty-five species are described here as new and P. yezoense, a species originally described without a Latin diagnosis, is validated. Species belonging to section Aspergilloides are phenotypically similar and most have monoverticillate conidiophores and grow moderately or quickly on agar media. The most important characters to distinguish these species were colony sizes on agar media, growth at 30 °C, ornamentation and shape of conidia, sclerotium production and stipe roughness. PMID:25492984

  5. Prenyl Ethers: Novel Fungal Volatiles Formed by Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Thomas M; Frey, Peter; Meier, Roberto; Baumann, Heidi; Tanner, Miriam; Gassenmeier, Klaus F

    2014-10-01

    Prenyl ethyl ether (PEE) was previously described as the cause for a solvent-like off-note in ground hazelnuts, but its origin remained unclear. Investigations were carried out by analytical groups of Coop and Givaudan over four years to elucidate this phenomenon. From mouldy citrus fruits a strain of Penicillium digitatum was isolated and found to form PEE. Formation on citrus and other fruits was prominent and contributed to the particular smell of decayed fruits. Several strains of P. digitatum formed PEE, while other fungal species did not. In contrast to citrus fruit, prenyl methyl ether (PME) was formed as dominant prenyl ether on hazelnuts while only small amounts of PEE were found. PME has not been previously described as volatile metabolite of fungi or as a food-taint. Spiking experiments with deuterated ethanol showed that the ethyl group is likely incorporated into PEE via the aldehyde form. On hazelnuts strongly decayed by P. digitatum yet another prenyl ether was tentatively identified: Prenyl isopropyl ether. Prenyl ethers present a novel group of volatile metabolites of P. digitatum. They are likely typical for this species and have not been described before. Prenyl ethers seem to play a significant role in the smell of food decayed by P. digitatum and should be considered in cases of off-notes and taints. PMID:25437159

  6. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions. PMID:27072635

  8. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides. PMID:23297108

  9. Genomic and Secretomic Analyses Reveal Unique Features of the Lignocellulolytic Enzyme System of Penicillium decumbens

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species. PMID:23383313

  10. Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Penicillium-Like Fungi from Clinical Samples in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Suarez, Marcela; Sutton, Deanna A; Cano-Lira, José F; García, Dania; Martin-Vicente, Adela; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa

    2016-08-01

    Penicillium species are some of the most common fungi observed worldwide and have an important economic impact as well as being occasional agents of human and animal mycoses. A total of 118 isolates thought to belong to the genus Penicillium based on morphological features were obtained from the Fungus Testing Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio (United States). The isolates were studied phenotypically using standard growth conditions. Molecular identification was made using two genetic markers, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a fragment of the β-tubulin gene. In order to assess phylogenetic relationships, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference assessments were used. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2 for nine antifungal drugs. The isolates were identified within three genera, i.e., Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Rasamsonia The most frequent species in our study were Penicillium rubens, P. citrinum, and Talaromyces amestolkiae The potent in vitro activity of amphotericin B (AMB) and terbinafine (TRB) and of the echinocandins against Penicillium and Talaromyces species might offer a good therapeutic alternative for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi. PMID:27280422

  11. Molecular characterization of patulin producing and non-producing Penicillium species in apples from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Rharmitt, Sanae; Hafidi, Majida; Hajjaj, Hassan; Scordino, Fabio; Giosa, Domenico; Giuffrè, Letterio; Barreca, Davide; Criseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-18

    The isolation of patulin-producing Penicillia in apples collected in different markets in four localities in Morocco is reported. Fungi were identified by β-tubulin sequencing and further characterized using a specific PCR-based method targeting the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (IDH) gene to discriminate between patulin-producing and non-producing strains. Production of patulin was also evaluated using standard cultural and biochemical methods. Results showed that 79.5% of contaminant fungi belonged to the genus Penicillium and that Penicillium expansum was the most isolated species (83.9%) followed by Penicillium chrysogenum (~9.7%) and Penicillium crustosum (~6.4%). Molecular analysis revealed that 64.5% of the Penicillium species produced the expected IDH-amplicon denoting patulin production in these strains. However, patulin production was not chemically confirmed in all P. expansum strains. The isolation of IDH(-)/patulin(+) strains poses the hypothesis that gentisylaldehyde is not a direct patulin precursor, supporting previous observations that highlighted the importance of the gentisyl alcohol in the production of this mycotoxin. Total agreement between IDH-gene detection and cultural/chemical methods employed was observed in 58% of P. expansum strains and for 100% of the other species isolated. Overall the data reported here showed a substantial genetic variability within P. expansum population from Morocco. PMID:26513254

  12. Genomic and secretomic analyses reveal unique features of the lignocellulolytic enzyme system of Penicillium decumbens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Xiaomin; Zou, Gen; Qin, Yuqi; Ma, Liang; Li, Jie; Zheng, Huajun; Wang, Shengyue; Wang, Chengshu; Xun, Luying; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-01-01

    Many Penicillium species could produce extracellular enzyme systems with good lignocellulose hydrolysis performance. However, these species and their enzyme systems are still poorly understood and explored due to the lacking of genetic information. Here, we present the genomic and secretomic analyses of Penicillium decumbens that has been used in industrial production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in China for more than fifteen years. Comparative genomics analysis with the phylogenetically most similar species Penicillium chrysogenum revealed that P. decumbens has evolved with more genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, but fewer genes in cellular metabolism and regulation. Compared with the widely used cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei, P. decumbens has a lignocellulolytic enzyme system with more diverse components, particularly for cellulose binding domain-containing proteins and hemicellulases. Further, proteomic analysis of secretomes revealed that P. decumbens produced significantly more lignocellulolytic enzymes in the medium with cellulose-wheat bran as the carbon source than with glucose. The results expand our knowledge on the genetic information of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems in Penicillium species, and will facilitate rational strain improvement for the production of highly efficient enzyme systems used in lignocellulose utilization from Penicillium species. PMID:23383313

  13. UV-C light inactivation kinetics of Penicillium expansum on pear surfaces: Influence on physicochemical and sensory quality during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest quality and storage life of fresh pear are often limited by fungal growth caused by Penicillium expansum. Ultraviolet-C light (UV-C 254 nm) is a promising alternative disinfestation method to reduce fruit spoilage by fungi. In this study, UV-C inactivation kinetic data of Penicillium exp...

  14. [Overexpression of Penicillium expansum lipase gene in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cai; Lin, Lin; Shi, Qiao-Qin; Wu, Song-Gang

    2003-03-01

    The alkaline lipase gene of Penicillium expansum (PEL) was coloned into the yeast integrative plasmid pPIC3.5K, which was then transformed into His4 mutant yeast GS115. Recombinant Pichia strains were obtained by minimal olive oil-methanol plates screening and confirmed by PCR. The expression producus of PEL gene was analysis by SDS-PAGE and olive oil plate, the result indicated that PEL gene was functionally overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and up to 95% of the secreted protein. Recombinant lipase had a molecular mass of 28kD, showing a range similar to that of PEL, could hydrolyze olive oil and formed clear halos in the olive oil plates. Four different strategies (different media, pH, glycerol and methanol concentration) were applied to optimize the cultivation conditions, the activity of lipase was up to 260 u/mL under the optimal cultivation conditions. It is pointed out that the absence of the expensive biotin and yeast nitrogen base in the medium increased the lipase production. The possible reason of this result is absence of yeast nitrogen base increased the medium pH during cultivation, and PEL shows a higher stability at this condition. The lipase activity of the supernatant from the culture grown at pH 7 was higher than the one from the culture in the same medium at pH 6.0 is due to the pH stability of PEL too. The results also showed that the methanol and glycerol concentration had a marked effect on the production of lipase. PMID:15966328

  15. Morphological variation in pathogenic strains of Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Pracharktam, R; Sriurairatna, S; Jayanetra, P

    1992-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus known to be pathogenic to animals and man. The natural reservoir of this organism was known to be bamboo rats found in South Vietnam, Thailand and China. The first two human infections were reported in 1959 and 1973 from the United States. Up to 1984, five new cases of human penicillosis were reported from Thailand. Since then several more cases have been reported from different parts of the world mainly from the southern part of China. However, there are very limited mycological descriptions of this fungi. In this report, five Thai strains were studied for colonial morphology in comparison with Reference strain PLM 689. Variation in mycelial pigment was observed ranging from yellowish-green to orange with water soluble red pigment produced in every strain which can be seen early from the reverse side. Ultrastructural study by both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was compared with that of the reference strain PLM 689. PLM 689 strain had only biverticillate penicilli, but all five strains from Thailand had both monoverticillate and biverticillate penicilli which occasionally appeared on the same branch. The conidia of the Thai isolates were oval in shape and 1.3-2 x 0.7-1.6 microns in size smaller than those of PLM 689 which were 2.5-4 x 2-3 microns. Phialides were also smaller and a little shorter but the number of phialides was similar to those of PLM 689 ranging 4-10 except for one strain which had 3-16 phialides. All Thai strains have stipes smaller and somewhat longer than those of PLM 689.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1402460

  16. Proteome Analysis of the Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Barreiro, Carlos; García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by “blue silver” colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin

  17. Direct electrochemistry of Penicillium chrysogenum catalase adsorbed on spectroscopic graphite.

    PubMed

    Dimcheva, Nina; Horozova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The voltammetric studies of Penicillium chrysogenum catalase (PcCAT) adsorbed on spectroscopic graphite, showed direct electron transfer (DET) between its active site and the electrode surface. Analogous tests performed with the commercially available bovine catalase revealed that mammalian enzyme is much less efficient in the DET process. Both catalases were found capable to catalyse the electrooxidation of phenol, but differed in the specifics of catalytic action. At an applied potential of 0.45V the non-linear regression showed the kinetics of the bioelectrochemical oxidation catalysed by the PcCAT obeyed the Hill equation with a binding constant K=0.034±0.002 M(2) (Hill's coefficient n=2.097±0.083, R(2)=0.997), whilst the catalytic action of the bovine catalase was described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model with the following parameters: V(max,app)=7.780±0.509 μA, and K(M,app)=0.068±0.070 mol L(-1). The performance of the electrode reaction was affected by the electrode potential, the pH, and temperature. Based on the effect of pH and temperature on the electrode response in presence of phenol a tentative reaction pathway of its bioelectrocatalytic oxidation has been hypothesised. The possible application of these findings in biosensing phenol up to concentration 30 mM at pHs below 7 and in absence of oxidising agents (oxygen or H(2)O(2)) was considered. PMID:23103554

