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Sample records for pentandra bong vog

  1. The Vog Measurement and Prediction (VMAP) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, S.; Huff, R.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions from Kilauea volcano pose significant environmental and health risks to Hawaii. The overarching goal of this feasibility project is to develop an accurate and timely volcanic air-pollution forecasting capacity with a program of verification using state-of-the-art observation methods. To date VMAP has (i) created a real-time modeling and forecast capability using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to predict the concentration and dispersion of SO2 gas and sulfate aerosol from Kilauea volcano (Fig. 1). HYSPLIT uses the output of a high-resolution operational run of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model for initial and boundary conditions. (ii) Developed an operational spectrometer-based SO2 emission rate monitor for use as input to the dispersion model, (iii) Cooperatively deployed an array of stationary SO2 gas and sulfate aerosol sensors to record the ground-level spatial characteristics of Kilauea's gas plume in high temporal and spatial resolution for verification and improvement of the gas dispersion prediction, (iv) Developed a series of web pages to disseminate observations and forecasts, which can be used by safety officials to protect the public, and to raise public awareness of the hazards of volcanic emissions to respiratory health, agriculture, and general aviation, (v) Developed an archive of vog data to facilitate estimation of historical concentration frequency-of-exposure. VMAP provides technical support for researchers, health professionals, and to our stakeholders, who have also provided constructive input in the development of our products. Preliminary results of our efforts will be presented and future work will be discussed.

  2. Proposal to conserve Tamarix ramosissima against T. pentandra Tamaricaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ledebour described Tamarix ramosissima in 1829 from plants collected in Kazakhstan (Lake Noor Zaisan). In the protologue he overlooked T. pentandra Pall. (l.c.) and T. pallasii Desv. (l.c.), two earlier names which apply to the same biological entity, also widespread through Central and Western Asia...

  3. [Cannabis "bong": A frequent, original and dangerous way of consumption].

    PubMed

    Paleiron, N; André, M; Durand, M; Tromeur, C; Giacardi, C; Grassin, F; Vinsonneau, U

    2016-05-01

    The bong is a water pipe craft, used to smoke tobacco or cannabis. The benefit of consuming cannabis as a "bang" is based on the intensity and speed of the effect. The cannabis intoxication can then be associated with disorders of sensory functions, the type of distortion of perceptions or hallucinations, often accompanied by intense anxiety. Bong cannabis consumption appears to be responsible for specific side effects (especially hemoptysis), possibly related to the importance of inhalation of products of combustion of cannabis and combustion of plastic parts used in its manufacture. PMID:27113618

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA.

    PubMed

    Samina, Afzal; Bashir Ahmad, Chaudhry; Javaria, Saeed; Khurram, Afzal; Bilal, Ahmed; Muhammad Imran, Qadiri

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Zaleya pentandra. It inhibited the growth of S. typhi, with zone of inhibition 13 mm at concentration 3 mg/100 µL and 11 mm at concentration 1.5 mg/100 µL. It also showed zone of inhibition against S. aureus with 17.5 mm and 12.5 mm at concentration 3 mg/100 µL in comparison to erythromycin with 15.6 mm. It showed 73% radical scavenging at concentration 161 µL/mL. The extract was fractioned by column chromatography using eluents (chloroform:methanol:H₂O). The isolation and purification afforded amorphous solid which was subjected to physical, chemical and spectral techniques UV, IR, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and HREI-MS for the structure elucidation of the isolated compound. The compound was named pentandraol. From the present study, it was concluded that the methanolic extract of Zaleya pentandra has antibacterial and antioxidant activity and contains a novel compound named as pentandraol. PMID:27008809

  5. An indoor air quality assessment for vulnerable populations exposed to volcanic vog from Kilauea Volcano.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Longo, Anthony A; Harris, Merylin; Bibilone, Renwick

    2010-01-01

    The Ka'u District of Hawaii is exposed to sulfurous air pollution called vog from the ongoing eruption of Kilauea Volcano. Increased volcanic activity in 2008 prompted an indoor air quality assessment of the district's hospital and schools. All indoor sulfur dioxide concentrations were above the World Health Organization's average 24-hour recommendation. Indoor penetration ratios were up to 94% of ambient levels and dependent upon building construction or the use of air-conditioning. Health-promotion efforts for vulnerable populations at the hospital and schools are under way to improve indoor air quality and respond to those affected by vog exposure. PMID:20010002

  6. Observing and Predicting Vog Dispersion from Hawai'i's K¯i lauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Pattantyus, Andre; Horton, Keith; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the Kīlauea volcano on the Island of Hawai'i enters its 32st year of nearly continuous eruption. Since 1983, east rift SO2 emissions have ranged from <50 tonnes, during the periods of eruptive pause, to over 30,000 tonnes per day, during periods of enhanced activity. Emissions from Kīlauea volcano pose significant environmental and health risks to the Hawai'i community. The Vog Measurement and Prediction (VMAP) project was conceived to help mitigate the negative impacts of Kīlauea's emissions. To date, VMAP has achieved the following milestones: (i) created a custom application of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HY-SPLIT) model (Vog Model, hereafter) to produce real-time statewide forecasts of the concentration and dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol from Kīlauea volcano; (ii) developed an ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer array to provide near real-time volcanic gas emission rate measurements for use as input to the dispersion model; (iii) developed and deployed a stationary array of ambient SO2 and meteorological sensors to record the spatial characteristics of Kīlauea's gas plume in high temporal and spatial resolution for model verification; and (iv) developed web-based dissemination of observations and forecasts that provide guidance for safety officials to protect the public and raise public awareness of the potential hazards of volcanic emissions to respiratory health, agriculture, and general aviation (http://weather.hawaii.edu/vmap/). Wind fields and thermodynamic data from the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model provide input to the vog model, with a statewide resolution of 3 km and a resolution of 1 km covering Hawai'i Island. Validation of the vog model predictions is accomplished with reference to data from Hawai'i State Department of Health ground-based Air Quality monitors. VMAP results show that this approach can provide useful guidance for the people of Hawai'i. An

  7. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim. PMID:26379743

  8. Attack of the vog: Natural air pollution has residents of Hawaii all choked up

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1995-05-06

    In Hawaii, measurements of sulfur dioxide of 600-1000 ppb have been measured, almost as high as the deadly London Fog of 1952. The Kilauea Volcano has produced a slow but steady supply of lava since 1986, emiting as a by product about 1,000 tones of sulfur dioxide gas each day, one of the biggest air pollution sources on the island. This article examines the origins of the `Vog` and discusses its effect on human health, comparing it to National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

  9. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairwa, Nirmal K.; Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Mishra, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:21808535

  10. Assessment of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating Ceiba pentandra (kapok) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Kiran, Chekuboyina; Rao, Dadi Bhaskara; Sirisha, Nagala; Rao, Tamanam Raghava

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the significance of germination on phytochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities of Ceiba pentandra seed extracts. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating seeds of Ceiba pentandra were estimated by different methods. The levels of phytochemical constituents were influenced by germination and increased except alkaloids and tannins, which were decreased significantly during germination. Among non-enzymatic antioxidants like DPPH, FRAP, reducing assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity all showed improved activity compared with non-germinating seeds. This may be due to various reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were generated as by-products of metabolism during germination. This group of ROS included superoxide radicals (O2), hydrogen peroxide radicals (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The formation of these oxygen radicals resulted in the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides by radical chain oxidation via phospholipids peroxy radicals within membranes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that this could be related to the increase of antioxidant activity in large unilamellar vesicles observed in germinated seeds. The implication of this study is that the Ceiba pentandra seeds as natural antioxidant agents and put forward the possibility of employing for therapeutic potential. PMID:26442618

  11. Acute health effects associated with exposure to volcanic air pollution (vog) from increased activity at Kilauea Volcano in 2008.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei; Green, Joshua B; Crosby, Frederick L; Crosby, Vickie L

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i increased eruption activity and emissions of sulfurous volcanic air pollution called vog. The purpose of this study was to promptly assess for a relative increase in cases of medically diagnosed acute illnesses in an exposed Hawaiian community. Using a within-clinic retrospective cohort design, comparisons were made for visits of acute illnesses during the 14 wk prior to the increased volcanic emissions (low exposure) to 14 wk of high vog exposure when ambient sulfur dioxide was threefold higher and averaged 75 parts per billion volume per day. Logistic regression analysis estimated effect measures between the low- and high-exposure cohorts for age, gender, race, and smoking status. There were statistically significant positive associations between high vog exposure and visits for medically diagnosed cough, headache, acute pharyngitis, and acute airway problems. More than a sixfold increase in odds was estimated for visits with acute airway problems, primarily experienced by young Pacific Islanders. These findings suggest that the elevated volcanic emissions in 2008 were associated with increased morbidity of acute illnesses in age and racial subgroups of the general Hawaiian population. Continued investigation is crucial to fully assess the health impact of this natural source of sulfurous air pollution. Culturally appropriate primary- and secondary-level health prevention initiatives are recommended for populations in Hawai'i and volcanically active areas worldwide. PMID:20818536

  12. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A.; Ryu, Yeon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed. PMID:23983793

  13. “Huay Bong 80” a new variety with high yield and high stability for starch content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huay Bong 80 is a new cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) variety developed by researchers from Kasetsart University cooperating with the Thai Tapioca Development Institute (TTDI). This new variety has been protected by the Thai New Plant Variety Protection Act of B.E. 2542 (AD 1999) from January 4,...

  14. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts. PMID:26642683

  15. Community quarantine to interrupt Ebola virus transmission - Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August-October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Blackley, David J; Freeman, Tabeh; Lindblade, Kim A; Arzoaquoi, Samson K; Mott, Joshua A; Williams, Justin N; Halldin, Cara N; Kollie, Francis; Laney, A Scott

    2015-02-27

    On September 30, 2014, the Bong County health officer notified the county Ebola task force of a growing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Mawah, a village of approximately 800 residents. During September 9-16, household quarantine had been used by the community in response to a new Ebola infection. Because the infection led to a local outbreak that grew during September 17-20, county authorities suggested community quarantine be considered, and beginning on approximately September 20, the Fuamah District Ebola Task Force (Task Force) engaged Mawah leaders to provide education about Ebola and to secure cooperation for the proposed measures. On September 30, Bong County requested technical assistance to develop strategies to limit transmission in the village and to prevent spread to other areas. The county health team, with support from the Task Force and CDC, traveled to Mawah on October 1 and identified approximately two dozen residents reporting symptoms consistent with Ebola. Because of an ambulance shortage, 2 days were required, beginning October 1, to transport the patients to an Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia. Community quarantine measures, consisting of restrictions on entering or leaving Mawah, regulated river crossings, and market closures, were implemented on October 1. Local leaders raised concerns about availability of medical care and food. The local clinic was reopened on October 11, and food was distributed on October 12. The Task Force reported a total of 22 cases of Ebola in Mawah during September 9-October 2, of which 19 were fatal. During October 3-November 21, no new cases were reported in the village. Involving community members during planning and implementation helped support a safe and effective community quarantine in Mawah. PMID:25719679

  16. Antibiotic-modifying activity of riachin, a non-cyanogenic cyanoglycoside extracted from Bauhinia pentandra

    PubMed Central

    de Farias, Pablo Antonio Maia; Figueredo, Fernando Gomes; Lucas, Aline Maria Brito; de Moura, Rafael Barbosa; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Martin, Ana Luiza de Aguiar Rocha; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França

    2015-01-01

    Background The search for new active compounds from the Brazilian flora has intensified in recent years, especially for new drugs with antibiotic potential. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine whether riachin has antibiotic activity in itself or is able to modulate the activity of conventional antibiotics. Methods A non-cyanogenic cyanoglycoside known as riachin was isolated from Bauhinia pentandra, and was tested alone and in combination with three antibiotics (clindamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin) against multiresistant bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus). Results Riachin did not show significant antibiotic activity when tested alone against any strain (P>0.05). However, when combined with conventional antibiotics, it showed drug-modifying activity against strains of S. aureus exposed to clindamycin (P<0.001) as well as against P. aeruginosa exposed to amikacin (P<0.001). Although riachin did not show direct antibiotic activity, it had synergistic activity when combined with amikacin or clindamycin. The mechanism of action of this synergism is under investigation. Conclusion The results of this work demonstrate that some substances of natural origin can enhance the effectiveness of certain antibiotics, which means a substantial reduction in the drug dose required and possibly in consequent adverse events for patients. PMID:26109849

  17. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts.

    PubMed

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  18. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  19. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extracts from Helicteres isora L. and Ceiba pentandra L.

    PubMed

    Loganayaki, Nataraj; Siddhuraju, Perumal; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts from H. isora fruits and C. pentandra seeds were investigated by employing established in vitro systems, which included reducing power, OH(●), DPPH(●), ABTS(●+), linoleic acid emulsion, metal chelation and antihemolytic activity. The extracts of C. pentandra contained relatively higher levels of total phenolics and flavonoids than those of H. isora. All the extracts showed dose dependent reducing power activity and moreover, they were well correlated with the total phenolic substances. A similar dose dependant trend has also been observed for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DPPH(●) radical scavenging activity. Further, addition of 250 μg of extracts to the reaction mixture produced 41.3-54.6% peroxidation inhibiting activity during 60 h of incubation. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity of samples can be further evidenced by inhibition of reactive oxygen mediated erythrocyte cell lysis and metal ion chelating activity. PMID:24425970

  20. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  1. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2016-01-01

    Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. PMID:27556451

  2. Kinetic study on microwave-assisted esterification of free fatty acids derived from Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Thanh; Yusup, Suzana; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Recently, a great attention has been paid to advanced microwave technology that can be used to markedly enhance the biodiesel production process. Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil containing high free fatty acids (FFA) was utilized as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Microwave-assisted esterification pretreatment was conducted to reduce the FFA content for promoting a high-quality product in the next step. At optimum condition, the conversion was achieved 94.43% using 2wt% of sulfuric acid as catalyst where as 20.83% conversion was attained without catalyst. The kinetics of this esterification reaction was also studied to determine the influence of factors on the rate of reaction and reaction mechanisms. The results indicated that microwave-assisted esterification was of endothermic second-order reaction with the activation energy of 53.717kJ/mol. PMID:27019128

  3. Quercetin and quercetin 3-O-glycosides from Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. show anti-Mayaro virus activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The arthropod-borne Mayaro virus (MAYV) causes ‘Mayaro fever’, a disease of medical significance, primarily affecting individuals in permanent contact with forested areas in tropical South America. Recently, MAYV has attracted attention due to its likely urbanization. Currently, there are no licensed drugs against most mosquito-transmitted viruses. Here, we investigated the in vitro anti-MAYV activity of the flavonoids quercetin and its derivatives from the Brazilian shrub Bauhinia longifolia (Bong.) Steud. Methods Flavonoids were purified by chromatographic fractionation from leaf extracts of B. longifolia and chemically identified as quercetin and quercetin glycosides using spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity of purified flavonoids and of EtOAc- and n-BuOH-containing flavonoid mixtures was measured by the dye-uptake assay while their antiviral activity was evaluated by a virus yield inhibition assay. Results The following flavonoids were purified from B. longifolia leaves: non-glycosylated quercetin and its glycosides guaijaverin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and hyperin. EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions containing these flavonoids demonstrated the highest antiviral activity of all tested substances, while quercetin had the highest antiviral activity amongst purified flavonoids. Quercetin, EtOAc, or n-BuOH fractions inhibited MAYV production by more than 90% at 25 μg/mL, displaying a stronger antiviral effect than the licensed antiviral ribavirin. A mixture of the isomers isoquercitrin and hyperin had a modest antiviral effect (IC90 = 104.9), while guaijaverin and quercitrin did not show significant antiviral activity. Conclusions B. longifolia is a good source of flavonoids with anti-Mayaro virus activity. This is the first report of the activity of quercetin and its derivatives against an alphavirus. PMID:24678592

  4. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  5. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

    2011-05-01

    Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species. PMID:21755150

  6. Bing Bong Bang.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong, Tham Yew

    1996-01-01

    The communication style of Asians is less "self exposing" than that of Americans, because Asian culture places more importance on the group than the individual. Integrating American-style adventure-education programs into Asian culture would require an understanding of adventure learning stripped of its cultural influences, understanding of Asian…

  7. Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok fiber) as a resource for second generation bioethanol: effect of various simple pretreatment methods on sugar production.

    PubMed

    Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Leh, Cheu Peng

    2012-07-01

    The importance of bioethanol currently has increased tremendously as it can reduce the total dependency on fossil-fuels, especially gasoline, in the transportation sector. In this study, Ceiba pentandra (kapok fiber) was introduced as a new resource for bioethanol production. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that the cellulose (alpha- and beta-) contents were 50.7%. The glucose composition of the fiber was 59.8%. The high glucose content indicated that kapok fiber is a potential substrate for bioethanol production. However, without a pretreatment, the kapok fiber only yielded 0.8% of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. Thus, it is necessary to pre-treat the kapok fiber prior to hydrolysis. Taking into account environmentally friendliness, only simple pretreatments with minimum chemical or energy consumption was considered. It was interesting to see that by adopting merely water, acid and alkaline pretreatments, the yield of reducing sugar was increased to 39.1%, 85.2% and >100%, respectively. PMID:22595099

  8. Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber as a resource for second generation bioethanol: parametric optimization and comparative study of various pretreatments prior enzymatic saccharification for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; Leh, Cheu Peng

    2013-07-01

    Various pretreatments on Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber prior to enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production were optimized in this study. The optimum conditions for water, acid, and alkaline pretreatments were 170°C for 45 min, 120°C for 45 min in 1.0% (v/v) H2SO4 solution and 120°C for 60 min in 2.0% (v/v) NaOH solution, respectively. Among the three pretreatments, the alkaline pretreatment achieved the highest total glucose yield (glucose yield calculated based on the untreated fiber) (38.5%), followed by the water (35.0%) and acid (32.8%) pretreatments. As a result, the relative effectiveness of the pretreatment methods for kapok fiber was verified as alkali>water>acid at the condition stated. PMID:23672935

  9. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal infections caused by Candida krusei are a problem of extreme complexity due to the intrinsic resistance to azole drugs. The species Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland is a plant of the Eriocaulaceae family that has demonstrated promising antifungal activity. In phyto-formulation research, liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive systems (LCPM) stand out as drug delivery systems for vaginal administration because they increase the activity and overcome the problems associated with plant-based medicines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the methanolic extract of scapes of S. nitens (S. nitens extract [SNE]) and an SNE-loaded LCPM against C. krusei as prophylaxis for vulvovaginal candidiasis. LCPM formulation developed consisted of oleic acid as the oil phase (50% w/w), polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol (40% w/w) as the surfactant and a polymeric dispersion containing 2.5% Carbopol® 974P and 2.5% polycarbophil (10% w/w) as the aqueous phase. LCPM formulation developed was characterized using polarized light microscopy, rheological analysis, and in vitro mucoadhesive studies. Different strains of C. krusei, including one standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258) and three clinically isolated strains from the vaginal region (CKV1, 2, and 3), were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilms, and time kill. The in vivo prophylaxis assay was performed using the standard strain (American Type Culture Collection 6258). The analyses of F by polarized light microscopy and rheology showed isotropy; however, the addition of 100% artificial vaginal mucus (F100) made it more viscous and anisotropic. Moreover, the mucoadhesive strength was modified, which makes F an excellent formulation for vaginal applications. SNE was active against all strains studied, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 125 to 62.5 µg/mL; after incorporating SNE into F (FE

  10. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Fallah, Mosaka; Calvert, Geoffrey M.; Duwor, Stanley; Hamilton, E. Dutch; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Dweh, Emmanuel; Burbach, Ryan; Dlouhy, Diane; Oeltmann, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts. PMID:26079309

  11. Cluster of Ebola Virus Disease, Bong and Montserrado Counties, Liberia.

    PubMed

    Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Fallah, Mosaka; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Duwor, Stanley; Hamilton, E Dutch; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Dweh, Emmanuel; Burbach, Ryan; Dlouhy, Diane; Oeltmann, John E; Moonan, Patrick K

    2015-07-01

    Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts. PMID:26079309

  12. "That's not a beer bong, it's a breast pump!" representations of breastfeeding in prime-time fictional television.

    PubMed

    Foss, Katherine A

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been recognized as one of the key determinant in one's future health. Yet although most people are aware of the benefits, many women do not breastfeed their babies past the first few months. These low rates can be partially explained by negative cultural attitudes toward breastfeeding, which have been reinforced by media messages. This research explored representations of breastfeeding in entertainment media-an area that has been overlooked. A textual analysis was conducted on 53 fictional television breastfeeding representations, ranging in genre and audience, from Beavis and Butthead to Criminal Minds. Findings indicate that breastfeeding depictions are generally positive, but limited in scope to educated, older, Caucasian women breastfeeding newborns, with little discussion about how to overcome problems. Extended breastfeeding and nursing in public were conveyed as socially unacceptable, making other characters uncomfortable, often within the same storylines that sexualized breasts. While the frequency of representations in recent years was encouraging, the narrow definition of the "normal" nursing experience excluded many types of women and breastfeeding experiences. And, by failing to address breastfeeding challenges and conveying that extended breastfeeding or nursing in public is abnormal or obscene, these depictions reinforce myths about the ease of breastfeeding and may discourage women from breastfeeding past the newborn phase, and outside the privacy of their homes. These portrayals may help explain why breastfeeding has not been "normalized," despite an international consensus that it is the best health choice for babies. PMID:22746199

  13. Effects of nitrogen with and without acidified sulphur on an ectomycorrhizal community in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr) forest.

    PubMed

    Carfrae, J A; Skene, K R; Sheppard, L J; Ingleby, K; Crossley, A

    2006-05-01

    This preliminary study investigated the effects of enhanced nitrogen (NH4NO3 at 48 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), sulphur (Na2SO4 at 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1)), acidified nitrogen and sulphur (H2SO4 + NH4NO3) at pre-stated doses (pH 2.5), and acidified nitrogen and sulphur deposition at double these doses on the ectomycorrhizal community associated with a 13-year-old Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest. Sulphur deposition had little impact on below ground ectomycorrhizal diversity, but stimulated sporocarp production. Nitrogen inputs increased below ground colonisation compared to acidified nitrogen and sulphur, largely due to an increase in Tylospora fibrillosa colonisation. Sporocarp production and ectomycorrhizal root colonisation by Lactarius rufus were reduced in the nitrogen treated plots. These observations suggest that nitrogen deposition to a young plantation may suppress ectomycorrhizal fungi producing large sporocarps. It is proposed that enhanced nitrogen deposition increases ectomycorrhizal nitrogen assimilation, consuming more carbon and leaving less for extrametrical mycelium and sporocarp development. PMID:16246472

  14. Subsurface temperature estimation from climatology and satellite SST for the sea around Korean Peninsula 1Bong-Guk, Kim, 1Yang-Ki, Cho, 1Bong-Gwan, Kim, 1Young-Gi, Kim, 1Ji-Hoon, Jung 1School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong-Guk; Cho, Yang-Ki; Kim, Bong-Gwan; Kim, Young-Gi; Jung, Ji-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface temperature plays an important role in determining heat contents in the upper ocean which are crucial in long-term and short-term weather systems. Furthermore, subsurface temperature affects significantly ocean ecology. In this study, a simple and practical algorithm has proposed. If we assume that subsurface temperature changes are proportional to surface heating or cooling, subsurface temperature at each depth (Sub_temp) can be estimated as follows PIC whereiis depth index, Clm_temp is temperature from climatology, dif0 is temperature difference between satellite and climatology in the surface, and ratio is ratio of temperature variability in each depth to surface temperature variability. Subsurface temperatures using this algorithm from climatology (WOA2013) and satellite SST (OSTIA) where calculated in the sea around Korean peninsula. Validation result with in-situ observation data show good agreement in the upper 50 m layer with RMSE (root mean square error) less than 2 K. The RMSE is smallest with less than 1 K in winter when surface mixed layer is thick, and largest with about 2~3 K in summer when surface mixed layer is shallow. The strong thermocline and large variability of the mixed layer depth might result in large RMSE in summer. Applying of mixed layer depth information for the algorithm may improve subsurface temperature estimation in summer. Spatial-temporal details on the improvement and its causes will be discussed.

  15. Comparing the accuracy of video-oculography and the scleral search coil system in human eye movement analysis.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takao; Sekine, Kazunori; Hattori, Kousuke; Takeda, Noriaki; Koizuka, Izumi; Nakamae, Koji; Miura, Katsuyoshi; Fujioka, Hiromu; Kubo, Takeshi

    2005-03-01

    The measurement of eye movements in three dimensions is an important tool to investigate the human vestibular and oculomotor system. The primary methods for three dimensional eye movement measurement are the scleral search coil system (SSCS) and video-oculography (VOG). In the present study, we compare the accuracy of VOG with that of SSCS using an artificial eye. We then analyzed the Y (pitch) and Z (yaw) component of human eye movements during saccades, smooth pursuit and optokinetic nystagmus, and the X (roll) component of human eye movement during the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex induced by rotation in normal subjects, using simultaneous VOG and SSCS measures. The coefficients of the linear relationship between the angle of a simulated eyeball and the angle measured by both VOG and SSCS was almost unity with y-intercepts close to zero for torsional (X), vertical (Y) and horizontal (Z) movements, indicating that the in vitro accuracy of VOG was similar to that of SSCS. The average difference between VOG and SSCS was 0.56 degrees , 0.78 degrees and 0.18 degrees for the X, Y and Z components of human eye movements, respectively. Both the in vitro and in vivo comparisons demonstrate that VOG has accuracy comparable to SSCS, and is a reliable method for measurement of three dimensions (3D) human eye movements. PMID:15882818

  16. Ocular Findings in Volcanic Fog Induced Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Lagunzad, John Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the ocular signs and symptoms of patients complaining of eye irritation due to volcanic fog (vog). Methods The study utilized a non-comparative, retrospective chart review of 30 patients who had a chief complaint of eye irritation, which the subjects attributed to vog. Ocular signs and symptoms are described and related to the ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter sized 2.5 microns (PM2.5), and vog visibility in O‘ahu during the period of the study. Results Ocular signs noted were conjunctival injection (100%), clear mucous discharge (100%), papillary reaction (100%), punctal edema (80%), eyelid swelling (73.3%) and chemosis (63.3%). Ocular symptoms were itchiness (100%), foreign body sensation (100%), tearing (96.6%) and burning sensation (90%). All patients had concurrent respiratory symptoms. During the period of study, the highest 24-hour average concentration of particulate matter sized 2.5 microns (PM2.5) was 49.04 µg/m3 and vog was visually present. Conclusions Patients complaining of eye irritation due to vog have observable ocular signs and symptoms. PMID:22187513

  17. Volcanic Air Pollution - A Hazard in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1997-01-01

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other pollutants emitted from Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai'i react with oxygen and atmospheric moisture to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog poses a health hazard by aggravating preexisting respiratory ailments, and acid rain damages crops and can leach lead into household water supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is closely monitoring gas emissions from Kilauea and working with health professionals and local officials to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  18. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  19. Free Speech in a MySpace World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baule, Steven M.; Kriha, Darcy L.

    2008-01-01

    In the potential shadow of a "Bong Hits for Jesus" banner, complicated student speech and discipline issues arise almost daily on the Internet. Whether it is a mock MySpace page set up to make fun of a teacher or a direct threat to an assistant principal, it is often unclear exactly where school ground discipline ends and student free speech…

  20. EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON THE ROOT AND NODULE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF 'ALNUS RUBRA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alnus rubra (Bong.) was grown for three months in a greenhouse and given 0, 6, 12, 31 and 62 migrograms cadmium/liter of nitrogen-free nutrient solution for 11 weeks. Segments of nodules and secondary roots were collected from plants grown at the different Cd levels. Thin section...

  1. Rights at Stake in Free-Speech Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Despite the less-than-weighty incident at its core--the display of a homemade banner emblazoned with "Bong Hits 4 Jesus"--a case that the U.S. Supreme Court will take up carries potentially far-reaching consequences for student speech, and for the legal protections of public school educators. From a sea of controversies over student speech--on…

  2. Retinal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Detachment Rách và Bong Võng Mạc - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  3. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  4. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  5. Content Specificity of Expectancy Beliefs and Task Values in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Ennis, Catherine D.; Sun, Haichun

    2008-01-01

    The curriculum may superimpose a content-specific context that mediates motivation (Bong, 2001). This study examined content specificity of the expectancy-value motivation in elementary school physical education. Students' expectancy beliefs and perceived task values from a cardiorespiratory fitness unit, a muscular fitness unit, and a traditional…

  6. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... controlled airspace at Richard I. Bong Airport (77 FR 71363) Docket No. FAA-2012-0656. Interested parties... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and...

  7. An Unreasonable Argument against Student Free Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacker, David

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's recent opinion in "Morse v. Frederick" (2007), perhaps better known as the "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" case, contains a widely reported concurrence by Justice Clarence Thomas. Challenging well-established precedent, Thomas argues that students should have no constitutional rights in school. In this essay David Blacker argues that,…

  8. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  9. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pipes; (c) Carburetion tubes and devices; (d) Smoking and carburetion masks; (e) Roach clips (objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to...; (l) Bongs; (m) Ice pipes or chillers; (n) Wired cigarette papers; or (o) Cocaine freebase kits....

  10. 77 FR 71363 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Superior, WI. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Richard I. Bong Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the airport. Geographic coordinates of the airport would also be......

  11. In vitro antidrepanocytary actvity (anti-sickle cell anemia) of some congolese plants.

    PubMed

    Mpiana, P T; Tshibangu, D S T; Shetonde, O M; Ngbolua, K N

    2007-02-01

    Thirty aqueous and ethanolic extracts from 13 congolese plants were evaluated for their antidrepanocytary activity. Twelve of these plants, Alchornea cordifolia, Afromomum albo violaceum, Annona senegalensis, Cymbopogon densiflorus, Bridelia ferruginea, Ceiba pentandra, Morinda lucida, Hymenocardia acida, Coleus kilimandcharis, Dacryodes edulis, Caloncoba welwithsii, and Vinga unguiculata exhibited significant activities, thus, supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggesting a possible correlation between the chemical composition of these plants and their uses in traditional medicine. PMID:17113273

  12. On the interaction of Tropical Cyclone Flossie and emissions from Hawaii's Kilauea volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattantyus, Andre; Businger, Steven

    2014-06-01

    On 29 July 2013, Tropical Storm Flossie passed the Hawaiian Islands. This is the first interaction between an active, vigorously degassing volcano and a tropical cyclone captured by a vog (volcanic smog) dispersion model run over the Hawaiian Islands since operational simulations began in 2010, providing a unique opportunity to analyze the influence of robust volcanic emissions entrained into a tropical cyclone. Results from the vog dispersion model are compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations, lightning data from Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360), and the National Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Dual-Polarmetric Doppler radar to investigate the effect of volcanic emissions on the storm. Observations and model results suggest that aerosol loading resulted in deep convection and glaciation which in turn enhanced charge separation and promoted active lightning.