  18. [Progress in Proteomic Study of the Penicillin Producer---Penicillium Chrysogenum].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun; Wang, Peihong; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Ruichang

    2015-12-01

    Penicillin is a kind of β-lactam drug which has been applied in the clinical treatment firstly in the world, and it has still been widely used at present. The synthesis and regulation mechanism of Penicillium chrysogenum, which is used to produce penicillin, has been studied quite maturely, but its proteomics research started relatively late and fewer reports were published. This paper reviews the synthesis and application of penicillin, transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum, and the research progress of its proteomics. On this basis, the study highlights the advantages of proteomics in the research of protein expression. PMID:27079113

  19. Gibberellins in Penicillium strains: Challenges for endophyte-plant host interactions under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Enguita, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is one of the most versatile "mycofactories", comprising some species able to produce gibberellins, bioactive compounds that can modulate plant growth and development. Although plants have the ability to synthesize gibberellins, their levels are lower when plants are under salinity stress. It has been recognized that detrimental abiotic conditions, such as saline stress, have negative effects on plants, being the availability of bioactive gibberellins a critical factor for their growth under this conditions. This review summarizes the interplay existing between endophytic Penicillium strains and plant host interactions, with focus on bioactive gibberellins production as a fungal response that allows plants to overcome salinity stress. PMID:26805614

  20. Time course production of indole alkaloids by an endophytic strain of Penicillium brasilianum cultivated in rice.

    PubMed

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; Asenha, Heloísa Briganti Rodrigues; Marques, Anna Silvia; Ferreira, Antônio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2013-01-01

    During our studies concerning endophytic fungi, two indole alkaloids were co-produced with verruculogen by Penicillium brasilianum isolated from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae). The compounds were isolated by the use of combined chromatographic procedures and identified by physical methods, mainly 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. This article also describes the production of verruculogen TR-2, first described for this species of Penicillium, and a verruculogen TR-2C-11 epimer, that is a novel fungal natural product. The kinetic production of verruculogen and verruculogen TR-2 produced by P. brasilianum were evaluated in order to understand the involvement of verruculogen TR-2 in verruculogen biosynthesis. PMID:22757643

  1. Enhancement of Penicillium echinulatum glycoside hydrolase enzyme complex.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Büchli, Fernanda; Robl, Diogo; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Rabelo, Sarita Candida; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    The enhancement of enzyme complex produced by Penicillium echinulatum grown in several culture media components (bagasse sugarcane pretreated by various methods, soybean meal, wheat bran, sucrose, and yeast extract) was studied to increment FPase, xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase enzyme activities. The present results indicated that culture media composed with 10 g/L of the various bagasse pretreatment methods did not have any substantial influence with respect to the FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase attained maximum values of, respectively, 2.68 FPU/mL, 2.04, and 115.4 IU/mL. On the other hand, proposed culture media to enhance β-glucosidase production composed of 10 g/L steam-exploded bagasse supplemented with soybean flour 5.0 g/L, yeast extract 1.0 g/L, and sucrose 10.0 g/L attained, respectively, 3.19 FPU/mL and 3.06 IU/mL while xylanase was maintained at the same level. The proteomes obtained from the optimized culture media for enhanced FPase, xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase production were analyzed using mass spectrometry and a panel of GH enzyme activities against 16 different substrates. Culture medium designed to enhance β-glucosidase activity achieved higher enzymatic activities values (13 measured activities), compared to the culture media for FPase/pectinase (9 measured activities) and xylanase (7 measured activities), when tested against the 16 substrates. Mass spectrometry analyses of secretome showed a consistent result and the greatest number of spectral counts of Cazy family enzymes was found in designed β-glucosidase culture medium, followed by FPase/pectinase and xylanase. Most of the Cazy identified protein was cellobiohydrolase (GH6 and GH7), endoglucanase (GH5), and endo-1,4-β-xylanase (GH10). Enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated sugarcane bagasse performed with β-glucosidase enhanced cocktail achieved 51.4 % glucose yield with 10 % w/v insoluble solids at enzyme load of 15 FPU/g material. Collectively the

  2. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF CITRUS PEEL EXTRACTS ON GROWTH OF PENICILLIUM DIGITATIUM, P. ITALICUM AND P. EXPANSUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most pathogenic species of Penicillium have a limited host range, suggesting unique adaptations to particular hosts. P. digitatum and P. italicum are primarily pathogens of mature citrus fruit, while P. expansum has a broad host range, but does not infect citrus. One possible basis of host specifi...

  3. Haenamindole and fumiquinazoline analogs from a fungicolous isolate of Penicillium lanosum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new amino acid-derived compounds, lanosindole (1) and 2'-epi-fumiquinazoline C (2), were isolated from cultures of a fungicolous isolate of Penicillium lanosum (MYC 1813 = NRRL 66231), together with 2'-epi-fumiquinazoline D (3), previously reported only as a product of an in vitro enzymatic step...

  4. Dihydrotrichodimerol and tetrahydrotrichodimerol, two new bisorbicillinoids, from a marine-derived Penicillium terrestre.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weizhong; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming; Cui, Chengbin; Fan, Guotao

    2005-10-01

    Two new bisorbicillinoids possessing an open-ended cage structure, dihydrotrichodimerol (1) and tetrahydrotrichodimerol (2), were isolated from a marine-derived Penicillium terrestre. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Their cytotoxic activities against P388 and A-549 cell lines were preliminarily evaluated by the MTT method. PMID:16392677

  5. First report of Penicillium crustosum causing blue mold on stored apple fruit in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium crustosum Thom causes blue mold on pome fruits and is also regularly found on cheese, nuts and soil. The fungus produces an array of mycotoxins that impact human health, including penitrem A, roquefortine C, terrestric acid, and cyclopenol. In January and February 2013, decayed apples, ‘...

  6. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  7. A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts

    PubMed Central

    Sanzani, Simona Marianna; Miazzi, Monica Marilena; di Rienzo, Valentina; Fanelli, Valentina; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Taurino, Maria Rosaria; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most frequently involved in grape deterioration, secondary infections by Penicillium spp. are quite common, especially in cool areas with high humidity and in wines obtained by partially dried grapes. In this work, a single-tube nested real-time PCR approach—successfully applied to hazelnut and peanut allergen detection—was tested for the first time to trace Penicillium spp. in musts and wines. The method consisted of two sets of primers specifically designed to target the β-tubulin gene, to be simultaneously applied with the aim of lowering the detection limit of conventional real-time PCR. The assay was able to detect up to 1 fg of Penicillium DNA. As confirmation, patulin content of representative samples was determined. Most of analyzed wines/musts returned contaminated results at >50 ppb and a 76% accordance with molecular assay was observed. Although further large-scale trials are needed, these results encourage the use of the newly developed method in the pre-screening of fresh and processed grapes for the presence of Penicillium DNA before the evaluation of related toxins. PMID:27509524

  8. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates resistant to pyrimethanil from stored apple fruit in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples in the United States are stored in low temperature controlled atmosphere for 9–12 months and are susceptible to decay by blue mold. Penicillium spp. cause significant economic losses worldwide and produce mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Blue mold is managed by a combinat...

  9. A Rapid Assay to Detect Toxigenic Penicillium spp. Contamination in Wine and Musts.

    PubMed

    Sanzani, Simona Marianna; Miazzi, Monica Marilena; di Rienzo, Valentina; Fanelli, Valentina; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Taurino, Maria Rosaria; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid "user friendly" quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most frequently involved in grape deterioration, secondary infections by Penicillium spp. are quite common, especially in cool areas with high humidity and in wines obtained by partially dried grapes. In this work, a single-tube nested real-time PCR approach-successfully applied to hazelnut and peanut allergen detection-was tested for the first time to trace Penicillium spp. in musts and wines. The method consisted of two sets of primers specifically designed to target the β-tubulin gene, to be simultaneously applied with the aim of lowering the detection limit of conventional real-time PCR. The assay was able to detect up to 1 fg of Penicillium DNA. As confirmation, patulin content of representative samples was determined. Most of analyzed wines/musts returned contaminated results at >50 ppb and a 76% accordance with molecular assay was observed. Although further large-scale trials are needed, these results encourage the use of the newly developed method in the pre-screening of fresh and processed grapes for the presence of Penicillium DNA before the evaluation of related toxins. PMID:27509524

  10. Penicillium digitatum suppresses production of hydrogen peroxide in host tissue during infection of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the development of green mold disease (Penicillium digitatum) on citrus fruit, there is little evidence of a host resistance response against the invading fungus. This suggests that P. digitatum has the ability to suppress host defenses. Current knowledge of plant-fungal interactions indica...

  11. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  12. Ultraviolet-C light inactivation of Penicillium expansum on fruit surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the influence of fruit surface morphology on ultraviolet-C (UV-C 254 nm) inactivation of microorganisms is required for designing effective treatment systems. In this study, we analyzed UV-C inactivation of Penicillium expansum that was inoculated onto the surface of organic fruits. Re...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergens

    Yongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  14. Resistance of apples from the Kazakhstan germplasm collection to postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite causing significant losses, apple breeders do not evaluate crosses for resistance to blue mold, caused by Penicillium expansum, because historically there has been little resistance to this decay in this gene pool of germplasm they use a new apple germplasm collection from the center of orig...

  15. Occurrence of fludioxonil resistance in penicillium digitatum from citrus in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium digitatum is the causal agent of green mold, the most important postharvest disease of citrus (Citrus spp.). Fludioxonil is marketed as either a solo product or in combination with azoxystrobin for control of green mold and other postharvest diseases. Baseline sensitivity to fludioxonil ...

  16. Endophytic synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles from Penicillium sp. of Calophyllum apetalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrappa, C. P.; Govindappa, M.; Chandrasekar, N.; Sarkar, Sonia; Ooha, Sepuri; Channabasava, R.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, Penicillium species extract isolated from Calophyllum apetalum was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it was confirmed by changing the color of the silver nitrate UV–Vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by biophysical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction.