  13. Significant involvement of PEP-CK in carbon assimilation of C4 eudicots

    PubMed Central

    Muhaidat, Riyadh; McKown, Athena D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims C4 eudicot species are classified into biochemical sub-types of C4 photosynthesis based on the principal decarboxylating enzyme. Two sub-types are known, NADP-malic enzyme (ME) and NAD-ME; however, evidence for the occurrence or involvement of the third sub-type (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PEP-CK) is emerging. In this study, the presence and activity of PEP-CK in C4 eudicot species of Trianthema and Zaleya (Sesuvioideae, Aizoaceae) is clarified through analysis of key anatomical features and C4 photosynthetic enzymes. Methods Three C4 species (T. portulacastrum, T. sheilae and Z. pentandra) were examined with light and transmission electron microscopy for leaf structural properties. Activities and immunolocalizations of C4 enzymes were measured for biochemical characteristics. Key Results Leaves of each species possess atriplicoid-type Kranz anatomy, but differ in ultrastructural features. Bundle sheath organelles are centripetal in T. portulacastrum and Z. pentandra, and centrifugal in T. sheilae. Bundle sheath chloroplasts in T. portulacastrum are almost agranal, whereas mesophyll counterparts have grana. Both T. sheilae and Z. pentandra are similar, where bundle sheath chloroplasts contain well-developed grana while mesophyll chloroplasts are grana deficient. Cell wall thickness is significantly greater in T. sheilae than in the other species. Biochemically, T. portulacastrum is NADP-ME, while T. sheilae and Z. pentandra are NAD-ME. Both T. portulacastrum and Z. pentandra exhibit considerable PEP-CK activity, and immunolocalization studies show dense and specific compartmentation of PEP-CK in these species, consistent with high PEP-CK enzyme activity. Conclusions Involvement of PEP-CK in C4 NADP-ME T. portulacastrum and NAD-ME Z. petandra occurs irrespective of biochemical sub-type, or the position of bundle sheath chloroplasts. Ultrastructural traits, including numbers of bundle sheath peroxisomes and mesophyll chloroplasts, and

  14. Cytokinin Secretion by Frankia sp. HFP ArI3 in Defined Medium.

    PubMed

    Stevens, G A; Berry, A M

    1988-05-01

    Frankia sp. HFP ArI3 (host plant Alnus rubra Bong.) was grown in defined medium and the culture solution was analyzed for the presence of various cytokinins and related compounds. N(6)- (Delta(2)-isopentenyl) adenosine was the only cytokinin detected by both high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, at levels of approximately 1 ng/ml culture medium. PMID:16666092

  15. Successful Proof of Concept of Family Planning and Immunization Integration in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in

  16. Successful proof of concept of family planning and immunization integration in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chelsea M; Fields, Rebecca; Mazzeo, Corinne I; Taylor, Nyapu; Pfitzer, Anne; Momolu, Mary; Jabbeh-Howe, Cuallau

    2015-03-01

    Globally, unmet need for postpartum family planning remains high, while immunization services are among the most wide-reaching and equitable interventions. Given overlapping time frames, integrating these services provides an opportunity to leverage existing health visits to offer women more comprehensive services. From March through November 2012, Liberia's government, with support from the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP), piloted an integrated family planning and immunization model at 10 health facilities in Bong and Lofa counties. Vaccinators provided mothers bringing infants for routine immunization with targeted family planning and immunization messages and same-day referrals to co-located family planning services. In February 2013, we compared service statistics for family planning and immunization during the pilot against the previous year's statistics. We also conducted in-depth interviews with service providers and other personnel and focus group discussions with clients. Results showed that referral acceptance across the facilities varied from 10% to 45% per month, on average. Over 80% of referral acceptors completed the family planning visit that day, of whom over 90% accepted a contraceptive method that day. The total number of new contraceptive users at participating facilities increased by 73% in Bong and by 90% in Lofa. Women referred from immunization who accepted family planning that day accounted for 44% and 34% of total new contraceptive users in Bong and Lofa, respectively. In Lofa, pilot sites administered 35% more Penta 1 and 21% more Penta 3 doses during the pilot period compared with the same period of the previous year, while Penta 1 and Penta 3 administration decreased in non-pilot facilities. In Bong, there was little difference in the number of Penta 1 and Penta 3 doses administered between pilot and non-pilot facilities. In both counties, Penta 1 to Penta 3 dropout rates increased at pilot sites but not in non

  17. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dzotam, Joachim K; Touani, Francesco K; Kuete, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%), 11/19 (57.9%), 10/19 (52.6%) and 10/19 (52.6%) tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes. PMID:27579004

  18. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Coêlho, Mariza M; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S; Nozawa, Sérgio R; Santos, André L W

    2011-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

  19. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    PubMed Central

    Coêlho, Mariza M.; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica S.; Nozawa, Sérgio R.; Santos, André L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla), were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species. PMID:22215973

  20. The power and value of green in promoting sustainable transport behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaker, David; Vautin, David; Vij, Akshay; Walker, Joan L.

    2011-07-01

    While it is increasingly popular to broadcast information regarding environmental impact, little is known regarding the effects that this information has on human behavior. This research aims to provide insight into whether, and to what extent, presenting environmental attributes of transport alternatives influences individual transport decisions. We designed and conducted three experiments in which subjects (UC Berkeley undergraduates) were presented with hypothetical scenarios of transport decisions, including auto purchase choice, mode choice, and route choice. We analyzed their decisions via a choice model to determine how they value reducing their emissions relative to other attributes. We found that our subjects are willing to adjust their behavior to reduce emissions, exhibiting an average willingness to pay for emissions reduction, or value of green (VoG), of 15 cents per pound of CO2 saved. Despite concern that people cannot meaningfully process quantities of CO2, we found evidence to the contrary in our subject pool in that the estimated VoG was consistent across context (the wide range of transport decisions that we presented) and presentation (e.g., whether the information was presented in tons or pounds, or whether a social reference point of the emissions of an average person was provided). We also found significant heterogeneity in VoG, with most of the respondents valuing green somewhere between 0 and 70 cents per pound and with women, on average, willing to pay 7 cents more per saved pound than men. While the findings are encouraging, further work is required to determine whether they hold outside of a lab environment and with a more representative pool of subjects.

  1. Diagnosing Stroke in Acute Vertigo: The HINTS Family of Eye Movement Tests and the Future of the "Eye ECG".

    PubMed

    Newman-Toker, David E; Curthoys, Ian S; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2015-10-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department with symptoms of acute vertigo or dizziness are frequently misdiagnosed. Missed opportunities to promptly treat dangerous strokes can result in poor clinical outcomes. Inappropriate testing and incorrect treatments for those with benign peripheral vestibular disorders leads to patient harm and unnecessary costs. Over the past decade, novel bedside approaches to diagnose patients with the acute vestibular syndrome have been developed and refined. A battery of three bedside tests of ocular motor physiology known as "HINTS" (head impulse, nystagmus, test of skew) has been shown to identify acute strokes more accurately than even magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging (MRI-DWI) when applied in the early acute period by eye-movement specialists. Recent advances in lightweight, high-speed video-oculography (VOG) technology have made possible a future in which HINTS might be applied by nonspecialists in frontline care settings using portable VOG. Use of technology to measure eye movements (VOG-HINTS) to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome is analogous to the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to diagnose myocardial infarction in acute chest pain. This "eye ECG" approach could transform care for patients with acute vertigo and dizziness around the world. In the United States alone, successful implementation would likely result in improved quality of emergency care for hundreds of thousands of peripheral vestibular patients and tens of thousands of stroke patients, as well as an estimated national health care savings of roughly $1 billion per year. In this article, the authors review the origins of the HINTS approach, empiric evidence and pathophysiologic principles supporting its use, and possible uses for the eye ECG in teleconsultation, teaching, and triage. PMID:26444396

  2. Is volcanic air pollution associated with decreased heart-rate variability?

    PubMed

    Chow, Dominic C; Grandinetti, Andrew; Fernandez, Ed; Sutton, A J; Elias, Tamar; Brooks, Barbara; Tam, Elizabeth K

    2010-02-23

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the autonomic cardiovascular control among residents of Hawaii who are exposed to varying levels of volcanic air pollution (vog), which consists largely of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and acid aerosols. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study between April 2006 and June 2008, the authors measured cardiovagal autonomic function by heart-rate variability (HRV) in 72 healthy individuals who lived in four exposure zones on Hawaii Island: vog-free (n=18); episodic exposure to SO(2) >200 ppb and acid aerosol (n=19); chronic exposure to SO(2) ≥30 ppb and acid aerosol (n=15); and chronic exposure to acid aerosols (n=20). Individuals with diabetes or heart disease, or who had smoked in the preceding month were excluded. HRV was measured in all subjects during rest, paced breathing and active standing (Ewing manoeuvre). HRV was analysed in time and frequency domains and compared between the four exposure zones. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between exposure zones in HRV, in either time or frequency domains, even after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity and body mass index. There was no significant HRV change in three individuals in whom HRV was measured before and during an exposure to combined SO(2) 100-250 ppb and concentration of respirable particles of diameter ≥2.5 μ (PM(2.5)) >500 μg/m(3). Age was significantly correlated with time-domain parameters during paced breathing and the Ewing manoeuvre. CONCLUSIONS: This study of healthy individuals found no appreciable effects of vog on the autonomic nervous system. PMID:21546995

  3. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  4. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E

    2015-06-01

    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis. PMID:25900567

  5. Mobile telephone use effects on peripheral audiovestibular function: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Ceranic, Borka; Cox, Robin; Watt, Hilary; Chadwick, Philip; Luxon, Linda M

    2008-02-01

    Low level radio-frequency (RF) signals may produce disorientation, headache and nausea. This double blind study tested nine case-subjects, who complained of various symptoms after prolonged mobile telephone use and 21 control subjects. Each subject underwent a series of trials, in which a dummy mobile telephone exposure system was held to each ear for 30 min in (a) pulsed, (b) continuous RF emission or, (c) no emission test modes. In the active pulsed and continuous modes the same mean power as the output of a typical handset was delivered at a carrier frequency of 882 MHz and at a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 1.3 W kg(-1) (+/- 30%). In Experiment I (auditory), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), which assess the outer hair cells in the inner ear, were conducted. In Experiment II (vestibular) the vestibulo-ocular reflex was recorded by video-oculography (VOG), at baseline and immediately post exposure. There were no significant TEOAE changes from baseline to post-exposure recording for any of the exposures and no significant differences in the TEOAEs' change from baseline to post exposure between cases and controls. The VOG did not identify any effect of the exposure on the vestibular end organ in either cases or controls. In conclusion, 30 min exposure to mobile phone RF did not show any immediate effects on vestibulocochlear function as measured by TEOAE and the VOR. PMID:17929266

  6. The effect of space missions on gravity-responsive torsional eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, S. G.; Markham, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three astronauts underwent preflight, inflight, and postflight testing of spontaneous ocular torsion and of ocular counterrolling (OCR), reflexes governed by the gravity-responsive otolith organs in the inner ear. One astronaut, A, had a 30-day space mission on Euromir '94 and was examined monocularly with SensoMotoric Instruments video-oculography (VOG). The other two astronauts, B and C, were studied with a binocular VOG and flew an 180-day mission on Euromir '95. In space, spontaneous eye torsion in the upright position was found to be substantially offset from baseline Earth-based recordings in all three subjects for the duration of the flights. In addition, the binocular studies showed a marked torsional disconjugacy. On return to Earth, offset and torsional disconjugacy persisted for many days. OCR in response to 30 degrees right and left tilt was examined preflight and postflight. Compared to preflight, Astronaut A showed reduced OCR immediately postflight, which increased over the next few days. Both Astronauts B and C had increased OCR postflight, which gradually approached but did not achieve the preflight values over 13 days postflight. The adaptation of ocular torsion in space in one astronaut and not in the other two, and slow adaptation postflight, may reflect the lack of visual feed-back and the open loop nature of the otolith-ocular torsion reflex.

  7. Twenty Years of Continuous gas Release at Kilauea: Effusive Lessons in a Volatile Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    2002-12-01

    The observatory worker who has lived a quarter of a century with Hawaiian lavas frothing in action, cannot fail to realize that gas chemistry is the heart of the volcano magma problem. T.A. Jaggar, 1940 Kilauea's Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption has presented workers with a nearly ideal setting to develop and test models of how this volcano and others like it work, from the viewpoint of magma transport, gas release, and eruption dynamics. Gas sampling studies, and in-situ and remote emission measurements can be conducted more easily at Kilauea than at other volcanoes because of its approachable nature and because of advances in instrumentation and analytical techniques. Analyses of gases from the eruption and from early in the last century have, with studies of volatiles trapped in submarine lavas, been used to conceptualize a degassing model for Kilauea concordant with contemporaneous geologic and geophysical evidence delineating the volcano's internal structure. More recent studies have revealed a greater CO2 emission rate than previously thought. The revised estimates have been used to infer changes in magma supply rate. Meanwhile, SO2 emission rates and our improved knowledge of residual volatiles are being used in parallel with geophysical methods, to monitor the eruption rate. Continuous monitoring studies using on-site species-selective sensors are a rapidly evolving part of the gas studies effort for the eruption. The Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption has also provided an opportunity to study hazards associated with long-term environmental effects of volcanic emissions. Beginning in mid-1986, when activity changed from episodic fountaining to continuous effusion, volcanic air pollution, known locally as vog, became an unfortunate part of everyday life for Hawai`i residents and visitors. Since then, Kilauea has on average released about 1,600 tonnes of SO2 per day, roughly 6,000 times the daily amount judged by the EPA to classify an emitter as a major industrial

  8. Headwater riparian invertebrate communities associated with red alder and conifer wood and leaf litter in southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeSage, C.M.; Merritt, R.W.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We examined how management of young upland forests in southeastern Alaska affect riparian invertebrate taxa richness, density, and biomass, in turn, potentially influencing food abundance for fish and wildlife. Southeastern Alaska forests are dominated by coniferous trees including Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), with mixed stands of red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.). Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is hypothesized to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and through forest management may provide increased riparian invertebrate abundance. To compare and contrast invertebrate densities between coniferous and alder riparian habitats, leaf litter and wood debris (early and late decay classes) samples were collected along eleven headwater streams on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Members of Acarina and Collembola were the most abundant taxa collected in leaf litter with alder litter having significantly higher mean taxa richness than conifer litter. Members of Acarina were the most abundant group collected on wood debris and alder wood had significantly higher mean taxa richness and biomass than conifer wood. Alder wood debris in more advanced decay stages had the highest mean taxa richness and biomass, compared to other wood types, while conifer late decay wood debris had the highest densities of invertebrates. The inclusion of alder in young-growth conifer forests can benefit forest ecosystems by enhancing taxa richness and biomass of riparian forest invertebrates. ?? 2005 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Volcanic air pollution over the Island of Hawai'i: Emissions, dispersal, and composition. Association with respiratory symptoms and lung function in Hawai'i Island school children

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tam, Elizabeth K.; Miike, Rei; Labrenz, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Elias, Tamar; Davis, James A.; Chen, Yi-Leng; Tantisira, Kelan; Dockery, Douglas; Avol, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Environmental data suggested 4 different vog exposure zones with SO2, PM2.5, and particulate acid concentrations (mean ± s.d.) as follows: 1) Low (0.3 ± 0.2 ppb, 2.5 ± 1.2 μg/m3, 0.6 ± 1.1 nmol H +/m3), 2) Intermittent (1.6 ± 1.8 ppb, 2.8 ± 1.5 μg/m3, 4.0 ± 6.6 nmol H +/m3), 3) Frequent (10.1 ± 5.2 ppb, 4.8 ± 1.9 μg/m3, 4.3 ± 6.7 nmol H +/m3), and 4) Acid (1.2 ± 0.4 ppb, 7.2 ± 2.3 μg/m3, 25.3 ± 17.9 nmol H +/m3). Participants (1957) in the 4 zones differed in race, prematurity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, presence of mold in the home, and physician-diagnosed asthma. Multivariable analysis showed an association between Acid vog exposure and cough and strongly suggested an association with FEV1/FVC < 0.8, but not with diagnosis of asthma, or chronic persistent wheeze or bronchitis in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Hawai'i Island's volcanic air pollution can be very acidic, but contains few co-contaminants originating from anthropogenic sources of air pollution. Chronic exposure to acid vog is associated with increased cough and possibly with reduced FEV1/FVC, but not with asthma or bronchitis. Further study is needed to better understand how volcanic air pollution interacts with host and environmental factors to affect respiratory symptoms, lung function, and lung growth, and to determine acute effects of episodes of increased emissions.

  10. [Seed germination and key to seedling identification for six native tree species of wetlands from Southeast Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Vargas Simón, Georgina; Castellanos Albores, Jorge; Jong, Bernardus H J de

    2010-06-01

    Wetland tree species are of importance for economic and restoration purposes. We describe the germination process and seedling morphology of six arboreal native species typical of Southeastern Mexico: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis and Crataeva tapia. A total of 300 seeds per species were planted in a mixture of sand, cocoa plant husk and black soil (1:1:1), and maintained in a tree nursery with 30% artificial shade, from February to November of 2007. We carried out the morphological characterization, and elaborated a key to seedlings based on: 1) germination type 2) seedling axis and 3) leaf elements. P. aquatica has cryptocotylar hypogeal germination, the others have phanerocotylar epigeal germination. Germination rates were high (>86%), except for C. barbadensis (69%). PMID:20527471

  11. Plant uptake and transport of /sup 241/Am

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Mueller, R.T. Sr.; soufi, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    We conducted several experiments with /sup 241/Am to obtain a more complete understanding of how this transuranium element is absorbed and transported in plants. In a plant species (Tamarix pentandra Pall.) that has salt glands in the leaves excreting NaCl and other ions, /sup 241/Am was not pumped through these glands. Cyanide, which forms complexes with any metals, when applied to a calcareous soil, greatly increased the transport of /sup 241/Am into stems and leaves of bush bean plants. Radioactive cyanide (/sup 14/C) was also transported to leaves and stems. When radish was grown in both calcareous and noncalcareous soils, /sup 241/Am appeared to be fixed on the peel so firmly that it was resistant to removal by HNO/sub 3/ washing. The chelating agent DTPA induced increased transport of /sup 241/Am to leaves and into the fleshy roots of the radish.

  12. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yian; Wang, Jintao; Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-01-01

    Kapok fiber corresponds to the seed hairs of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra), and is a typical cellulosic fiber with the features of thin cell wall, large lumen, low density and hydrophobic-oleophilic properties. As a type of renewable natural plant fiber, kapok fiber is abundant, biocompatible and biodegradable, and its full exploration and potential application have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields. Based on the structure and properties of kapok fiber, this review provides a summary of recent research on kapok fiber including chemical and physical treatments, kapok fiber-based composite materials, and the application of kapok fiber as an absorbent material for oils, metal ions, dyes, and sound, with special attention to its use as an oil-absorbing material, one predominant application of kapok fiber in the coming future. PMID:25597659

  13. Accumulation of cadmium by plants of Zawar Mines, Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Aery, N C; Tiagi, Y D

    1988-01-01

    Several plants of the Zawar Zinc Deposits of Rajasthan (India) accumulate very high levels of cadmium. The maximum concentration namely 420 micrograms g-1 was found in the stems of Crotalaria linifolia. Some other cadmium accumulators with the concentration of the metal in microgram g-1 are Impatients balsamina (380), Dyerophytum indicum (282) and Melhania futteyporensis (245). The sequence of cadmium accumulation in different organs of the same plant species was roots greater than stems greater than leaves. Cadmium levels in the leaves of Celosia argentea, Crotalaria linifolia, Impatiens balsamina and Triumfetta pentandra showed a significant (linear) plant-soil relationship. The respective biological absorption coefficients (BAC - concentration of the element in the plant divided by concentration of the same element in the substrate) for these plants were 2.74, 4.13, 5.49 and 4.65. PMID:3254012

  14. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Networks Inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta Seedlings in Rain Forest Soil Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Janos, David P.; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks–previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect–probably help to maintain the rain forest–savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  15. Root–shoot allometry of tropical forest trees determined in a large-scale aeroponic system

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Amram; Grünzweig, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy–root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. Methods Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa. Growth and allometric parameters of 12-month-old saplings grown in a large-scale aeroponic system and in 50-L soil containers were compared. The main advantage of growing plants in aeroponics is that their root systems are fully accessible throughout the plant life, and can be fully recovered for harvesting. Key Results The expected differences in shoot and root size between the fast-growing C. pentandra and the slower-growing K. anthotheca were evident in both growth systems. Roots were recovered from the aeroponically grown saplings only, and their distribution among various diameter classes followed the patterns expected from the literature. Stem, branch and leaf allometric parameters were similar for saplings of each species grown in the two systems. Conclusions The aeroponic tree growth system can be utilized for determining the basic allometric relationships between root and shoot components of these trees, and hence can be used to study carbon allocation and fluxes of whole above- and below-ground tree parts. PMID:23250916

  16. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Janos, David P; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  17. Toxic substances in the environment affecting respiratory function of people in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenborg, C.P.; Marsh, N.; Moser, S.

    1991-03-01

    In this trilogy the authors have collected data from authors who are concerned with patients with respiratory complaints. Surprisingly there are unique problems in the residents of our State. The full impact of problems known to cause respiratory illnesses, such as asbestosis, will not be known for years to come. Other problems such as the effect of sugarcane burning are just now being identified and may show a parallel to the inhalation of asbestos dust. VOG may be simply an irritant or it may explain in part the high incidence of asthma in our State. Clearly more work needs to be done to explain the pathophysiology, the risk and possible treatment for the consequences on people of these putative toxic substances.

  18. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  19. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  20. EyeSeeCam: an eye movement-driven head camera for the examination of natural visual exploration.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich; Villgrattner, Thomas; Vockeroth, Johannes; Bartl, Klaus; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Bardins, Stanislavs; Ulbrich, Heinz; Brandt, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    The prototype of a gaze-controlled, head-mounted camera (EyeSeeCam) was developed that provides the functionality for fundamental studies on human gaze behavior even under dynamic conditions like locomotion. EyeSeeCam incorporates active visual exploration by saccades with image stabilization during head, object, and surround motion just as occurs in human ocular motor control. This prototype is a first attempt to combine free user mobility with image stabilization and unrestricted exploration of the visual surround in a man-made technical vision system. The gaze-driven camera is supplemented by an additional wide-angle, head-fixed scene camera. In this scene view, the focused gaze view is embedded with picture-in-picture functionality, which provides an approximation of the foveated retinal content. Such a combined video clip can be viewed more comfortably than the saccade-pervaded image of the gaze camera alone. EyeSeeCam consists of a video-oculography (VOG) device and a camera motion device. The benchmark for the evaluation of such a device is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which requires a latency on the order of 10 msec between head and eye (camera) movements for proper image stabilization. A new lightweight VOG was developed that is able to synchronously measure binocular eye positions at up to 600 Hz. The camera motion device consists of a parallel kinematics setup with a backlash-free gimbal joint that is driven by piezo actuators with no reduction gears. As a result, the latency between the rotations of an artificial eye and the camera was 10 msec, which is VOR-like. PMID:19645949

  1. Video-oculography findings and vestibular symptoms on the day of stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Juuso; Aalto, Heikki; Hirvonen, Timo

    2010-02-01

    Vestibular symptoms are common after stapes surgery and may prevent outpatient treatment. The cause of vestibular symptoms is unclear, and in previous studies objective measurements have been obtained few days after the surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate the existence and nature of any early, and possibly temporary vestibular irritation that occurs immediately after surgery. Twenty-one patients who had an opening of the oval window were prospectively included. Postoperative symptoms were collected and eye position curves were recorded with video-oculography (VOG) an average of 4 h after surgery. Early vestibular symptoms were found in 11 (52%) patients. Four patients had rotatory vertigo, three had floating sensation, one experienced a tilting sensation, and two had unspecific dizziness. Two patients vomited after surgery. When VOG was performed all but one were free of symptoms. After surgery, spontaneous nystagmus was found in three (14%) asymptomatic patients when gaze fixation was prevented. The prevalence of 33% (7 of 21 patients) of latent, spontaneous, horizontal-torsional nystagmus seen only during lateral gaze towards the direction of fast phase was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) than in healthy controls. The occurrence of nystagmus did not correlate with vestibular symptoms (P = 0.30). Slight, direction-fixed, latent, spontaneous horizontal-torsional nystagmus in some patients is consistent with a minor disturbance of semicircular canals, although it was not related to the sensation of dizziness. Recordings during stapes surgery may be needed to ascertain the origin of vestibular symptoms. Regarding vestibular symptoms and signs, patients may be safely discharged a few hours after stapes surgery. PMID:19565258

  2. Relative Roles of Luminance and Fixation in Inducing Dissociated Vertical Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Ghadban, Rafif; Liebermann, Laura; Klaehn, Lindsay D.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Brodsky, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the roles of luminance and fixation in the pathophysiology of dissociated vertical divergence (DVD). Methods. Vertical eye position was measured in 6 subjects with DVD (ages 11–47 years, 5 females) and 6 controls (ages 16–40 years, 5 females) using video-oculography (VOG) under conditions of change in fixation and luminance. Results. Subjects with DVD showed the following VOG responses. When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter and bright light was shone into one eye to produce a marked binocular luminance disparity, we found some subjects had a small induced vertical divergence causing the illuminated eye to be lower than the nonilluminated eye (mean −1.6° ± 1.5°, P = 0.06 compared to no vertical divergence using the signed rank test). When fixation was precluded with a translucent filter, while alternate occlusion produced a mild binocular luminance disparity, we found a smaller vertical divergence of the eyes that was not statistically significant (1.2° ± 2.1°, P = 0.3). When alternate occlusion produced reversal of monocular fixation in the dark (with essentially no change in peripheral luminance disparity), there was a significant vertical divergence movement causing the covered eye to be relatively higher than the uncovered eye (7.2° ± 3.1°, P = 0.03). The amplitude of this vertical divergence was similar to that measured under conditions of alternate occlusion in a lighted room (where there also was a significant average relative upward movement of the covered eye of 8.1° ± 2.9°, P = 0.03). Control subjects showed no vertical divergence under any testing conditions. Conclusions. Dissociated vertical divergence is mediated primarily by changes in fixation and only to a minor degree by binocular luminance disparity. PMID:25537206

  3. Suppression of spontaneous nystagmus during different visual fixation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Juhola, Martti; Aalto, Heikki

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of spontaneous nystagmus is important in the evaluation of dizzy patients. The aim was to measure how different visual conditions affect the properties of nystagmus using three-dimensional video-oculography (VOG). We compared prevalence, frequency and slow phase velocity (SPV) of the spontaneous nystagmus with gaze fixation allowed, with Frenzel's glasses, and in total darkness. Twenty-five patients (35 measurements) with the peripheral vestibular pathologies were included. The prevalence of nystagmus with the gaze fixation was 40%, and it increased significantly to 66% with Frenzel's glasses and regular room lights on (p < 0.01). The prevalence increased significantly to 83% when the regular room lights were switched off (p = 0.014), and further to 100% in total darkness (p = 0.025). The mean SPV of nystagmus with visual fixation allowed was 1.0°/s. It increased to 2.4°/s with Frenzel's glasses and room lights on, and additionally to 3.1°/s, when the regular room lights were switched off. The mean SPV in total darkness was 6.9°/s. The difference was highly significant between all test conditions (p < 0.01). The frequency of nystagmus was 0.7 beats/s with gaze fixation, 0.8 beats/s in both the test conditions with Frenzel's glasses on, and 1.2 beats/s in total darkness. The frequency in total darkness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than with Frenzel's glasses, and more so than with visual fixation (p = 0.003). The VOG in total darkness is superior in detecting nystagmus, since Frenzel's glasses allow visual suppression to happen, and this effect is reinforced with gaze fixation allowed. Strict control of visual surroundings is essential in interpreting peripheral nystagmus. PMID:22057154

  4. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi) to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jeanne A.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck.) is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.). Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898) in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903). The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees. PMID:26467397

  5. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  6. Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chikly, Bruno; Roberts, Paul; Quaghebeur, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system has a specific anatomical and immunohistochemical signature that sets it apart from the arteriovenous and lymphatic systems. With immune and endocrine functions, the primo vascular system has been found to play a large role in biological processes, including tissue regeneration, inflammation, and cancer metastases. Although scientifically confirmed in 2002, the original discovery was made in the early 1960s by Bong-Han Kim, a North Korean scientist. It would take nearly 40 years after that discovery for scientists to revisit Kim's research to confirm the early findings. The presence of primo vessels in and around blood and lymph vessels, nerves, viscera, and fascia, as well as in the brain and spinal cord, reveals a common link that could potentially open novel possibilities of integration with cranial, lymphatic, visceral, and fascial approaches in manual medicine. PMID:26745560

  7. Content specificity of expectancy beliefs and task values in elementary physical education.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang; Martin, Robert; Ennis, Catherine D; Sun, Haichun

    2008-06-01

    The curriculum may superimpose a content-specific context that mediates motivation (Bong, 2001). This study examined content specificity of the expectancy-value motivation in elementary school physical education. Students' expectancy beliefs and perceived task values from a cardiorespiratory fitness unit, a muscular fitness unit, and a traditional skill/game unit were analyzed using constant comparison coding procedures, multivariate analysis of variance, X2, and correlation analyses. There was no difference in the intrinsic interest value among the three content conditions. Expectancy belief attainment, and utility values were significantly higher for the cardiorespiratory fitness curriculum. Correlations differentiated among the expectancy-value components of the content conditions, providing further evidence of content specificity in the expectancy-value motivation process. The findings suggest that expectancy beliefs and task values should be incorporated in the theoretical platform for curriculum development based on the learning outcomes that can be specified with enhanced motivation effect. PMID:18664044

  8. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  9. The recent progress of Chinese VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    At present, Chinese VLBI Network (CVN) consists of 5 antennas (Seshan 25m, Urumqi 25m, Kunming 30m, Miyun 50m and Tianma 65m) and one data processing center in Shanghai Observatory, Chinese academy of sciences. It is a synthetic aperture radio telescope with the equivalent diameter up to 3000 Km. Through e-VLBI (electronic VLBI) technology, CVN is connected by the commuication network. It is a multi-purpose scientific research platform radio for geodesy, astronomy, as well as deep space exploration. In Geodesy, CVN is the component of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China. Since the year of 2006, more than 20 geodetic domestic observations have been carried out. A set of phase-referencing observations of pulsars with CVN has carried out and got preliminary results. CVN also joined the Chinese lunar exploration Project from 2007 and supported 4 Chang’E series lunar probe missions. In Chang’E-3 mission, using the in-beam VLBI observations, the relative position accuracy of Rover and Lander is up to 1 meter.In recent years, we have updated the facilities of CVN from antenna, receivers, VLBI terminals to correlator. Participation of Tianma 65m antennas increases its performance. In 2012, Shanghai correlator was accepted as the IVS correlator. After upgrade, Shanghai correlator will try to provide the data process service for IVS community from 2015. To drive the construction of the planned VGOS (VLBI2010 Global Observing System) station, at least two VOGS 13m antenna will join CVN in the near future. Construction of the first VOGS antenna in Shanghai hopes to begin this year.The new VLBI correlator and digital terminal are under development. From participation in VGOS, we plan to study the earth rotation especially of high frequency and corresponding geophysical signals, to link China’s regional reference frame to ITRF, and etc. CVN is willing to join the research corporation with IVS, EVN, VLBA and AOV (Asia- Oceania VLBI Group for Geodesy and

  10. High-Speed Video-Oculography for Measuring Three-Dimensional Rotation Vectors of Eye Movements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Noriaki; Uno, Atsuhiko; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background The mouse is the most commonly used animal model in biomedical research because of recent advances in molecular genetic techniques. Studies related to eye movement in mice are common in fields such as ophthalmology relating to vision, neuro-otology relating to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), neurology relating to the cerebellum’s role in movement, and psychology relating to attention. Recording eye movements in mice, however, is technically difficult. Methods We developed a new algorithm for analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed video-oculography (VOG). The algorithm made it possible to analyze the gain and phase of VOR using the eye’s angular velocity around the axis of eye rotation. Results When mice were rotated at 0.5 Hz and 2.5 Hz around the earth’s vertical axis with their heads in a 30° nose-down position, the vertical components of their left eye movements were in phase with the horizontal components. The VOR gain was 0.42 at 0.5 Hz and 0.74 at 2.5 Hz, and the phase lead of the eye movement against the turntable was 16.1° at 0.5 Hz and 4.88° at 2.5 Hz. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this algorithm being used to calculate a 3D rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed VOG. We developed a technique for analyzing the 3D rotation vector of eye movements in mice with a high-speed infrared CCD camera. We concluded that the technique is suitable for analyzing eye movements in mice. We also include a C++ source code that can calculate the 3D rotation vectors of the eye position from two-dimensional coordinates of the pupil and the iris freckle in the image to this article. PMID:27023859

  11. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher; Nemeth, Nicole; Marineros, Leonel

    2006-09-01

    From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. PMID:18491633

  12. Test of validity of a dynamic soil carbon model using data from leaf litter decomposition in a West African tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendehou, G. H. S.; Liski, J.; Tuomi, M.; Moudachirou, M.; Sinsin, B.; Mäkipää, R.

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the applicability of the dynamic soil carbon model Yasso07 in tropical conditions in West Africa by simulating the litter decomposition process using as required input into the model litter mass, litter quality, temperature and precipitation collected during a litterbag experiment. The experiment was conducted over a six-month period on leaf litter of five dominant tree species, namely Afzelia africana, Anogeissus leiocarpa, Ceiba pentandra, Dialium guineense and Diospyros mespiliformis in a semi-deciduous vertisol forest in Southern Benin. Since the predictions of Yasso07 were not consistent with the observations on mass loss and chemical composition of litter, Yasso07 was fitted to the dataset composed of global data and the new experimental data from Benin. The re-parameterized versions of Yasso07 had a good predictive ability and refined the applicability of the model in Benin to estimate soil carbon stocks, its changes and CO2 emissions from heterotrophic respiration as main outputs of the model. The findings of this research support the hypothesis that the high variation of litter quality observed in the tropics is a major driver of the decomposition and needs to be accounted in the model parameterization.