  17. Genome sequence of Penicillium solitum RS1, which causes postharvest apple decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium species cause postharvest decay, commonly known as blue mold, in pome fruits such as apples and pears. Among the species that cause blue mold, P. expansum is the most virulent and prevalent, while P. solitum is signficantly less virulent. For devising novel strategies to prevent and to r...

  18. Detection of additional genes of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium griseofulvum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes in the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster as has been found for biosynthetic pathways of other mycotoxins. The mycotoxin patulin, common in apples and apple juice, is most often associated with Penicillium expansum. However, of 15 fungal species capable of sy...

  19. The biochemical basis of pathogenicity and host-specificity of Penicillium digitatum on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, we report that volatiles emitted from wounded citrus peel play a major role in host recognition by Penicillium digitatum. Volatiles of various citrus cultivars had a pronounced stimulatory effect on germination and germ tube elongation of green mold pathogen. When exposed to volatile...

  20. Influence of temperature and humidity on survival of Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longevity of conidia of Penicillium digitatum and arthrospores of Geotrichum citri-aurantii, cause of green mold and sour rot of citrus, respectively, was determined. Conidia of P. digitatum were exposed to ambient summer conditions in central California or to conditions of controlled temperature an...

  1. [Clavine alkaloid biosynthesis by the fungus Penicillium palitans westling 1911 isolated from ancient permafrost deposits].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, A G; Zhelifonova, V P; Antipova, T V

    2009-01-01

    The relic strain of Penicillium palitans isolated from the ancient permafrost deposits produces clavine alkaloids such as festuclavine, fumigaclavine A, and fumigaclavine B. Alkaloid biosynthesis is concurrent with the growth. Tryptophan and zinc ion additives to the culture medium stimulate the synthesis of alkaloids. PMID:19382708

  2. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R T; Latch, G C

    1977-03-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin. PMID:16345234

  3. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R. T.; Latch, G. C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin. PMID:16345234

  4. Performance of fogged disinfectants to inactivate conida of Penicillium digitatum within citrus degreening rooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fogging with formaldehyde of citrus packinghouses when the fruit are absent is a practice to control conidia of Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc., cause of citrus green mold. Replacements for formaldehyde in these facilities are needed because of worker and environmental health issues. To evaluate...

  5. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BAL/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  6. DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC RESPONSES TO AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM IN BALB/MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of ...

  7. AN EXTRACT OF PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM INDUCES DOSE-DEPENDENT ALLERGIC ASTHMA RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Penicillium chrysogenum, a common indoor mold, is known to have several allergens and can induce allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic penicilliosis. Our hypothesis is that soluble components of P. chrysogenum (PCE) can dose-dependently induce responses typ...

  8. Inhibitory effect of selenium against Penicillium expansum and its possible mechanisms of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum is a widely spread fungal pathogen that causes blue mold rot in a variety of fruits. This pathogen not only induces blue mold rot but also produces patulin in affected apple fruit, a secondary metabolite that is toxic to humans and animals. Currently, diseases caused by P. expan...

  9. Use of chemosensitization to overcome fludioxonil-resistance in Penicillium expansum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance in two mutant strains of Penicillium expansum to the fungicide fludioxonil was overcome by co-application of natural phenolic chemosensitizing agents that targeted various elements of the oxidative stress-response pathway. Fludioxonil resistance in these strains resulted from cell-linked ...

  10. THE ISOAMYL OXIDASE GENE IN PENICILLIUM GRISEOFULVUM IS PART OF THE PATULIN BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster, as is the case for other mycotoxins. GeneWalking was performed to identify genes both upstream and downstream of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene in Penicillium griseofulvum NRRL 2159A. A gene with high sequ...

  11. Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Trichocomaceae occur commonly and are important to both industry and medicine. They are associated with food spoilage and mycotoxin production and can occur in the indoor environment, causing health hazards by the formation of β-glucans, mycotoxins and surface proteins. Some species are opportunistic pathogens, while others are exploited in biotechnology for the production of enzymes, antibiotics and other products. Penicillium belongs phylogenetically to Trichocomaceae and more than 250 species are currently accepted in this genus. In this study, we investigated the relationship of Penicillium to other genera of Trichocomaceae and studied in detail the phylogeny of the genus itself. In order to study these relationships, partial RPB1, RPB2 (RNA polymerase II genes), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences were obtained. The Trichocomaceae are divided in three separate families: Aspergillaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Aspergillaceae are characterised by the formation flask-shaped or cylindrical phialides, asci produced inside cleistothecia or surrounded by Hülle cells and mainly ascospores with a furrow or slit, while the Trichocomaceae are defined by the formation of lanceolate phialides, asci borne within a tuft or layer of loose hyphae and ascospores lacking a slit. Thermoascus and Paecilomyces, both members of Thermoascaceae, also form ascospores lacking a furrow or slit, but are differentiated from Trichocomaceae by the production of asci from croziers and their thermotolerant or thermophilic nature. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Penicillium is polyphyletic. The genus is re-defined and a monophyletic genus for both anamorphs and teleomorphs is created (Penicillium sensu stricto). The genera Thysanophora, Eupenicillium, Chromocleista, Hemicarpenteles and Torulomyces belong in Penicillium s. str. and new combinations for the species belonging to these genera

  12. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  13. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    PubMed

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. PMID:26742610

  14. An evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of Penicillium spp. isolated from traditional Greek sausages in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A number of novel Penicillium strains belonging to Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium solitum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional Greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. Extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline pH, while the lipolytic activity was assessed using olive oil, the short-chain triacylglycerol tributyrin, and the long-chain triolein, as substrates. The study revealed that although closely related, the tested strains produce enzymes of distinct specificities. P. nalgiovense PNA9 produced the highest alkaline proteolytic activity (13.2 unit (U)/ml) and the highest lipolytic activity with tributyrin (92 U/ml). Comparisons with known sources show that proteases and/or lipases can be secreted effectively by some Penicillia (P. nalgiovense PNA4, PNA7, and PNA9 and P. solitum PSO1), and further investigations on their properties and characteristics would be promising. PMID:24122629

  15. [Rapid improvement of lipase production in Penicillium expansum by genome shuffling].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Shi, Bi-Hong; Shi, Qiao-Qin; He, Yun-Xia; Wang, Ming-Zi

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, the genome shuffling was used to improve lipase production of Penicillium expansum. A lipase producing mutant strain-Penicillium expansum FS8486 and a wild type of Aspergillus Tamarii FS-132 isolated from soil of a volcano in Xinjiang were used as the parental strains. After two rounds of genome shuffling, several elite daughter strains were screened. The lipase activity in one of the daughter strains was increased 317% over the starting strain FS8486. Comparisons of the morphology, RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) polymorphism and the fatty acid compositions between the daughter and the parental strains suggested that the filial generation were generated by genome shuffling. In this study, the genome shuffling used successfully first time in eukaryotic microorganism and increases the production of the desired metabolite in short time, the study will be useful to spread the genome shuffling in eukaryotic microbial breeding. PMID:17822042

  16. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces isolated from house dust samples collected around the world

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, C.M.; Hirooka, Y.; Tanney, J.B.; Whitfield, E.; Mwange, K.; Meijer, M.; Amend, A.S.; Seifert, K.A.; Samson, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a worldwide survey of the indoor mycobiota, dust was collected from nine countries. Analyses of dust samples included the culture-dependent dilution-to-extinction method and the culture-independent 454-pyrosequencing. Of the 7 904 isolates, 2 717 isolates were identified as belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The aim of this study was to identify isolates to species level and describe the new species found. Secondly, we wanted to create a reliable reference sequence database to be used for next-generation sequencing projects. Isolates represented 59 Aspergillus species, including eight undescribed species, 49 Penicillium species of which seven were undescribed and 18 Talaromyces species including three described here as new. In total, 568 ITS barcodes were generated, and 391 β-tubulin and 507 calmodulin sequences, which serve as alternative identification markers. PMID:25492981

  17. Production of tremorgenic toxins by Penicillium janthinellum Biourge: a possible aetiological factor in ryegrass staggers.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, G W; Payne, A L; Cockrum, P A

    1979-02-01

    Topsoil, herbage and faeces collected during an outbreak of ryegrass staggers in sheep were examined for tremorgenic penicillia. No such fungi were recovered from the plant material, but they were found among the predominant fungi in the soil and faecal samples. The commonest species of Penicillium, and almost the only tremorgenic species encountered, was Penicillium janthinellum Biourge. When fed to sheep, the mycelium of this fungus evoked a number of the clinical signs seen in field cases of ryegrass staggers. Two tremorgenic toxins were isolated from the mycelial felts and available evidence indicates that they are verruculogen and fumitremorgin A. P. janthinellum also produced these tremorgens when cultured in moist, autoclaved soil, but not in unheated soil. The results obtained from this study are in accord with the hypothesis that ryegrass staggers is caused by tremorgenic mycotoxins. PMID:475667

  18. Tremorgenic mycotoxins produced by strains of Penicillium spp. isolated from toxic Poa huecu parodi.

    PubMed

    Scuteri, M; Sala de Miguel, M A; Blanco Viera, J; Planes de Banchero, E

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen strains of Penicillium spp. have been isolated from Poa huecu Parodi from the Zapala zone, exhibiting toxicity to sheet. The following strains have been identified: P. crustosum, cyclopium, notatum, palitans, puberulum, verrucosum, viridicatum and Penicillium spp. The toxigenic capacity of the strains was studied after growing them under suitable conditions. Toxins produced were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Penitrem A (PA) and Penitrem B (PB) neurotoxins were identified and quantitated in twelve strains; verruculogen (VERR) and fumitremorgen B (FTB) being present in one of them. The effect of these mycotoxins was studied in mice. Neurological symptoms characteristic of the intoxication by tremorgenic toxins and similar to those observed in sheep suffering from 'huecu's disease' were observed. The possible role of these toxins as causative agents of 'huecu's disease' is discussed. PMID:1494361

  19. Meroterpenoids and isoberkedienolactone from endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. associated with Dysosma versipellis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Wei; Duan, Rui-Gang; Zou, Jian-Hua; Chen, Ri-Dao; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2014-06-01

    Seven meroterpenoids and five small-molecular precursors were isolated from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus from Dysosma versipellis. The structures of new compounds, 11beta-acetoxyisoaustinone (1) and isoberkedienolactone (2) were elucidated based on analysis of the spectral data, and the absolute configuration of 2 was established by TDDFT ECD calculation with satisfactory match to its experimental ECD data. Meroterpenoids originated tetraketide and pentaketide precursors, resepectively, were found to be simultaneously produced in specific fungus of Penicillium species. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-116, HepG2, BGC-823, NCI-H1650, and A2780 cell lines with IC 50 > 10 micromol x L(-1). PMID:25212040

  20. Penicillium marneffei Infection with β-D-glucan Elevation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Lee, Kwangyeol; Amano, Yuichiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of Penicillium marneffei infection (PMI) in a Japanese man who was infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), who was diagnosed on the basis of a bone marrow culture and who was effectively treated with itraconazole. Our review of the PMI cases reported in Japan suggests that increased serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels are a useful diagnostic tool in cases of suspected PMI. PMID:27580558

  1. Tanzawaic acids I–L: Four new polyketides from Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06

    PubMed Central

    Sandjo, Louis P; Thines, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    Summary Four new polyketides have been identified in culture filtrates of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06 isolated from a soil sample. They are structurally based on the same trans-decalinpentanoic acid skeleton as tanzawaic acids A–H. One of the new compounds was found to inhibit the conidial germination in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae at concentrations of 25 μg/mL. PMID:24605144

  2. Abundance of airborne Penicillium CFU in relation to urbanization in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, I; Calderón, C; Ulloa, M; Lacey, J

    1993-01-01

    Air was sampled simultaneously at three localities in Mexico City differing in urbanization index and air pollution level on 22 days during a period covering both dry and rainy seasons. An Andersen two-stage microbial sampler was used for 15 min at 28 liters min-1 to isolate culturable fungi on malt extract agar. After exposure, plates were incubated at 25 degrees C for 48 to 72 h before colonies were counted and identified to give concentrations of total fungal spores and of Penicillium spp., expressed as CFU per cubic meter of air. Total fungi numbered 91 to 602 CFU m-3 in Tlalpan Borough (southern area), 40 to 264 CFU m-3 in Cuauhtémoc Borough (downtown), and 26 to 495 CFU m-3 in Gustavo A. Madero Borough (northern area). Although Penicillium spp. were the second most frequently isolated fungal genus, concentrations were small, with a maximum of only 133 CFU m-3. Twice as many colonies were isolated in the southern area, with an urbanization index of 0.25 (arithmetic mean, 41 CFU m-3), as at other sampling stations with greater urbanization indices (arithmetic means, 19 and 20 CFU m-3). In the downtown area, with an urbanization index of 1.0, Penicillium spp. were more numerous than any other genus and formed 25% of the total fungal count compared with 14 and 17% in the other areas. Concentrations of airborne Penicillium spp. did not differ significantly between rainy and dry seasons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8368852

  3. Effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on penicillin fermentations: mycelial growth and penicillin production. [Penicillium chrysogenum

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate of Penicillium chrysogenum was examined experimentally. The dissolved carbon dioxide was found to inhibit the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate when the aerated submerged penicillin fermentation was exposed to influent gases of 12.6 and 20% carbon dioxide, respectively. Upon exposure to influent gases of 3 and 5% carbon dioxide, no pronounced metabolic inhibition was noted.

  4. Tanzawaic acids I-L: Four new polyketides from Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06.

    PubMed

    Sandjo, Louis P; Thines, Eckhard; Opatz, Till; Schüffler, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Four new polyketides have been identified in culture filtrates of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06 isolated from a soil sample. They are structurally based on the same trans-decalinpentanoic acid skeleton as tanzawaic acids A-H. One of the new compounds was found to inhibit the conidial germination in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae at concentrations of 25 μg/mL. PMID:24605144

  5. Evaluation of secretome of highly efficient lignocellulolytic Penicillium sp. Dal 5 isolated from rhizosphere of conifers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rohit; Kaur, Baljit; Singh, Surender; Di Falco, Macros; Tsang, Adrian; Chadha, B S

    2016-09-01

    Penicillium sp. (Dal 5) isolated from rhizosphere of conifers from Dalhousie (Himachal Pradesh, India) was found to be an efficient cellulolytic strain. The culture under shake flask on CWR (cellulose, wheat bran and rice straw) medium produced appreciably higher levels of endoglucanase (35.69U/ml), β-glucosidase (4.20U/ml), cellobiohydrolase (2.86U/ml), FPase (1.2U/ml) and xylanase (115U/ml) compared to other Penicillium strains reported in literature. The mass spectroscopy analysis of Penicillium sp. Dal 5 secretome identified 108 proteins constituting an array of CAZymes including glycosyl hydrolases (GH) belonging to 24 different families, polysaccharide lyases (PL), carbohydrate esterases (CE), lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMO) in addition to swollenin and a variety of carbohydrate binding modules (CBM) indicating an elaborate genetic potential of this strain for hydrolysis of lignocellulosics. Further, the culture extract was evaluated for hydrolysis of alkali treated rice straw, wheat straw, bagasse and corn cob at 10% substrate loading rate. PMID:27341464

  6. A phylogenetic revision of Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis, including nine new species from fynbos in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Visagie, Cobus M; Seifert, Keith A; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Jacobs, Karin

    2016-06-01

    A survey of the fynbos biome in South Africa resulted in the isolation of 61 Penicillium species from Protea repens infructescences, air, and soil samples. Fourteen of these belong to Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis and therefore we considered it an opportunity to re-evaluate the taxonomy of the section. Phylogenetic comparisons of the ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 gene regions of the 76 section Exilicaulis species, revealed 52 distinct species, including nine new species from fynbos. Morphological comparisons confirmed the novelty for most of these, however, new species closely related to P. rubefaciens did not show significant or consistent morphological differences and we thus placed a bias on phylogenetic data applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept. In this paper we describe the nine new species and update the accepted species list and resolve synonyms in the section. Importantly, we reveal that P. citreosulfuratum is the correct name for the clade previously considered to represent P. toxicarium fide Serra et al. (2008). The nine new species are: Penicillium atrolazulinum, P. consobrinum, P. cravenianum, P. hemitrachum, P. pagulum, P. repensicola, P. momoii, P. subturcoseum, and P. xanthomelinii spp. nov. PMID:27433442

  7. Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F.; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new “omics” era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus. PMID:22318718

  8. Genomic Characterization Reveals Insights Into Patulin Biosynthesis and Pathogenicity in Penicillium Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Boqiang; Zong, Yuanyuan; Du, Zhenglin; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhanquan; Qin, Guozheng; Zhao, Wenming; Tian, Shiping

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium species are fungal pathogens that infect crop plants worldwide. P. expansum differs from P. italicum and P. digitatum, all major postharvest pathogens of pome and citrus, in that the former is able to produce the mycotoxin patulin and has a broader host range. The molecular basis of host-specificity of fungal pathogens has now become the focus of recent research. The present report provides the whole genome sequence of P. expansum (33.52 Mb) and P. italicum (28.99 Mb) and identifies differences in genome structure, important pathogenic characters, and secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters in Penicillium species. We identified a total of 55 gene clusters potentially related to secondary metabolism, including a cluster of 15 genes (named PePatA to PePatO), that may be involved in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum. Functional studies confirmed that PePatL and PePatK play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of patulin and that patulin production is not related to virulence of P. expansum. Collectively, P. expansum contains more pathogenic genes and SM gene clusters, in particular, an intact patulin cluster, than P. italicum or P. digitatum. These findings provide important information relevant to understanding the molecular network of patulin biosynthesis and mechanisms of host-specificity in Penicillium species. PMID:25625822

  9. Genome, Transcriptome, and Functional Analyses of Penicillium expansum Provide New Insights Into Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Levin, Elena; Sela, Noa; Selma-Lázaro, Cristina; Carmona, Lourdes; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; González-Candelas, Luis; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between secondary metabolism and infection in pathogenic fungi has remained largely elusive. The genus Penicillium comprises a group of plant pathogens with varying host specificities and with the ability to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. The genomes of three Penicillium expansum strains, the main postharvest pathogen of pome fruit, and one Pencillium italicum strain, a postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit, were sequenced and compared with 24 other fungal species. A genomic analysis of gene clusters responsible for the production of secondary metabolites was performed. Putative virulence factors in P. expansum were identified by means of a transcriptomic analysis of apple fruits during the course of infection. Despite a major genome contraction, P. expansum is the Penicillium species with the largest potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Results using knockout mutants clearly demonstrated that neither patulin nor citrinin are required by P. expansum to successfully infect apples. Li et al. ( MPMI-12-14-0398-FI ) reported similar results and conclusions in their recently accepted paper. PMID:25338147

  10. Putative structure and characteristics of a red water-soluble pigment secreted by Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Sonia; Shukla, Anshuman; Mukherjee, Sourav; Sharma, Swati; Guptasarma, Purnananda; Chakraborti, Asit K; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2007-08-01

    The dimorphic fungus, Penicillium marneffei, produces and secretes a brick red pigment, during growth at temperatures below 30 degrees C. It generally diffuses into commonly used media like Sabouraud dextrose agar and malt extract agar. The pigment was purified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography and subjected to structural determination by elemental and spectral analysis using atomic absorption (AAS), ultra violet and visible (UV-VIS), fluorescence, infra red (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The pigment showed a buffering ability in aqueous solutions, maintaining an alkaline pH of 8.0. It behaved as a colorimetric pH indicator over a wide acidic and alkaline pH range, with discoloration occurring ostensibly through hydrolysis of key chemical groups at extremely acidic pH ( approximately 2.0). The pigment was found to have some structural resemblance with the copper-colored pigment (herquinone) produced by Penicillium herquei as both pigments contain the phenalene carbon framework. The notable differences between herquinone and the pigment produced by P. marneffei are (i) the latter's apparent dimerization through a sulphur-sulphur (disulfide) bond and (ii) the presence of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-2,3-dihydropyrrole moiety in the latter instead of 2,3,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydrofuran moiety found in the former. The delineation of the structure of the pigment produced by Penicillium marneffei may help in understanding certain aspects of the biology of this pathogenic fungus. PMID:17654268

  11. The effect of locust bean gum (LBG)-based edible coatings carrying biocontrol yeasts against Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum causal agents of postharvest decay of mandarin fruit.