  13. "Stepping-sticks" and "seat-sticks": new types of tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Alp, R

    1997-01-01

    In Tenkere, Sierra Leone, a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) spent long hours eating the fruits and flowers of the Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) tree. The branches of this species are covered in sharp thorns which make movement in their high canopies problematic for the chimpanzees. In an apparent attempt to increase their mobility and to ease the discomfort of lengthy bouts of eating in these trees, some of the Tenkere chimpanzees have been observed using stick tools as foot ("stepping-sticks") and body ("seat-sticks") protection against the painful thorns. This form of tool-using is culturally unique to the Tenkere chimpanzees, as at other sites where these apes have been observed eating parts of kapok trees, there are no published records of this tool technology. In three of the stepping-stick tool use incidents, the chimpanzee used the tool(s), held between their greater and lesser toes, in locomotion. This form of tool use is the first recorded case of habitually used tools that can be justifiably categorized as being "worn" by any known wild population of Pan troglodytes. PMID:9064197

  14. Static and dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses after prolonged exposure to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kornilova, L N; Sagalovitch, S V; Temnikova, V V; Yakushev, A G

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function was investigated in 13 Russian crew members of the ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5), and 8(9) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex was studied, as well as the dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, and spontaneous oculomotor activity using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for simultaneous recording of eye movements. On days 1-2 of return to the gravity (R+1-2), the cosmonauts were found to increase the spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, both typical and atypical forms of spontaneous nystagmus, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position. The otolith function during static head inclinations to the right or left shoulder at 30 degrees was suppressed as determined by the inversion or absence, or reduction by half of the amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling and the vestibular reactivity during head yaw movements at 0.125 Hz was increased as revealed by a lowered threshold and an increased intensity of vestibular nystagmus. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, the suppressed otolith functioning in the period of readaptation to the normal gravity was, as a rule, accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity. PMID:18626133

  15. Torsional eye movements are facilitated during perception of self-motion.

    PubMed

    Thilo, K V; Probst, T; Bronstein, A M; Ito, Y; Gresty, M A

    1999-06-01

    Visual motion in the roll plane elicits torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) with intermittent periods of illusory, contradirectional self-motion (circularvection, CV). The CV may also have a component of whole-body tilt if the axis of stimulus rotation is not aligned with the direction of gravity. We report how the characteristics of tOKN are affected by the presence of CV. Subjects had their eye movements recorded by VOG whilst viewing a full-field stimulus rotating at 30-60 degrees/s about their naso-occipital axis. They were tested in upright and supine posture and signalled the presence-absence of CV with a pushbutton. In both postures, during CV, tOKN slow-phase gain was found to be enhanced and average torsional eye position shifted in the direction opposite to stimulus rotation. When supine, slow-phase gain was greater than when upright both during the perception of object-motion and during CV. The effects may be explained in terms of a relegation of restraining vestibular input to the torsional oculomotor system during CV and illusory tilt. PMID:10422712

  16. Video-Oculography To Obtain Pupillary Responses In the Visible Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Dolores; Zúñiga, Arturo; Suaste, Ernesto

    2004-09-01

    Pupillary response (PR) of 20 healthy subjects (3 women and 17 men), was assessed using a chromatic stimulus in a visible spectrum (400-650 nm). The method consists in displaying two chromatics normalized software on a PC monitor under photopic conditions. The luminance of the PC monitor is calibrated with a photometer. This PC monitor was placed at 30 cm from the eye of the subject, while the subject watches it, the consensual reflex is recorded with a video-oculography system (VOG). This system is based on a video camera operated in night shoot function. The first software displays during 6 seconds a stimulus of a specific wavelength of the continuous range of spectral colors (the visible spectrum), spaced of 10 by 10 nm, beginning at 410 and ending at 660 nm. The second test, displays the same wavelength, but beginning at 400 and ending at 650, and present a black stimulus of 12 seconds of duration, between color stimulus. Once obtained the PR to each specific wavelength, we process the images and we obtain graphics that shows: a) the variations of the pupillary area, b) the percentage of dilatation, and c) the transitory response (TR) of the pupil of the subjects. We conclude that the second software (6s color stimulus — 12s black stimulus) is better to observe the changes of the PR due to each wavelength, because it allows the TR of the pupil: obtaining this way the characteristic curves of pupil responses to a light stimulus.

  17. Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) Detection Using Visible, Near Infrared and Thermal Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Maja, Joe Mari; Buchanon, Sherrie; Ehsani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of visible-near infrared and thermal imaging for detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus trees. Visible-near infrared (440–900 nm) and thermal infrared spectral reflectance data were collected from individual healthy and HLB-infected trees. Data analysis revealed that the average reflectance values of the healthy trees in the visible region were lower than those in the near infrared region, while the opposite was the case for HLB-infected trees. Moreover, 560 nm, 710 nm, and thermal band showed maximum class separability between healthy and HLB-infected groups among the evaluated visible-infrared bands. Similarly, analysis of several vegetation indices indicated that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Vogelmann red-edge index (VOG) and modified red-edge simple ratio (mSR) demonstrated good class separability between the two groups. Classification studies using average spectral reflectance values from the visible, near infrared, and thermal bands (13 spectral features) as input features indicated that an average overall classification accuracy of about 87%, with 89% specificity and 85% sensitivity could be achieved with classification models such as support vector machine for trees with symptomatic leaves. PMID:23389343

  18. Detection of spatio-temporal changes of Norway spruce forest stands in Ore Mountains using airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misurec, J.; Kopačková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Campbell, P. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mountains are an example of the region that suffered from severe environmental pollution caused by long-term coal mining and heavy industry leading to massive dieback of the local Norway spruce forests between the 1970's and 1990's. The situation became getting better at the end of 1990's after pollution loads significantly decreased. In 1998 and 2013, airborne hyperspectral data (with sensor ASAS and APEX, respectively) were used to study recovery of the originally damaged forest stands and compared them with those that have been less affected by environmental pollution. The field campaign (needle biochemical analysis, tree defoliation etc.) accompanied hyperspectral imagery acquisition. An analysis was conducted assessing a set of 16 vegetation indices providing complex information on foliage, biochemistry and canopy biophysics and structure. Five of them (NDVI, NDVI705, VOG1, MSR and TCARI/OSAVI) showing the best results were employed to study spatial gradients as well as temporal changes. The detected gradients are in accordance with ground truth data on representative trees. The obtained results indicate that the original significant differences between the damaged and undamaged stands have been generally levelled until 2013, although it is still possible to detect signs of the previous damages in several cases.

  19. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis of trees in the flooded forest of the Mapire River.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M. D.; Pieters, A.; Donoso, C.; Herrera, C.; Tezara, W.; Rengifo, E.; Herrera, A.

    1999-02-01

    We studied the flood tolerance of five tree species growing in the flooded forest adjacent to the Mapire river, in SW Venezuela. Mean photosynthetic rate and leaf conductance were 11 &mgr;mol m(-2) s(-1) and 700 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Xylem water potential ranged from -0.08 to -1.15 MPa. Based on leaf gas exchange as a criterion of tolerance to flooding, two response patterns were identified: (1) decreasing photosynthetic rate with increasing flooding and leaf conductance (Psidium ovatifolium Berg. ex Desc., Campsiandra laurifolia Benth., Symmeria paniculata Benth. and Acosmium nitens (Vog.) Benth); and (2) independence of photosynthesis and leaf conductance from flooding (Eschweilera tenuifolia (Berg.) Miers.). In the first response pattern, declining photosynthetic rate with flooding may be interpreted as a sign of reduced flood tolerance, whereas the second response pattern may indicate increased flood tolerance. An increase in xylem water potential with depth of water column was found for all species (with the possible exception of P. ovatifolium), indicating that flooding does not cause water stress in these trees. Submerged leaves that had been under water for between four days and four months generally had photosynthetic rates and leaf conductances similar to those of aerial leaves, indicating maintenance of photosynthetic capacity under water. Daily positive oscillations in glucan content in submerged leaves of P. ovatifolium and C. laurifolia suggest that submerged leaves do not represent a sink for photosynthates produced by aerial leaves. PMID:12651586

  20. Anatahan Activity and Monitoring, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockhart, A.; White, R.; Koyanagi, S.; Trusdell, F.; Kauahikaua, J.; Marso, J.; Ewert, J.

    2005-12-01

    Anatahan volcano began erupting in 2003 and continued with a second eruptive phase in 2004. In January 2005 the volcano began a sequence of eruptions and unrest that continues as of September 2005. The activity has been characterized by punctuated episodes of very steamy strombolian activity and vigorous ash emission. Some of the ash emissions have reached 50,000-foot elevations, with VOG and ash occasionally reaching the Philippines and southernmost Japan, over 1000 miles away. Vigorous ash emission has been almost continuous since June 2005. A M4.8 long-period earthquake (LP) occurred in mid-August, one of the largest LPs recorded on the planet in the last quarter-century. Real-time monitoring consisting of a few telemetered short-period seismometers and acoustic sensors has been severely hampered by ashfall on the small island. Monitoring efforts have been focused on the aircraft/ash hazard, with the goal of providing the FAA and airline industry with rapid notice of seismic signatures that may indicate ash columns rising to the altitude of airline traffic, or nominally above 20,000-30,000 ft.

  1. Fire tests to evaluate the potential fire threat and its effects on HEPA filter integrity in cell ventilation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 7920

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1992-12-01

    As a result of a DOE (Tiger Team) Technical Safety Appraisal (November 1990) of the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), ORNL Building 7920, a number of fire protection concerns were identified. The primary concern was the perceived loss of ventilation system containment due to the thermal destruction and/or breaching of the prefilters and/or high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA `s) and the resultant radioactive release to the external environment. The following report describes the results of an extensive fire test program performed by the Fire Research Discipline (FRD) of the Special Projects Division of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and funded by ORNL to address these concerns. Full scale mock-ups of a REDC hot cell tank pit, adjacent cubicle pit, and associated ventilation system were constructed at LLNL and 13 fire experiments were conducted to specifically answer the questions raised by the Tiger Team. Our primary test plan was to characterize the burning of a catastrophic solvent spill (kerosene) of 40 liters and its effect on the containment ventilation system prefilters and HEPA filters. In conjunction with ORNL and Lockwood Greene we developed a test matrix that assessed the fire performance of the prefilters and HEPA filters; evaluated the fire response of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) epoxy ventilation duct work; the response and effectiveness of the fire protection system, the effect of fire in a cubicle on the vessel off-gas (VOG) elbow, and other fire safety questions.

  2. Quantitative analysis on electrooculography (EOG) for neurodegenerative disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Chia; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Seref, Onur; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Sackellares, J. C.; Skidmore, Frank M.

    2007-11-01

    Many studies have documented abnormal horizontal and vertical eye movements in human neurodegenerative disease as well as during altered states of consciousness (including drowsiness and intoxication) in healthy adults. Eye movement measurement may play an important role measuring the progress of neurodegenerative diseases and state of alertness in healthy individuals. There are several techniques for measuring eye movement, Infrared detection technique (IR). Video-oculography (VOG), Scleral eye coil and EOG. Among those available recording techniques, EOG is a major source for monitoring the abnormal eye movement. In this real-time quantitative analysis study, the methods which can capture the characteristic of the eye movement were proposed to accurately categorize the state of neurodegenerative subjects. The EOG recordings were taken while 5 tested subjects were watching a short (>120 s) animation clip. In response to the animated clip the participants executed a number of eye movements, including vertical smooth pursued (SVP), horizontal smooth pursued (HVP) and random saccades (RS). Detection of abnormalities in ocular movement may improve our diagnosis and understanding a neurodegenerative disease and altered states of consciousness. A standard real-time quantitative analysis will improve detection and provide a better understanding of pathology in these disorders.

  3. Analysis of a Chinese phonetic compound database: implications for orthographic processing.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-wen; Shillcock, Richard

    2006-09-01

    The complexity of Chinese orthography has hindered the progress of research in Chinese to the same level of sophistication of that in alphabetic languages such as English. Also, there has been no publicly available resource concerning the decomposition of Chinese characters, which is essential in any attempt to model the cognitive processes of Chinese character recognition. Here we report our construction and analysis of a Chinese lexical database containing the most frequent phonetic compounds decomposed into semantic and phonetic radicals according to Chinese etymology. Each radical was further decomposed into basic stroke patterns according to a Chinese transcription system, Cangjie (Chu, 1979 Laboratory of chu Bong-Foo Retrieved August 25, 2004, from http://www.cbflabs.com/). Other information such as pronunciation and character frequency were also incorporated. We examine the distribution of different types of character, the information skew in phonetic compounds, the relations between subcharacter orthographic units and the pronunciation of the entire character, and the processing implications of these phenomena in terms of universal psycholinguistic principles. PMID:16897357

  4. Stem growth reduction in mature Sitka spruce trees exposed to acid mist.

    PubMed

    Crossley, A; Sheppard, L J; Cape, J N; Smith, R I; Harvey, F J

    1997-01-01

    An eighteen-year-old clone of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) growing in the field was used to evaluate the whole tree response of 'mature' Sitka spruce to acid mist treatment. The mist, an equimolar mixture of H(2)SO(4) and NH(4)NO(3) at pH 2.5 with or without particles (soda glass ballotini < 20 microm diameter), was applied twice weekly (equivalent to 4 mm precipitation week(-1)) throughout the growing season, May-November 1990-1992. The annual dose of S, N, H applied as mist (at 51, 48 and 3.3 kg ha(-1), respectively) was 2.5 times that measured in the Scottish uplands. Throughout the experiment there was no evidence of visible injury symptoms, yet there was a highly significant reduction (p < 0.02) in the stem-area increment relative to the stem area at the start, measured using vernier dendrometer bands. There was no significant difference between the (acid mist + particle) and the acid mist only treatments. The mean relative stem-area increment over two complete growing seasons (1991-1992) was 65% for control trees, but only 53% for acid-misted trees. PMID:15093418

  5. The effect of alder forest cover and alder forest conversion on site fertility and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Miegroet, H.; Cole, D.W.; Homann, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is known for its ability to improve the status of soil N through symbiotic N fixation. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of red alder forests and their removal on soil and solution chemistry and on the growth of trees subsequently established on such sites. This was achieved through a series of paired field comparisons at two locations in Washington, involving similar-aged pure alder and Douglas-fir forests on soils that were essentially the same prior to stand establishment. At Pack Forest alder and Douglas-fir stands on high- and low-productivity sites were subjected to three levels of harvesting: bore only removal, whole tree (aboveground) harvesting, and complete removal of all vegetation and forest floor. The effect of harvesting intensity was examined on nutrient removal with biomass and through leaching, and on subsequent seedling growth. At Thompson Research Center adjacent Douglas-fir and alder forests were harvested, and half of each area was replanted with either Douglas-fir or red alder seedlings, yielding four forest conversion units. Differences in growth patterns, tree nutrient status, and leaching losses between these conversion plots were examined. Compared with adjacent Douglas-fir forests, substantially more N, P, K, and Ca are tied up in aboveground vegetation and on the forest floor of alder forests, and these elements also cycle faster in alder ecosystems primarily due to the deciduous nature of alder.

  6. A Group-Based Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lan, Hang Thi Xuan; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn J

    2016-08-01

    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam. There are currently no evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions for MSM in this setting. Between October 2012 and June 2013, 100 high-risk MSM from Ho Chi Minh City were enrolled in an open pilot trial to assess feasibility and acceptability of a group-based, manualized sexual risk reduction intervention, and to preliminarily examine changes in primary and secondary outcomes. Participants completed a behavioral assessment battery and HIV testing at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Over 80.0 % of the sample was <25 years old and 77.0 % identified as Bong kin ("hidden," masculine-appearing). Feasibility and acceptability of the program was evidenced by 87.0 % retention for the intervention sessions, 78.0 % completion of the 6 month assessment, and positive responses on evaluation forms and qualitative exit interviews. There was a decline in the number of condomless anal sex acts from baseline (6.32) to 3 month (2.06) and 6 month (2.49) follow-up (p < .0001). These data support the need for further testing of this group-based, behavioral HIV prevention intervention to reduce sexual risk behavior among MSM in Vietnam in a randomized controlled efficacy trial. PMID:26721662

  7. Variations in 13C discrimination during CO2 exchange by Picea sitchensis branches in the field.

    PubMed

    Wingate, Lisa; Seibt, Ulli; Moncrieff, John B; Jarvis, Paul G; Lloyd, Jon

    2007-05-01

    We report diurnal variations in (13)C discrimination ((13)Delta) of Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. branches measured in the field using a branch chamber technique. The observations were compared to predicted (13)Delta based on concurrent measurements of branch gas exchange. Observed (13)Delta values were described well by the classical model of (13)Delta including isotope effects during photorespiration, day respiration and CO(2) transfer through a series of resistances to the sites of carboxylation. A simplified linear of model (13)Delta did not capture the observed diurnal variability. At dawn and dusk, we measured very high (13)Delta values that were not predicted by either of the said models. Exploring the sensitivity of (13)Delta to possible respiratory isotope effects, we conclude that isotopic disequilibria between the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and day respiration can explain the high observed (13)Delta values during net photosynthetic gas exchange. Based on the classical model, a revised formulation incorporating an isotopically distinct substrate for day respiration was able to account well for the high observed dawn and dusk (13)Delta values. PMID:17407538

  8. Quantitation of gibberellins A sub 1 , A sub 3 , A sub 4 , A sub 9 and a putative A sub 9 -conjugate in grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) during the period of shoot elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, T.; Philipson, J.J.; Oden, P.C. Forestry Commission Northern Research Station, Roslin Midlothian )

    1990-08-01

    The levels of endogenous gibberellin A{sub 1}(GA{sub 1}), GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 9}, and a cellulase hydrolyzable GA{sub 9} conjugate in needles and shoot stems of mature grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) grown under environmental conditions that were either inductive, hot, and dry, or noninductive, cool, and wet, for flowering, were estimated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring using deuterated ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, and GA{sub 9} as internal standards. The results imply differential metabolism between clones treated with conditions inductive and noninductive for flowering. Higher concentrations of putative GA{sub 9} conjugate and free GA{sub 9} in the hot and dry treatment indicate a higher capacity of synthesizing, for flowering, the physiologically important GA{sub 4} in the heat and drought-treated material. This synthesis does not, however, result in a buildup of the GA{sub 4} pool, probably because of a high turnover rate of GA{sub 4}. The cool and wet-treated material had higher amounts of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3}, indicating that the differentiation was preferentially directed toward vegetative growth.

  9. Low-temperature sintering of nanoscale silver paste for semiconductor device interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Guofeng

    This research has developed a lead-free semiconductor device interconnect technology by studying the processing-microstructure-property relationships of low-temperature sintering of nanoscale silver pastes. The nanoscale silver pastes have been formulated by adding organic components (dispersant, binder and thinner) into nano-silver particles. The selected organic components have the nano-particle polymeric stabilization, paste processing quality adjustment, and non-densifying diffusion retarding functions and thus help the pastes sinter to ˜80% bulk density at temperatures no more than 300°C. It has been found that the low-temperature sintered silver has better electrical, thermal and overall thermomechanical properties compared with the existing semiconductor device interconnecting materials such as solder alloys and conductive epoxies. After solving the organic burnout problems associated with the covered sintering, a lead-free semiconductor device interconnect technology has been designed to be compatible with the existing surface-mounting techniques with potentially low-cost. It has been found that the low-temperature sintered silver joints have high electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance. The reliability of the silver joints has also been studied by the 50-250°C thermal cycling experiment. Finally, the bonging strength drop of the silver joints has been suggested to be ductile fracture in the silver joints as micro-voids nucleated at microscale grain boundaries during the temperature cycling. The low-temperature silver sintering technology has enabled some benchmark packaging concepts and substantial advantages in future applications.

  10. Response of high-elevation forests in the Olympic Mountains to climatic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zolbrod, A.N.; Peterson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The gap model ZELIG was used to examine the effects of increased temperature (2A?C) and altered precipitation on high-elevation ecosystems of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, U.S.A. Changes in tree species distribution and abundance, as well as stand biomass, were examined on north and south aspects in the dry northeast (NE) and wet southwest (SW) regions of the Olympics for (i) warmer, (ii) warmer and 20% wetter, and (iii) warmer and 20% drier climatic-change scenarios. Dominant tree species shift upwards 300-600 m in elevation in the SW, with subalpine meadows and Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr. forests being replaced by Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes forests at higher elevations and A. amabilis forests being replaced by Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forests at lower elevations. In the NE, drought-tolerant species become dominant approximately 200 m lower than present, with A. lasiocarpa dominating the north aspect and Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. the south aspect. Biomass increases in the SW and generally decreases in the NE, depending on aspect and precipitation regime. This study suggests that species and site-specific responses at mesoscale (e.g., wet vs. dry climatic regime) and microscale (e.g., north vs. south aspect) resolutions must be characterized to quantify the variation in potential effects of climatic change on forest vegetation in mountainous regions.

  11. Diameters and dry weights of tree shoots: effects of Young's modulus, taper, deflection and angle.

    PubMed

    Cannell, M G; Morgan, J; Murray, M B

    1988-09-01

    The structural theory for cantilever beams was used to calculate the diameters and dry weights of wood that unbranched shoots must produce to support their own weights. The study was done on Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., Pinus contorta Dougl., Larix decidua Mill. and Betula pendula Roth. syn. verrucosa Ehrh. The weights of wood increased in a non-linear fashion with increase in shoot length. A large investment in wood (as measured by diameter and dry weight) was required to maintain a small endpoint deflection (1-5% of the length). By contrast, the degree of linear taper had only a small effect on support costs, as did the Young's modulus of the wood (over the range 1-4 GPa) and the angle of the shoot from the horizontal (over the range 0-45 degrees ). Current year's shoots on young trees of P. sitchensis and P. contorta incur a high support cost in order to maintain small (1-5%) deflections throughout the year: similar shoots of L. decidua and B. pendula have smaller support costs because they deflect by about 20% after leaf expansion in spring. PMID:14972812

  12. Distribution of ether in two postmortem cases.

    PubMed

    Cox, Dawn; DeRienz, Rebecca; Jufer Phipps, Rebecca A; Levine, Barry; Jacobs, Aaron; Fowler, David

    2006-10-01

    Diethyl ether (ether) is a volatile liquid that was used in the 1800s as an anesthetic agent; however, it is no longer used for this purpose, partly because of its odor and flammability. Two postmortem cases in which ether was detected are presented. The first case was an 18-year-old male found hanging from a basement ceiling brace in a semi-sitting position with a gas mask covering his face. A container of Prestone starting fluid and a bong were found on the floor close to the body. The second case was a 20-year-old male found unresponsive in his dormitory room with two black plastic trash bags secured over his head. Two saturated rags and a resealable bag containing a clear liquid were contained within these trash bags. An almost empty can of Tradco starting fluid was also found at the scene. Ether concentrations were determined by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selective ion monitoring mode. In case #1, the medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was asphyxia due to hanging; the manner of death was undetermined. In case #2, the medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was asphyxia and the manner of death was suicide. PMID:17132265

  13. Growth responses of subalpine fir to climatic variability in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Peterson, D.L.; Ettl, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied regional variation in growth-limiting factors and responses to climatic variability in subalpine forests by analyzing growth patterns for 28 tree-ring growth chronologies from subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) stands in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains (Washington and Oregon, U.S.A.). Factor analysis identified four distinct time series of common growth patterns; the dominant growth pattern at any site varied with annual precipitation and temperature (elevation). Throughout much of the region, growth is negatively correlated with winter precipitation and spring snowpack depth, indicating that growth is limited primarily by short growing seasons. On the driest and warmest sites, growth is negatively correlated with previous summer temperature, suggesting that low summer soil moisture limits growth. Growth patterns in two regions were sensitive to climatic variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, apparently responding to low-frequency variation in spring snowpack and summer soil moisture (one negatively, one positively). This regional-scale analysis shows that subalpine fir growth in the Cascades and Olympics is limited by different climatic factors in different subregional climates. Climatea??growth relationships are similar to those for a co-occurring species, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carri??re), suggesting broad biogeographic patterns of response to climatic variability and change by subalpine forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest.

  14. Interview: Health technology assessment in Asia: an emerging trend.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bong-min

    2012-05-01

    Bong-min Yang, PhD (in economics), is Professor and former Dean of the School of Public Health at the Seoul National University, South Korea. Professor Yang has led research and written many papers in health economics and healthcare systems in Korea and Asia. His recent research and publications focus on the field of economic evaluation and outcomes research. He played a key role in the introduction of a formal health technology assessment system within Korean healthcare. He is currently serving as Executive Director, Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University. In addition to his research and publications, Professor Yang is Associate Editor for Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, is co-editor-in-chief for Value in Health Regional Issues, and is currently chair of the Management Advisory Board of Value in Health and a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Medical Economics. He has been a policy consultant to China, Japan, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand and India. He has also worked as a short-term consultant at the WHO, ADB, UNDP and the World Bank. For the Korean government, he served as Chairperson of the Health Insurance Reform Committee, and Chairperson of the Drug Pricing and Reimbursement Committee. He is currently serving as Chair of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Asia Consortium, and a member of the Board of Directors of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. PMID:24237405

  15. Transmissivity of solar radiation within a Picea sitchensis stand under various sky conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Grace, J.; MacArthur, A.

    2015-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diffuse radiation from cloudy and overcast skies penetrates the canopy more effectively than direct radiation from clear skies. We compared the flux density and spectral properties of direct and diffuse radiation (around solar noon (±1 h)) above, within and below a forest stand under sunny, cloudy and overcast conditions in a thinned Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) forest (28 years old, with a leaf area index of approximately 5.2 m2 m-2). We recorded vertical profiles of radiation penetration (from 350 to 1050 nm), and we also explored the horizontal pattern of radiation along a 115 m transect. We showed that in "clear sky" conditions, the photosynthetically active radiation in the lower parts of the canopy was substantially attenuated, more so than under cloudy and overcast skies. It was particularly depleted in the blue part of the spectrum, but only slightly blue-depleted when the sky was overcast or cloudy. Moreover, the red : far-red ratio under clear skies fell to values less than 0.3 but only to 0.6 under cloudy or overcast skies. Near the ground, the light climate was strongly influenced by the thinning pattern (carried out in accordance with standard forestry management practice).

  16. Transmissivity of solar radiation within a Picea sitchensis stand under various sky conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Grace, J.; MacArthur, A.

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that diffuse radiation from cloudy and overcast skies penetrates the canopy more effectively than direct radiation from clear skies. We compared the flux density and spectral properties of direct and diffuse radiation (around solar noon (±1 h) above, within and below a forest stand under sunny, cloudy and overcast conditions in a thinned Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) forest (28 years old, with an leaf area index of approximately 5.2). We recorded vertical profiles of radiation penetration (from 350 to 1050 nm), and we also explored the horizontal pattern of radiation along a 115 m transect. We showed that in "clear sky" conditions, the photosynthetically-active radiation in the lower parts of the canopy was substantially attenuated, more so than under cloudy and overcast skies. It was particularly depleted in the blue part of the spectrum, but only slightly blue-depleted when the sky was overcast or cloudy. Moreover, the red far-red ratio under clear skies fell to values less than 0.3 but only to 0.6 under cloudy or overcast skies. Near the ground, the light climate was strongly influenced by the thinning pattern (carried out in accordance with standard forestry management practice).

  17. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. PMID:25682890

  18. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) transcriptome analysis in response to infection by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides using an oligonucleotide-DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Maho; Kurotani, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsui, Akihiro; Ishitani, Manabu; Sraphet, Supajit; Whankaew, Sukhuman; Asvarak, Thipa; Narangajavana, Jarunya; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-07-01

    Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD), caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. Manihotis, is a serious disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta) worldwide. In this study, we established a cassava oligonucleotide-DNA microarray representing 59,079 probes corresponding to approximately 30,000 genes based on original expressed sequence tags and RNA-seq information from cassava, and applied it to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to fungal infection using two cassava cultivars, Huay Bong 60 (HB60, resistant to CAD) and Hanatee (HN, sensitive to CAD). Based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and expression profiling by the microarray, we showed that the expressions of various plant defense-related genes, such as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, cell wall-related genes, detoxification enzyme, genes related to the response to bacterium, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), genes related to salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways were higher in HB60 compared with HN. Our results indicated that the induction of PR genes in HB60 by fungal infection and the higher expressions of defense response-related genes in HB60 compared with HN are likely responsible for the fungal resistance in HB60. We also showed that the use of our cassava oligo microarray could improve our understanding of cassava molecular mechanisms related to environmental responses and development, and advance the molecular breeding of useful cassava plants. PMID:27138000

  19. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  20. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

  1. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai‵i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnston, D. M.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.

    2004-02-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai‵i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Hualālai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n=462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Hualālai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  2. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai'i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  3. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  4. Advanced multi-phase flow CFD model development for solid rocket motor flowfield analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen

    1995-03-01

    A Navier-Stokes code, finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), is used to analyze the complicated internal flowfield of the SRM (solid rocket motor) to explore the impacts due to the effects of chemical reaction, particle dynamics, and slag accumulation on the solid rocket motor (SRM). The particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, and agglomeration models are included in present study to obtain a better understanding of the SRM design. Finite rate chemistry model is applied to simulate the chemical reaction effects. Hermsen correlation model is used for the combustion simulation. The evaporation model introduced by Spalding is utilized to include the heat transfer from the particulate phase to the gase phase due to the evaporation of the particles. A correlation of the minimum particle size for breakup expressed in terms of the Al/Al2O3 surface tension and shear force was employed to simulate the breakup of particles. It is assumed that the breakup occurs when the Weber number exceeds 6. A simple L agglomeration model is used to investigate the particle agglomeration. However, due to the large computer memory requirements for the agglomeration model, only 2D cases are tested with the agglomeration model. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is employed to simulate the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the turbulent dispersion effect of the particles. The flowfield analysis obtained using the FDNS code in the present research with finite rate chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, agglomeration, and VOG models will provide a design guide for the potential improvement of the SRM including the use of materials and the shape of nozzle geometry such that a better performance of the SRM can be achieved. The simulation of the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity can assist the designer to improve the design of

  5. Advanced Multi-phase Flow CFD Model Development for Solid Rocket Motor Flowfield Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, Paul; Chen, Yen-Sen

    1995-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes code, finite difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS), is used to analyze the complicated internal flowfield of the SRM (solid rocket motor) to explore the impacts due to the effects of chemical reaction, particle dynamics, and slag accumulation on the solid rocket motor (SRM). The particulate multi-phase flowfield with chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, and agglomeration models are included in present study to obtain a better understanding of the SRM design. Finite rate chemistry model is applied to simulate the chemical reaction effects. Hermsen correlation model is used for the combustion simulation. The evaporation model introduced by Spalding is utilized to include the heat transfer from the particulate phase to the gase phase due to the evaporation of the particles. A correlation of the minimum particle size for breakup expressed in terms of the Al/Al2O3 surface tension and shear force was employed to simulate the breakup of particles. It is assumed that the breakup occurs when the Weber number exceeds 6. A simple L agglomeration model is used to investigate the particle agglomeration. However, due to the large computer memory requirements for the agglomeration model, only 2D cases are tested with the agglomeration model. The VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is employed to simulate the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity of the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the turbulent dispersion effect of the particles. The flowfield analysis obtained using the FDNS code in the present research with finite rate chemical reaction, particle evaporation, combustion, breakup, agglomeration, and VOG models will provide a design guide for the potential improvement of the SRM including the use of materials and the shape of nozzle geometry such that a better performance of the SRM can be achieved. The simulation of the slag buildup in the aft-end cavity can assist the designer to improve the design of

  6. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  7. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  8. Rapid intervention to reduce Ebola transmission in a remote village - Gbarpolu County, Liberia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Blackley, David J; Lindblade, Kim A; Kateh, Francis; Broyles, Laura N; Westercamp, Matthew; Neatherlin, John C; Pillai, Satish K; Tucker, Anthony; Mott, Joshua A; Walke, Henry; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-02-27

    As late as September 14, 2014, Liberia's Gbarpolu County had reported zero cases of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). On October 25, the Bong County Health Team, a local health department in the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), received confirmation of Ebola in a man who had recently left Geleyansiesu, a remote village of approximately 800 residents, after his wife and daughter had died of illnesses consistent with Ebola. MOHSW requested assistance from CDC, the World Health Organization, and other international partners to investigate and confirm the outbreak in Geleyansiesu and begin interventions to interrupt transmission. A total of 22 cases were identified, of which 18 (82%) were laboratory confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were 16 deaths (case-fatality rate = 73%). Without road access to or direct telecommunications with the village, interventions had to be tailored to the local context. Public health interventions included 1) education of the community about Ebola, transmission of the virus, signs and symptoms, the importance of isolating ill patients from family members, and the potential benefits of early diagnosis and treatment; 2) establishment of mechanisms to alert health authorities of possibly infected persons leaving the village to facilitate safe transport to the closest Ebola treatment unit (ETU); 3) case investigation, contact tracing, and monitoring of contacts; 4) training in hygienic burial of dead bodies; 5) active case finding and diagnosis; and 6) isolation and limited no-touch treatment in the village of patients unwilling or unable to seek care at an ETU. The findings of this investigation could inform interventions aimed at controlling focal outbreaks in difficult-to-reach communities, which has been identified as an important component of the effort to eliminate Ebola from Liberia. PMID:25719678

  9. Wound-induced terpene synthase gene expression in Sitka spruce that exhibit resistance or susceptibility to attack by the white pine weevil.