    PubMed

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2016-09-01

    Strains belonging to Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans species were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic molds Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. Moreover, studies aimed at screening the antifungal activity of selected yeast strains in vivo conditions against P. digitatum and P. italicum, and investigated the efficacy of a polysaccharidic matrix, locust bean gum (LBG), enriched with the tested BCAs, in controlling postharvest decays in artificially inoculated mandarins. The population dynamics of BCAs on wounds and the magnitude of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in fruit tissues were also investigated after treatments of mandarins with antagonistic yeasts. W. anomalus BS91, M. pulcherrima MPR3 and A. pullulans PI1 provided excellent control of postharvest decays caused by P. digitatum and P. italicum on mandarins, both when the yeasts were used alone and in combination with LBG, which enhanced the yeast cell viability over time. Finally, the increased activity of POD and lower decrease in SOD activity in response to BCAs application in mandarin fruits confirmed their involvement in the biocontrol mechanism. PMID:27217363

  12. [Effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium poae moulds].

    PubMed

    Tequida-Meneses, Martín; Cortez-Rocha, Mario; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; López-Sandoval, Susana; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo

    2002-06-01

    Fungicidal activity of wild plants Larrea tridentata, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus globulus, Ambrosia ambrosioides, Nicotiana glauca, Ambrosia confertiflora, Datura discolor, Baccharis glutinosa, Proboscidea parviflora, Solanum rostratum, Jatropha cinerea, Salpianthus macrodonthus y Sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium poae y Fusarium moniliforme moulds species. Alcoholic extracts 6% (w/v) were prepared using six grams of dried plant powders (leaves and stems) and alcohol (70% ethanol or 70% methanol). A spore suspension (1x10(6); ufc/ml) of each mould was prepared by adding saline solution (0.85%) and 0.1% tween 80. The extracts were mixed with Czapeck yeast agar (CYA) at 45-50 degrees C in 1:10 relation on Petri dishes. Triplicate Petri dishes of each treatment and for each mould were centrally inoculated and three Petri dishes were used without treatment as controls. The inoculated dishes and controls were incubated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C for eight days. The incubated dishes were examined each 48 h and after the colony diameter (radial growth) was measured. Two mould species were controlled by L. tridentata, B. glutinosa and P. parviflora. Extracts of L. tridentata in methanol or ethanol at 41.5-100% inhibited all six species of moulds. PMID:12828509

  13. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite films containing food additives with antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2008-12-10

    New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite films containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and mineral salts, classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Selected films containing food preservatives were used for in vitro evaluation (disk diameter test) of their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Penicillium italicum (PI), the most important postharvest pathogens of fresh citrus fruit. Mechanical properties and oxygen (OP) and water vapor permeabilities (WVP) of selected films were also determined. Film disks containing parabens and their mixtures inhibited PD and PI to a higher extent than the other chemicals tested. Among all organic acid salts tested, potassium sorbate (PS) and sodium benzoate (SB) were the most effective salts in controlling both PD and PI. The use of mixtures of parabens or organic acid salts did not provide an additive or synergistic effect for mold inhibition when compared to the use of single chemicals. Barrier and mechanical properties of films were affected by the addition of food preservatives. Results showed that HPMC-lipid films containing an appropriate food additive should promise as potential commercial antifungal edible coatings for fresh citrus fruit. PMID:19012404

  14. Bioactive metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. 1 and sp. 2, two endophytes associated with Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila M; Silva, Geraldo H; Regasini, Luis O; Zanardi, Lisinéia M; Evangelista, Alana H; Young, Maria C M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Araujo, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    In the course of our continuous search for bioactive metabolites from endophytic fungi living in plants from the Brazilian flora, leaves of Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae) were submitted to isolation of endophytes, and two species of Penicillium were isolated. The acetonitrile fraction obtained in corn from a culture of Penicillium sp. 1 afforded orcinol (1). On the other hand, Penicillium sp. 1 cultivated in potato-dextrose-broth furnished two different compounds, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (2) and uracil (3). The chromatographic fractionation of the acetonitrile fraction obtained from Penicillium sp. 2 led to three dihydroisocoumarins, 4-hydroxymellein (4), 8-methoxymellein (5) and 5-hydroxymellein (6). Compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from the Penicillium genus for the first time. Additionally, metabolites 1-6 were evaluated for their antifungal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The most active compounds 1 and 4 exhibited detection limits of 5.00 and 10.0 microg against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. Compound 2 showed a detection limit of 10.0 microg, displaying potent AChE inhibitory activity. PMID:20158153

  15. Chemical response of Picea glehnii seed-epiphytic Penicillium species to Pythium vexans under in vitro competitive conditions for mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Tahara, Satoshi

    2005-04-01

    The potential protection of Picea glehnii seedlings from damping-off by seed-epiphytic Penicillium species was investigated. We studied the chemical response of seed-epiphytic Penicillium species (Pen. cyaneum, Pen. damascenum, and Pen. implicatum) to Pythium vexans, a damping-off fungus, in vitro. Penicillium species were cultured singly or cocultured with Pyt. vexans for 14 or 18 d, and mycelial growth, pH of culture filtrate, antifungal activity of the culture filtrate against Pyt. vexans, and the amount of antifungal compound produced by each Penicillium species, were examined. The filtrate of both the single culture of Penicillium and the coculture of Penicillium and Pyt. vexans showed antifungal activity against Pyt. vexans. In a coculture with Pyt. vexans, Pen. cyaneum produced an antifungal compound (patulin) as in the single culture. Pen. damascenum cocultured with Pyt. vexans produced an antifungal compound (citrinin), as it did in the single culture and in larger amounts on day 10. Pen. implicatum produced two antifungal compounds, frequentin and palitantin, and the ratio of frequentin (with higher antifungal activity than palitantin) to palitantin was higher in the coculture with Pyt. vexans than in the single culture. Our results indicate that these Penicillium species have the ability to produce antifungal compounds and to keep anti-fungal activity under competitive condition with Pyt. vexans. The chemical response of these Penicillium species to Pyt. vexans may contribute to protect P. glehnii seedlings from damage by Pyt. vexans. PMID:16124252

  16. Monosubstituted Benzene Derivatives from Fruits of Ficus hirta and Their Antifungal Activity against Phytopathogen Penicillium italicum.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunpeng; Han, Jianxin; Chen, Chuying; Yao, Liangliang; Chen, Jinyin; Yuan, Tao

    2016-07-20

    Ficus hirta, a widely consumed food by Hakka people, has been reported to show potent antifungal activity against phytopathogen Penicillium italicum. However, there is no report of chemical constituents responsible for the antifungal activity. In the current study, nine monosubstituted benzene derivatives, including three new derivatives (1-3), were isolated from the fruits of F. hirta. The structures of these isolates were elucidated on the basis of the analysis of spectroscopic data (mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance). All of the isolates were evaluated for antifungal activities against P. italicum. At an equivalent concentration, compound 1 exhibited stronger antifungal activity than that of the ethanol extract of F. hirta fruits. PMID:27381890

  17. X-ray diffraction study of Penicillium Vitale catalase in the complex with aminotriazole

    SciTech Connect

    Borovik, A. A.; Grebenko, A. I.; Melik-Adamyan, V. R.

    2011-07-15

    The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme catalase from Penicillium vitale in a complex with the inhibitor aminotriazole was solved and refined by protein X-ray crystallography methods. An analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the complex showed that the inhibition of the enzyme occurs as a result of the covalent binding of aminotriazole to the amino-acid residue His64 in the active site of the enzyme. An investigation of the three-dimensional structure of the complex resulted in the amino-acid residues being more precisely identified. The binding sites of saccharide residues and calcium ions in the protein molecule were found.

  18. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively. PMID:10849864

  19. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro

    2010-04-12

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  20. Atpenins, new antifungal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. Production, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Tomoda, H; Kimura, K; Zhen, D Z; Kumagai, H; Igarashi, K; Imamura, N; Takahashi, Y; Tanaka, Y; Iwai, Y

    1988-12-01

    Penicillium sp. FO-125, a soil isolate, was found to produce a new antifungal antibiotic complex named atpenin. Three components A4, A5 and B were isolated from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The molecular formula of atpenins A4, A5 and B were determined to be C15H22NO5Cl, C15H21NO5Cl2 and C15H23NO5, respectively, on the basis of high resolution electron impact mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. They are active against filamentous fungi, especially, Trichophyton sp. PMID:3209470

  1. Pretrichodermamides D-F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Anton N; Smetanina, Olga F; Ivanets, Elena V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Khudyakova, Yuliya V; Kirichuk, Natalya N; Popov, Roman S; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D-F (1-3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher's method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  2. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    PubMed Central

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  3. [OPTIMIZATION OF CULTIVATION CONDITIONS OF PENICILLIUM TARDUM--THE α-L- RHAMNOSIDASE PRODUCER].

    PubMed

    Gudsenko, O V; Varbanets, L D

    2015-01-01

    The influence of some technological cultivation parameters of Penicillium tardum to synthesize of the extracellular α.-L-rhamnosidase were studied. It was shown that rhamnose (0.8%), yeasts autolysate (0.2%), temperature of the cultivation 25 degrees C, pH 5.0 are necessary for maximal α-L-rhamnosidase production. The enzyme reaches the maximal activity level in 96 hours with sulphitic number equal 0.44. At cultivation of P. tardum in the picked up conditions the α-L-rhamnosidase synthesis has raised in 4 times. PMID:26422921

  4. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin’

    PubMed Central

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Massi, Fernanda P.; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  5. Environmental and Nutritional Factors Affecting the Production of Rubratoxin B by Penicillium rubrum Stoll 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, A. Wallace; Wyatt, Elwanda P.; King, Patricia A.