    PubMed

    Byun-McKay, Ashley; Godard, Kimberley-Ann; Toudefallah, Morteza; Martin, Diane M; Alfaro, Rene; King, John; Bohlmann, Joerg; Plant, Aine L

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed the expression pattern of various terpene synthase (TPS) genes in response to a wounding injury applied to the apical leader of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) genotypes known to be resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) attack. The purpose was to test if differences in constitutive or wound-induced TPS expression can be associated with established weevil resistance. All wounding treatments were conducted on 9-year-old R and S trees growing under natural field conditions within the range of variation for weevil R and S genotypes. Representative cDNAs of the monoterpene synthase (mono-TPS), sesquiterpene synthase (sesqui-TPS), and diterpene synthase (di-TPS) classes were isolated from Sitka spruce to assess TPS transcript levels. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, the cDNAs resemble Norway spruce (Picea abies) (-)-linalool synthase (mono-TPS; PsTPS-Linl) and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (di-TPS; PsTPS-LASl), and grand fir (Abies grandis) delta-selinene synthase (sesqui-TPS; PsTPS-Sell). One other mono-TPS was functionally identified as (-)-limonene synthase (PsTPS-Lim). No significant difference in constitutive expression levels for these TPSs was detected between R and S trees. However, over a postwounding period of 16 d, only R trees exhibited significant transcript accumulation for the mono- and sesqui-TPS tested. Both R and S trees exhibited a significant accumulation of PsTPS-LASl transcripts. An assessment of traumatic resin duct formation in wounded leaders showed that both R and S trees responded by forming traumatic resin ducts; however, the magnitude of this response was significantly greater in R trees. Collectively, our data imply that the induced resinosis response is an important aspect of defense in weevil R Sitka spruce trees growing under natural conditions. PMID:16415217

  10. Trichloroacetic acid cycling in Sitka spruce saplings and effects on sapling health following long term exposure.

    PubMed

    Dickey, C A; Heal, K V; Stidson, R T; Koren, R; Schröder, P; Cape, J N; Heal, M R

    2004-07-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA, CCl(3)COOH) has been associated with forest damage but the source of TCA to trees is poorly characterised. To investigate the routes and effects of TCA uptake in conifers, 120 Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) saplings were exposed to control, 10 or 100 microg l(-1) solutions of TCA applied twice weekly to foliage only or soil only over two consecutive 5-month growing seasons. At the end of each growing season similar elevated TCA concentrations (approximate range 200-300 ng g(-1) dwt) were detected in both foliage and soil-dosed saplings exposed to 100 microg l(-1) TCA solutions showing that TCA uptake can occur from both exposure routes. Higher TCA concentrations in branchwood of foliage-dosed saplings suggest that atmospheric TCA in solution is taken up indirectly into conifer needles via branch and stemwood. TCA concentrations in needles declined slowly by only 25-30% over 6 months of winter without dosing. No effect of TCA exposure on sapling growth was measured during the experiment. However at the end of the first growing season needles of saplings exposed to 10 or 100 microg l(-1) foliage-applied TCA showed significantly more visible damage, higher activities of some detoxifying enzymes, lower protein contents and poorer water control than needles of saplings dosed with the same TCA concentrations to the soil. At the end of each growing season the combined TCA storage in needles, stemwood, branchwood and soil of each sapling was <6% of TCA applied. Even with an estimated half-life of tens of days for within-sapling elimination of TCA during the growing season, this indicates that TCA is eliminated rapidly before uptake or accumulates in another compartment. Although TCA stored in sapling needles accounted for only a small proportion of TCA stored in the sapling/soil system it appears to significantly affect some measures of sapling health. PMID:15158031

  11. LiDAR remote sensing observations for forest assessment and recovery responses following disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosette, J.; Suárez, J.; Fonweben, J.; North, P.

    2013-12-01

    LiDAR data covering 400 km2 in the Cowal and Trossacs Forest District, Scotland, U.K., were used to provide a low cost solution to update the database of public forests and to produce multi-scale cartographic products for supporting management decisions in the event of forest disturbance such as infestation or wind damage. All parameter estimates were directly obtained from the LiDAR data without the necessity of field calibration. This was achieved using a hybrid approach integrating current stand models for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis bong. Carr) and LiDAR analysis. More conventional field methods offer percentage sampling, permitting only a proportion of stands to be surveyed each year and aiming to represent stand-level conditions. The use of LiDAR is advantageous in allowing a complete observation-based assessment throughout the forest and greatly-improved spatial representation of important forest parameters. Time-series analysis was performed using LiDAR data collected in the past 10 years. This analysis allowed us to establish growth trajectories in the forest stands, automatically discriminating areas of growth, those whose growth had been affected by disease and the occurrence of windthrow gaps. The results were compared to the cartography produced by the Forest District after a severe wind storm that affected the area in 2012. This analysis showed the ability of LiDAR to create a more precise location and extent of catastrophic damage and windthrow gaps. In addition, once windthrow has occurred, progression of further damage in existing canopy gaps can be observed. This approach additionally allows the impact of disease on forest growth and subsequent recovery response to be monitored.

  12. Plant tissue analysis for explosive compounds in phytoremediation and phytoforensics.

    PubMed

    Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Mu, Ruipu; Yuan, Yuan; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Burken, Joel G

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissue analysis methods were evaluated for six explosive compounds to assess uptake and phytoforensic methods development to quantify explosives in plant to obtain the plant data for the evaluation of explosive contamination in soil and groundwater. Four different solvent mixtures containing acetonitrile or methanol were tested at variable extraction ratios to compare the extraction efficiency for six explosive compounds: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN), in Laurel Willow (Salix pentandra) stem and range grass Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) using LC-MS/MS. Plant tissues were spiked with 500 ng/g of explosives and extracted using ultrasonically-assisted solvent extraction. With the ratio of fresh plant mass to solvent volume of 1:20 for willow and 1:40 for big bluestem grass, results indicated that all explosives in willow except HMX were extracted at higher than 73.3% by using 20 mL of methanol, 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water, or acetonitrile, whereas HMX was extracted with the highest recovery of 61.3% by 20 mL of acetonitrile. In big bluestem grass, the most effective solvents were 20 mL of either methanol or 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water for PETN extraction with a recovery of higher than 101.2% and 20 mL of 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water for HMX, RDX, TNT, 2ADNT, and DNAN extraction with a recovery of 83.8%, 104.4%, 97.5%, 80.7%, and 108.2%, respectively. However, unlike methanol and acetonitrile, 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water provided no problem of leading or split peak in chromatogram; therefore, it was preferred in the test and performed a method validation. Results indicated that 50:50 (v/v) methanol:water provided good repeatability and recovery and method detection limits at 0.5-20 ng/g fresh weight or 8.8-61.3 ng/g dry weight. Overall, results suggested that

  13. Taxonomía de asteroides y cometas basada en los espectros de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Motta, V.; Froeschlé, C.

    Estudiaremos dos familias de objetos que sufren encuentros cercanos con planetas, a saber: la familia de cometas de Júpiter (JF) y los asteroides cercanos a la Tierra (NEAs). El movimiento de estos objetos es caótico en una escala de tiempo corta. Más aún, debido a los cambios erráticos en los elementos orbitales, la comparación de los valores actuales da poca información acerca de la posible vinculación dinámica entre los objetos de una misma familia. Calculamos una estimación finita de los Exponentes Característicos de Lyapunov (LCE), los llamamos Indicadores Característicos de Lyapunov (LCI) para ambas familias y analizamos las características del espacio de fase donde tiene lugar el movimiento de estos objetos. Integrando en un período suficientemente largo (e.g. 20000 años), encontramos que el LCI alcanza un valor cuasi-constante. La mayoría de los miembros de ambas familias muestran una concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov (inverso del LCI) de alrededor de 50-100 años (Tancredi, 1995, Astron & Astrop., 299, 288). La concentración de los tiempos de Lyapunov es mayor para la familia de Júpiter que para los NEAs. Entre estos últimos, la menor dispersión se da para aquellos que cruzan la órbita de la Tierra. Se demostró que el espectro de los `indicadores locales' (Froeschlé et. al., 1990, Cel. Mec. 56, 307) o ``números de estiramiento'' (Voglis and Contopoulos, 1994, J. Phys. A 26, 4899) (relacionados con el LCI) son invariantes y nos dan una información más completa sobre el comportamiento caótico. Mediante la comparación de espectros discutimos la similitud entre los objetos de una misma familia y analizamos las diferentes posibles rutas al caos. Los espectros se clasifican mediante la comparación de los momentos de las distribuciones de los `números de estiramiento'. Aplicamos un método de agrupamiento jerárquico (Zappala et. al., 1990, Astron. J. 100, 2030) para identificar ``familias'' de espectros (grupos de espectros

  14. Seismic hazard and risks based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir; Nekrasova, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. Any kind of risk estimates R(g) at location g results from a convolution of the natural hazard H(g) with the exposed object under consideration O(g) along with its vulnerability V(O(g)). Note that g could be a point, or a line, or a cell on or under the Earth surface and that distribution of hazards, as well as objects of concern and their vulnerability, could be time-dependent. There exist many different risk estimates even if the same object of risk and the same hazard are involved. It may result from the different laws of convolution, as well as from different kinds of vulnerability of an object of risk under specific environments and conditions. Both conceptual issues must be resolved in a multidisciplinary problem oriented research performed by specialists in the fields of hazard, objects of risk, and object vulnerability, i.e. specialists in earthquake engineering, social sciences and economics. To illustrate this general concept, we first construct seismic hazard assessment maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE). The parameters A, B, and C of USLE, i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an area of linear size L, are used to estimate the expected maximum

  15. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide measurements using small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Corrales, E.; Linick, J.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes emit gases continuously with significant pre-post-eruption changes, mainly H2O and CO2, plus SO2, and others. The SO2/CO2 ratio changes within volcanic life cycles making it an indicator of oncoming eruption phases: it can dip weeks to months before eruptions, then increase, and decrease back to background after eruptions. Over the last five years, we have made an effort to develop small and inexpensive lighter-than-air and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms in Costa Rica at Turrialba Volcano. Turrialba is an appropriate natural laboratory to test and prove platforms and instrumentation in low-level steady state volcanogenic gas and aerosol emissions at moderate altitudes (<12Kft ASL), where good technical infrastructure exists, with good physical access to the volcano. Our program in Costa Rica includes: (1) systematic monitoring of Turrialba from orbit with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), with its thermal infrared (TIR) camera for SO2 retrieval, and more recently with GOSAT and OCO-2 for CO2; (2) in situ observations from aerostats and UAVs during ASTER overpasses, and (3) reconciliation of the orbital results with in situ data to validate mass retrieval and transport models. As part of the NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Activities program, we will conduct similar observations at Kilauea volcano using small UAVs and for both SO2 and CO2 in situ. One of the salient characteristics of the long lived Kilauea eruptions since 1983 has been the emission of SO2 in significant amounts, generating environmental stresses on local inhabitants due to lowered air quality, and stress on vegetation. Kilauea volcanic plumes, as with Turrialba, are mainly gases and liquid--SO2 is hydrolyzed to H2SO4 and the resulting highly acidic liquid aerosol is termed "vog," an environmental health hazard. Measurement of the diffuse CO2 emissions at Kilauea will also be of interest. Such measurements at Turrialba

  16. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  17. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  18. Routine High-Resolution Forecasts/Analyses for the Pacific Disaster Center: User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, John; Han, J.; Chen, S.; Burgan, R.; Fujioka, F.; Stevens, D.; Funayama, D.; Chambers, C.; Bingaman, B.; McCord, C.; Paylor, Earnest (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Enclosed herein is our HWCMO user manual. This manual constitutes the final report for our NASA/PDC grant, NASA NAG5-8730, "Routine High Resolution Forecasts/Analysis for the Pacific Disaster Center". Since the beginning of the grant, we have routinely provided experimental high resolution forecasts from the RSM/MSM for the Hawaii Islands, while working to upgrade the system to include: (1) a more robust input of NCEP analyses directly from NCEP; (2) higher vertical resolution, with increased forecast accuracy; (3) faster delivery of forecast products and extension of initial 1-day forecasts to 2 days; (4) augmentation of our basic meteorological and simplified fireweather forecasts to firedanger and drought forecasts; (5) additional meteorological forecasts with an alternate mesoscale model (MM5); and (6) the feasibility of using our modeling system to work in higher-resolution domains and other regions. In this user manual, we provide a general overview of the operational system and the mesoscale models as well as more detailed descriptions of the models. A detailed description of daily operations and a cost analysis is also provided. Evaluations of the models are included although it should be noted that model evaluation is a continuing process and as potential problems are identified, these can be used as the basis for making model improvements. Finally, we include our previously submitted answers to particular PDC questions (Appendix V). All of our initially proposed objectives have basically been met. In fact, a number of useful applications (VOG, air pollution transport) are already utilizing our experimental output and we believe there are a number of other applications that could make use of our routine forecast/analysis products. Still, work still remains to be done to further develop this experimental weather, climate, fire danger and drought prediction system. In short, we would like to be a part of a future PDC team, if at all possible, to further

  19. Transuranium processing plant report of production, status, and plans for the period October 1, 1978-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.J.; Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.

    1981-08-01

    During this period, transuranium elements were obtained from 26 irradiated HFIT targets. The products included 86 mg of /sup 249/Bk, 686 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 3.1 mg of /sup 253/Es, and an estimated 1.4 pg of /sup 257/Fm. In addition, about 326 mg of high-purity /sup 248/ Cm was separated from previously purified /sup 252/Cf. One hundred seven product shipments were made from TRU; recipients and the amounts of nuclides shipped are listed in a table. Forty-two standard and two special HFIR targets were fabricated. During the next 18 months, production totals of 110 mg of /sup 249/ Bk, 1200 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 5.5 mg of /sup 253/Es, and 2 pg of /sup 257/Fm are anticipated. Also, a total of 225 mg of /sup 248/Cm is expected to be made available. During this report period, a charcoal adsorber system for radioiodine removal was installed, tested, and placed in service. This system serves as a backup to the Hopcalite-charcoal system for adsorption of /sup 131/I from the VOG stream. Seven /sup 252/Cf neutron sources were fabricated during this report period. A total of 100 neutron sources have been fabricated previously at TRU. The original and current contents (/sup 252/Cf and /sup 248/Cm) of the existing sources and the individuals to whom the sources are currently loaned are listed in a table. In addition to neutron sources, nine fission sources were prepared by electroplating /sup 252/Cf onto platinum disks or foils.Special projects during this report period included (1) purification of two batches of isotopically pure /sup 240/Pu, (2) fabrication of two special HFIR targets, (3) repurification of the residues of the einsteinium product from Campaign 56, (4) production of approx. 235 ..mu..g of /sup 250/Cf by irradiation of /sup 249/Bk, (5) radiography of 28 irradiated, stainless steel alloy, fracture-strain specimens, and (6) preparations for the production of 40 ..mu..g of /sup 245/Es by irradiation of /sup 253/Es.

  20. Characterizing the Followers and Tweets of a Marijuana-Focused Twitter Handle

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa; Grucza, Richard; Bierut, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is a popular social media forum for sharing personal experiences, interests, and opinions. An improved understanding of the discourse on Twitter that encourages marijuana use can be helpful for tailoring and targeting online and offline prevention messages. Objectives The intent of the study was to assess the content of “tweets” and the demographics of followers of a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (@stillblazingtho). Methods We assessed the sentiment and content of tweets (sent from May 1 to December 31, 2013), as well as the demographics of consumers that follow a popular pro-marijuana Twitter handle (approximately 1,000,000 followers) using Twitter analytics from Demographics Pro. This analytics company estimates demographic characteristics based on Twitter behavior/usage, relying on multiple data signals from networks, consumption, and language and requires confidence of 95% or above to make an estimate of a single demographic characteristic. Results A total of 2590 tweets were sent from @stillblazingtho during the 8-month period and 305 (11.78%) replies to another Twitter user were excluded for qualitative analysis. Of the remaining 2285 tweets, 1875 (82.06%) were positive about marijuana, 403 (17.64%) were neutral, and 7 (0.31%) appeared negative about marijuana. Approximately 1101 (58.72%) of the positive marijuana tweets were perceived as jokes or humorous, 340 (18.13%) implied that marijuana helps you to feel good or relax, 294 (15.68%) mentioned routine, frequent, or heavy use, 193 (10.29%) mentioned blunts, marijuana edibles, or paraphernalia (eg, bongs, vaporizers), and 186 (9.92%) mentioned other risky health behaviors (eg, tobacco, alcohol, other drugs, sex). The majority (699,103/959,143; 72.89%) of @stillblazingtho followers were 19 years old or younger. Among people ages 17 to 19 years, @stillblazingtho was in the top 10% of all Twitter handles followed. More followers of @stillblazingtho in the United States were

  1. ["Legal highs" from the German internet--"bath salt drugs" on the rise].