    1970-01-01

    Rubratoxin B can be produced in a semisynthetic medium by Penicillium rubrum under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. Maximum production (552.0 mg/500 ml) was obtained with P. rubrum NRRL A-11785 grown in stationary cultures of Mosseray's simplified Raulin solution supplemented with 2.5% malt extract broth at ambient temperature. Zinc is required at levels of at least 0.4 mg per liter. In the absence of iron sulfate, there was a 50-fold reduction in rubratoxin B production but not in growth. No toxin was produced by this isolate in 5- or 7-liter fermentors. PMID:5485727

  6. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype. PMID:26717519

  7. Phenylpyropenes E and F: new meroterpenes from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium concentricum ZLQ-69.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhuang; Zhang, Lianqing; Fu, Juan; Che, Qian; Li, Dehai; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Tianjiao

    2015-12-01

    Two new meroterpenes, phenylpyropenes E (1) and F (2), together with seven known phenylpyropenes (3-5) and pyripyropenes (6-9) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium concentricum ZLQ-69. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic methods and electronic circular dichroism calculation. Bioactivity evaluation showed that compounds 1 and 4 were cytotoxic to the MGC-803 cell line with IC50 values of 19.1 and 13.6 μM, respectively. PMID:26058567

  8. Recurrent hemoptysis with Penicillium marneffei and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Job’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bosco HM; Ng, Calvin SH; Lam, Rebecca KY; Wan, Song; Wan, Innes YP; Lee, Tak Wai; Yim, Anthony PC

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary infection caused by the opportunistic organisms Penicillium marneffei and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in patients with Job’s syndrome is rare and not well documented. The case of a 30-year-old man with Job’s syndrome who developed recurrent pneumonia and lung abscesses caused by P marneffei and S maltophilia, complicated by massive hemoptysis, is described. Bronchial artery embolization was successful in controlling the hemoptysis; however, the infection proved fatal despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. A brief review of the literature on Job’s syndrome and its associated infective pulmonary manifestations is also presented. PMID:19707602

  9. First Report on Isolation of Penicillium adametzioides and Purpureocillium lilacinum from Decayed Fruit of Cheongsoo Grapes in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Sang, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Two species, Penicillium adametzioides and Purpureocillium lilacinum, were isolated from decayed grapes (cv. Cheongsoo) in Korea. Each species was initially identified by phylogenetic analysis of a combined dataset of two genes. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin (BT2) genes were used for identification of Penicillium adametzioides, and ITS and partial translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) genes were used for identification of Purpureocillium lilacinum. Morphologically, they were found to be identical to previous descriptions. The two species presented here have not been previously reported in Korea. PMID:22783137

  10. Penicillium salamii strain ITEM 15302: A new promising fungal starter for salami production.

    PubMed

    Magistà, D; Ferrara, M; Del Nobile, M A; Gammariello, D; Conte, A; Perrone, G

    2016-08-16

    Traditional sausages are often considered of superior quality to sausages inoculated with commercial starter cultures and this is partially due to the action of the typical house microflora. Penicillium nalgiovense is the species commonly used as starter culture for dry-cured meat production. Recently a new species, Penicillium salamii, was described as typical colonizer during salami seasoning. In order to understand its contribution to the seasoning process, two different experiments on curing of fresh pork sausages were conducted using P. salamii ITEM 15302 in comparison with P. nalgiovense ITEM 15292 at small and industrial scale, and the dry-cured sausages were subjected to sensory analyses. Additionally, proteolytic and lipolytic in vitro assays were performed on both strains. P. salamii ITEM 15302 proved to be a fast growing mould on dry-cured sausage casings, well adapted to the seasoning process, with high lipolytic and proteolytic enzymatic activity that confers typical sensory characteristics to meat products. Therefore, P. salamii ITEM 15302 was shown to be a good candidate as new starter for meat industry. PMID:27183229

  11. Effect of ozone on sterilization of Penicillium digitatum using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Iseki, Sachiko; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Masaru

    2008-10-01

    Methyl bromide has been sprayed to the crops for protecting from insects and virus, but has high ozone depletion potential. Thus, the development of substitute-technology has been strongly required. We have investigated a plasma sterilization for spores of Penicillium digitatum, which causes green mold disease of the crops, using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma. The sterilization was caused by UV light, ozone, O and OH radicals. In this study, ozone density was measured and the effect to sterilization was discussed. The plasma was generated at an alternative current of 6kV and Ar gas flow rate of 3L/min. In order to investigate the sterilization mechanism of ozone, the absolute density of ozone was measured using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and was from 2 to 8 ppm. The sterilization by this plasma was larger than that by the ozonizer (03:600ppm). It is confirmed that the effect of ozone to the sterilization of Penicillium digitatum would be small.

  12. Purification, sequencing and evaluation of a divergent phytase from Penicillium oxalicum KCTC6440.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Peter C W

    2015-01-01

    A fungal strain producing high levels of phytase was purified to homogeneity from Penicillium oxalicum KCTC6440 (PhyA). The molecular mass of the purified PhyA was 65 kDa and optimal activity occurred at 55°C. The enzyme was stable in a pH range of 4.5-6.5, with an optimum performance at pH 5.5. The Km value for the substrate sodium phytate was 0.48 mM with a Vmax of 672 U/mg. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+), and slightly enhanced by EDTA. The PhyA efficiently released phosphate from feedstuffs such as soybean, rich bran and corn meal. The PhyA gene was cloned in two steps of degenerate PCR and inverse PCR and found to comprise 1501 bp and encode 461 amino acid residues. The enzyme was found to have only 13 amino acids differing to the known PhyA from other Penicillium sp., but has distinct enzyme characteristics. Computational analysis showed that PhyA possessed more positively charged residues in the active sites compared to other PhyA molecules, which may explain the broader pH spectrum. PMID:26377131

  13. Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Comparison of Solid-State and Submerged Fermentation of Penicillium expansum KACC 40815

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Singh, Digar; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are known to harbor a wide array of secondary metabolites with cryptic bioactivities. However, the metabolomics of these species is not well-understood in terms of different fermentation models and conditions. The present study involved metabolomics profiling and transcriptomic analysis of Penicillium expansum 40815 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Metabolite profiling was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry with multivariate analysis, followed by transcriptomic analyses of differentially expressed genes. In principal component analysis, the metabolite profiling data was studied under different experimental sets, including SSF and SmF. The significantly different metabolites such as polyketide metabolites (agonodepside B, rotiorin, verrucosidin, and ochrephilone) and corresponding gene transcripts (polyketide synthase, aromatic prenyltransferase, and terpenoid synthase) were primarily detected under SmF conditions. In contrast, the meroterpenoid compounds (andrastin A and C) and their genes transcripts were exclusively detected under SSF conditions. We demonstrated that the metabolite production and its corresponding gene expression levels in P. expansum 40815 were significantly influenced by the varying growth parameters and the immediate environment. This study further provides a foundation to produce specific metabolites by regulating fermentation conditions. PMID:26863302

  14. Successful treatment of intra-abdominal eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti in a dog.

    PubMed

    Janovec, J; Brockman, D J; Priestnall, S L; Kulendra, N J

    2016-03-01

    A 2-year-old female neutered golden retriever was presented for investigation of an intra-abdominal mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass associated with the caudal pole of the right kidney. Incisional biopsy findings were consistent with eumycotic mycetoma. The mass was subsequently removed in conjunction with right ureteronephrectomy. Two years later, the dog re-presented with a splenic mass and fungal plaques located throughout the peritoneum. Splenectomy was performed and the mass was diagnosed as eumycotic mycetoma caused by Penicillium duponti. Indefinite systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg itraconazole orally once a day was initiated. Thirty-two months after the last surgery, there were no clinical signs apart from mild polydipsia. Haematology and biochemistry results were unremarkable. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intra-abdominal eumycotic mycetoma with a combination of surgery and systemic antifungal therapy in the dog. Penicillium duponti has not apparently been reported to cause disease in animals or humans. PMID:26017318

  15. Cloning and sequence analysis of complete gene encoding an alkaline lipase from Penicillium cyclopium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H M; Wu, M C; Guo, J; Li, J F

    2011-01-01

    The complete gene (PG37 lipI) encoding an alkaline lipase (PG37 LipI) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Penicillium cyclopium PG37. The cloned PG37 lipI is 2020 bp in length, consisting of 632 bp of the 5' flanking promoter region and 1388 bp of the downstream fragment that contains 6 exons and 5 short introns. The promoter region harbors putative TATA box, CAAT box and several transcription factor binding sites. The open reading frame (ORF) encodes a PG37 LipI of 285 amino acid residues, which was predicted to contain a 20-aa signal peptide, a 7-aa propeptide and a 258-aa mature peptide with a conserved motif Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. However, PG37 LipI shows only 32%, 30%, 28% and 26% identity with lipases of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium camembertii, Thermomyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor miehei, respectively. It was predicted that the main secondary structures of PG37 LipI are alpha-helix and random coil. Three amino acid residues, Ser132-Asp188-His241, compose the enzymatic active center in the tertiary structure. PMID:22288192

  16. Optimization of cellulase production by Penicillium oxalicum using banana agrowaste as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shilpa P; Kalia, Kiran S; Patel, Jagdish S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a higher amount of cellulase by using an alternative carbon source, such as banana agrowaste, and to optimize the fermentation parameters for a high yield. In the present study, cellulase-producing Penicillium was isolated from a decaying wood sample. Different nutritional and environmental factors were investigated to assess their effect on cellulase production. The highest crude enzyme production was observed at a pH 6.0 and a temperature of 28°C in a medium that was supplemented with banana agrowaste as the carbon source. Pretreatment with 2N NaOH, at 7% substrate (banana agrowaste) concentration yielded the highest cellulase activity. Further to this, the effect of other parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum size, static and agitated conditions were also studied. It is concluded that Penicillium oxalicum is a powerful cellulase-producer strain under our tested experimental conditions using banana agrowaste as the carbon source. PMID:26018499

  17. Penicillium sp. as an organism that degrades endosulfan and reduces its genotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Romero-Aguilar, Mariana; Tovar-Sánchez, Efrain; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Sánchez-Meza, Juan Carlos; Castrejón-Godínez, María Luisa; Dantán-González, Edgar; Trujillo-Vera, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan is an organochloride and persistent pesticide that has caused concern because of its impact in the environment and its toxicity to and bioaccumulation in living organisms. In this study, we isolated an endosulfan-degrading fungus from the activated sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Through repetitive enrichment and successive subculture in media containing endosulfan as the sole carbon source, a fungus designated CHE 23 was isolated. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, strain CHE 23 was assigned to the genus Penicillium sp. In a mineral salt medium with 50 mg/l endosulfan as the sole source carbon, CHE 23 removed the added endosulfan in a period of six days. To verify the decrease in endosulfan toxicity due to the activity of the fungus, we performed genotoxicity tests trough the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay, with Eisenia fetida as the bioindicator species. This organism was exposed to the supernatants of the culture of the fungus and endosulfan. Our results indicated that the genotoxicity of endosulfan was completely reduced due the activity of this fungus. These results suggest that the Penicillium sp. CHE 23 strain can be used to degrade endosulfan residues and/or for water and soil bioremediation processes without causing toxicity problems, which are probably due to the generation of no-toxic metabolites during biodegradation. PMID:25279327

  18. New penicillin-producing Penicillium species and an overview of section Chrysogena.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Seifert, K A; Overy, D P; Tuthill, D M; Valdez, J G; Samson, R A

    2012-12-01

    Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments and various food and feedstuffs. Another biotechnologically important species is P. nalgiovense, which is used as a fungal starter culture for the production of fermented meat products. Previous taxonomic studies often had conflicting species circumscriptions. Here, we present a multigene analysis, combined with phenotypic characters and extrolite data, demonstrating that sect. Chrysogena consists of 18 species. Six of these are newly described here (P. allii-sativi, P. desertorum, P. goetzii, P. halotolerans, P. tardochrysogenum, P. vanluykii) and P. lanoscoeruleum was found to be an older name for P. aethiopicum. Each species produces a unique extrolite profile. The species share phenotypic characters, such as good growth on CYA supplemented with 5 % NaCl, ter- or quarterverticillate branched conidiophores and short, ampulliform phialides (< 9 μm). Conidial colours, production of ascomata and ascospores, shape and ornamentation of conidia and growth rates on other agar media are valuable for species identification. Eight species (P. allii-sativi, P. chrysogenum, P. dipodomyis, P. flavigenum, P. nalgiovense, P. rubens, P. tardochrysogenum and P. vanluykii) produce penicillin in culture. PMID:23606767

  19. Proteomics Insights into the Biomass Hydrolysis Potentials of a Hypercellulolytic Fungus Penicillium funiculosum.

    PubMed

    Ogunmolu, Funso Emmanuel; Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Mayank; Bashir, Zeenat; Pasari, Nandita; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2015-10-01

    The quest for cheaper and better enzymes needed for the efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass has placed filamentous fungi in the limelight for bioprospecting research. In our search for efficient biomass degraders, we identified a strain of Penicillium funiculosum whose secretome demonstrates high saccharification capabilities. Our probe into the secretome of the fungus through qualitative and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics studies revealed a high abundance of inducible CAZymes and several nonhydrolytic accessory proteins. The preferential association of these proteins and the attending differential biomass hydrolysis gives an insight into their interactions and clues about possible roles of novel hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic proteins in the synergistic deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Our study thus provides the first comprehensive insight into the repertoire of proteins present in a high-performing secretome of a hypercellulolytic Penicillium funiculosum, their relative abundance in the secretome, and the interaction dynamics of the various protein groups in the secretome. The gleanings from the stoichiometry of these interactions hold a prospect as templates in the design of cost-effective synthetic cocktails for the optimal hydrolysis of biomass. PMID:26288988

  20. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel (Taxol™) is an important anticancer drug with a unique mode of action. The biosynthesis of paclitaxel had been considered restricted to the Taxus species until it was discovered in Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of T. brevifolia. Subsequently, paclitaxel was found in hazel (Corylus avellana L.) and in several other endophytic fungi. The distribution of paclitaxel in plants and endophytic fungi and the reported sequence homology of key genes in paclitaxel biosynthesis between plant and fungi species raises the question about whether the origin of this pathway in these two physically associated groups could have been facilitated by horizontal gene transfer. Results The ability of the endophytic fungus of hazel Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 to independently synthesize paclitaxel was established by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The genome of Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 was sequenced and gene candidates that may be involved in paclitaxel biosynthesis were identified by comparison with the 13 known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes in Taxus. We found that paclitaxel biosynthetic gene candidates in P. aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431 have evolved independently and that horizontal gene transfer between this endophytic fungus and its plant host is unlikely. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on how paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungi synthesize paclitaxel, and will facilitate metabolic engineering for the industrial production of paclitaxel from fungi. PMID:24460898

  1. Impact of water activity of diverse media on spore germination of Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Nanguy, Sidjè Paule-Marina; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2010-08-15

    The effects of water activity (a(w)) of diverse media i/ culture medium for sporogenesis, a(w sp) ii/ liquid spore suspension medium, a(w su) and iii/ medium for germination, a(w ge), on the germination time t(G) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium expansum were assessed according to a screening matrix at 0.95 and 0.99 a(w). It was shown that i/ reduced t(G)s were obtained at 0.95 a(w sp) except for P. expansum ii/ a significant effect of a(w su) on t(G) was demonstrated for A. carbonarius, P. chrysogenum and P. expansum iii/ the most important factor for controlling the germination time was the medium for germination except for A. carbonarius (a(w su)). In accordance with the fact that fungal spores can swell as soon as they are suspended in an aqueous solution it is recommended to re-suspend fungal spores in a solution at the same water activity as that of subsequent germination studies. PMID:20673593

  2. Molecular characterization and a multiplex allele-specific PCR method for detection of thiabendazole resistance in Penicillium expansum from apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is commonly used as a postharvest treatment for control of blue mold in apples caused by Penicillium expansum. Different point mutations in the ß-tubulin gene conferring benzimidazole resistance have been reported in plant pathogens, but molecular mechanisms of TBZ resistance in ...

  3. Isolation, purification, and characterization of a polygalacturonase produced in Penicillium solitum-decayed 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was extracted and purified from decayed Golden Delicious apple fruit inoculated with Penicillium solitum. Gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. Both methods revealed a single peak corresponding to PG activity and analysis of cation ...

  4. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  5. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and identification of mycotoxigenic Penicillium species using conserved genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of conserved genes and sequence analysis provides a very powerful tool for the identification of toxigenic as well as non-toxigenic Penicillium species. Sequences are obtained by amplification of the gene fragment, sequencing via capillary electrophoresis of d...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  7. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates with reduced sensitivity to fludioxonil from a commercial packinghouse in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold is caused by Penicillium expansum and is among the most economically significant disease of stored apples worldwide. The fungus gains ingress through cracks, natural openings, and wounds in the fruit and produces mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. All commercial apples a...

  8. Purification and biochemical characterization of polygalacturonase produced by Penicillium expansum during postharvest decay of ‘Anjou’ pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polygalacturonase (PG) was extracted and purified from decayed tissue of ‘Anjou’ pear fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography were used to purify the enzyme. Both chromatographic methods revealed a single peak co...

  9. Host specificity of Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, E. cinnamopurpureum, and two new Penicillium species associated with the conidial heads of Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Penicillium comprises species that mostly colonize plant matter. However, early reports suggest that several species are capable of parasitizing Aspergillus and sporulating on the conidial heads of the host. More recently Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum and E. cinnamopurpureum, both with Pe...

  10. Identification of wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) with resistance to the postharvest decay pathogens Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum cause blue mold and bitter rot of apples during storage which results in significant economic losses. Resistance to these pathogens in commercial apple cultivars has not been documented in the literature. An apple germplasm collection, from the center...

  11. GenBank submission of draft whole genome sequence of the apple decay pathogen Penicillium solitum (RS1 isolate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium species cause postharvest blue mold decay of apples and pears in the United States and in many countries worldwide. This genus is responsible for severe economic losses and produces an array of mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Among the species that cause blue mold,...

  12. Carbon, nitrogen and pH regulate the production and activity of a polygalacturonase isozyme produced by Penicillium expansum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of carbon, nitrogen and pH on polygalacturonase activity produced by Penicillium expansum were investigated. P. expansum mycelial growth was greatest on lyophilized fruit tissue and the highest PG activity occurred in apple pectin medium. Nitrogen source influenced PG activity and was ...

  13. Temperature suppresses decay on apple fruit by affecting Penicillium solitum conidial germination, mycelial growth and polygalacturonase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium solitum causes blue mold on apples during storage which results in economic losses. Information pertaining to growth and decay caused by this pathogen is important for developing disease control strategies. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of temperature on decay caused by P. solitum ...

  14. Yaequinolones, new insecticidal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. FKI-2140. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryuji; Imasato, Rie; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Masuma, Rokuro; Shiomi, Kazuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-10-01

    New nine insecticidal antibiotics designated yaequinolones were isolated from the culture broth of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. FKI-2140 by solvent extraction, centrifugal partition chromatography and HPLC. Yaequinolones showed growth inhibitory activity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Among them, yaequinolone F has the most potent activity with MIC value of 0.19 microg/ml. PMID:17191680

  15. Penicillium solitum produces a polygalacturonase isozyme in decayed ‘Anjou’ pear fruit capable of macerating host tissue in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polygalacturonase (PG) isozyme was isolated from Penicillium solitum-decayed ‘Anjou’ pear fruit and purified to homogeneity using a multistep process. Both gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography revealed a single PG activity peak and analysis of the purified protein showed a single band...

  16. Exopisiod B and farylhydrazone C, two new alkaloids from the Antarctic-derived fungus Penicillium sp. HDN14-431.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Mei-Lin; Sun, Guang-Yu; Li, Na; Gu, Qian-Qun; Li, De-Hai; Che, Qian; Zhu, Tian-Jiao

    2016-10-01

    Two new compounds, exopisiod B (1) and farylhydrazone C (2), together with two known compounds (3-4), were isolated from the Antarctic-derived fungus Penicillium sp. HDN14-431. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and TDDFT ECD calculations. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of all compounds were tested. PMID:27249624

  17. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  18. Comparative stability and catalytic and chemical properties of the sulfate-activating enzymes from Penicillium chrysogenum (mesophile) and Penicillium duponti (thermophile).