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Hottmann, Lidia; Hess, Cornelius; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of dangerous and insufficiently studied designer drugs has increased substantially within the last few years. Mixtures containing centrally active compounds are often declared as "bath salt", "incense", "plant food", "bong cleaners" and are marketed in head shops and on the Internet. As the majority of the ingredients of such products are not subject to regulations of the German Narcotics Law (Betäubungsmittelgesetz, BtMG), the vendors and consumers mistake the sale of such products for legal. An alternative possibility to prosecute the distribution of so-called "legal highs" arises from the regulations of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). Indicating a private address, several products were purchased via the Internet. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry using computer-assisted database search and potential hits were checked for plausibility. The analysis of 100 samples revealed centrally acting compounds (including caffeine) in 98 % (75 % of all samples positive for caffeine). In 16 % of the samples, drugs subject to the BtMG at the time of purchase (end of 2011) were found including 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine, amphetamine, etilamphetamine, N-benzylpiperazine, mephedrone, methcathinone, and phenobarbital. In 55 % of the samples, drugs subject to the current BtMG were found (after its amendment on 20 July 2012). In 37 % of the samples, substances subject to the AMG were found (e.g. ephedrine). In 35 % of the samples, drugs with a potential psychotropic effect were found. In 57.3 % of the positive samples, more than one active ingredient was determined and in some cases up to five active components were found. Other interesting pharmacologically active ingredients found were 4-methylcathinone (n=13), flephedrone (n=8), trifluoromethylphenyl-piperazine (n=7), methylone (n=5), butylone (n=2), hordenine (n=2), and harmane (n=2). Most of the substances not covered by the BtMG can be

  2. Genesis of the columnar joints from welded tuff in Mount Mudeung National Geopark, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chungwan; Huh, Min; Yi, Keewook; Lee, Changyeol

    2015-09-01

    Mount Mudeung National Geopark (MMNG), Gwangju, Republic of Korea (1187 masl), is known for its huge, broad occurrences of columnar jointed colonnades in the Cretaceous Mudeungsan Tuff. To understand the genesis of columnar joints infilling a volcanic vent, integrated geochemical and geophysical studies were conducted. Most colonnades in the Geopark are located in regions higher than 700 masl and show elevation-dependent variations in the mean face width of the columns. These mean widths are approximately 1.7, 1.3, 2.9, and 1.2 m for the summit (>1100 masl), upper (950-1100 masl), lower (850-950 masl), and lowest (700-850 masl) colonnades, respectively. This variation implies that columnar jointing resulted from discontinuous tuff depositions on relatively planar ground, which is associated with caldera structures and landslides from the emptied caldera rim. Geochemical analyses of major, minor, and trace elements show that the andesitic-dacitic Mudeungsan Tuff resulted from the arc magmatism associated with subduction of the Izanagi Plate and involved crustal components. Few geochemical variations of the Mudeungsan Tuff indicate that tuff originated from a single magma chamber. U-Pb age dating indicates that the Mudeungsan Tuff was deposited at ~85 Ma except for the Chotdae-bong colonnades, which were dated to ~87 Ma. However, a scaling analysis of the elevation-dependent variations of face widths and simplified numerical model calculations indicate that the variation in face widths with elevation indicates the sequential emplacement, cooling, and compaction of separate welded tuffs. Thus, the welded tuffs of MMNG can be thought to be formed by three discontinuous large explosive eruptions with periods of repose after each eruption. These tuffs include 1) the highest-elevation columnar joints of colonnades in the summit area (>1100 m), corresponding to the lower colonnades of the third tuff; 2) the intermediate-elevation columnar joints of colonnades

  3. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-01-01

    Background The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. Methods For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” and the “Standards for Tasty Water” devised for city water. Results The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study—Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND—showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health < 5.2. Conclusion The South Korean PET bottled water studied here fulfills the “Water Index of Taste,” “Water Index of Health,” “Standard for Tasty Water” and “Prerequisites for Tasty Water” that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people. PMID:26538797

  4. Insights on formation mechanism of colorful silica coatings on Kilauean basalts from field observations and silicon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemtob, S. M.; Stebbins, J. F.; Guan, Y.; Ziegler, K. G.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Eiler, J. M.; Rossman, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Many young basalts from Kilauea, on the big island of Hawai'i, feature visually striking white, yellow, orange and blue coatings. These coatings represent an opportunity to study the early onset of acid-sulfate weathering in volcanic environments. The coatings, first investigated on 1974 flows in the Ka'u Desert, consist of a 10-50 μm thick layer of amorphous silica, capped, in some cases, by a ~1 μm layer of Fe-Ti oxide. Both layers contain %-level enrichments of S, and jarosite is present as a minor phase. The coatings often display residual morphologies consistent with formation by leaching, but occasionally demonstrate depositional or accumulative morphology. Coated basalts of various ages (1969-2010) were collected from several sites along the SW and E rift zones of Kilauea to characterize variability in coating properties and the timing of coating formation. As early as one month after emplacement, some lava surfaces feature translucent, discontinuous 2-3 μm silica glazes, and lavas emplaced as recently as 2007 feature mature coating morphologies. Coatings tend to occur most prominently on smooth, low-vesicularity lavas, such as spatter and volcanic bombs. Rougher surfaces tend not to preserve coatings due to enhanced erosion. Older but recently exposed or broken surfaces away from active eruptions appear to regrow bright glazes with similar qualities, suggesting the importance of regional vog or acid rain in coating formation. Field observations illustrate the timing and complexity of silica coating growth, but do not address the coating formation mechanism and degree of Si mobility. Recent work, including in situ silicon isotope analysis via SIMS and detailed structural analysis via 29Si NMR and Raman spectroscopy, strongly suggests that the coatings are depositional and that Si was mobile during coating formation. 29Si NMR spectra indicate that the coating is structurally identical to amorphous silica gel and contains unusually high structural water

  5. Seismic hazard and risks estimates for Himalayas and surrounding regions based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Parvez, Imtiyaz

    2013-04-01

    The parameters A, B, and C of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE) in Himalayas and surrounding regions have been studied on the basis of a variable space and time scale approach. The basic law of seismicity, the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation, is suggested in a modified form involving a spatial term: log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of mainshocks of a certain magnitude M within an area of linear size L. The observed temporal variability of the A, B, C coefficients indicates significant changes of seismic activity at the time scales of a few decades. For Himalayan region, the value of A ranges between -1.95 to -0.66, which determines the average rate of earthquakes that accordingly differs by a factor of 20 or more. The value of B mainly ranges between 0.5 to 1.7, while the fractal dimension of the local seismic prone setting, C, changes from under 1 to 1.4 and larger. We have used the deterministic approach to estimate the corresponding peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the estimated A, B and C based magnitude and the maximum observed magnitude during 1900-2012 to prepare the seismic hazard map of Himalayas with spatially distributed PGA. Further an attempt is made to generate the earthquake risk maps of the region based on the population density exposed to the seismic hazard. Any kind of risk estimates R(g) at location g results from a convolution of the natural hazard H(g) with the exposed object under consideration O(g) along with its vulnerability V(O(g)). Note that g could be a point, or a line, or some area on or under the Earth surface and that distribution of hazards, as well as objects of concern and their vulnerability, could be time-dependent. There exist many different risk estimates even if the same object of risk and the same hazard are involved. Specifically, it may result from the different laws of convolution, as well as from different kinds of vulnerability of an object of risk

  6. Evaluation, Proposed Solution and Current Status of the Crater Lake Breakout Problem, Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornas, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    as 70 men with picks and shovels, and the specter of a wholly uncontrolled breach through the most erodible debris was averted. Early flow through the spillway was gentle and evacuees quickly returned home. However, 10-15 m of poorly indurated breccia still remains, lake level is still rising slowly, and we are watching to see whether outflow after heavy rains will armor the spillway or catastrophically erode the remaining dam. Insufficient communication between scientists and engineers led DPWH to design for less scouring than expected by PHIVOLCS, and politics and liability concerns at several levels halted digging before the trench could be deepened and outflow increased. Perhaps this is just as well. An inherent conflict arose between short- and long-term risk mitigation. Short-term risk was minimized; long-term risk was reduced but remains a concern. Complete breaching of the dam and thus elimination of long-term risk would have sharply increased short-term risk to Botolan. *Quick Response Team Members: Mabel Abigania, Rene Arante, Onie Arboleda, Maricar Arpa, Mariton Bornas, Edwin dela Cruz, Jojo Cordon, Toti Corpuz, Art Daag, Elmer Gabinete, Del Garcia, Lito Gelido, Lito de Guzman, Sheila Insauriga, Dindo Javier, Rudy Lacson, Bong Luis, Rey Lumbang, Danny Martinez, Mylene Martinez-Villegas, Chris Newhall, Jed Paladio-Melosantos, Mel Pagtalunan, Myla Panol, Jack Puertollano, Raymundo Punongbayan, Gina Quiambao, Andoy Ramos, July Sabit, Noli Sexon, Jimmy Sincioco, Opet Villacorte.

  7. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Moore, Georgianne W; Bond, Barbara J; Jones, Julia A; Phillips, Nathan; Meinzer, Federick C

    2004-05-01

    Large areas of forests in the Pacific Northwest are being transformed to younger forests, yet little is known about the impact this may have on hydrological cycles. Previous work suggests that old trees use less water per unit leaf area or sapwood area than young mature trees of the same species in similar environments. Do old forests, therefore, use less water than young mature forests in similar environments, or are there other structural or compositional components in the forests that compensate for tree-level differences? We investigated the impacts of tree age, species composition and sapwood basal area on stand-level transpiration in adjacent watersheds at the H.J. Andrews Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon, one containing a young, mature (about 40 years since disturbance) conifer forest and the other an old growth (about 450 years since disturbance) forest. Sap flow measurements were used to evaluate the degree to which differences in age and species composition affect water use. Stand sapwood basal area was evaluated based on a vegetation survey for species, basal area and sapwood basal area in the riparian area of two watersheds. A simple scaling exercise derived from estimated differences in water use as a result of differences in age, species composition and stand sapwood area was used to estimate transpiration from late June through October within the entire riparian area of these watersheds. Transpiration was higher in the young stand because of greater sap flux density (sap flow per unit sapwood area) by age class and species, and greater total stand sapwood area. During the measurement period, mean daily sap flux density was 2.30 times higher in young compared with old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Sap flux density was 1.41 times higher in young red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) compared with young P. menziesii trees, and was 1.45 times higher in old P. menziesii compared with old western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf

  8. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Alejandro; Pfau, Tilman

    2008-04-01

    different experimental realizations leading to the two routes mentioned above, they share a common goal, namely achieving a deep understanding of quantum correlations that will ultimately allow to control them and possibly realize new forms of matter. They also share the flexibility that allows to increase the complexity in quantum correlations by joining in a controlled manner well understood building units and/or by regulating their coupling to the environment. It is under the common goal of understanding and controlling quantum correlations that we see the topics presented in this focus issue of New Journal of Physics, where both lines of development, that is on solid-state substrates or with quantum gases, give a timely view of the advances towards the above mentioned common goal. Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter Contents Temperature changes when adiabatically ramping up an optical lattice Lode Pollet, Corinna Kollath, Kris Van Houcke and Matthias Troyer Numerical study of two-body correlation in a 1D lattice with perfect blockade B Sun and F Robicheaux Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment Amodsen Chotia, Matthieu Viteau, Thibault Vogt, Daniel Comparat and Pierre Pillet Motion of Rydberg atoms induced by resonant dipole-dipole interactions C Ates, A Eisfeld and J M Rost Quantum coherence due to Bose-Einstein condensation of parametrically driven magnons S O Demokritov, V E Demidov, O Dzyapko, G A Melkov and A N Slavin Chaotic dynamics in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates J Kronjäger, K Sengstock and K Bongs Damped Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potential gradients S Drenkelforth, G Kleine Büning, J Will, T Schulte, N Murray, W Ertmer, L Santos and J J Arlt Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states and van der Waals blockade in a mesoscopic frozen Rydberg gas M Reetz-Lamour, J Deiglmayr, T Amthor and M Weidemüller Excitations in two-component Bose gases A Kleine, C

  9. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Frequency stability of optical lattice clocks Jérôme Lodewyck, Philip G Westergaard, Arnaud Lecallier, Luca Lorini and Pierre Lemonde Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices C Becker, P Soltan-Panahi, J Kronjäger, S Dörscher, K Bongs and K Sengstock Cold atoms near superconductors: atomic spin coherence beyond the Johnson noise limit B Kasch, H Hattermann, D Cano, T E Judd, S Scheel, C Zimmermann, R Kleiner, D Koelle and J Fortágh Focusing a deterministic single-ion beam Wolfgang Schnitzler, Georg Jacob, Robert Fickler, Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler and Kilian Singer Tuning the structural and dynamical properties of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate: ripples and instability islands M Asad-uz-Zaman and D Blume Double-resonance lineshapes in a cell with wall coating and buffer gas Svenja Knappe and Hugh G Robinson Transport and interaction blockade of cold bosonic atoms in a triple-well potential P Schlagheck, F Malet, J C Cremon and S M Reimann Fabrication of a planar micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols M Hellwig, A Bautista-Salvador, K Singer, G Werth and F Schmidt-Kaler Laser cooling of a magnetically guided ultracold atom beam A Aghajani-Talesh, M Falkenau, V V Volchkov, L E Trafford, T Pfau and A Griesmaier Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond S Pezzagna, B Naydenov, F Jelezko, J Wrachtrup and J Meijer Top-down pathways to devices with few and single atoms placed to high precision Jessica A Van Donkelaar, Andrew D Greentree, Andrew D C Alves, Lenneke M Jong, Lloyd C L Hollenberg and David N Jamieson Enhanced electric field sensitivity of rf-dressed Rydberg dark states M G Bason, M Tanasittikosol, A Sargsyan, A K Mohapatra, D Sarkisyan, R M Potvliege and C S Adams

  10. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  11. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Alejandro; Pfau, Tilman

    2008-04-01

    different experimental realizations leading to the two routes mentioned above, they share a common goal, namely achieving a deep understanding of quantum correlations that will ultimately allow to control them and possibly realize new forms of matter. They also share the flexibility that allows to increase the complexity in quantum correlations by joining in a controlled manner well understood building units and/or by regulating their coupling to the environment. It is under the common goal of understanding and controlling quantum correlations that we see the topics presented in this focus issue of New Journal of Physics, where both lines of development, that is on solid-state substrates or with quantum gases, give a timely view of the advances towards the above mentioned common goal. Focus on Quantum Correlations in Tailored Matter Contents Temperature changes when adiabatically ramping up an optical lattice Lode Pollet, Corinna Kollath, Kris Van Houcke and Matthias Troyer Numerical study of two-body correlation in a 1D lattice with perfect blockade B Sun and F Robicheaux Kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of dipole blockade in Rydberg excitation experiment Amodsen Chotia, Matthieu Viteau, Thibault Vogt, Daniel Comparat and Pierre Pillet Motion of Rydberg atoms induced by resonant dipole-dipole interactions C Ates, A Eisfeld and J M Rost Quantum coherence due to Bose-Einstein condensation of parametrically driven magnons S O Demokritov, V E Demidov, O Dzyapko, G A Melkov and A N Slavin Chaotic dynamics in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates J Kronjäger, K Sengstock and K Bongs Damped Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potential gradients S Drenkelforth, G Kleine Büning, J Will, T Schulte, N Murray, W Ertmer, L Santos and J J Arlt Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states and van der Waals blockade in a mesoscopic frozen Rydberg gas M Reetz-Lamour, J Deiglmayr, T Amthor and M Weidemüller Excitations in two-component Bose gases A Kleine, C