    PubMed Central

    Renosto, F; Schultz, T; Re, E; Mazer, J; Chandler, C J; Barron, A; Segel, I H

    1985-01-01

    ATP sulfurylases from Penicillium chrysogenum (a mesophile) and from Penicillium duponti (a thermophile) had a native molecular weight of about 440,000 and a subunit molecular weight of about 69,000. (The P. duponti subunit appeared to be a little smaller than the P. chrysogenum subunit.) The P. duponti enzyme was about 100 times more heat stable than the P. chrysogenum enzyme; k inact (the first-order rate constant for inactivation) at 65 degrees C = 3.3 X 10(-4) s-1 for P. duponti and 3.0 X 10(-2) s-1 for P. chrysogenum. The P. duponti enzyme was also more stable to low pH and urea at 30 degrees C. Rabbit serum antibodies to each enzyme showed heterologous cross-reaction. Amino acid analyses disclosed no major compositional differences between the two enzymes. The analogous Km and Ki values of the forward and reverse reactions were also essentially identical at 30 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, the physiologically important adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) synthesis activity of the P. duponti enzyme was 4 U mg of protein-1, which is about half that of the P. chrysogenum enzyme. The molybdolysis and ATP synthesis activities of the P. duponti enzyme at 30 degrees C were similar to those of the P. chrysogenum enzyme. At 50 degrees C, the APS synthesis activity of the P. duponti enzyme was 12 to 19 U mg of protein-1, which was higher than that of the P. chrysogenum enzyme at 30 degrees C (8 +/- 1 U mg of protein-1). Treatment of the P. chrysogenum enzyme with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) at 30 degrees C under nondenaturing conditions modified one free sulfhydryl group per subunit. Vmax was not significantly altered, but the catalytic activity at low magnesium-ATP or SO4(2-) (or MoO4(2-)) was markedly reduced. Chemical modification with tetranitromethane had the same results on the kinetics. The native P. duponti enzyme was relatively unreactive toward DTNB or tetranitromethane at 30 degrees C and pH 8.0 or pH 9.0, but at 50 degrees C and pH 8.0, DTNB rapidly

  19. Common Reservoirs for Penicillium marneffei Infection in Humans and Rodents, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cunwei; Wang, Wenjuan; Luo, Hong; Huang, Shaobiao; Liu, Donghua; Xu, Jianping; Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Human penicilliosis marneffei is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Penicillium marneffei. High prevalence of infection among bamboo rats of the genera Rhizomys and Cannomys suggest that these rodents are a key facet of the P. marneffei life cycle. We trapped bamboo rats during June 2004–July 2005 across Guangxi Province, China, and demonstrated 100% prevalence of infection. Multilocus genotypes show that P. marneffei isolates from humans are similar to those infecting rats and are in some cases identical. Comparison of our dataset with genotypes recovered from sites across Southeast Asia shows that the overriding component of genetic structure in P. marneffei is spatial, with humans containing a greater diversity of genotypes than rodents. Humans and bamboo rats are sampling an as-yet undiscovered common reservoir of infection, or bamboo rats are a vector for human infections by acting as amplifiers of infectious dispersal stages. PMID:21291590

  20. Bioactive metabolites isolated from Penicillium sp. YY-20, the endophytic fungus from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Tian, Jun-Mian; Xiao, Jian; Shao, Qi; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Six known metabolites, adenosine (1), methyl β-D-ribofuranoside (2), adenine (3), 2'-deoxyadenosine (4), 3-methylpiperazine-2,5-dione (5) and 2'-deoxyuridine (6), were isolated from the extracts of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. YY-20 isolated from the root of Ginkgo biloba, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant and growth-promoting activities of these compounds were first evaluated. The results indicated that compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited potential DPPH-scavenging activities compared with positive control. In addition, all the compounds (except 5) stimulated seed germination of Raphanus sativus, Brassica napus and Brassica chinensis but had weak stimulating effect on their root and hypocotyl growth. PMID:24144081

  1. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans. [Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium citrinum

    SciTech Connect

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-04-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10/sup 7/ microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co/sup 60/ source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50/sup 0/C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10/sup 4/ and 1.4 x 10/sup 3/ spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D/sub 10/ values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references.

  2. Improvement of a gene targeting system for genetic manipulation in Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Zhu, Cong-yi; Wang, Ming-shang; Sun, Xue-peng; Li, Hong-ye

    2014-02-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most important pathogen of postharvest citrus. Gene targeting can be done in P. digitatum using homologous recombination via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), but the frequencies are often very low. In the present study, we replaced the Ku80 homolog (a gene of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) with the hygromycin resistance cassette (hph) by ATMT. No significant change in vegetative growth, conidiation, or pathogenicity was observed in Ku80-deficient strain (ΔPdKu80) of P. digitatum. However, using ΔPdKu80 as a targeting strain, the gene-targeting frequencies for both genes PdbrlA and PdmpkA were significantly increased. These results suggest that Ku80 plays an important role in homologous integration and the created ΔPdKu80 strain would be a good candidate for rapid gene function analysis in P. digitatum. PMID:24510704

  3. Characterization of novel thermostable polygalacturonases from Penicillium brasilianum and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Jamile; Pili, Jonaina; Cence, Karine; Toniazzo, Geciane; Treichel, Helen; Valduga, Eunice

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was the partial characterization of polygalacturonase (PG) extracts produced by a newly isolated Penicillium brasilianum and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation. The partial characterization of the crude enzymatic extracts showed optimum activity at pH 5.5 and 37 °C for both extracts. The results of temperature stability showed that PG from both microorganisms were more stable at 55 °C. However, the enzyme obtained by P. brasilianum presents a half-life time (t 1/2 = 693.10 h), about one order of magnitude higher than those observed in for A. niger at 55 °C. In terms of pH stability, the PG produced by P. brasilianum presented higher stability at pH 4.0 and 5.0, while the PG from A. niger showed higher stability at pH 5.0. PMID:26341112

  4. Morphogenesis and production of enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in response to different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Willian Daniel Hahn; dos Reis, Laísa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β -glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol. PMID:24877074

  5. Production, characterization and (co-)immobilization of dextranase from Penicillium aculeatum.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Frank A; Stammen, Simon; Jördening, Hans-Joachim

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation kinetics of Penicillium aculeatum ATCC 10409 demonstrated that fungal growth and dextranase release are decoupled. Inoculation by conidia or mycelia resulted in identical kinetics. Two new isoenzymes of the dextranase were characterized regarding their kinetic constants, pI, MW, activation energy and stabilities. The larger enzyme was 3-fold more active (turnover number: 2,230 +/- 97 s(-1)). Pre-treatment of bentonite with H(2)O(2) did not affect adsorption characteristics of dextranase. Enzyme to bentonite ratios above 0.5:1 (w/w) resulted in a high conservation of activity upon adsorption. Furthermore, dextranase could be used in co-immobilizates for the direct conversion of sucrose into isomalto-oligosaccharides (e.g. isomaltose). Yields of co-immobilizates were 2-20 times that of basic immobilizates, which consist of dextransucrase without dextranase. PMID:18264680

  6. Gentisyl alcohol derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium terrestre.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Fang, Yuchun; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

    2008-01-01

    Nine new gentisyl alcohol derivatives, namely, the trimeric terrestrol A (8), dimeric terrestrols B-H (1-7), and a monomeric derivative (12), together with four known analogues (9-11, 13) were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium terrestre. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional NMR as well as low- and high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis. These new compounds (1-8, 12) showed cytotoxic effects on HL-60, MOLT-4, BEL-7402, and A-549 cell lines with IC50 values in the range 5-65 microM. Compound 6 also showed moderate inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinases (Src and KDR). Furthermore, all new compounds exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 values in the range 2.6-8.5 microM. PMID:18163588

  7. Cybernetic modeling based on pathway analysis for Penicillium chrysogenum fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jun; Yuan, Jingqi

    2010-08-01

    A macrokinetic model employing cybernetic methodology is proposed to describe mycelium growth and penicillin production. Based on the primordial and complete metabolic network of Penicillium chrysogenum found in the literature, the modeling procedure is guided by metabolic flux analysis and cybernetic modeling framework. The abstracted cybernetic model describes the transients of the consumption rates of the substrates, the assimilation rates of intermediates, the biomass growth rate, as well as the penicillin formation rate. Combined with the bioreactor model, these reaction rates are linked with the most important state variables, i.e., mycelium, substrate and product concentrations. Simplex method is used to estimate the sensitive parameters of the model. Finally, validation of the model is carried out with 20 batches of industrial-scale penicillin cultivation. PMID:19543751

  8. Morphogenetic circuitry regulating growth and development in the dimorphic pathogen Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2013-02-01

    Penicillium marneffei is an emerging human-pathogenic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia. Like a number of other fungal pathogens, P. marneffei exhibits temperature-dependent dimorphic growth and grows in two distinct cellular morphologies, hyphae at 25°C and yeast cells at 37°C. Hyphae can differentiate to produce the infectious agents, asexual spores (conidia), which are inhaled into the host lung, where they are phagocytosed by pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Within macrophages, conidia germinate into unicellular yeast cells, which divide by fission. This minireview focuses on the current understanding of the genes required for the morphogenetic control of conidial germination, hyphal growth, asexual development, and yeast morphogenesis in P. marneffei. PMID:23204189

  9. Production of conidia of Penicillium camemberti in liquid medium through microcycles of conidiation.

    PubMed

    Boualem, Khadidja; Gervais, Patrick; Cavin, Jean-François; Waché, Yves

    2014-11-01

    Microcycle conidiation is a survival mechanism of fungi encountering unfavorable conditions. In this phenomenon, asexual spores germinate secondary spores directly without formation of mycelium. As Penicillium camemberti conidia have the ability to produce conidiophores after germination in liquid culture induced by a thermal stress (18 and 30 °C), our work has aimed at producing conidia through this mean. Incubation at 18 and 30 °C increased the swelling of conidia and their proportion thereby producing conidiophores. Our results showed that the microcycle of conidiation can produce 5 × 10(8) conidia ml(-1) after 7 days at 18 °C of culture. The activity of these conidia was checked through culture on a solid medium. Conidia produced by microcycle conidiation formed a normal mycelium on the surface of solid media and 25 % could still germinate after 5 months of storage. PMID:24975730

  10. Bioactive Compounds Produced by Strains of Penicillium and Talaromyces of Marine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Nicoletti, Rosario; Trincone, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the search for novel natural compounds with bioactive properties has received a remarkable boost in view of their possible pharmaceutical exploitation. In this respect the sea is entitled to hold a prominent place, considering the potential of the manifold animals and plants interacting in this ecological context, which becomes even greater when their associated microbes are considered for bioprospecting. This is the case particularly of fungi, which have only recently started to be considered for their fundamental contribution to the biosynthetic potential of other more valued marine organisms. Also in this regard, strains of species which were previously considered typical terrestrial fungi, such as Penicillium and Talaromyces, disclose foreground relevance. This paper offers an overview of data published over the past 25 years concerning the production and biological activities of secondary metabolites of marine strains belonging to these genera, and their relevance as prospective drugs. PMID:26901206